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TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS MAINTENANCE FUEL SYSTEM IGNITION AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS LUBRICATION AND COOLING ENGINE MECHANICAL GEARCASE TILT AND TRIM REMOTE CONTROLS HAND STARTER 10-13 GLOSSARY 10-17 COMPLETE INDEX GENERAL INFORMATION (WHAT EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT MAINTENANCE) . 2-2 MAINTENANCE EQUALS SAFETY 2-2 OUTBOARDS ON SAIL BOATS . . . 2-2 MAINTENANCE COVERAGE IN THIS MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 ENGINE IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . 2-2 BEFORE/AFTER EACH USE ..... 2-4 LUBRICATION SERVICE . . . . . . . . . 2-6 ELECTRIC STARTER MOTOR PINION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 ENGINE COVER LATCHES . . . . . . 2-7 JET DRIVE BEARING .......... 2-7 POWER TRIM/TILT RESERVOIR .. 2-8 POWER STEERING FLUID RESERVOIR . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 LINKAGE, CABLES AND SHAFTS (SHIFT, CARBURETOR AND/OR THROTILE SHAFT) ............ 2-1 0 STEERING ARM (CABLE RAM/TILLER ARM) ...... 2-12 SWIVEL BRACKET AND TILT SUPPORT ........... 2-12 TILT TUBE ASSEMBLY ......... 2-13 ENGINE MA INTENANCE ......... 2-13 ENGINE COVERS (TOP AND LOWER CASES) ...... 2-13 COOLING SYSTEM ............ 2-18 FLUSHING THE COOLING SYSTEM ...... 2-18 2-STROKE ENGINE OIL ........ 2-23 OIL RECOMMENDATIONS ..... 2-23 FILLING ................... 2-24 LOWER UNIT (GEARCASE) OIL .. 2-25 OIL RECOMMENDATIONS ..... 2-25 CHECKING LOWER UNIT OIL LEVEL & CONDITION ......... 2-25 DRAINING AND FILLING ...... 2-26 FUEL FILTER ................. 2-27 CARBURETED MOTORS ...... 2-27 FUEL INJECTED MOTORS .... 2-29 FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE .... 2-29 FUEL FILTER AND WATER SEPARATOR ..... 2-29 PROPELLER ................. 2-30 INSPECTION ............... 2-31 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 2-31 JET DRIVE IMPELLER ......... 2-32 INSPECTION ............... 2-33 CHECKING IMPELLER CLEARANCE ...... 2-33 ANODES (ZINCS) ............. 2-33 POWER STEERING BELT ....... 2-35 INSPECTON ................ 2-35 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 2-35 BOAT MAINTENANCE ........... 2-36 BATIERIES .................. 2-36 MAINTENANCE ............. 2-36 TESTING .................. 2-37 STORAGE ................. 2-38 FIBERGLASS HULL ............ 2-38 TUNE-U P ..................... 2-39 INTRODUCTION .............. 2-39 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE .......... 2-39 DECARBONING THE PISTONS ... 2-40 COMPRESSION CHECK ........ 2-41 SPARK PLUGS ............... 2-42 SPARK PLUG HEAT RANGE ... 2-43 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 2-44 READING SPARK PLUGS ..... 2-45 INSPECTION & GAPPING ..... 2-47 SPARK PLUG WIRES .......... 2-47 TESTING .................. 2-47 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 2-48 IGNITION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE ............... 2-48 TIMING AND SYNCHRONIZATION ..2-48 HOMEMADE SYNCHRONIZATION TOOL ...... 2-49 65 JET-1 15 HP (1 632CC) V4 MOTORS ................. 2-50 75-175 HP (1726/2589CC) V4N6 MOTORS ............... 2-54 CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS ...... 2-54 FIGHT MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS . 2-59 120-300 HP (2000/3000/3300/4000CC) V4N6N8 MOTORS ............ 2-62 CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS ...... 2-62 FIGHT MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS . 2-69 STORAGE (WHAT TO DO BEFORE AND AFTER) ......... 2-71 WINTERIZATION .............. 2-71 PREPPING FOR STORAGE .... 2-72 RECOMMISSIONING ........... 2-73 REMOVAL FROM STORAGE ... 2-73 CLEARING A SUBMERGED MOTOR ........ 2-74 SPECIFICATIONS ...............2-76 GENERAL ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS ............. 2-76 GENERAL ENGINE SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS ............. 2-77 MAINTENANCE INTERVALS ..... 2-79 LUBRICATION SERVICES ....... 2-80 TWO-STROKE MOTOR FUEL:OIL RATIO ....... 2-80 CAPACITIES ................. 2-81 TUNE-UP SPECIFICATIONS ..... 2-82 SPARK PLUG DIAGNOSIS ...... 2-86 2-2 MAINTENANCE GENERAL INFORMATION (WHAT EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT MAINTENANCE) At Seloc, we estimate that 75% of engine repair work can be directly or indirectly attributed to lack of proper care for the engine. This is especially true of care during the off-season. There is no way on this green earth for a mechanical engine, particularly an outboard motor, to be left sitting idle for an extended period of time, say for six months, and then be ready for instant, satisfactory service. Imagine, if you will, leaving your car or truck for six months, and then expecting to turn the key, having it roar to life, and being able to drive off in the same manner as a daily occurrence. Not likely, eh? Therefore it is critical for an outboard engine to either be run (at least once a month), preferably, in the water and properly maintained between uses or for it to be specifically prepared for storage and serviced again immediately before the start of the season. Only through a regular maintenance program can the owner expect to receive long life and satisfactory performance at minimum cost. Many times, if an outboard is not performing properly, the owner will "nurse" it through the season with good intentions of working on the unit once it is no longer being used. As with many New Year's resolutions, the good intentions are not completed and the outboard may lie for many months before the work is begun or the unit is taken to the marine shop for repair. Imagine, if you will, the cause of the problem being a blown head gasket. And let us assume water has found its way into a cylinder. This water, allowed to remain over a long period of time, will do considerably more damage than it would have if the unit had been disassembled and the repair work performed immediately. Therefore, if an outboard is not functioning properly, do not stow it away with promises to get at it when you get time, because the work and expense will only get worse, the longer corrective action is postponed. In the example of the blown head gasket, a relatively simple and inexpensive repair job could very well develop into major overhaul and rebuild work. Maintenance Equals Safety OK, perhaps no one thing that we do as boaters will protect us from risks involved with enjoying the wind and the water on a powerboat. But, each time we perform maintenance on our boat or motor, we increase the likelihood that we will find a potential hazard before it becomes a problem. Each time we service and inspect our boat and motor, we decrease the possibility that it could leave us stranded on the water. In this way, performing boat and engine service is one of the most important ways that we, as boaters, can help protect ourselves, our boats, and the friends and family that we bring aboard. Outboards On Sail Boats Owners of sailboats pride themselves in their ability to use the wind to clear a harbor or for movement from Port A to Port B, or maybe just for a day sail on a lake. For some, the outboard is carried only as a last resort-in case the wind fails completely, or in an emergency situation or for ease of docking. Therefore, in some cases, the outboard is stowed below, usually in a very poorly ventilated area, and subjected to moisture and stale air-in short, an excellent environment for "sweating" and corrosion. If the owner could just take the time at least once every month, to pull out the outboard, clean it up, and give it a short run, not only would he/she have "peace of mind" knowing it will start in an emergency, but also maintenance costs will be drastically reduced. Maintenance Coverage In This Manual At Seloc, we strongly feel that every boat owner should pay close attention to this section. We also know that it is one of the most frequently used portions of our manuals. The material in this section is divided into sections to help simplify the process of maintenance. Be sure to read and thoroughly understand the various tasks that are necessary to keep your outboard in tip-top shape. Topics covered in this section include: 1. General information (What Everyone Should Know About Maintenance)-an introduction to the benefits and need for proper maintenance; a guide to tasks that should be performed before, and after, each use. 2. Lubrication Service-after the basic inspections that you should perform each time the motor is used, the most frequent form of periodic maintenance you will conduct will be the Lubrication Service. This section takes you through each of the various steps you must take to keep corrosion from slowly destroying your motor before your very eyes. 3. Engine Maintenance-the various procedures that must be performed on a regular basis in order to keep the motor and all of its various systems operating properly. 4. Boat Maintenance-the various procedures that must be performed on a regular basis in order to keep the boat hull and its accessories looking and working like new. 5. Tune-Up-also known as the pre-season tune-up, but don't let the name fool you. A complete tune-up is the best way to determine the condition of your outboard while also preparing it for hours and hours of hopefully trouble-free enjoyment. 6. Winter Storage and Spring Commissioning Checklists-use these sections to guide you through the various parts of boat and motor maintenance that protect your valued boat through periods of storage and return it to operating condition when it is time to use it again. 7. Specification Charts-located at the end of the section are quick-reference, easy to read charts that provide you with critical information such as General Engine Specifications, Maintenance Intervals, Lubrication Service (intervals and lubricant types) and Capacities. Engine Identification + See Figures 1 and 2 From 1992-01 Johnson and Evinrude produced an extremely large number of models with regards to horsepower ratings, as well a large number of trim and option variances on each of those models. In this manual, we've included all of the V4, V6 and V8 models (all of which are 2-stroke motors). We chose to do this because of the many similarities these motors have to each other. But, enough differences exist that many procedures will apply only to a sub-set of these motors. When this occurs, we'll either refer to the differences within a procedure or, if the differences are significant, we'll break the motors out and give separate procedures. In order to prevent confusion, we try to sort and name the models in a way that is most easily understood. In many cases, it is simply not enough to refer to a motor as a 90 or 115 hp model, since in these years Evinrude/Johnson produced two very different 2-cylinder motors with that rating (the 1632cc, 90 degree, cross-charged V4, and the 1726cc, 60 degree, loop-charged V4). To simplify the identification of these motors we'll refer to them either as 1632cc 90CV4 versus 1726cc 60LV4 or we'll use the complete model horsepower range plus the cubic centimeter rating, 65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) versus 75-115 Hp (1726cc). To further confuse the issue, many of the 60LV4 models were available either with carburetion or with FIGHT Fuel Injection (FFI). Across that same year span, Evinrude/Johnson sold various Jet models, that although badged with a certain Jet horsepower rating, were built on platforms that, except for the jet drive, were identical to higher horsepower motors. This is because of the difference in the way Jet horsepower ratings are determined. Usually, we'll identify these motors by the ratings found on the engine cases, but let's take a moment to review the platforms from which they are derived, as procedures other than those involving the drive unit should be the same on these models. Two Jet models were produced on the 1632cc 90 CV4 platform, the 65 Jet, which is actually a 90 hp motor and the 80 Jet which is actually a 115 hp motor. One Jet model was produced on the 1726cc 60 LV4 platform, the 80 Jet which is actually a 115 hp motor. And, finally, the 105 Jet is actually a 150 hp (2589cc) 90 LV4 motor. These sometimes confusing similarities or discrepancies in hp ratings and engine platforms makes proper engine identification important for everything from ordering parts to even just using the procedures in this manual. You'll notice that in all cases, we've chosen to include the cubic centimeter designation, and we'd suggest that you get in the habit on including that designation whenever you are searching for parts or information on your motor. At the end of the day, the combination of the horsepower rating on the casing and the cubic centimeter rating will normally give you the information you need. MAINTENANCE 2-3 Throughout this manual we will make reference to motors the easiest way possible. In some cases procedures will apply to all motors, in other cases, they will apply to all V4 or all V6 motors. When it is necessary to distinguish between different types of motors with the same number of cylinders, we'll differentiate using the Hp rating or, since different motors may have the same rating, we'll use the Hp rating plus the size. In many cases, for motors of a given design, 90 degree loop charged (both V6 and VB), 60 degree loop charged (both V 4 and V6), or 90 degree cross-charged (both V4 and V6), the mechanical procedures will be similar or the same across different Hp ratings of the same engine family. So it won't be uncommon to see a title or a procedure refer to a range of horsepower motors, including motors of with a different number of cylinders. In fact, most of the V4 motors are simply V6 models with 2 less cylinders (with the same size pistons, bores and basic crankshaft dimensions). By the same logic, the VB motors are V6 models with 2 extra cylinders. To help with proper engine identification, all of the engines covered by this manual are listed in the General Engine and General Engine System Specifications charts at the end of this section. In these charts, the engines are listed with their respective engine families, by horsepower rating, engine configuration (number of cylinders, degree of V and cross-or loop-charged), and years of production and displacement (cubic inches and cubic centimeters or CCs). But, whether you are trying to tell which version of a particular horsepower rated motor you have in order to follow the correct procedure or are trying to order replacement parts, the absolute best method is to start by referring to the engine serial number tag. For all models covered by this manual an 10 tag (1, in the accompanying figure) is located on the port side of the engine clamp or swivel/tilt brackets. Most models are also equipped with an Emissions Control Information label (2, in the accompanying figure) as well. Fig. 1 A modei iD tag and an emission control label are found on the port side of most engine transom/swivel/tilt brackets Fig. 2 The modei iD tag (1) and emission label (2) provide critical information to identify and service the engine ENGINE SERIAL NUMBERS + See Figure 2 The engine serial numbers are the manufacturer's key to engine changes. These alpha-numeric codes identify the year of manufacture, the horsepower rating, lower unit shaft length and various model/option differences (such as tiller electric, remote electric or FIGHT or commercial models). If any correspondence or parts are required, the engine serial number must be used for proper identification. Remember that the serial number establishes the model-year for which the engine was produced, and is often not the year of first installation. The engine serial number tag contains information such as the plant in which the motor was produced, the model number or code, the serial number (a unique sequential identifier given ONLY to that one motor) as well as other useful information such as weight (mass) in Kilograms (kg). Ill We're not quite sure what to tell you about engine weight. If you need to determine how much your engine or rig (boat, motor, trailer) weighs, there's really no substitute for a calibrated truck scale. In working on this text, we've noticed multiple instances when various published weights did not agree, for instance, take a 90 hp FICHT motor we used during the teardown. Published weight for this motor was 349 lbs. (158kg) in the factory service information, but it was also listed in a leading boating magazine and in the Evinrude brochure as 3621bs. (164kg). Of course, a close look at the model label in the accompanying figure shows a measurement of 144kg (318 lbs.). One possible explanation for these differences could be dry vs. w/ fluids. Although we'd normally recommend trusting a label over the printed word, we think you should be conservative when safety is concerned and use the highest published number in this case, until a scale proves it otherwise. The emissions control information label states that the motor is in compliance with EPA emissions regulations for the model year of that engine. And, more importantly, it gives tune-up specifications that are vital to proper engine performance (that minimize harmful emissions). The specifications on this label may reflect changes that are made during production runs and are often not later reflected in a company's service literature. For this reason, specifications on the label always supercede those of a print manual. Typical specifications that are found on this label will include: • Spark plug type and gap. • Evinrude/Johnson did NOT publish tune-up specifications such as spark plug type and gap for most FICHT motors, saying even in the factory literature to refer to the emission control label. If you find the label missing on your motor, check with your local parts supplier about ordering a replacement. 2-4 MAINTENANCE • Fuel/2-stroke engine oil recommendations. • Idle speed settings • Engine ignition timing (such as wide-open throttle and/or idle timing) specification (for carbureted motors only)• Engine displacement (in Cubic Inches or Cubic Centimeters, as noted on the label) • Most idle and timing functions are handled by the Engine Control Module (ECM) on Direct Fuel Injection (DFI) models, also known as FICHT or FICHT Fuel Injection (FFI) engines. For this reason, the emission control label may just list "Emission Controls: ECM, DFI" instead of idle and timing specs. Deciphering The Model Code on 1992-98 Engines + See Figure 3 Engines built for the 1992-98 model years (and all Evinrude/Johnson engines built back through 1980) will contain an 8-12 digit code for identification. If the code begins with A, B, C, H, S, Tor V, it represents a model variation (a model built for use in certain countries or specifically for a boat-builder to include with their new boat). If one of these alphas is not present, the code should start with J (for Johnson) or E (for Evinrude). The next one, two or three digits will be numbers, representing the horsepower rating. The digit following the horsepower rating will be a one, two or three digit alpha code identifying the various trim/model types (such as TE for tiller electric or FS for FIGHT fuel injection, w/ power trim/tilt). Following the model identifier may be a single alpha identifier (L, Y, X or Z) representing lower unit shaft length (a lack of this identifier would represent a 15 in. shaft length). Next, a two-digit, alpha identifier is used for the year. And lastly, the manufacturer internally uses a single check digit to designate the model run. Refer to the accompanying illustration to interpret the various alpha identifiers found throughout the model code. • Starting in 1980, Evinrude/Johnson began using the word INTRO· DUCES as an easy way to decipher model years. The 1 0 letters of that word correspond to the digits 1·9 and 0, in that order. The first letter I represents a 1, the second letter N represents a 2 and so on until S which represents a 0. When deciphering a model code, each of the two alpha identifiers correspond to the last two digits of the model year. A 1998 model would therefore be EC, a 1996 would be ED, and so on. For quick deciphering, right out the word INTRODUCES and then number the letters from 1-9 and then 0. Just remember that the letters of the model code that represent the model year are usually NOT the 2 last letters of the code, since there is normally a model suffix in the code. This means that the model code identifiers are usually the 2nd and 3rd letters from the end of the code. Deciphering The Model Code on 1999-01 Engines + See Figure 4 Engines built for the 1999-01 model years contain a simplified version of the model code (when compared with earlier models) containing only 7-8 digits. In all cases, the identifier should start with a single alpha representing Johnson (J) or Evinrude (E). The next one, two or three digits will be numbers, representing the horsepower rating. The digit following the horsepower rating will be a single one or two digit alpha/numeric code identifying design features/model types (such as W for commercial models, T for tiller steering or F for FIGHT fuel injection). Following the design feature/model identifier may be a single alpha identifier (L, Y, X or Z) representing lower unit shaft length (a lack of this identifier would represent a 15 in. shaft length). Next, a two-digit, alpha identifier is used for the year and is deciphered in the same manner as all Evinrude/Johnson models numbers since 1980. Finally, a single check digit, MAY be used internally by the manufacturer to designate the model run. Refer to the accompanying illustration to interpret the various alpha digits found throughout the model code. Before/After Each Use As stated earlier, the best means of extending engine life and helping to protect yourself while on the water is to pay close attention to boat/engine maintenance. This starts with an inspection of systems and components before and alter each time you use your boat. A Jist of checks, inspections or required maintenance can be found in the Maintenance Intervals Chart at the end of this section. Some of these inspections or tasks are performed before the boat is launched, some only alter it is retrieved and the rest, both times. VISUALLY INSPECTING THE BOAT AND MOTOR + See Figures 5 and 6 Before each launch and immediately alter each retrieval, visually inspect the boat and motor as follows: 1. Check the fuel and oil levels according to the procedures in this manual. Do NOT launch a boat without properly topped off fuel and oil tanks (on oil injected motors). It is not worth the risk of getting stranded or of damage to the motor. Likewise, upon retrieval, check the oil and fuel levels while it is still fresh in your mind. This is a good way to track fuel consumption (one indication of engine performance). Compare the fuel consumption to the oil consumption (a dramatic change in proportional use may be an early sign of trouble). 2. Check for signs of fuel or oil leakage. Probably as important as making sure enough fuel and oil is onboard, is the need to make sure that no dangerous conditions might arise due to leaks. Thoroughly check all hoses, fittings and tanks for signs of leakage. Oil leaks may prevent proper oiling of the powerhead and, although all VR02 and FIGHT systems have warning systems, reduced oiling could damage the powerhead or, if the system fails completely, could strand the boat. Fuel leaks can cause a fire hazard, or worse, an explosive condition. This check is not only about properly maintaining your boat and motor, but about helping to protect your life. 3. Inspect the boat hull and engine cases for signs of corrosion or damage. Don't launch a damaged boat or motor. And don't surprise yourself dockside or at the launch ramp by discovering damage that went unnoticed last time the boat was retrieved. Repair any hull or case damage now. 4. Check the battery connections to make sure they are clean and tight. A loose or corroded connection will cause charging problems (damaging the system or preventing charging). There's only one thing worse than a dead battery dockside or on the launch ramp and that's a dead battery in the middle of a bay, river or heavens, the ocean. Whenever possible, make a quick visual check of battery electrolyte levels (keeping an eye on the level will give some warning of overcharging problems). This is especially true if the engine is operated at high speeds for extended periods of time. 5. Check the propeller (impeller on jet drives) and lower unit. Make sure the propeller shows no signs of damage. A broken or bent propeller may allow the engine to over-rev and it will certainly waste fuel. The lower unit should be checked before and alter each use for signs of leakage. Check the lower unit oil for signs of contamination if any leakage is noted. Also, visually check behind the propeller for signs of entangled rope or fishing Jines that could cut through the lower gearcase propeller shaft seal. This is a common cause of lower unit lubricant leakage, and eventually, water contamination that can lead to lower unit failure. Even if no lower unit leakage is noted when the boat is first retrieved, check again next time before launching. A nicked seal might not seep fluid right away when still swollen from heat immediately after use, but might begin seeping over the next day, week or month as it sat, cooled and dried out. 6. Check all accessible fasteners for tightness. Make sure all easily accessible fasteners appear to be tight. This is especially true for the propeller nut, any anode retaining bolts, all steering or throttle linkage fasteners and the engine mounting bolts. Don't risk loosing control or becoming stranded due to loose fasteners. Perform these checks before heading out, and immediately after you return (so you'll know if anything needs to be serviced before you want to launch again.) 7. Check operation of all controls including the throttle/shifter, steering and emergency stop/start switch and/or safety lanyard. Before launching, make sure that all linkage and steering components operate properly and move smoothly through their range of motion. All electrical switches (such as power trim/tilt) and especially the emergency stop system( s) must be in proper working order. While underway, watch for signs that a system is not working or has become damaged. With the steering, shifter or throttle, keep a watchful eye out for a change in resistance or the start of jerky/notchy movement. 8. Check the water pump Intake grate and water indicator. The water pump intake grate should be clean and undamaged before setting out. Remember that a damaged grate could allow debris into the system that could destroy the impeller or clog cooling passages. Once underway, make Model Variation: A; Austra liaB; Be lgium C; Canada H; Hong Kong S = South America T ; Tracker Model V ; Boat Builder Style:J Joh nsonE ;; Evinrude = CommercialV; Quiet Rider® Horsepowe Shaft Length: = 15 in. L; 20 in.Y = 22.5 in. X; 25 in.Z = 30 in. V E 70 T LED A Year Built: Design Feature:AE ; Electric Start -Alaska AR = Rope Start -Alaska BA = AC Lighting -Rope Start BE ; Belgium Derated -Electric Start BF = Belgium Derated -Rope Start BG = Belgium Derated -Rope Start Bl = Belgium Derated -Rope Start BR = Euro Rope Start C ; Counter-Rotation CE = Canada Derated -Electric Start CR = Canada Derated -Rope Sta rt D = Remote Electric DE = Derate d -Electric Start DR ; Derated -Rope Start DT = Derated -Electric Start/Trim & Tilt E = Electric Start ER = Electric Sta rt -Sport Styli ng ES = Electric Start -Special FA = 4-Stroke, Rope Start -AC Lighting FE ; 4-Stroke, Electric Start/Tiller FP; Commerc ial with Program Tilt FR ; 4-Str oke, Rope Sta rt FRE; 4-Stroke, Electric Start/Remote FS = FIGHT'", Trim & Tilt FT = FIGHT, Trim & Tilt/Special StylingG = Special StylingH = Less Integral Ta nk/Hydraulic Steering I = FIGHT Fuel Injection IE = Italy Electric Start IK = Italy Electric StartJ = Jet Drive K = 3-Cylinder 25/35 KC; Kerosene Rope Start KG = Ke rose ne/Gasoline KS = Kerosene Rope Start M = Manual Tilt -Electric Start MS = Manual Tilt -Electric Start/SpecialN = Counter-Rotation P = Power Steering0 ; 3-Cylinder 25/35 Trim & Tilt R = Rope Sta rt RA = Austr a lia Rope Start Fig. 3 Model codes-1 992·98 models I = 1N = 2 T = 3 R = 40 = 5 D = 6 u = 7 c = 8 E = 9s; 0Examples:cs = 80 CR =84 ES = 90 ER = 94 EO= 95 ED= 96EU = 97RC = Rope St art -Commercial/CO Ignition RD = Rope Start -Deluxe RE = Remote Electric RP = Comme rcia l with Program Tilt RS = Rope Start -Commercial RW -Comm ercial with Interlock S = Sail -Special Styling SC = Specia l Stylin g/Co unter-Rotatio n SE = Electric Start Non -Tilt Sail Sl = Italy Special Derated SL ; 60"\1, Trim & Tilt SP = Special Styling SR ; Rope Start -Sail -Non-Tilt ST ; Special Styling -Trim & Tilt T = Trim & Tilt -Electric StartTE ; Tiller Electric TR ; Tr im & Tilt -Sport Styli ng TT = Til ler -Trim & Tilt (Backtroller)U = Ma nual Tilt V = Special Gea rcase W = 110° Angle Drive -Rope Start WM ; Electric Co mmercial -Manual Tilt WMP= Same as "WM" w/Chrome Pump WT = Electric Comme rcial -Trim & Tilt WTP= Same as "WT " w/ Chrome Pump Style:J =JohnsonE = Evinr ude Horsepower Shaft Length: = 15 in.L = 20 in.Y = 22.5 in. X= 25 in.Z = 30 in. E 70 P LEE A Design Feature: 3 = 3-Cylinder (25 or 35 HP)4 = Four-Stroke Engine C = Counter-Rotation wfTrim & TiltE = Electric Start w/Remote Steeri ngF = FIGHT'" Fuel Injection J = Jet · M = Milita ry Model P = Power Trim & TiltR = Rope Start wfTiller SteeringS = Special Styling (White Evinrude)T = Tiller Steering W = Commercial Model Fig. 4 Model codes-1 999·01 models Year Built: I = 1N = 2T = 3 R = 40 = 5D = 6 u = 7 c = 8E = 9 s = 0 Example:EE = 99 s: )> z --i m z )> z () m 1\) I(11 Model Variation: A; Austra liaB; Be lgium C; Canada H; Hong Kong S = South America T ; Tracker Model V ; Boat Builder Style:J Joh nsonE ;; Evinrude = CommercialV; Quiet Rider® Horsepowe Shaft Length: = 15 in. L; 20 in.Y = 22.5 in. X; 25 in.Z = 30 in. V E 70 T LED A Year Built: Design Feature:AE ; Electric Start -Alaska AR = Rope Start -Alaska BA = AC Lighting -Rope Start BE ; Belgium Derated -Electric Start BF = Belgium Derated -Rope Start BG = Belgium Derated -Rope Start Bl = Belgium Derated -Rope Start BR = Euro Rope Start C ; Counter-Rotation CE = Canada Derated -Electric Start CR = Canada Derated -Rope Sta rt D = Remote Electric DE = Derate d -Electric Start DR ; Derated -Rope Start DT = Derated -Electric Start/Trim & Tilt E = Electric Start ER = Electric Sta rt -Sport Styli ng ES = Electric Start -Special FA = 4-Stroke, Rope Start -AC Lighting FE ; 4-Stroke, Electric Start/Tiller FP; Commerc ial with Program Tilt FR ; 4-Str oke, Rope Sta rt FRE; 4-Stroke, Electric Start/Remote FS = FIGHT'", Trim & Tilt FT = FIGHT, Trim & Tilt/Special StylingG = Special StylingH = Less Integral Ta nk/Hydraulic Steering I = FIGHT Fuel Injection IE = Italy Electric Start IK = Italy Electric StartJ = Jet Drive K = 3-Cylinder 25/35 KC; Kerosene Rope Start KG = Ke rose ne/Gasoline KS = Kerosene Rope Start M = Manual Tilt -Electric Start MS = Manual Tilt -Electric Start/SpecialN = Counter-Rotation P = Power Steering0 ; 3-Cylinder 25/35 Trim & Tilt R = Rope Sta rt RA = Austr a lia Rope Start Fig. 3 Model codes-1 992·98 models I = 1N = 2 T = 3 R = 40 = 5 D = 6 u = 7 c = 8 E = 9s; 0Examples:cs = 80 CR =84 ES = 90 ER = 94 EO= 95 ED= 96EU = 97RC = Rope St art -Commercial/CO Ignition RD = Rope Start -Deluxe RE = Remote Electric RP = Comme rcia l with Program Tilt RS = Rope Start -Commercial RW -Comm ercial with Interlock S = Sail -Special Styling SC = Specia l Stylin g/Co unter-Rotatio n SE = Electric Start Non -Tilt Sail Sl = Italy Special Derated SL ; 60"\1, Trim & Tilt SP = Special Styling SR ; Rope Start -Sail -Non-Tilt ST ; Special Styling -Trim & Tilt T = Trim & Tilt -Electric StartTE ; Tiller Electric TR ; Tr im & Tilt -Sport Styli ng TT = Til ler -Trim & Tilt (Backtroller)U = Ma nual Tilt V = Special Gea rcase W = 110° Angle Drive -Rope Start WM ; Electric Co mmercial -Manual Tilt WMP= Same as "WM" w/Chrome Pump WT = Electric Comme rcial -Trim & Tilt WTP= Same as "WT " w/ Chrome Pump Style:J =JohnsonE = Evinr ude Horsepower Shaft Length: = 15 in.L = 20 in.Y = 22.5 in. X= 25 in.Z = 30 in. E 70 P LEE A Design Feature: 3 = 3-Cylinder (25 or 35 HP)4 = Four-Stroke Engine C = Counter-Rotation wfTrim & TiltE = Electric Start w/Remote Steeri ngF = FIGHT'" Fuel Injection J = Jet · M = Milita ry Model P = Power Trim & TiltR = Rope Start wfTiller SteeringS = Special Styling (White Evinrude)T = Tiller Steering W = Commercial Model Fig. 4 Model codes-1 999·01 models Year Built: I = 1N = 2T = 3 R = 40 = 5D = 6 u = 7 c = 8E = 9 s = 0 Example:EE = 99 s: )> z --i m z )> z () m 1\) I(11 2-6 MAINTENANCE sure the cooling indicator stream is visible at all times. Make periodic checks, including one final check before the motor is shut down each time. If a cooling indicator stream is not present at any point, troubleshoot the problem before further engine operation. 9. If equipped, check the power steering belt and fluid level. A quick visual inspection of the power steering belt and fluid level at the end of each day will warn of problems that should be fixed before the next launch. 10. If used in salt, brackish or polluted waters thoroughly rinse the engine (and hull), then flush the cooling system according to the procedure in this section. • Even if used in fresh water, it is never a bad idea to flush the system with fresh clean water from a garden hose. Keep in mind that sand, silt or other debris may be picked up by the cooling system during normal motor operation. Removing this debris before it can build-up and clog the engine is wise service. Fig. 5 Rope and fishing line entangled behind the propeller can cut through the seal, allowing water to enter and lubricant to escape LUBRICATION SERVICE An outboard motor's greatest enemy is corrosion. Face it, oil and water just don't mix and, as anyone who has visited a junkyard knows, metal and water aren't the greatest of friends either. To expose an engine to a harsh marine environment of water and wind is to expect that these elements will take their toll over time. But, there is a way to fight back and help prevent the natural process of corrosion that will destroy your beloved boat motor. Various marine grade lubricants are available that serve two important functions in preserving your motor. Lubricants reduce friction on metal-tometal contact surfaces and, they also displace air and moisture, therefore slowing or preventing corrosion damage. Periodic lubrication services are your best method of preserving an outboard motor. Lubrication takes place through various forms. For all engines, internal moving parts are lubricated by 2-stroke engine oil, through oil contained in the fuel/oil mixture. Pay close attention to the oil level in the tank on oil injected models, or to the oil/fuel mixing process on pre-mix motors. Also, the lower unit is filled with gear oil that lubricates the driveshaft, propshaft, gears and other internal gearcase components. The gear oil should be periodically checked and replaced following the appropriate Engine Maintenance procedures. Perform services based on time or engine use, as outlined in the Maintenance Intervals chart at the end of this section. 11. Inspect all anodes after each use for signs of wear, damage or to make sure they just plain didn't fall off (especially if you weren't careful about checking all the accessible fasteners the last time you launched). 12. On FICHT Fuel Injection (FFI) models, be sure to shut the battery switch off if the engine is not going to be run for a couple of weeks or more. The Engine Management Module (EMM) on FFI motors covered will continue to draw a small amount of current from the battery, even when the motor is shut off. In order to prevent a slow drain of the entire battery, either periodically recharge the battery, or isolate it by disconnecting the cables or shutting off the battery switch when the boat is dockside or on the trailer. 13. For Pete's sake, make sure the plug is in! We shouldn't have to say it, but unfortunately we do. If you've been boating for any length of time, you've seen or heard of someone whose backed a trailer down a launch ramp, forgetting to check the transom drain plug before literally submerging the boat. Always make sure the transom plug is installed and tight before a launch. Fig. 6 Always make sure the transom plug is installed and tightened securely before a launch ** WARNING If equipped with power trim/tilt, maintaining proper fluid level is necessary for the built-in impact protection system. Incorrect fluid level could lead to significant lower unit damage in the event of an impact. On motors equipped with power trim/tilt, the fluid level and condition in the reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure proper operation. Also, on these motors, correct fluid level is necessary to ensure operation of the motor impact protection system. Most other forms of lubrication occur through the application of grease (Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, Evinrude/Johnson EP/Wheel bearing grease, Evinrude/Johnson Starter Pinion Lube, or their equivalents) to various points on the motor. These lubricants are either applied by hand (an old toothbrush can be helpful in preventing a mess) or using a grease gun to pump the lubricant into grease fittings (also known as zerk fittings). When using a grease gun, do not pump excessive amounts of grease into the fitting. Unless otherwise directed, pump until either the rubber seal (if used) begins to expand or until the grease just begins to seep from the joints of the component being lubricated (if no seal is used). To ensure your motor is getting the protection it needs, perform a visual inspection of the various lubrication points at least once a week dunng regular seasonal operation (this assumes that the motor is being used at least once a week). Follow the recommendations given in the Lubrication Chart at the end of this section and perform the various lubricating services at least every 60 days when the boat is operated in fresh water or every 30 days when the boat is operated in salt, brackish or polluted waters. We sa1d at least meaning you should perform these serv1ces more often, as discovered by your weekly inspections. • Jet drive models require one form of lubrication every time that they are used. The jet drive bearing should be greased, following the procedure given in this section, after every day of boating. But don't worry, it only takes a minute once you've done it before. Electric Starter Motor Pinion Periodic lubrication of the starter motor pinion is required on all electric start models, except 60 degree 75-1 15 Hp (1 726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Starter Pinion Lube, General Electric Versalube or an equivalent lubricant. LUBRICATION + See Figures 7 and 8 The starter pinion is the gear and slider assembly located on the top of the starter motor as it is mounted to the engine. When power is applied to the starter, the gear on the pinion assembly slides upward to contact and mesh with the gear teeth on the outside of the flywheel. Periodically, apply a small amount of lubricant to the sliding surface of the starter pinion in order to prevent excessive wear or possible binding on the shaft. • On models that require periodic lubrication, easy access is normally provided to the starter pinion. Though, it is possible that a flywheel cover may need to be removed on a few models. Engine Cover Latches For some reason, not all Evinrude/Johnson factory literature mentions the periodic lubrication of the engine cover latches (including one of the author's own motors and owner's manual). But, most motors are equipped with a grease fitting for each cover latch and/or exposed metal-to-metal contact surfaces that will benefit from periodic lubrication). RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. MAINTENANCE 2-7 LUBRICATION + See Figures 9 and 10 Although the sliding surfaces of all cover latches can benefit from an application of grease, the design of the latches used on some motors (those equipped with grease fittings) makes periodic greasing necessary to prevent the latches from binding or wearing. Most 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors are equipped with 3 grease fittings on the engine case, 2 fittings on the lower outside of one end of the case, and one fitting at the other end. Other models, such as most 75-1 15 Hp (1 726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors have a single grease fitting on each latch (located facing upward, inside of the engine covers). Depending on the latch type, either apply a small amount of grease to the metal surfaces using an applicator brush or use a grease gun to pump grease into the zerk fitting facing outward from the latch assembly. Jet Drive Bearing + See Figure 11 Jet drive models covered by this manual require special attention to ensure that the driveshaft bearing remains properly lubricated. After each day of use, the jet drive bearing should be properly lubricated using a grease gun. Also, after every 30 hours of fresh water operation . or every 15 hours of salt/brackish/polluted water operat1on, the dnve beanng grease must be replaced. Follow the appropriate procedure: RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson EP/Wheel Bearing grease or equivalent waterresistant NLGI No. 1 lubricant. DAILY BEARING LUBRICATION + See Figures 12 and 13 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. Disconnect the hose from the fitting, then use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting to just fill the vent hose. Pump grease into the fitting until the old grease just starts to come out from ...... passages through the hose coupling and then reconnect the hose to the f1ttmg. • Do not attempt to just grasp the vent hose and pull, as it is a tight fit and when it does come off, you'll probably go flying if you didn't prepare for it. The easier method of removing the vent hose from the fitting is to deflect the hose to one side and snap it free from the fitting. Fig. 7 Apply lubricant to the sliding surface of the electric starter pinion Fig. 8 In most cases, models that require periodic lubrication provide easy access to the starter pinion Fig. 9 If equipped, use the grease fittings normally found at the front ... To ensure your motor is getting the protection it needs, perform a visual inspection of the various lubrication points at least once a week dunng regular seasonal operation (this assumes that the motor is being used at least once a week). Follow the recommendations given in the Lubrication Chart at the end of this section and perform the various lubricating services at least every 60 days when the boat is operated in fresh water or every 30 days when the boat is operated in salt, brackish or polluted waters. We sa1d at least meaning you should perform these serv1ces more often, as discovered by your weekly inspections. • Jet drive models require one form of lubrication every time that they are used. The jet drive bearing should be greased, following the procedure given in this section, after every day of boating. But don't worry, it only takes a minute once you've done it before. Electric Starter Motor Pinion Periodic lubrication of the starter motor pinion is required on all electric start models, except 60 degree 75-1 15 Hp (1 726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Starter Pinion Lube, General Electric Versalube or an equivalent lubricant. LUBRICATION + See Figures 7 and 8 The starter pinion is the gear and slider assembly located on the top of the starter motor as it is mounted to the engine. When power is applied to the starter, the gear on the pinion assembly slides upward to contact and mesh with the gear teeth on the outside of the flywheel. Periodically, apply a small amount of lubricant to the sliding surface of the starter pinion in order to prevent excessive wear or possible binding on the shaft. • On models that require periodic lubrication, easy access is normally provided to the starter pinion. Though, it is possible that a flywheel cover may need to be removed on a few models. Engine Cover Latches For some reason, not all Evinrude/Johnson factory literature mentions the periodic lubrication of the engine cover latches (including one of the author's own motors and owner's manual). But, most motors are equipped with a grease fitting for each cover latch and/or exposed metal-to-metal contact surfaces that will benefit from periodic lubrication). RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. MAINTENANCE 2-7 LUBRICATION + See Figures 9 and 10 Although the sliding surfaces of all cover latches can benefit from an application of grease, the design of the latches used on some motors (those equipped with grease fittings) makes periodic greasing necessary to prevent the latches from binding or wearing. Most 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors are equipped with 3 grease fittings on the engine case, 2 fittings on the lower outside of one end of the case, and one fitting at the other end. Other models, such as most 75-1 15 Hp (1 726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors have a single grease fitting on each latch (located facing upward, inside of the engine covers). Depending on the latch type, either apply a small amount of grease to the metal surfaces using an applicator brush or use a grease gun to pump grease into the zerk fitting facing outward from the latch assembly. Jet Drive Bearing + See Figure 11 Jet drive models covered by this manual require special attention to ensure that the driveshaft bearing remains properly lubricated. After each day of use, the jet drive bearing should be properly lubricated using a grease gun. Also, after every 30 hours of fresh water operation . or every 15 hours of salt/brackish/polluted water operat1on, the dnve beanng grease must be replaced. Follow the appropriate procedure: RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson EP/Wheel Bearing grease or equivalent waterresistant NLGI No. 1 lubricant. DAILY BEARING LUBRICATION + See Figures 12 and 13 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. Disconnect the hose from the fitting, then use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting to just fill the vent hose. Pump grease into the fitting until the old grease just starts to come out from ...... passages through the hose coupling and then reconnect the hose to the f1ttmg. • Do not attempt to just grasp the vent hose and pull, as it is a tight fit and when it does come off, you'll probably go flying if you didn't prepare for it. The easier method of removing the vent hose from the fitting is to deflect the hose to one side and snap it free from the fitting. Fig. 7 Apply lubricant to the sliding surface of the electric starter pinion Fig. 8 In most cases, models that require periodic lubrication provide easy access to the starter pinion Fig. 9 If equipped, use the grease fittings normally found at the front ... 2-8 MAINTENANCE Fig. 11 Jet drive models require lubrication of the bearing after each day of use, a label on the housing usually reminds the owner Fig. 12 The jet drive lubrication fitting is found under the vent hose Fig. 13 Attach a grease gun to the fitting for lubrication Fig. 14 Coat the pivot points of the jet linkage with grease periodically GREASE REPLACEMENT + See Figures 12, 13 and 14 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. This grease fitting is utilized at the end of each day's use to add fresh grease to the jet drive bearing. But, every 30 or 15 days (depending if use is in fresh or salt/brackish/polluted waters), the grease should be completely replaced. This is very similar to the daily greasing, except that a lot more grease it used. Disconnect the hose from the fitting (by deflecting it to the side until it snaps free from the fitting), then use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting until grease exiting the assembly fills the vent hose. Then, continue to pump grease into the fitting to force out all of the old grease (you can tell this has been accomplished when fresh grease starts to come out of the vent instead of old grease, which will be slightly darker due to minor contamination from normal use). When nothing but fresh grease comes out of the vent the fresh grease has completely displaced the old grease and you are finished. Be sure to securely connect the vent hose to the fitting. Each time this is performed, inspect the grease for signs of moisture contamination or discoloration. A gradual increase in moisture content over a few services is a sign of seal wear that is beginning to allow some seepage. Very dark or dirty grease may indicate a worn seal (inspect and/or replace the seal, as necessary to prevent severe engine damage should the seal fail completely). • Keep in mind that some discoloration of the grease is expected when a new seal is broken-in. The discoloration should go away gradually after one or two addi1ional grease replacement services. Whenever the jet drive bearing grease is replaced, take a few minutes to apply some of that same water-resistant marine grease to the pivot points of the jet linkage. Power Trim/Tilt Reservoir + See Figure 15 >k-* WARNING When equipped with power trim/tilt, proper fluid level is necessary for the built-in impact protection system. Incorrect fluid level could lead to significant lower unit damage in the event of an impact. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT The power trim/tilt reservoir must be kept full of Evinrude/Johnson Power Trim/Tilt and Power Steering Fluid. CHECKING FLUID LEVEUCONDITION + See Figure 15 The fluid in the power trim/tilt reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure it is full and is not contaminated. To check the fluid, tilt the motor upward to the full tilt position and manually engage the tilt support, for safety and to prevent damage. Remove the filler cap (they are usually threaded in position and equipped with a flat to accept a bladed screwdriver) and make a visual inspection of the fluid. It should seem clear and not milky. The level is correct if, with the motor at full tilt, the level is even with the bottom of the filler cap hole. 2-8 MAINTENANCE Fig. 11 Jet drive models require lubrication of the bearing after each day of use, a label on the housing usually reminds the owner Fig. 12 The jet drive lubrication fitting is found under the vent hose Fig. 13 Attach a grease gun to the fitting for lubrication Fig. 14 Coat the pivot points of the jet linkage with grease periodically GREASE REPLACEMENT + See Figures 12, 13 and 14 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. This grease fitting is utilized at the end of each day's use to add fresh grease to the jet drive bearing. But, every 30 or 15 days (depending if use is in fresh or salt/brackish/polluted waters), the grease should be completely replaced. This is very similar to the daily greasing, except that a lot more grease it used. Disconnect the hose from the fitting (by deflecting it to the side until it snaps free from the fitting), then use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting until grease exiting the assembly fills the vent hose. Then, continue to pump grease into the fitting to force out all of the old grease (you can tell this has been accomplished when fresh grease starts to come out of the vent instead of old grease, which will be slightly darker due to minor contamination from normal use). When nothing but fresh grease comes out of the vent the fresh grease has completely displaced the old grease and you are finished. Be sure to securely connect the vent hose to the fitting. Each time this is performed, inspect the grease for signs of moisture contamination or discoloration. A gradual increase in moisture content over a few services is a sign of seal wear that is beginning to allow some seepage. Very dark or dirty grease may indicate a worn seal (inspect and/or replace the seal, as necessary to prevent severe engine damage should the seal fail completely). • Keep in mind that some discoloration of the grease is expected when a new seal is broken-in. The discoloration should go away gradually after one or two addi1ional grease replacement services. Whenever the jet drive bearing grease is replaced, take a few minutes to apply some of that same water-resistant marine grease to the pivot points of the jet linkage. Power Trim/Tilt Reservoir + See Figure 15 >k-* WARNING When equipped with power trim/tilt, proper fluid level is necessary for the built-in impact protection system. Incorrect fluid level could lead to significant lower unit damage in the event of an impact. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT The power trim/tilt reservoir must be kept full of Evinrude/Johnson Power Trim/Tilt and Power Steering Fluid. CHECKING FLUID LEVEUCONDITION + See Figure 15 The fluid in the power trim/tilt reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure it is full and is not contaminated. To check the fluid, tilt the motor upward to the full tilt position and manually engage the tilt support, for safety and to prevent damage. Remove the filler cap (they are usually threaded in position and equipped with a flat to accept a bladed screwdriver) and make a visual inspection of the fluid. It should seem clear and not milky. The level is correct if, with the motor at full tilt, the level is even with the bottom of the filler cap hole. MAINTENANCE 2-9 Fig. 15 Maintaining the proper power trim/till fluid level is critical to protecting the engine in case of an impact Power Steering Fluid Reservoir Fig. 16 Check the power steering fluid level periodically to ensure safe, trouble-free system operation past vertical. Then read the dipstick by looking at the highest wet line across the surface of the dipstick. Fluid should be kept at the full mark. If not, add just enough fluid to top it off to the full mark, NOT above. While checking the level, also take note of the fluid condition. It should seem clear and not • See Figure 16 Some models are equipped with a power steering system consisting of a belt, pump and reservoir. The fluid level should be checked periodically (ideally with each outing, but at minimum at least every 30 days. ** CAUTION Remember, steering a boat is a matter of safety, don't risk poor performance or failure of the system due to something as silly a low fluid level. ** WARNING Should the pump lose pressure or become inoperative on the water, shut the engine off and cut the drive belt free of the pulleys. This will allow normal "non-power" steering operation (which might be a little slow and heavy, but predictable) and will prevent serious and permanent damage which can occur to the pump if it is run low on fluid/pressure. milky. • If the fluid level is low, thoroughly inspect the system for signs of leakage and repair, as necessary). CHANGING FLUID AND FILTER • See Figure 17 Every 500 hours of operation or anytime the fluid inspection shows signs of contamination; the system should be completely emptied and refilled using fresh fluid. Most systems are also equipped with an inline power steering fluid filter to help keep the fluid free of particles and contamination. The filter should be changed anytime the fluid is changed. When equipped, the filter is a convenient way of draining the system, as it is normally mounted inline, beneath the reservoir. Once the lines are disconnected they can be pointed downward to ensure thorough system draining. Keep in mind that the bottom filter line must be positioned downward at a point lower than the lowest point in the system in order to ensure draining, this might RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT The power trim/tilt reservoir must be kept full of Evinrude/Johnson Power Trim/Tilt and Power Steering Fluid or with Dexron l! (or latest superceding) automatic transmission fluid. CHECKING FLUID LEVEUCONDITION • See Figure 16 • The system should be completely drained (by disconnecting a fluid filling or line, especially at the filler, if equipped) and the fluid should be completely changed every 500 hours. The fluid in the power steering reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure it is full and is not contaminated. To check the fluid, the motor must be in the normal, fully vertical position (trimmed level with the ground, NOT the gauge). Remove the engine top case for access to the reservoir (usually located near the top of the motor), then unthread the dipstick. Wipe the dipstick off and insert it back into the reservoir, but DO NOT thread it back into position, instead let it sit for a second on top of the threads, then withdraw the dipstick. Hold the dipstick vertically, with the bottom downward, necessitate placing an additional length of line on it, or following it downward to disconnect it at the other end. Fig. 17 Most power steering systems utilize an inline filter that must be changed whenever the fluid is replaced to prevent a false high reading by fluid running up the stick if it was tilted 2-1 0 MAINTENANCE Linkage, Cables and Shafts (Shift, Carburetor and/or Throttle Shaft) RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION + See Figures 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 Every Johnson and Evinrude outboard uses some combination of cables and/or linkage in order to actuate the throttle plate (of the carburetors or Fig. 18 All engines contain cable throttle and shift linkage ... throttle bodies) and the lower unit shifter. Because linkage and cables contain moving parts that work in contact with other moving parts, the contact points can become worn and loose if proper lubrication is not maintained. These small parts are also susceptible to corrosion and breakage if they are not protected from moisture by light coatings of grease. Periodically apply a light coating of suitable water-resistant marine grease on each of these surfaces where either two moving parts meet or where a cable end enters a housing. For more details on grease points refer to the accompanying illustrations. • On most models, including the 60 degree 75-1 15 Hp (1726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors, as well as many of the large 90LV6/LV8 motors, the lower engine covers must be removed for access to some of the cable/linkage greasing points. For details, please refer to the Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) procedure found in the Engine Maintenance section. Fig. 19 ... whose metal-to-metal contact points should be periodically coated with grease Fig. 20 Carburetor, throttle and shift linkage lubrication points-65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) V4 motors 2-1 0 MAINTENANCE Linkage, Cables and Shafts (Shift, Carburetor and/or Throttle Shaft) RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION + See Figures 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 Every Johnson and Evinrude outboard uses some combination of cables and/or linkage in order to actuate the throttle plate (of the carburetors or Fig. 18 All engines contain cable throttle and shift linkage ... throttle bodies) and the lower unit shifter. Because linkage and cables contain moving parts that work in contact with other moving parts, the contact points can become worn and loose if proper lubrication is not maintained. These small parts are also susceptible to corrosion and breakage if they are not protected from moisture by light coatings of grease. Periodically apply a light coating of suitable water-resistant marine grease on each of these surfaces where either two moving parts meet or where a cable end enters a housing. For more details on grease points refer to the accompanying illustrations. • On most models, including the 60 degree 75-1 15 Hp (1726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors, as well as many of the large 90LV6/LV8 motors, the lower engine covers must be removed for access to some of the cable/linkage greasing points. For details, please refer to the Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) procedure found in the Engine Maintenance section. Fig. 19 ... whose metal-to-metal contact points should be periodically coated with grease Fig. 20 Carburetor, throttle and shift linkage lubrication points-65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) V4 motors MAINTENANCE 2-1 1 Fig. 21 Throttle and shift linkage lubrication points-75-115 Hp Fig. 22 Throttle and spark advance lubrication points-carbureted (1726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors (carbureted 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) V4N6NB Motors shown, FICHT very similar) r--­ Fig. 24 Control and shift cable lubrication points-carbureted Fig. 23 Carburetor lubrication points-carbureted 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) V4N6N8 Motors 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) V4N6N8 Motors Fig. 25 Throttle and shift linkage lubrication points-200-250 hp V6 FICHT motors 2-12 MAINTENANCE Fig. 26 Throttle and shift linkage lubrication points-200-250 hp V6 FICHT motors Steering Arm (Cable Ram/Tiller Arm) + See Figures 27 and 28 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION + See Figures 27 and 28 All motors covered within are equipped with a tiller control and/or a remote control assembly. On models equipped with a tiller, the arm's pivot point (where it attaches to the engine) should be lubricated periodically. On models with remote controls, the steering arm should be given a light coating of fresh lubricant to prevent corrosion or scoring. Fig. 27 On remote models, the steering arm (cable ram) must be greased periodically to prevent corrosion and ensure smooth operation Fig. 28 Apply a light coating of water-resistance marine grease to the steering cable ram Swivel Bracket and Tilt Support + See Figures 29 and 30 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or equivalent water-resistant marine grease for lubrication. SY LUBRICATION + See Figures 29 and 30 All Evinrude/Johnson V-motors are equipped with a grease fitting on the lower portion of the swivel bracket. Use a grease gun to apply fresh waterresistant marine grease until a small amount of lubricant begins to seep from the swivel bracket. It is important to keep this system corrosion free in order to prevent corrosion that would lead to excessive resistance or even binding that might cause dangerous operational conditions. MAINTENANCE 2-1 3 • The grease fitting for the swivel bracket is often located behind the tilt support (trailering) bracket. In these cases, the fitting is normally hidden when the bracket is stowed and accessible when the bracket is engaged to hold the motor in the full tilt position. The pivot points of the integral support (trailering) bracket should also be lubricated periodically to ensure smooth operation and to prevent corrosion. Since they are normally not equipped with a grease fitting, pump a small amount of grease out at the grease gun and spread it by hand or using an old toothbrush. Tilt Tube Assembly + See Figure 31 The tilt tube assembly must be greased periodically to prevent corrosion or binding, ensuring reliable and trouble-tree operation. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Fig. 30 ... then apply grease to the swivel bracket through the fitting ENGINE MAINTENANCE Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figures 32, 33 and 34 y Use Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard, or an equivalent water-resistant marine grease lor lubrication. y LUBRICATION + See Figure 31 Most Evinrude/Johnson motors have 2 grease fittings on the front of the tilt tube, lacing the boat's transom. Apply a water-resistant marine grade grease to the litting(s) until a small amount of grease seeps tram the joints. Fig. 31 Using a grease gun, lubricate both tilt tube assembly zerk fittings (normally there are 2 on the tilt tube, facing the transom) On all models, the top cover is attached by some type at lever and latch assembly. No tools are necessary to remove the cover itself. The exact shape and design at the levers vary somewhat from model-to-model, though they are usually located on the engine cover at the front and the aft portions of the split line between the top cover and the lower cases. For most models, the cover latches must be pulled outward slightly or otherwise removed from a bushing or snap fixture that holds them in the Removal of the top cover is necessary tor the most basic at maintenance and inspection procedures. The cover should come ott before and alter each use in order to perform these basic safety checks. The lower covers do not need to be removed nearly as often, but on models where they are easily removed, they should be removed at least seasonally lor service and inspection procedures, especially linkage/cable lubrication procedures. • On most models, including the 60 degree 75·115 Hp (1726cc) V4 and 105 Jet-175 Hp (2589cc) V6 motors, as well as many of the large 90LV6/LV8 motors, the lower engine covers must be removed for access to some of the cable/linkage greasing points. locked position when closed. Once the end of the lever is treed, it is rotated 45-90° tram the locked position to a top cover released position. With all of the levers released, most top covers will simply lilt straight off the outboard. No matter what design is used, once installed be certain that the cover is tully seated and mounted tightly to the lower cases in order to prevent the possibility of it coming loose in service. Make sure that the levers are secured once they are returned to the locked position. • Cover screws on most Evinrude/Johnson V outboards are usually retained by various hex-head bolts, but some models may use Phillips, Slotted head, or even star-headed Torx® screws. Be sure to use only the proper-sized socket or driver on fastener heads. 2-1 4 MAINTENANCE Fig. 32 Outboards are protected by a top and either 1 or 2 lower engine covers Fig. 33 Release top cover latches by pulling outward on one end ... Fig. 34 ... then rotating the lever to release the latch The lower covers of most motors are screwed or bolted together by fasteners found around the perimeter of one or both sides of the cover. However, the 65 Jet-1 15 Hp (1632cc) V4 motors are equipped with 1-piece covers that are not designed for easy removal. On the other hand, this cover is a low-rise component that should not interfere with service procedures. For this reason, the cover is not usually removed except during a complete overhaul where the powerhead is removed from the lower unit. In most cases, some of the engine wiring and the fuel or oil lines must be disconnected in order to remove the lower case(s) completely from the outboard. But, some models may be equipped with removable panels or covers that allow most lines and wiring to remain connected and intact. Some lower cover designs utilize cutouts at the cover split-lines through which cables are passed. ** WARNING It is especially important that you take note how each hose and wire is routed before disconnecting or moving them during service. Unless the person who worked on the motor previously made a mistake (which could cause damage and the need for repairs), all hoses and wires should already be routed in a manner that will prevent interference with and damage from moving components. Unless there are signs of damage from contact with components wires and hoses should be returned to the exact same positions as noted during disassembly. Don't be afraid to grab a digital camera and take pictures as your as disassembling. If you are unsure how a wire or hose was routed, work slowly, checking the positioning as the covers are installed to prevent damage. 75-175 Hp (1 726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors Carbureted Motors + See Figures 32, 33, 34 and 35 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. For 1995 and later models, loosen and remove the screw fastening the fuel and electric cover to the front side of the port side lower cover. Remove the fuel and electric cover, positioning it aside with the screw so neither are lost or separated. • Be sure to take note of the fuel and oil hose positioning before removing them from the bracket. 4. Remove the fuel and oil hoses from the connector, then remove the bolt securing the fuel and oil fitting bracket (retainer) to the lower engine cover. Remove the fitting bracket. 5. If necessary, disconnect the battery cables at the starter solenoid and starter flange. 6. If necessary for access, remove the rubber retainers and the air silencer. 7. Note the harness positioning, then disengage the power trim/tilt wiring connector. B. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the starboard lower cover. • There are usually 4 bolts securing the lower cover halves, but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. 9. Carefully pull the starboard cover free of the outboard. 10. Note the wire positioning/routing, then tag and disconnect the 3 bullet connectors for the trim/tilt switch and remove the port cover. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. 11. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, be sure to reconnect all wiring, fuel and oil connectors. Make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. FICHT Motors + See Figures 32 thru 40 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. Loosen and remove the 3 screws fastening the cable entry cover to the front corner of the starboard side lower cover. Remove the cover for access to the fuel and oil hoses. • Be sure to take note of the fuel and oil hose positioning before removing them from the bracket. 4. Remove the fuel and oil hoses from the rubber grommet. 5. Note the harness positioning, then disengage the power trim/tilt wiring connector. 2-1 4 MAINTENANCE Fig. 32 Outboards are protected by a top and either 1 or 2 lower engine covers Fig. 33 Release top cover latches by pulling outward on one end ... Fig. 34 ... then rotating the lever to release the latch The lower covers of most motors are screwed or bolted together by fasteners found around the perimeter of one or both sides of the cover. However, the 65 Jet-1 15 Hp (1632cc) V4 motors are equipped with 1-piece covers that are not designed for easy removal. On the other hand, this cover is a low-rise component that should not interfere with service procedures. For this reason, the cover is not usually removed except during a complete overhaul where the powerhead is removed from the lower unit. In most cases, some of the engine wiring and the fuel or oil lines must be disconnected in order to remove the lower case(s) completely from the outboard. But, some models may be equipped with removable panels or covers that allow most lines and wiring to remain connected and intact. Some lower cover designs utilize cutouts at the cover split-lines through which cables are passed. ** WARNING It is especially important that you take note how each hose and wire is routed before disconnecting or moving them during service. Unless the person who worked on the motor previously made a mistake (which could cause damage and the need for repairs), all hoses and wires should already be routed in a manner that will prevent interference with and damage from moving components. Unless there are signs of damage from contact with components wires and hoses should be returned to the exact same positions as noted during disassembly. Don't be afraid to grab a digital camera and take pictures as your as disassembling. If you are unsure how a wire or hose was routed, work slowly, checking the positioning as the covers are installed to prevent damage. 75-175 Hp (1 726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors Carbureted Motors + See Figures 32, 33, 34 and 35 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. For 1995 and later models, loosen and remove the screw fastening the fuel and electric cover to the front side of the port side lower cover. Remove the fuel and electric cover, positioning it aside with the screw so neither are lost or separated. • Be sure to take note of the fuel and oil hose positioning before removing them from the bracket. 4. Remove the fuel and oil hoses from the connector, then remove the bolt securing the fuel and oil fitting bracket (retainer) to the lower engine cover. Remove the fitting bracket. 5. If necessary, disconnect the battery cables at the starter solenoid and starter flange. 6. If necessary for access, remove the rubber retainers and the air silencer. 7. Note the harness positioning, then disengage the power trim/tilt wiring connector. B. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the starboard lower cover. • There are usually 4 bolts securing the lower cover halves, but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. 9. Carefully pull the starboard cover free of the outboard. 10. Note the wire positioning/routing, then tag and disconnect the 3 bullet connectors for the trim/tilt switch and remove the port cover. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. 11. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, be sure to reconnect all wiring, fuel and oil connectors. Make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. FICHT Motors + See Figures 32 thru 40 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. Loosen and remove the 3 screws fastening the cable entry cover to the front corner of the starboard side lower cover. Remove the cover for access to the fuel and oil hoses. • Be sure to take note of the fuel and oil hose positioning before removing them from the bracket. 4. Remove the fuel and oil hoses from the rubber grommet. 5. Note the harness positioning, then disengage the power trim/tilt wiring connector. MAINTENANCE 2-1 5 10 ... f1j ... ..... ..... ..... ..... --... ... - ... ... ... ... , 1 Anchor block cover 2 Front and rear hook 3 Lower cover mount 4 Starboard engine cover 5 Engine cover front seal 6Engine cover rear lower seal 7 Engine cover rear upper seal 8 Anchor block seal 9Bumper 1 0 Latch handle 11 Port engine cover 12 Fuel and electric retainer 13Electric wires seal 14 Latch handle spring washer 15 Mount washer 16Control cables grommet 17 Drain hose 18 Grommet retainer 19Fuel and electric cover 20 Fuel and electric grommet 21 Starboard seal 22 Port seal Fig. 35 Exploded view of the lower engine covers and related components-carbureted 75-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors (1995 and later shown, earlier models similar) 2-1 6 MAINTENANCE • The cover bolts are usually of different lengths, keep the bolts sorted as they are removed in order to prevent difficulty during installation. Also, you'll want smaller, thin walled sockets for access to most of the bolts. The 2 bolts found inside the cover can be turned using a wrench or a U-joint and wobble adapter on a normal 3/8 or 1/4 in. drive ratchet. 6. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the starboard lower cover and the 2 bolts located inside of the cover flange, one at either top cover latch assembly. • There are usually 6 bolts securing the lower cover halves ( 4 threaded from the perimeter of the port side cover to the starboard side, and 2 threaded inside the covers, at the latch assemblies), but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. Fig. 36 There are 3 screws holding the cable entry cover to the motor ... 7. Carefully pull the port and starboard covers free of the outboard. Even with the bolts removed, the covers will remain in position by the interterence lit of 2 rubber mounts. Slowly pull the covers straight outward to the sides of the motor (while using a hand or loot to keep the motor from turning) in order to free the covers from these mounts. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. Also, the starboard cover must be removed slowly, tilting the aft portion of the cover further away from the motor, in order to snake the cutout around the fuel/oil hoses. Work slowly and carefully, never forcing anything. 8. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, be sure to reconnect all wiring, fuel and oil connectors. Make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. Fig. 36b Note the position of the hoses in the grommet Fig. 37 Once the trim/tilt wiring is disconnected, remove the cover bolts ... Fig. 38 Don't forget the one tucked under the front of the motor ... Fig. 39 ... or the bolt found at the front and aft cover latches Fig. 39a The inner bolts can be loosened with a U-joint and wobble Fig. 39b The cover bolts are different lengths, keep them sorted by position Fig. 39c The covers are mounted over rubber grommets 2-1 6 MAINTENANCE • The cover bolts are usually of different lengths, keep the bolts sorted as they are removed in order to prevent difficulty during installation. Also, you'll want smaller, thin walled sockets for access to most of the bolts. The 2 bolts found inside the cover can be turned using a wrench or a U-joint and wobble adapter on a normal 3/8 or 1/4 in. drive ratchet. 6. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the starboard lower cover and the 2 bolts located inside of the cover flange, one at either top cover latch assembly. • There are usually 6 bolts securing the lower cover halves ( 4 threaded from the perimeter of the port side cover to the starboard side, and 2 threaded inside the covers, at the latch assemblies), but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. Fig. 36 There are 3 screws holding the cable entry cover to the motor ... 7. Carefully pull the port and starboard covers free of the outboard. Even with the bolts removed, the covers will remain in position by the interterence lit of 2 rubber mounts. Slowly pull the covers straight outward to the sides of the motor (while using a hand or loot to keep the motor from turning) in order to free the covers from these mounts. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. Also, the starboard cover must be removed slowly, tilting the aft portion of the cover further away from the motor, in order to snake the cutout around the fuel/oil hoses. Work slowly and carefully, never forcing anything. 8. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, be sure to reconnect all wiring, fuel and oil connectors. Make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. Fig. 36b Note the position of the hoses in the grommet Fig. 37 Once the trim/tilt wiring is disconnected, remove the cover bolts ... Fig. 38 Don't forget the one tucked under the front of the motor ... Fig. 39 ... or the bolt found at the front and aft cover latches Fig. 39a The inner bolts can be loosened with a U-joint and wobble Fig. 39b The cover bolts are different lengths, keep them sorted by position Fig. 39c The covers are mounted over rubber grommets MAINTENANCE 2-17 12-\ 1 Cable entry cover 2 Front and rear hook 3 Lower cover mount 4 Starboard engine cover 5 Starboard seal 6 Port engine cover 7 Port seal 8 Engine cover front lower seal 9 Engine cover cable entry seal 10 Engine cover front upper seal 11 Engine cover rear lower seal 12 Engine cover rear upper seal 13 Ball joint screw nut 14 Ball joint screw ® 19I 10 I .. f) 23I ofi: , 24 15 Latch handle spring washer 16 Mount washer 17 Lubrication fitting 18 Access panel 19 Latch handle 20 Drain check valve assembly 21 Fuel and oil tube assembly 22 Retainer 23 Oil supply and return hoses cap 24 Fuel hose cap 25 0-ring 26 Fuel and electrical sleeve 27 Cable entry grommet Fig. 40 Exploded view of the lower engine covers and related components-FICHT 75-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors 2-1 8 MAINTENANCE 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/3300/4000cc) V4N6N8 Motors + See Figures 41 , 42, 43 and 44 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. On 1992-98 carbureted modepower steering hoses at the front, starboard side of the lower cover. You'll need to loosen the screw that is threaded downward through the lower cover while holding the locknut from underneath. Remove the screw, flat washer and locknut. 4. On carbureted models, be sure that a spring clip is installed on the port and starboard lower pan supports. 5. If necessary, remove the cooling indicator hose and grommet. 6. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the lower cover. On V6 models, the bolts are normally threaded from the starboard side of the motor, on V4 and V6 motors however, the opposite is normally true. The number of bolts used varies slightly by model, so work slowly and make sure you've got them all out before trying to separate the covers. • There are USUALLY at least 4 bolts securing the lower cover halves on V4 and V8 models and at least 6 bolts securing the cover halves on V6 models, but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. Fig. 41 The lower cover screws are normally found on the starboard side of V6 engines, or the port side of V4 and VB motors 7. Remove one spring clip and one lower engine cover at a time. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. 8. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. Cooling System FLUSHING SY THE COOLING SYSTEM + See Figures 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52 The most important service that you can perform on your motor's cooling system is to flush it periodically using fresh, clean water. This should be done immediately following any use in salt, brackish or polluted waters in order to prevent mineral deposits or corrosion from clogging cooling passages. Even if you do not always boat in salt or polluted waters, get used to the flushing procedure and perform it often (ideally, immediately following every outing) to ensure no silt or debris clogs your cooling system over time. • Flush the cooling system after any use in which the motor was operated through suspended/churned-up silt, debris or sand. Although the flushing procedure should take place right away (dockside or on the trailer), be sure to protect the motor from damage due to possible thermal shock. If the engine has just been run under high load or at continued high speeds, allow time for it to cool to the point where the powerhead can be touched. Do not pump very cold water through a very hot engine, or you are just asking for trouble. If you trailer your boat short distances, the flushing procedure can probably wait until you arrive home or wherever the boat is stored, but ideally it should occur within an hour of use in salt water. Remember that the corrosion process begins as soon as the motor is removed from the water and exposed to air. The flushing procedure is not used only for cooling system maintenance, but it is also a tool with which a technician can provide a source of cooling water to protect the engine (and water pump impeller) from damage anytime the motor needs to be run out of the water. Neverstart or run the engine out of the water, even for a few seconds, for any reason. Water pump impeller damage can occur instantly and damage to the engine from overheating can follow shortly thereafter. If the engine must be run out of the water for tuning or testing, always connect an appropriate flushing device before the engine is started and leave it turned on until after the engine is shut off. ** WARNING ANYTIME the engine is run, the first thing you should do is check the cooling stream or water indicator. All models covered by this manual are equipped with some form of a cooling stream indicator towards the aft portion of the lower engine cover. Anytime the engine is operating, a steady stream of water should come from the indicator, showing that the pump is supplying water to the engine for cooling. If the stream is ever absent, stop the motor and determine the cause before restarting. As we stated earlier, flushing the cooling system consists of supplying fresh, clean water to the system in order to clean deposits from the internal passages. If the engine is running, the water does not normally have to be pressurized, as it is delivered through the normal water intake passages and the water pump (the system can self flush if supplied with clean water). If your engine can be placed in a test tank that is filled with fresh, clean water, then in theory, simply running it will self-flush the motor. 2-1 8 MAINTENANCE 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/3300/4000cc) V4N6N8 Motors + See Figures 41 , 42, 43 and 44 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Release the top cover latches, then carefully lift the cover from the outboard. Make sure the top cover seal remains in the groove on the top cover. • Whenever the top cover is removed, be sure to perform a quick visual check of the seal and replace the seal if it is damaged or worn beyond use. 3. On 1992-98 carbureted modepower steering hoses at the front, starboard side of the lower cover. You'll need to loosen the screw that is threaded downward through the lower cover while holding the locknut from underneath. Remove the screw, flat washer and locknut. 4. On carbureted models, be sure that a spring clip is installed on the port and starboard lower pan supports. 5. If necessary, remove the cooling indicator hose and grommet. 6. Locate and remove the bolts from the perimeter of the lower cover. On V6 models, the bolts are normally threaded from the starboard side of the motor, on V4 and V6 motors however, the opposite is normally true. The number of bolts used varies slightly by model, so work slowly and make sure you've got them all out before trying to separate the covers. • There are USUALLY at least 4 bolts securing the lower cover halves on V4 and V8 models and at least 6 bolts securing the cover halves on V6 models, but, check the covers carefully before attempting to separate them. If the covers seem unwilling to separate, make sure that there are no additional fasteners either around the perimeter or inside the cover. Fig. 41 The lower cover screws are normally found on the starboard side of V6 engines, or the port side of V4 and VB motors 7. Remove one spring clip and one lower engine cover at a time. • The lower covers contain various flange seals. Make sure all seals are in good condition or replace them before reinstallation. 8. Installation is essentially the reverse of the removal. During installation, make sure all hoses and wiring are positioned as noted during removal to prevent any pinching or damage by the covers themselves or by other moving parts once the motor is returned to service. Always tighten the retaining bolts securely, but be careful not to overtighten and crack the delicate covers. Cooling System FLUSHING SY THE COOLING SYSTEM + See Figures 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52 The most important service that you can perform on your motor's cooling system is to flush it periodically using fresh, clean water. This should be done immediately following any use in salt, brackish or polluted waters in order to prevent mineral deposits or corrosion from clogging cooling passages. Even if you do not always boat in salt or polluted waters, get used to the flushing procedure and perform it often (ideally, immediately following every outing) to ensure no silt or debris clogs your cooling system over time. • Flush the cooling system after any use in which the motor was operated through suspended/churned-up silt, debris or sand. Although the flushing procedure should take place right away (dockside or on the trailer), be sure to protect the motor from damage due to possible thermal shock. If the engine has just been run under high load or at continued high speeds, allow time for it to cool to the point where the powerhead can be touched. Do not pump very cold water through a very hot engine, or you are just asking for trouble. If you trailer your boat short distances, the flushing procedure can probably wait until you arrive home or wherever the boat is stored, but ideally it should occur within an hour of use in salt water. Remember that the corrosion process begins as soon as the motor is removed from the water and exposed to air. The flushing procedure is not used only for cooling system maintenance, but it is also a tool with which a technician can provide a source of cooling water to protect the engine (and water pump impeller) from damage anytime the motor needs to be run out of the water. Neverstart or run the engine out of the water, even for a few seconds, for any reason. Water pump impeller damage can occur instantly and damage to the engine from overheating can follow shortly thereafter. If the engine must be run out of the water for tuning or testing, always connect an appropriate flushing device before the engine is started and leave it turned on until after the engine is shut off. ** WARNING ANYTIME the engine is run, the first thing you should do is check the cooling stream or water indicator. All models covered by this manual are equipped with some form of a cooling stream indicator towards the aft portion of the lower engine cover. Anytime the engine is operating, a steady stream of water should come from the indicator, showing that the pump is supplying water to the engine for cooling. If the stream is ever absent, stop the motor and determine the cause before restarting. As we stated earlier, flushing the cooling system consists of supplying fresh, clean water to the system in order to clean deposits from the internal passages. If the engine is running, the water does not normally have to be pressurized, as it is delivered through the normal water intake passages and the water pump (the system can self flush if supplied with clean water). If your engine can be placed in a test tank that is filled with fresh, clean water, then in theory, simply running it will self-flush the motor. MAINTENANCE 2-1 9 Tie strap Port rear hook Front and rear starboard hook Lower cover mount Starbearo engine cover and seal assy. Starboard front engine cover seal Engine cover rear lower seal Rear upper seal Lower cover stud 10 Lower cover bumper 11 Latch handle 12 Port engine cover 13 Grommet 14 Mount washer 15 Drain indicator grommet 16 Control cables grommet 17 Adapter to cover grommet 18 Battery cable sleeve 19 Applique Fig. 42 Exploded view of the lower engine covers and related components-120-140 Hp (2000cc) V4 motors 2-20 MAINTENANCE t?7'0--11 7 1 Ball joint nut 2 Ball joint screw 3 Front and rear hook 4 Lower cover mount 5 Control cables and fuel hoses grommet 6 Grommet to cover bracket 7 Starboard lower cover and seal assy. 8 Upper seal 9 Lower seal 10 Lower cover bumper 11 Latch handle 12 Port lower cover 13 Check valve o-ring 14 Mount washer 15 Power trim leads grommet 16 Lower cover stud 17 Check valve assy. 18 Fitting 19 Overboard indicator plug 20 Overboard indicator o-ring 21 Grommet assy. 22 Clamp liner Fig. 43 Exploded view of the lower engine covers and related components-carbureted 185·250 Hp (3000cc) V6 motors (FICHT 3000/3300cc V6 motors, very similar) MAINTENANCE 2-21 .. 10.. 1 Engine cover screw 2 Lower cover bumper 3 Mount washer 4 Engine cover mount grommet 5 Steering hoses grommet 5 Engine cover plug w/o power steering 6 Mount stud 7 Starboard lower front mount pin 8 Cover seal 9 Port cover assy. 1 0 Latch handle assy. 11 Starboard engine cover 12 End cover plug w/o power steering 13 Engine cover front upper seal 14 Front seal 15 Rear lower seal 16 Top rear seal 17 Transfer lever link 18 Tranter lever and pin 19 Tie strap 20 Flush nipple 21 Flush hose 22 Cables grommet 23 Check valve retainer 24 Check valve 25 Quick-knee coupler 26 Hose nipple snap clamp 27 Fitting cap 28 Adapter fitting 29 Nipple and valve assy. Fig. 44 Exploded view of the lower engine covers and related components-250/300 Hp (4000cc) VB motors 2-22 MAINTENANCE ** CAUTION For safety, the propeller should be removed ANYTIME the motor is run on the trailer or on an engine stand. We realize that this is not always practical when flushing the engine on the trailer, but cannot emphasize enough how much caution must be exercised to prevent injury to you or someone else. Either take the time to remove the propeller or take the time to make sure no one or nothing comes close enough to it to become injured. Serious personal injury or death could result from contact with the spinning propeller. When using a flushing device and a pressurized water source, most motors can be flushed in either a tilted or a vertical position, BUT, the manufacturer specifically warns against flushing most motors in the tilted position with the engine running. Some models can be seriously damaged by attempting to flush them with the engine running in the full tilt position. If the motor must be flushed tilted (dockside) then your best bet it to do so with the engine shut off. 1. Check the engine top case and, if necessary remove it to check the powerhead, to ensure it is cooled enough to flush without causing thermal shock. 2. Prepare the engine for flushing depending on the method you are using as follows: 3. On models that directly accept a garden hose, use a socket to loosen and remove the cooling stream indicator from the rear center of the outboard, then CAREFULLY thread a garden hose into the plastic fitting. • LEARN FROM OUR MISTAKES. The truth of the matter is that it is VERY easy to damage the plastic threads for the water pump indicator when threading a metal garden hose into the fitting. Make sure that the hose is completely perpendicular to the indicator fitting threads and NEVER try to force it. If it looks like it is going in at an angle, it probably is, so back it out and start over. We found that it is MUCH easier to obtain a very short length of garden hose (about six inches) with a male fitting on one end and a female fitting on the other. The short length of hose can be easily threaded into the fitting on the outboard (without having to fight the length of garden hose while you're doing it). Once attached, the garden hose easily threads to the back of the short hose. a. If using a flushing adapter of either the generic clamp-type or specific port-type for your model attach the adapter following the instructions that came with the adapter. Then, attach the garden hose to the adapter. • When using a clamp-type adapter, position the suction cup(s) over water intake grate(s) in such a way that they form tight seals. A little pressure seepage should not be a problem, but look to the water stream indicator once the motor is running to be sure that sufficient water is reaching the powerhead. Fig. 45 The easiest way to flush some models is using a clamptype adapter ... But, V-motors are designed for such high horsepower applications that their great size usually makes this extremely impractical. For this reason, you'll have to come up with another flushing method (i.e. using a garden hose and, in some cases, an adapter, to deliver the fresh water). All Evinrude/Johnson engines will either accept flush fittings or adapters (though some don't even require an adapter, as the water indicator threads match that of a standard garden hose allowing you to directly attach the hose once the indicator is removed). Most marina's or boat supply shops will carry adapters are of the generic type that are designed to fit over the engine water intakes on the lower unit (and resemble a pair of strange earmuffs with a hose fitting on one side). But, some models (such as jet drives) require special adapters (available from the manufacturer) that thread into special flushing fittings on the powerhead (or drive unit). When using the later type adapter, follow the manufacturer's instructions closely regarding flushing conditions. In some cases, flushing with this type of adapter should occur only with the motor turned off, so as to prevent damage to the water pump impeller or other engine components. This varies with each motor, so be sure to check with your dealer regarding these direct to the powerhead adapters when you purchase one. • Most jet drive models are equipped with a flushing port mounted under a flat head screw directly above the jet drive bearing grease fitting. Use Evinrude/Johnson adapter no. 435299 or equivalent to attach a garden hose to this port. • When running the engine on a flushing adapter and a garden hose, make sure the hose delivers about 20-40 psi (140-300 kPa) of pressure. Fig. 46 ... but other models are equipped with a threaded water pump indicator ... Fig. 48 We recommend using a short Fig. 47 ... with the indicator removed, length of hose as an adapter ... the fitting accepts a garden hose MAINTENANCE 2-23 Fig. 49 .. .to make threading the hose MUCH easier Fig. 50 On some models (such as Fig. 51 .. .then attach the flushing adapter to the port this jet drive) remove the flushing port fitting ... 4. If the motor is to be run (during flushing or for testing), position the outboard vertically and remove the propeller, for safety. Also, be sure to position the water hose so it will not contact with moving parts (tie the hose out of the way with mechanic's w[re or wire ties, as necessary). 5. Unless using a test tank, turn the water on, making sure that pressure does not exceed 45 psi (300 kPa). 6. If the motor must be run for testing/tuning procedures, start the engine and run in neutral until the motor reaches operating temperature. For most motors, the motor will continue to run at fast idle until warmed, on fuel injected motors, speed will be automatically regulated by the FIGHT system. ** WARNING Unless you are flushing a motor through the water indicator fitting, always check the cooling system indicator stream as SOON as the engine is started. It must be present and strong as long as the motor is operated. If not, stop the motor and rectify the problem before proceeding. Common problems could include insufficient water pressure or incorrect flush adapter installation. When you are flushing a motor through the cooling indicator fitting, water should exit through the other passages at the bottom of the drive unit. 7. Flush the motor for at least 5-10 minutes or until the water exiting the engine is clear. When flushing while running the motor, check the engine temperature (using a gauge or carefully by touch) and stop the engine immediately if steam or overheating starts to occur. Make sure that carbureted motors slow to low idle for the last few minutes of the flushing procedure.B. Stop the engine (if running), then shut the water off. 9. Remove the adapter from the engine or the engine from the test tank, as applicable. 10. If flushing did not occur with the motor running (so the motor would already by vertical), be sure to place it in the full vertical position allowing the cooling system to drain. This is especially important if the engine is going to be placed into storage and could be exposed to freezing temperatures. Water left in the motor could freeze and crack the powerhead or lower unit. Fig. 52 A water source must be used ANYTIME the engine is started 2-Stroke Engine Oil OIL RECOMMENDATIONS + See Figure 53 • Evinrude/Johnson recommends the use of Carbon Guard fuel additive to help prevent the build-up of harmful carbon deposits in the combustion chambers. The manufacturer also recommends decarboning the pistons, twice as often, if Carbon Guard is NOT used. Use only an NMMA (National Marine Manufacturers Association) certified TC-W3 or equivalent 2-stroke lubricant. Of course, the manufacturer recommends using Evinrude/Johnson brand oils, since they are specially formulated to match the needs of Evinrude/Johnson motors. In all cases, a high quality TC-W3 oils are proprietary lubricants designed to ensure optimal engine performance and to minimize combustion chamber deposits, to avoid detonation and prolong spark plug life. Use only 2-stroke type outboard oil. Never use automotive motor oil. On FIGHT motors, the manufacturer recommends using Evinrude/Johnson brand FIGHT RAM Injection Oil with CarbX® combustion chamber cleaner. When FIGHT RAM Injection Oil is used exclusively, the use of Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard should be unnecessary. • Remember, it is this oil, mixed with the gasoline that lubricates the internal parts of the 2-stroke engine. Lack of lubrication due to the wrong mix or improper type of oil can cause catastrophic powerhead failure. Fig. 53 This scuffed piston is an example of the damage caused by improper 2-stroke oil or mixture MAINTENANCE 2-23 Fig. 49 .. .to make threading the hose MUCH easier Fig. 50 On some models (such as Fig. 51 .. .then attach the flushing adapter to the port this jet drive) remove the flushing port fitting ... 4. If the motor is to be run (during flushing or for testing), position the outboard vertically and remove the propeller, for safety. Also, be sure to position the water hose so it will not contact with moving parts (tie the hose out of the way with mechanic's w[re or wire ties, as necessary). 5. Unless using a test tank, turn the water on, making sure that pressure does not exceed 45 psi (300 kPa). 6. If the motor must be run for testing/tuning procedures, start the engine and run in neutral until the motor reaches operating temperature. For most motors, the motor will continue to run at fast idle until warmed, on fuel injected motors, speed will be automatically regulated by the FIGHT system. ** WARNING Unless you are flushing a motor through the water indicator fitting, always check the cooling system indicator stream as SOON as the engine is started. It must be present and strong as long as the motor is operated. If not, stop the motor and rectify the problem before proceeding. Common problems could include insufficient water pressure or incorrect flush adapter installation. When you are flushing a motor through the cooling indicator fitting, water should exit through the other passages at the bottom of the drive unit. 7. Flush the motor for at least 5-10 minutes or until the water exiting the engine is clear. When flushing while running the motor, check the engine temperature (using a gauge or carefully by touch) and stop the engine immediately if steam or overheating starts to occur. Make sure that carbureted motors slow to low idle for the last few minutes of the flushing procedure.B. Stop the engine (if running), then shut the water off. 9. Remove the adapter from the engine or the engine from the test tank, as applicable. 10. If flushing did not occur with the motor running (so the motor would already by vertical), be sure to place it in the full vertical position allowing the cooling system to drain. This is especially important if the engine is going to be placed into storage and could be exposed to freezing temperatures. Water left in the motor could freeze and crack the powerhead or lower unit. Fig. 52 A water source must be used ANYTIME the engine is started 2-Stroke Engine Oil OIL RECOMMENDATIONS + See Figure 53 • Evinrude/Johnson recommends the use of Carbon Guard fuel additive to help prevent the build-up of harmful carbon deposits in the combustion chambers. The manufacturer also recommends decarboning the pistons, twice as often, if Carbon Guard is NOT used. Use only an NMMA (National Marine Manufacturers Association) certified TC-W3 or equivalent 2-stroke lubricant. Of course, the manufacturer recommends using Evinrude/Johnson brand oils, since they are specially formulated to match the needs of Evinrude/Johnson motors. In all cases, a high quality TC-W3 oils are proprietary lubricants designed to ensure optimal engine performance and to minimize combustion chamber deposits, to avoid detonation and prolong spark plug life. Use only 2-stroke type outboard oil. Never use automotive motor oil. On FIGHT motors, the manufacturer recommends using Evinrude/Johnson brand FIGHT RAM Injection Oil with CarbX® combustion chamber cleaner. When FIGHT RAM Injection Oil is used exclusively, the use of Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard should be unnecessary. • Remember, it is this oil, mixed with the gasoline that lubricates the internal parts of the 2-stroke engine. Lack of lubrication due to the wrong mix or improper type of oil can cause catastrophic powerhead failure. Fig. 53 This scuffed piston is an example of the damage caused by improper 2-stroke oil or mixture 2-24 MAINTENANCE FILLING There are two methods of adding 2-stroke oil to an outboard. The first is the pre-mix method and is mostly used on low horsepower models and on some commercial outboards. The second, used on most Evmrude/Johnson V motors, is the use of automatic oil injection (a method that automati.cally injects the correct quantity of oil into the engine based on t..rottle pos111on and operating conditions). The most common forms of Oil InJection are the Variable Ratio Oil injection 2 (VR02) system lor carbureted motors and the FIGHT Fuel Injection (FFI) system. In all cases, the fuel ratio should be considered. This is even true on carbureted motors with automatic oiling systems, it the engine is going to be used under certain severe or high performance conditions. • The FICHT system automatically adjusts fuel/oil ratios for all engine operating conditions. No additional oiling is required. Fuei:Oil Ratio The proper luel:oil ratio will depend upon engine operating conditions. Many of these Evinrude/Johnson engines are be equipped with a. n automatic oiling system (such as the VR02 or FIGHT) that 1s des1gned to maintain a 50:1 ratio without adding anything to the fuel tank. But, whether or not an oiling system is used, the proper luel:oil ratio is 50:1 lor normal operating conditions. Most manufacturers define normal as a motor operated under varying conditions from idle to wide open throttle, Without ex..ess1ve amounts of use at either. Unfortunately, no one seems to put a delm111on to "excessive amount" either, so you'll have to use common sense. We don't think an hour al low speed trolling mixed in with some high speed operat1on or an hour or two of pulling a skier constitutes "excessive amounts," but you'll have to make your own decision. Also necessary lor defining normal operating conditions is the ambient and seawater temperatures. The seawater temperatures should be above 32°F (0°C) and below 68° F (2Qo C). Ambient air conditions should be above freezing and below the point of extreme discomfort (90-1 00°F). • The fuel/oil ratios listed here are Evinrude/Johnson recommendations given in service literature. Because your engine may differ slightly from service manual specification, refer to your owner's manual or a reputable dealer to be certain that your mixture meets your conditions of use. II a carbureted outboard is to be used under severe conditions including, long periods of idle, long periods of heavy load, use in severe ambient temperatures (outside the range of normal use) or under h1gh performance (constant wide-open throttle or racing conditions) some adjustment may be. necessary to the luel:oil ratio. Most carbureted outboards requ1re a 25:1 rat1o tor severe and high performance conditions. But, since of these ..odels are equipped with VR02 this tuel:oil ratio is usually achieved by addmg pre-m1x to the fuel tank (a mixture of 50:1 in the tank combined with the oil system output will total the correct 25:1 ratio). • No additional oiling is necessary for these engines when used in commercial, rental or extended severe service other than high performance applications. All motors covered by this manual require a 25:1 ratio during some portion of break-in (the first 20 hours of operation). FIGHT motors compensate tor break-in automatically, by injecting additional oil during certain break-in engine operating conditions. Engines equipped with the VR02 system should run a tank of 50:1 ratio pre-mix IN ADDITION to the VR02 output in order to achieve the 25:1 ratio during break-in. • If equipped with the VR02 oiling system, make sure the system is operating properly (by verifying that the level in the tank dropped during that 20 hours of use) before using untreated gasoline in the fuel tank. Pre-Mix + See Figure 54 Mixing the engine lubricant with gasoline before pouring it into the tank is by tar the simplest method of lubrication lor 2-stroke outboards. However, this method is the messiest and potentially causes the most amount of harm to our environment The most important part of filling a pre-mix system is to determine t..e proper fuel/oil ratio. Most operating condi!ions reguir.. a 5 .0:1 rat1o (that IS 50 parts ol luel to 1 part of oil). Consult the Information m th1s sect1on on . Fuei:Oil Ratio and your owner's manual to determme what the appropnate ratio should be lor your engine. . The procedure itself is uncomplicated, but you've got a couple options depending on how the fuel tank is set-up lor your boat To 1111 an empty portable tank, add the appropriate amount of oil to the tank, then add . gasoline and close the cap. Rock the tank from S1de-to-s1de to gently ag1tate the mixture, thereby allowmg tor a thorough m1xture of gasoline and 011. When just topping ott built-in or larger portable tanks, 11 1s best to use a separate 3 or 6 gallon (1 1.4 or 22.7 L) mixing tank in the same manner as the portable tank noted earlier. In this way a more exact measurement of fuel occurs in 3 or 6 gallon increments (rather than JUSt addmg fuel directly to the tank and possibly realizing that you've just added 2.67 gallons of gas and need to add, uh, a little less than 8 oz of oil, but exactly how many ounces would that be?) Use of a separate mixture tank will prevent the need tor such mathematical equations. 01 course, the use of a mixing tank may be inconvenient or impossible under certain circumstances, so the next best method tor topping off is to take a good guess (but be a little conservative to prevent an excessively rich oil ratio). Add the oil and gasoline at th. e same time, or add the oil first, then add the gasolme to ensure proper m1x1ng. For measurement purposes, it would obviously be more exact to add the gasoline first and then add a suitable amount of oil to match it The problem with adding gasoline first is that unless the tank could be thoroughly a..1tated afterward (and that would be really dillicult on built-in tanks), the. 011 m1ght not mix properly with the gasoline. Don't take that unnecessary nsk: To determine the proper amount of oil to add to achieve the des1red tuel:oil ratio, refer to the Fuei:Oil Ratio chart at the end of this section. Oil Injection + See Figure 55 Many outboard manufacturers use a mechanically driven oil pump mounted on to the powerhead that is connected to the throttle by way of a linkage arm to supply oil to the oil injection syst..m. The system 1s thereby powered by the crankshaft, which drives a gear m the pump, creating 011 pressure. As the throttle lever is advanced to mcrease eng me speed, the linkage arm also moves, opening a valve that allows more 011 to flow mto the oil pump. But, we said MOST, not Evinrude/Johnson, which uses a pulse (vacuum) controlled pump assembly lor the VR02 assembly. Actually, the VR02 pump is a combination fuel and oil pump that draws both to the mixing unit and then provides the fuel/oil mixture to the carburetors. . Outboards equipped with FIGHT, detailed under FICH: Fuel InJeCtion . (FFI) in the Fuel System section, use? a.. electro-mechamcal system to m1x fuel and oil, then delivering the combmalion to the combust1on chambers. Both the FIGHT and VR02 injection systems mcorporate low 011 and/or no-oil warning alarms that are also connected to an engine-overheat!ng sensor. Also, these systems have a built in speed limiting system. Th1s sub system is designed to reduce engine speed automatically when oil problems occur. This important feature goes a long way toward preventmg severe engine damage in the event of an oil injection problem. The procedure tor tilling these systems is simple. Most ot .these systems use a remote oil tank and a connecting hose. The tank contams a Iiiier cap that is removed in order to add oil to the tank. EVERY time the motor is operated check the oil level. Whenever oil is added, place a piece of tape on the ta..k to mark the level and watch how last it drops in relation to engine usage (hours and fuel consumption):.Watch lor .chang.es in usage patterns that could indicate under or over Oiling. Especially w1th a system that suddenly begins to deliver less oil, you could save yourself Significant engine damage by discovering a problem that could have starved the motor lor lubrication. Should the oil hose become disconnected or suffer a break/leak, the oil prime might be lost II so, the system should be primed before priming the fuel system and starting the engine. More details on serv1c1ng the VR02 2-24 MAINTENANCE FILLING There are two methods of adding 2-stroke oil to an outboard. The first is the pre-mix method and is mostly used on low horsepower models and on some commercial outboards. The second, used on most Evmrude/Johnson V motors, is the use of automatic oil injection (a method that automati.cally injects the correct quantity of oil into the engine based on t..rottle pos111on and operating conditions). The most common forms of Oil InJection are the Variable Ratio Oil injection 2 (VR02) system lor carbureted motors and the FIGHT Fuel Injection (FFI) system. In all cases, the fuel ratio should be considered. This is even true on carbureted motors with automatic oiling systems, it the engine is going to be used under certain severe or high performance conditions. • The FICHT system automatically adjusts fuel/oil ratios for all engine operating conditions. No additional oiling is required. Fuei:Oil Ratio The proper luel:oil ratio will depend upon engine operating conditions. Many of these Evinrude/Johnson engines are be equipped with a. n automatic oiling system (such as the VR02 or FIGHT) that 1s des1gned to maintain a 50:1 ratio without adding anything to the fuel tank. But, whether or not an oiling system is used, the proper luel:oil ratio is 50:1 lor normal operating conditions. Most manufacturers define normal as a motor operated under varying conditions from idle to wide open throttle, Without ex..ess1ve amounts of use at either. Unfortunately, no one seems to put a delm111on to "excessive amount" either, so you'll have to use common sense. We don't think an hour al low speed trolling mixed in with some high speed operat1on or an hour or two of pulling a skier constitutes "excessive amounts," but you'll have to make your own decision. Also necessary lor defining normal operating conditions is the ambient and seawater temperatures. The seawater temperatures should be above 32°F (0°C) and below 68° F (2Qo C). Ambient air conditions should be above freezing and below the point of extreme discomfort (90-1 00°F). • The fuel/oil ratios listed here are Evinrude/Johnson recommendations given in service literature. Because your engine may differ slightly from service manual specification, refer to your owner's manual or a reputable dealer to be certain that your mixture meets your conditions of use. II a carbureted outboard is to be used under severe conditions including, long periods of idle, long periods of heavy load, use in severe ambient temperatures (outside the range of normal use) or under h1gh performance (constant wide-open throttle or racing conditions) some adjustment may be. necessary to the luel:oil ratio. Most carbureted outboards requ1re a 25:1 rat1o tor severe and high performance conditions. But, since of these ..odels are equipped with VR02 this tuel:oil ratio is usually achieved by addmg pre-m1x to the fuel tank (a mixture of 50:1 in the tank combined with the oil system output will total the correct 25:1 ratio). • No additional oiling is necessary for these engines when used in commercial, rental or extended severe service other than high performance applications. All motors covered by this manual require a 25:1 ratio during some portion of break-in (the first 20 hours of operation). FIGHT motors compensate tor break-in automatically, by injecting additional oil during certain break-in engine operating conditions. Engines equipped with the VR02 system should run a tank of 50:1 ratio pre-mix IN ADDITION to the VR02 output in order to achieve the 25:1 ratio during break-in. • If equipped with the VR02 oiling system, make sure the system is operating properly (by verifying that the level in the tank dropped during that 20 hours of use) before using untreated gasoline in the fuel tank. Pre-Mix + See Figure 54 Mixing the engine lubricant with gasoline before pouring it into the tank is by tar the simplest method of lubrication lor 2-stroke outboards. However, this method is the messiest and potentially causes the most amount of harm to our environment The most important part of filling a pre-mix system is to determine t..e proper fuel/oil ratio. Most operating condi!ions reguir.. a 5 .0:1 rat1o (that IS 50 parts ol luel to 1 part of oil). Consult the Information m th1s sect1on on . Fuei:Oil Ratio and your owner's manual to determme what the appropnate ratio should be lor your engine. . The procedure itself is uncomplicated, but you've got a couple options depending on how the fuel tank is set-up lor your boat To 1111 an empty portable tank, add the appropriate amount of oil to the tank, then add . gasoline and close the cap. Rock the tank from S1de-to-s1de to gently ag1tate the mixture, thereby allowmg tor a thorough m1xture of gasoline and 011. When just topping ott built-in or larger portable tanks, 11 1s best to use a separate 3 or 6 gallon (1 1.4 or 22.7 L) mixing tank in the same manner as the portable tank noted earlier. In this way a more exact measurement of fuel occurs in 3 or 6 gallon increments (rather than JUSt addmg fuel directly to the tank and possibly realizing that you've just added 2.67 gallons of gas and need to add, uh, a little less than 8 oz of oil, but exactly how many ounces would that be?) Use of a separate mixture tank will prevent the need tor such mathematical equations. 01 course, the use of a mixing tank may be inconvenient or impossible under certain circumstances, so the next best method tor topping off is to take a good guess (but be a little conservative to prevent an excessively rich oil ratio). Add the oil and gasoline at th. e same time, or add the oil first, then add the gasolme to ensure proper m1x1ng. For measurement purposes, it would obviously be more exact to add the gasoline first and then add a suitable amount of oil to match it The problem with adding gasoline first is that unless the tank could be thoroughly a..1tated afterward (and that would be really dillicult on built-in tanks), the. 011 m1ght not mix properly with the gasoline. Don't take that unnecessary nsk: To determine the proper amount of oil to add to achieve the des1red tuel:oil ratio, refer to the Fuei:Oil Ratio chart at the end of this section. Oil Injection + See Figure 55 Many outboard manufacturers use a mechanically driven oil pump mounted on to the powerhead that is connected to the throttle by way of a linkage arm to supply oil to the oil injection syst..m. The system 1s thereby powered by the crankshaft, which drives a gear m the pump, creating 011 pressure. As the throttle lever is advanced to mcrease eng me speed, the linkage arm also moves, opening a valve that allows more 011 to flow mto the oil pump. But, we said MOST, not Evinrude/Johnson, which uses a pulse (vacuum) controlled pump assembly lor the VR02 assembly. Actually, the VR02 pump is a combination fuel and oil pump that draws both to the mixing unit and then provides the fuel/oil mixture to the carburetors. . Outboards equipped with FIGHT, detailed under FICH: Fuel InJeCtion . (FFI) in the Fuel System section, use? a.. electro-mechamcal system to m1x fuel and oil, then delivering the combmalion to the combust1on chambers. Both the FIGHT and VR02 injection systems mcorporate low 011 and/or no-oil warning alarms that are also connected to an engine-overheat!ng sensor. Also, these systems have a built in speed limiting system. Th1s sub system is designed to reduce engine speed automatically when oil problems occur. This important feature goes a long way toward preventmg severe engine damage in the event of an oil injection problem. The procedure tor tilling these systems is simple. Most ot .these systems use a remote oil tank and a connecting hose. The tank contams a Iiiier cap that is removed in order to add oil to the tank. EVERY time the motor is operated check the oil level. Whenever oil is added, place a piece of tape on the ta..k to mark the level and watch how last it drops in relation to engine usage (hours and fuel consumption):.Watch lor .chang.es in usage patterns that could indicate under or over Oiling. Especially w1th a system that suddenly begins to deliver less oil, you could save yourself Significant engine damage by discovering a problem that could have starved the motor lor lubrication. Should the oil hose become disconnected or suffer a break/leak, the oil prime might be lost II so, the system should be primed before priming the fuel system and starting the engine. More details on serv1c1ng the VR02 MAINTENANCE 2-25 Fig. 54 Add the oil and gasoline at the Fig. 55 Mark the oil level with a piece of Fig. 56 This lower unit was destroyed same time, or add the oil first, then add tape and watch for consumption patterns because the bearing carrier froze due to the gasoline to ensure proper mixing lack of lubrication oiling system are found in the Lubrication section of this manual. More details on servicing the FIGHT system are found in the Fuel System section of this manual. • It is highly advisable to carry several spare bottles of 2-stroke oil with you on board. At least for carbureted motors, in the event of an oil system failure, oil can be added to a fuel tank (in the proper ratio) in order to limp the boat and motor safely home. Lower Unit (Gearcase) Oil + See Figures 56 and 57 Regular maintenance and inspection of the lower unit is critical for proper operation and reliability. A lower unit can quickly fail if it becomes heavily contaminated with water or excessively low on oil. The most common cause of a lower unit failure is water contamination. Water in the lower unit is usually caused by fishing line or other foreign material, becoming entangled around the propeller shaft and damaging the seal. If the line is not removed, it will eventually cut the propeller shaft seal and allow water to enter the lower unit. Fishing line has also been known to cut a groove in the propeller shaft if left neglected over time. This area should be checked frequently. Fig. 57 Fishing line entangled behind the prop can actually cut through the seal OIL RECOMMENDATIONS + See Figure 58 Use only Evinrude/Johnson Ultra-HPF or an equivalent high quality, marine gearcase lubricant that meets GL5 specifications. Evinrude/Johnson Hi-Vis gearcase lube may be used as a substitute if Ultra-HPF is not available. In both cases, these oils are proprietary lubricants designed to ensure optimal peliormance and to minimize corrosion in the lower unit. • Remember, it is this lower unit lubricant that prevents corrosion and lubricates the internal parts of the drive gears. Lack of lubrication due to water contamination or the improper type of oil can cause catastrophic lower unit failure. Fig. 58 Use Evinrude/Johnson Ultra-HPF, Evinrude/Johnson Hi-Vis or equivalent marine gear oil CHECKING LOWER UNIT OIL LEVEL & CONDITION + See Figure 59 Visually inspect the lower unit before and after each use for signs of leakage. At least monthly, or as needed, remove the lower unit level plug in order to check the lubricant level and condition as follows: 1. Position the engine in the upright position with the motor shut off for at least 1 hour. Whenever possible, check the level overnight cold in order to get the best indication of the level without having to account for heat expansion. 2. Disconnect the negative battery cable and/or remove the propeller for safety. 2-26 MAINTENANCE ** CAUTION Always observe extreme care when working anywhere near the propeller. Take steps to ensure that no accidental attempt to start the engine occurs while work is being performed or remove the propeller completely to be safe. 3. Position a small rag or drain pan under the lower unit, then unthread and remove the vent/level plug. The level of lubricant should come up just even with the bottom of the threads (if the gearcase was filled properly). If lubricant does not come all the way up, check for signs of leakage. If lubricant leaks out, either the case was overfilled or water has entered the case as well. In all cases, it is best to take a small sample of lubricant from 7. Once fluid is pumped into the lower unit, let the unit sit in a shaded area for at least 1 hour for the fluid to settle. Recheck the fluid level and, if necessary, add more lubricant. 8. Install the propeller and/or connect the negative battery cable, as applicable. DRAINING AND FILLING + See Figure 60 ** CAUTION the drain plug in order to examine it further. • If a large amount of lubricant escapes when the vent/level plug is removed, either the lower unit was seriously overfilled on the last service, the crankcase is still too hot from the last use (and the fluid is expanded) or a large amount of water has entered the lower unit. If the later is true, some water should escape before the oil and/or the oil will be a milky white in appearance (showing the moisture contamination). 4. To take small sample, unthread the drain/fill plug at the bottom of the housing and allow a small sample (a teaspoon or less) to drain from the lower unit. Quickly install the drain/filler plug and tighten securely. 5. Examine the gear oil as follows: a. Check the oil for obvious signs of water. A small amount of moisture may be present from condensation, especially if a motor has been stored for some time, but a milky appearance indicates that either the fluid has not been changed in ages or the lower unit allowing some water to intrude. If significant water contamination is present, the first suspect is the propeller shaft seal. b. Dip an otherwise clean finger into the oil and then rub a small amount of the fluid between your finger and your thumb to check for the presence of debris. The lubricant should feel smooth. A very small amount of metallic shavings may be present, but should not really be felt. Large amounts of grit or metallic particles indicate a probable need to overhaul the lower unit looking for damaged/worn gears, shafts, bearings or thrust surfaces. The EPA warns that prolonged contact with oils may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas ·as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water or waterless hand cleaner should be used. 1. Place a suitable container under the lower unit. 2. Loosen the oil vent/level plug on the lower unit. This step is important! If the oil vent/level cannot be loosened or removed, you will have a VERY difficult time adding oil. • Never remove the vent/level or drain/fill plugs when the lower unit is hot. Expanded lubricant will be released through the hole. 3. Remove the drain/fill plug from the lower end of the gear housing followed by the oil vent/level plug. 4. Allow the lubricant to completely drain from the lower unit. 5. If applicable, check the magnet end of the drain screw for metal particles. Some amount of metal is considered normal wear is to be expected but if there are signs of metal chips or excessive metal particles, the lower unit needs to be disassembled and inspected. 6. Inspect the lubricant for the presence of a milky white substance, water or metallic particles. If any of these conditions are present, the lower unit should be serviced immediately. 6. If it is necessary to add fluid, a very small amount of fluid may be added through the level plug, but larger amounts of fluid should be added through the drain/filler plug opening to make certain that the case is properly filled. If necessary, add gear oil until fluid flows from the level/vent opening. If much more than 1 oz. (29 ml) is required to fill the lower unit, check the case carefully for leaks. Install the drain/filler plugs and/or the level/vent plug, tightening both securely. • One trick that makes adding lower unit oil less messy is to install the vent/level plug BEFORE removing the pump from the drain/fill opening and threading the drain/fill plug back into position. This creates a partial vacuum, which will slow the leakage of gearcase oil out of the drain/fill opening while you are attempting to rethread the plug. Fig. 59 The vent/level plug is on top, while the drain/fill plug is at the bottom of the gearcase Fig. 60 Lower unit oil is pumped or squeezed into the lower unit through the filler opening, while the vent opening is removed to let air escape 7. Place the outboard in the proper position lor filling the lower unit. The lower unit should not list to either port or starboard and should be completely vertical. 8. Insert the lubricant tube into the oil drain hole at the bottom of the lower unit and inject lubricant until the excess begins to come out the oil level hole. • The lubricant must be filled from the bottom to prevent air from being trapped in the lower unit. Air could temporarily displace lubricant and causes an improperly full reading that would lead to a lack of lubrication in the lower unit. 9. Oil should be squeezed in using a tube or with the larger quantities, by using a pump kit to fill the lower unit through the drain plug. • One trick that makes adding lower unit oil less messy is to install the vent/level plug BEFORE removing the pump from the drain/fill opening and threading the drain/fill plug back into position. 10. Using new gaskets (washers), install the oil level/vent plug first and then install the oil fill plug. 11. Wipe the excess oil from the lower unit and inspect the unit lor leaks. 12. Place the used lubricant in a suitable container lor transportation to an authorized recycling facility. Fuel Filter A fuel filter is designed to keep particles of dirt and debris from entering the carburetors or the fuel injection system and clogging the tiny internal passages of either. A small speck of dirt or sand can drastically affect the ability of the fuel system to deliver the proper amount of air and fuel/oil to the engine. II a filter becomes clogged, the flow of gasoline will be impeded. This could cause lean fuel mixtures, hesitation and stumbling and idle problems in carburetors. Although a clogged fuel passage in a fuel injected engine could also cause lean symptoms and idle problems, dirt can also prevent a fuel injector from closing properly. A fuel injector that is stuck partially open by debris would likely cause the engine to run rich due to the unregulated fuel constantly spraying from the pressurized injector. Regular cleaning or replacement of the fuel filter (depending on the type or types used) will decrease the risk of blocking the flow of fuel to the engine, which could leave you stranded on the water. It will also decrease the risk of damage to the small passages of a carburetor or fuel injector that could require more extensive and expensive replacement. Keep in mind that fuel filters are usually pretty inexpensive (at lease when compared to a tow) and replacement is a simple task. Service your fuel filter on a regular basis to avoid fuel delivery problems. The type of fuel filter used on your engine will vary not only with the year and model, but also with the accessories and rigging. Because of the number of possible variations it is impossible to accurately give instructions based on model. Instead, we will provide instructions lor the different types of filters the manufacturer used on various families of motors or systems with which they are equipped. To determine what filter(s) are utilized by your boat and motor rigging, trace the fuel line from the tank to the fuel pump and then from the pump to the carburetors (or premix oiling system, which ever is applicable). The fuel injected motors are listed separately, as their design does not vary in the same way as the carbureted motors. In addition to the fuel filter mounted on the engine, a filter is usually found inside or near the fuel tank. Because of the large variety of differences in both portable and fixed fuel tanks, it is impossible to give a detailed procedure lor removal and installation. Most in-tank filters are simply a screen on the pick-up line inside the fuel tank. Filters of this type usually only need to be cleaned and returned to service (assuming they are not t orn or otherwise damaged). Fuel filters on the outside of the tank are t ypically of the in line type and are replaced by simply removing the clamps, disconnecting the hoses and installing a new filter. When installing the new filter, make sure the arrow on the filter points in the direction of fuel flow. CARBURETED MOTORS ** CAUTION Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated MAINTENANCE 2-27 area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Fuel Pump Filters (Non-VR02 Equipped Models) + See Figures 61 , 62, 63, 64 and 65 Some of the carbureted models (such as the 88SPL, 112SPL, some 125 Commercial and certain other models including most of the 1632cc CV4 motors) are NOT equipped with the Variable Ratio Oil (VR02) injection system. When the VR02 system is not used, the outboard will be equipped with only a small, flat, vacuum (pulse) driven fuel pump mounted somewhere on the powerhead. Although the exact shape and design of this pump may vary slightly from model· to-model, for this discussion, they are serviced virtually the same way and we'll refer to them as Type A fuel pumps. The various Type A Evinrude/Johnson mechanical fuel pumps normally contain a serviceable fuel filter screen mounted just underneath the fuel inlet cover. On all versions, the cover is connected to the fuel inlet hose from the fuel tank. Additionally, on all V-models the cover is usually round and is retained by a single bolt at the center. To service the fuel inlet screen on Type A fuel pumps, remove the inlet cover screw(s), then carefully separate the inlet cover, gasket or 0-ring and screen from the fuel pump body. Clean the screen using a suitable solvent and blow dry with low pressure compressed air or allow it to air dry. Once the screen is dry, check it carefully lor clogs or tears and replace, if necessary. Depending on the gasket material and condition it may be reused, but it is normally best (and safest) to simply replace the gasket(s). ** CAUTION To prevent the danger of fire of explosion, pressurize the fuel system after service by slowly squeezing the fuel primer bulb until firm. Then, once the system is pressurized, inspect it carefully for leaks, especially around the fuel pump/cover. The rest of the Evinrude/Johnson V-conliguration, carbureted 2-stroke motors are usually equipped with a larger, more complicated fuel pump that we'll refer to as Type B (it's the combination fuel and oil pump that is used by the VR02 system). We've provided a photo for visual identification. On these pumps an inline filter is normally used somewhere between the tank and the pump, and the shape/design of these filters will vary somewhat from modelto- model. Service of the inline filter is sometimes limited to replacement. lnline filters should be serviced annually and anytime fuel delivery/starvation problems are suspected. • Some Type A fuel pump motors will also be equipped with an inline filter. When present be sure to replace all inline filters at least annually. lnline Filters + See Figures 64, 65, 66, 67, 68 and 69 Most of the carbureted Evinrude/Johnson V motors are equipped with the VR02 system and therefore require an inline filter to protect the system. But, as noted earlier, it is possible for inline filters to also be installed on non-VR02 models (either as an additional line of defense or in lieu of the pump inlet filter on those models). Evinrude/Johnson has used multiple different types of inline filters on these models. Some of them are sealed and therefore cannot be cleaned and reused. A lew of them however utilize 2-piece housings that can be opened to access the filter element. Generally speaking, the 600 models (80 Jet-1 75 Hp [1 726/2589cc] V4N6 motors) along with a few of the 1632cc 900 V4s (including the 100WT) are equipped with the serviceable filter design. On all of the 60° models the filter element itself is mounted under a knurled knob that threads onto a cylinder that is incorporated into the fuel component bracket mounted to the engine. The CV motors equipped with a serviceable filter element use a housing that is attached inline, between two fuel supply lines. These can be identified by their design and shape, which varies from the typical inline filter. A typical, disposable in line filter will have a simple round canister on which the fuel lines attach to either end (or a lew, with both lines on one end). The serviceable inline filters used on some CV4 motors have one fuel inlet on 7. Place the outboard in the proper position lor filling the lower unit. The lower unit should not list to either port or starboard and should be completely vertical. 8. Insert the lubricant tube into the oil drain hole at the bottom of the lower unit and inject lubricant until the excess begins to come out the oil level hole. • The lubricant must be filled from the bottom to prevent air from being trapped in the lower unit. Air could temporarily displace lubricant and causes an improperly full reading that would lead to a lack of lubrication in the lower unit. 9. Oil should be squeezed in using a tube or with the larger quantities, by using a pump kit to fill the lower unit through the drain plug. • One trick that makes adding lower unit oil less messy is to install the vent/level plug BEFORE removing the pump from the drain/fill opening and threading the drain/fill plug back into position. 10. Using new gaskets (washers), install the oil level/vent plug first and then install the oil fill plug. 11. Wipe the excess oil from the lower unit and inspect the unit lor leaks. 12. Place the used lubricant in a suitable container lor transportation to an authorized recycling facility. Fuel Filter A fuel filter is designed to keep particles of dirt and debris from entering the carburetors or the fuel injection system and clogging the tiny internal passages of either. A small speck of dirt or sand can drastically affect the ability of the fuel system to deliver the proper amount of air and fuel/oil to the engine. II a filter becomes clogged, the flow of gasoline will be impeded. This could cause lean fuel mixtures, hesitation and stumbling and idle problems in carburetors. Although a clogged fuel passage in a fuel injected engine could also cause lean symptoms and idle problems, dirt can also prevent a fuel injector from closing properly. A fuel injector that is stuck partially open by debris would likely cause the engine to run rich due to the unregulated fuel constantly spraying from the pressurized injector. Regular cleaning or replacement of the fuel filter (depending on the type or types used) will decrease the risk of blocking the flow of fuel to the engine, which could leave you stranded on the water. It will also decrease the risk of damage to the small passages of a carburetor or fuel injector that could require more extensive and expensive replacement. Keep in mind that fuel filters are usually pretty inexpensive (at lease when compared to a tow) and replacement is a simple task. Service your fuel filter on a regular basis to avoid fuel delivery problems. The type of fuel filter used on your engine will vary not only with the year and model, but also with the accessories and rigging. Because of the number of possible variations it is impossible to accurately give instructions based on model. Instead, we will provide instructions lor the different types of filters the manufacturer used on various families of motors or systems with which they are equipped. To determine what filter(s) are utilized by your boat and motor rigging, trace the fuel line from the tank to the fuel pump and then from the pump to the carburetors (or premix oiling system, which ever is applicable). The fuel injected motors are listed separately, as their design does not vary in the same way as the carbureted motors. In addition to the fuel filter mounted on the engine, a filter is usually found inside or near the fuel tank. Because of the large variety of differences in both portable and fixed fuel tanks, it is impossible to give a detailed procedure lor removal and installation. Most in-tank filters are simply a screen on the pick-up line inside the fuel tank. Filters of this type usually only need to be cleaned and returned to service (assuming they are not t orn or otherwise damaged). Fuel filters on the outside of the tank are t ypically of the in line type and are replaced by simply removing the clamps, disconnecting the hoses and installing a new filter. When installing the new filter, make sure the arrow on the filter points in the direction of fuel flow. CARBURETED MOTORS ** CAUTION Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated MAINTENANCE 2-27 area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Fuel Pump Filters (Non-VR02 Equipped Models) + See Figures 61 , 62, 63, 64 and 65 Some of the carbureted models (such as the 88SPL, 112SPL, some 125 Commercial and certain other models including most of the 1632cc CV4 motors) are NOT equipped with the Variable Ratio Oil (VR02) injection system. When the VR02 system is not used, the outboard will be equipped with only a small, flat, vacuum (pulse) driven fuel pump mounted somewhere on the powerhead. Although the exact shape and design of this pump may vary slightly from model· to-model, for this discussion, they are serviced virtually the same way and we'll refer to them as Type A fuel pumps. The various Type A Evinrude/Johnson mechanical fuel pumps normally contain a serviceable fuel filter screen mounted just underneath the fuel inlet cover. On all versions, the cover is connected to the fuel inlet hose from the fuel tank. Additionally, on all V-models the cover is usually round and is retained by a single bolt at the center. To service the fuel inlet screen on Type A fuel pumps, remove the inlet cover screw(s), then carefully separate the inlet cover, gasket or 0-ring and screen from the fuel pump body. Clean the screen using a suitable solvent and blow dry with low pressure compressed air or allow it to air dry. Once the screen is dry, check it carefully lor clogs or tears and replace, if necessary. Depending on the gasket material and condition it may be reused, but it is normally best (and safest) to simply replace the gasket(s). ** CAUTION To prevent the danger of fire of explosion, pressurize the fuel system after service by slowly squeezing the fuel primer bulb until firm. Then, once the system is pressurized, inspect it carefully for leaks, especially around the fuel pump/cover. The rest of the Evinrude/Johnson V-conliguration, carbureted 2-stroke motors are usually equipped with a larger, more complicated fuel pump that we'll refer to as Type B (it's the combination fuel and oil pump that is used by the VR02 system). We've provided a photo for visual identification. On these pumps an inline filter is normally used somewhere between the tank and the pump, and the shape/design of these filters will vary somewhat from modelto- model. Service of the inline filter is sometimes limited to replacement. lnline filters should be serviced annually and anytime fuel delivery/starvation problems are suspected. • Some Type A fuel pump motors will also be equipped with an inline filter. When present be sure to replace all inline filters at least annually. lnline Filters + See Figures 64, 65, 66, 67, 68 and 69 Most of the carbureted Evinrude/Johnson V motors are equipped with the VR02 system and therefore require an inline filter to protect the system. But, as noted earlier, it is possible for inline filters to also be installed on non-VR02 models (either as an additional line of defense or in lieu of the pump inlet filter on those models). Evinrude/Johnson has used multiple different types of inline filters on these models. Some of them are sealed and therefore cannot be cleaned and reused. A lew of them however utilize 2-piece housings that can be opened to access the filter element. Generally speaking, the 600 models (80 Jet-1 75 Hp [1 726/2589cc] V4N6 motors) along with a few of the 1632cc 900 V4s (including the 100WT) are equipped with the serviceable filter design. On all of the 60° models the filter element itself is mounted under a knurled knob that threads onto a cylinder that is incorporated into the fuel component bracket mounted to the engine. The CV motors equipped with a serviceable filter element use a housing that is attached inline, between two fuel supply lines. These can be identified by their design and shape, which varies from the typical inline filter. A typical, disposable in line filter will have a simple round canister on which the fuel lines attach to either end (or a lew, with both lines on one end). The serviceable inline filters used on some CV4 motors have one fuel inlet on 2-28 MAINTENANCE CD FUEL PUMP BODY @ 0-RING or GASKET @ FILTER ELEMENT ® INLET COVER ®SCREW Fig. 61 Versions of the Type A fuel pump are found on most carbureted models covered by this manual Fig. 63 .. .then remove the inlet cover to Fig 62 Remove the bolt(s) securing the access the filter element Type A pump cover ... Fig. 64 Models with Type 8 fuel pumps Fig. 65 Type 8 pump models utilize utilize inline filters some form of an in line filter TO FUEL Fig. 66 Disposable Evinrude/Johnson in line filter TO MOTOR : 0 :element FILTER g Filter cap Fuel filter '-Fuel component bracket ..{D Fig. 69 Serviceable inline filter used Fig. 67 Disposable spin-on in line filter Fig. 68 Typical serviceable (VB motors) on 60° LV4 and LV6 motors Evinrude/Johnson inline filter (CV motors) the side and the fuel outlet on the end. Serviceable filters consist of an assembly with a knurled cap that threads onto the filter bowl or base. The balance of the VR02 equipped V motors either utilize a sealed plastic canister mounted literally inline (with a fuel line attaching to each end similar to how the serviceable filter is mounted on CV motors) or a spin-on type filter that is mounted to a bracket. The spin-on filters are used on most VB engines and also usually function as a fuel/water separator. The plastic housing inline filters are generally only found on V4 and V6 models. • Because of the relative ease and relatively low expense of an inline filter (when compared with the time and hassle of a carburetor overhaul or the expense of a tow) we encourage you to replace the filter at least annually. Service varies slightly by filter type: To replace a non-serviceable inline filter, release the hose clamps (they are usually equipped with spring-type clamps that are released by squeezing the tabs using a pair of pliers) and slide them back on the hose, past the raised portion of the filter inlet/outlet nipples. Once a clamp is released, position a small drain pan or a shop towel under the filter and carefully pull the hose from the nipple. Allow any fuel remaining in the filter and fuel line to drain into the drain pan or catch fuel with the shop towel. Repeat on the other side, noting which fuel line connects to which portion of the filter (for assembly purposes). In line filters are usually marked with an arrow indicating fuel flow. The arrow should point towards the fuel line that runs to the motor (not the fuel tank). Before installation of the new filter, make sure the hoses are in good condition and not brittle, cracking and otherwise in need of replacement. During installation, be sure to fully seat the hoses and then place the clamps over the raised portions of the nipples to secure them. Spring clamps will weaken over time, so replace them if they've lost their tension. If wire ties or adjustable clamps were used, be careful not to overtighten the clamp. If the clamp cuts into the hose, it's too tight; loosen the clamp or cut the wire tie (as applicable) and start again. To replace a non-serviceable spin-on filter (VB engines), place a suitable drain pan under the filter in order to catch any escaping fuel, then remove the old filter by unthreading it counterclockwise (when viewed from the bottom). If necessary, use a strap-wrench or oil filter wrench to firmly grasp the filter and apply leverage while turning. Apply a light coating of clean 2-stroke engine oil to the gasket of the new filter and make sure the filter mating surface on the bracket is clean and free of dirt or debris. Then, carefully thread the new filter onto the bracket and tighten it by hand (following the instructions on the filter itself). Generally speaking, the filter should be tightened no more than 1/4-1/2 turn after the gasket contacts the mounting bracket. NEVER use a strap or filter wrench to tighten the filter as overtightening will almost certainly occur. For models with a serviceable filter element, service will vary slightly by model. For 60° LV4 and LV6 motors, you'll have to remove the air intake silencer for access to the fuel component bracket. For CV motors (or other completely inline mountings), it is best to disconnect the hose from one end, for instance, remove the fuel pump hose from the cap nipple. Once you have access and freedom of movement for the cap, carefully unthread the knurled cap from the base. The filter element is usually removed with the cap. Clean and inspect the element in the same manner as the fuel pump filter screens described under Fuel Pump Filters (Non-VR02 Equipped Models) in this section. Replace any damaged filter element. Check the filter gasket and/or 0-ring for damage and replace, as necessary. When reconnecting the hose to the nipple, inspect and replace any damaged hose or clamp as you would with any other in line filter. ** CAUTION To prevent the danger of fire of explosion, pressurize the fuel system after service by slowly squeezing the fuel primer bulb until firm. Then, once the system is pressurized, inspect it carefully for leaks, especially around the in line fuel filter. FUEL INJECTED MOTORS ** CAUTION Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Fuel injected motors covered by this manual are equipped with two interrelated fuel circuits, the high-pressure and low-pressure systems. The low-pressure system is similar to the fuel system that feeds float bowls on carbureted motors. An engine mounted fuel pump (known as the lift pump on these motors) draws fuel from the boat's tank based on vacuum pulses received from the engine. This is pretty much where the similarity ends, as the lift pump is mounted to the front of the powerhead, as opposed to the rear of the powerhead on most carbureted motors. Exact lift pump location varies slightly from model-to-model. The pump is normally found at the lower front of the powerhead on the large V6 motors (3000/3300cc) motors. For other FIGHT motors, the pump is normally attached to a related fuel system component, either the fuel/vapor separator on some 150 hp engines or to the fuel component bracket on most other engines. In most cases, the pump is found directly behind the air intake silencer. The lift pump receives oil from the oil distribution manifold, mixing it with the incoming fuel before delivering the mix to the vapor separator. After passing through the vapor separator, the oil/fuel mixture is drawn by the high-pressure fuel pump to feed the fuel injector circuit. MAINTENANCE 2-29 These motors utilize a spin-on type canister fuel filter/water separator (which looks a lot like an automotive fuel filter or the spin-on fuel filter/water separator used by carbureted V8 engines). Like lift pump location, the fuel filter location varies slightly by model. On the largest V6 FIGHT motors (3000/3300cc) it is normally found on the lower front of the powerhead's port side (just behind the lower, port cylinder throttle body). On some of the smaller, FIGHT V6 motors, specifically some 150 hp (2589cc), the fuel filter is mounted to a bracket at the REAR of the powerhead. For most other V4 and V6 FIGHT motors, the filter should be found at the front of the powerhead, on the fuel system component bracket mounted directly behind the air intake silencer. Mounted with or to the fuel filter canister is a water sensor that will activate the System Check monitor if water is detected about 3/8 in. (9.5mm) above the bottom of the canister. In order to protect the system, the filter should be replaced at least annually or after every 100 hours of operation, whichever comes first. Fuel System Pressure On fuel injected engines, always relieve system pressure prior to disconnecting any high-pressure fuel circuit component, fitting or fuel line. For details, please refer to Fuel System Pressurization under Fuel Injection. ** CAUTION Exercise extreme caution whenever relieving fuel system pressure to avoid fuel spray and potential serious bodily injury. Please be advised that fuel under pressure may penetrate the skin or any part of the body it contacts. To avoid the possibility of fire and personal injury, always disconnect the negative battery cable while servicing the fuel system or fuel system components. In order to absorb any excess fuel due to spillage, always place a shop towel or cloth around the fitting or connection prior to loosening. Ensure that all fuel spillage is removed from engine surfaces. • The fuel filter is found in the low-pressure fuel circuit, therefore no high-pressure hose or fitting must be disconnected for service. Although this makes fuel pressure relief unnecessary for filter service, it does not take away the need to be cautious when working around fuel and fumes. Fuel Filter and Water Separator + See Figures 70, 71, 71 a, 71 b, 71 c and 71d FIGHT motors utilize an in line, spin-on fuel filter and water separator canister to protect the fuel injection system from dirt, debris and moisture. The canister is mounted to the fuel component bracket found at the front of the powerhead, directly behind the intake air silencer. Access is possible once the silencer and, in some cases, the lower engine covers are removed. The filter assembly is not serviceable and must be replaced at various intervals to ensure proper function. To protect the system, be sure to replace the filter at least annually, every 100 hours of operation, or if problems are suspected with the low-pressure circuit. • It is possible that a second inline filter may be installed on the boat itself, and is dependant upon initial boat rigging. Check the fuel lines between the boat and motor to be sure. Remote mounted fuel filter/water separator assemblies are not significantly different from the motor mounted versions. Although access to the filter itself may vary, the actual removal and installation is the same. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. • The fuel filter/water separator should not be too hard to find. At the end of the day, it looks like just like an automotive-style, spin-on oil filter (or like most other marine combination filter/water separators). II is mounted somewhere on the powerhead, usually underneath the lower engine cases and sometimes behind the air intake silencer. Before installation of the new filter, make sure the hoses are in good condition and not brittle, cracking and otherwise in need of replacement. During installation, be sure to fully seat the hoses and then place the clamps over the raised portions of the nipples to secure them. Spring clamps will weaken over time, so replace them if they've lost their tension. If wire ties or adjustable clamps were used, be careful not to overtighten the clamp. If the clamp cuts into the hose, it's too tight; loosen the clamp or cut the wire tie (as applicable) and start again. To replace a non-serviceable spin-on filter (VB engines), place a suitable drain pan under the filter in order to catch any escaping fuel, then remove the old filter by unthreading it counterclockwise (when viewed from the bottom). If necessary, use a strap-wrench or oil filter wrench to firmly grasp the filter and apply leverage while turning. Apply a light coating of clean 2-stroke engine oil to the gasket of the new filter and make sure the filter mating surface on the bracket is clean and free of dirt or debris. Then, carefully thread the new filter onto the bracket and tighten it by hand (following the instructions on the filter itself). Generally speaking, the filter should be tightened no more than 1/4-1/2 turn after the gasket contacts the mounting bracket. NEVER use a strap or filter wrench to tighten the filter as overtightening will almost certainly occur. For models with a serviceable filter element, service will vary slightly by model. For 60° LV4 and LV6 motors, you'll have to remove the air intake silencer for access to the fuel component bracket. For CV motors (or other completely inline mountings), it is best to disconnect the hose from one end, for instance, remove the fuel pump hose from the cap nipple. Once you have access and freedom of movement for the cap, carefully unthread the knurled cap from the base. The filter element is usually removed with the cap. Clean and inspect the element in the same manner as the fuel pump filter screens described under Fuel Pump Filters (Non-VR02 Equipped Models) in this section. Replace any damaged filter element. Check the filter gasket and/or 0-ring for damage and replace, as necessary. When reconnecting the hose to the nipple, inspect and replace any damaged hose or clamp as you would with any other in line filter. ** CAUTION To prevent the danger of fire of explosion, pressurize the fuel system after service by slowly squeezing the fuel primer bulb until firm. Then, once the system is pressurized, inspect it carefully for leaks, especially around the in line fuel filter. FUEL INJECTED MOTORS ** CAUTION Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Fuel injected motors covered by this manual are equipped with two interrelated fuel circuits, the high-pressure and low-pressure systems. The low-pressure system is similar to the fuel system that feeds float bowls on carbureted motors. An engine mounted fuel pump (known as the lift pump on these motors) draws fuel from the boat's tank based on vacuum pulses received from the engine. This is pretty much where the similarity ends, as the lift pump is mounted to the front of the powerhead, as opposed to the rear of the powerhead on most carbureted motors. Exact lift pump location varies slightly from model-to-model. The pump is normally found at the lower front of the powerhead on the large V6 motors (3000/3300cc) motors. For other FIGHT motors, the pump is normally attached to a related fuel system component, either the fuel/vapor separator on some 150 hp engines or to the fuel component bracket on most other engines. In most cases, the pump is found directly behind the air intake silencer. The lift pump receives oil from the oil distribution manifold, mixing it with the incoming fuel before delivering the mix to the vapor separator. After passing through the vapor separator, the oil/fuel mixture is drawn by the high-pressure fuel pump to feed the fuel injector circuit. MAINTENANCE 2-29 These motors utilize a spin-on type canister fuel filter/water separator (which looks a lot like an automotive fuel filter or the spin-on fuel filter/water separator used by carbureted V8 engines). Like lift pump location, the fuel filter location varies slightly by model. On the largest V6 FIGHT motors (3000/3300cc) it is normally found on the lower front of the powerhead's port side (just behind the lower, port cylinder throttle body). On some of the smaller, FIGHT V6 motors, specifically some 150 hp (2589cc), the fuel filter is mounted to a bracket at the REAR of the powerhead. For most other V4 and V6 FIGHT motors, the filter should be found at the front of the powerhead, on the fuel system component bracket mounted directly behind the air intake silencer. Mounted with or to the fuel filter canister is a water sensor that will activate the System Check monitor if water is detected about 3/8 in. (9.5mm) above the bottom of the canister. In order to protect the system, the filter should be replaced at least annually or after every 100 hours of operation, whichever comes first. Fuel System Pressure On fuel injected engines, always relieve system pressure prior to disconnecting any high-pressure fuel circuit component, fitting or fuel line. For details, please refer to Fuel System Pressurization under Fuel Injection. ** CAUTION Exercise extreme caution whenever relieving fuel system pressure to avoid fuel spray and potential serious bodily injury. Please be advised that fuel under pressure may penetrate the skin or any part of the body it contacts. To avoid the possibility of fire and personal injury, always disconnect the negative battery cable while servicing the fuel system or fuel system components. In order to absorb any excess fuel due to spillage, always place a shop towel or cloth around the fitting or connection prior to loosening. Ensure that all fuel spillage is removed from engine surfaces. • The fuel filter is found in the low-pressure fuel circuit, therefore no high-pressure hose or fitting must be disconnected for service. Although this makes fuel pressure relief unnecessary for filter service, it does not take away the need to be cautious when working around fuel and fumes. Fuel Filter and Water Separator + See Figures 70, 71, 71 a, 71 b, 71 c and 71d FIGHT motors utilize an in line, spin-on fuel filter and water separator canister to protect the fuel injection system from dirt, debris and moisture. The canister is mounted to the fuel component bracket found at the front of the powerhead, directly behind the intake air silencer. Access is possible once the silencer and, in some cases, the lower engine covers are removed. The filter assembly is not serviceable and must be replaced at various intervals to ensure proper function. To protect the system, be sure to replace the filter at least annually, every 100 hours of operation, or if problems are suspected with the low-pressure circuit. • It is possible that a second inline filter may be installed on the boat itself, and is dependant upon initial boat rigging. Check the fuel lines between the boat and motor to be sure. Remote mounted fuel filter/water separator assemblies are not significantly different from the motor mounted versions. Although access to the filter itself may vary, the actual removal and installation is the same. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. • The fuel filter/water separator should not be too hard to find. At the end of the day, it looks like just like an automotive-style, spin-on oil filter (or like most other marine combination filter/water separators). II is mounted somewhere on the powerhead, usually underneath the lower engine cases and sometimes behind the air intake silencer. 2-30 MAINTENANCE Fig. 70 Some smaller V6 models utilize a filter mounted to the REAR of the powerhead ... Fig. 71 ... but the filters on most FICHT models are mounted to the FRONT of the powerhead Fig. 71 a Access is easier with the lower covers removed Fig. 71b Some boats may also use a remote mounted filter Fig. 71 c Remote filters are serviced the same as engine mounted filters Fig. 71d Be sure to follow any instructions on the replacement part 2. Start by locating the filter assembly, as location varies: a. On 200 hp and larger (3000/3300cc) V6 models, the filter is normally towards the front, base, port side of the powerhead, behind the lower port cylinder throttle body. b. On some 150 hp (2589cc) and other smaller V6 models, the filter may be found at the rear of the powerhead. On these motors the water sensor is mounted through the bottom of the filter canister. On these models, disconnect the sensor wiring at this time. c. On most smaller V4 and V6 engines (including some 150 hp motors), the filter is mounted to the fuel component bracket at the front of the motor (directly behind the air intake silencer). • The lower engine covers often obscure the filter assembly. If you cannot locate the filter with the covers installed, remove them and then verify location. If you still cannot locate the filter after removing the lower cases, check behind the air intake silencer. 3. If necessary for access, remove the air intake silencer assembly. 4. If necessary, remove the lower engine covers, as detailed under Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. On models where the filter is mounted behind the air intake silencer, it may not be absolutely necessary to remove the lower engine covers, but it can make access much easier. Besides, on many of these models, access to one or more of the lower spark plugs is restricted by the cover as well and, you should at least be checking the plugs if you've come this far, right? 5. Position a container or shop rag below the fuel filter. Unthread and remove the fuel filter assembly (keeping in mind that it is probably contains a decent amount of fuel, so try not to tilt and spill it or get it all over the place). 6. On models with the water sensor threaded into the bottom of the sensor, unthread the sensor and install it in the replacement filter. To install: 7. Place a small amount of clean 2-stroke engine oil on the filter gasket. 8. Carefully thread the filter into position on the mounting bracket and tighten by hand. Follow any instructions that came with or printed on the filter. Generally speaking, the filter should be tightened no more than 1/4-1/2 turn after the gasket contacts the mounting bracket. NEVER use a strap or filter wrench to tighten the filter as overtightening will almost certainly occur. 9. If applicable, reconnect the wiring for the water level sensor. 10. Pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. 11. If removed, install the air intake silencer assembly. 12. If removed, install the engine covers. 13. Connect the negative battery cable. Propeller + See Figures 72, 73 and 74 The propeller is mounted to the lower unit propeller shaft using a nut that is in turned secured either by a cotter pin through the castellations on the nut itself, or through a separate nut keeper. The propeller is driven by a splined connection to the shaft and the rubber drive hub found inside the propeller. The rubber hub provides a cushioning that allows softer shifts, but more importantly, provides some measure of protection for the lower unit components in the event of an impact. The amount of force necessary to break the hub is supposed to be just less than the amount of force necessary to cause lower unit component damage. In this way, the hope is that the propeller and hub will be sacrificed in the event of a collision, but the more expensive lower unit components will survive unharmed. Although these systems do supply a measure of protection, this, unfortunately, is not always the case and lower unit component damage will still occur with the right impact or with a sufficient amount of force. ** WARNING Do not use excessive force when removing the propeller from the shaft as excessive force can result in damage to the propeller, shaft and, even other lower unit components. If the propeller cannot be removed by normal means, consider having a reputable marine shop remove it. Using heat or impact wrenches to free the propeller will likely lead to damage. • Clean and lubricate the propeller and shaft splines using a highquality, water-resistant, marine grease every time the propeller is removed from the shaft. This will help keep the hub from seizing to the shaft due to corrosion (which would require special tools to remove without damage to the shaft or gearcase.) 2-30 MAINTENANCE Fig. 70 Some smaller V6 models utilize a filter mounted to the REAR of the powerhead ... Fig. 71 ... but the filters on most FICHT models are mounted to the FRONT of the powerhead Fig. 71 a Access is easier with the lower covers removed Fig. 71b Some boats may also use a remote mounted filter Fig. 71 c Remote filters are serviced the same as engine mounted filters Fig. 71d Be sure to follow any instructions on the replacement part 2. Start by locating the filter assembly, as location varies: a. On 200 hp and larger (3000/3300cc) V6 models, the filter is normally towards the front, base, port side of the powerhead, behind the lower port cylinder throttle body. b. On some 150 hp (2589cc) and other smaller V6 models, the filter may be found at the rear of the powerhead. On these motors the water sensor is mounted through the bottom of the filter canister. On these models, disconnect the sensor wiring at this time. c. On most smaller V4 and V6 engines (including some 150 hp motors), the filter is mounted to the fuel component bracket at the front of the motor (directly behind the air intake silencer). • The lower engine covers often obscure the filter assembly. If you cannot locate the filter with the covers installed, remove them and then verify location. If you still cannot locate the filter after removing the lower cases, check behind the air intake silencer. 3. If necessary for access, remove the air intake silencer assembly. 4. If necessary, remove the lower engine covers, as detailed under Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. On models where the filter is mounted behind the air intake silencer, it may not be absolutely necessary to remove the lower engine covers, but it can make access much easier. Besides, on many of these models, access to one or more of the lower spark plugs is restricted by the cover as well and, you should at least be checking the plugs if you've come this far, right? 5. Position a container or shop rag below the fuel filter. Unthread and remove the fuel filter assembly (keeping in mind that it is probably contains a decent amount of fuel, so try not to tilt and spill it or get it all over the place). 6. On models with the water sensor threaded into the bottom of the sensor, unthread the sensor and install it in the replacement filter. To install: 7. Place a small amount of clean 2-stroke engine oil on the filter gasket. 8. Carefully thread the filter into position on the mounting bracket and tighten by hand. Follow any instructions that came with or printed on the filter. Generally speaking, the filter should be tightened no more than 1/4-1/2 turn after the gasket contacts the mounting bracket. NEVER use a strap or filter wrench to tighten the filter as overtightening will almost certainly occur. 9. If applicable, reconnect the wiring for the water level sensor. 10. Pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. 11. If removed, install the air intake silencer assembly. 12. If removed, install the engine covers. 13. Connect the negative battery cable. Propeller + See Figures 72, 73 and 74 The propeller is mounted to the lower unit propeller shaft using a nut that is in turned secured either by a cotter pin through the castellations on the nut itself, or through a separate nut keeper. The propeller is driven by a splined connection to the shaft and the rubber drive hub found inside the propeller. The rubber hub provides a cushioning that allows softer shifts, but more importantly, provides some measure of protection for the lower unit components in the event of an impact. The amount of force necessary to break the hub is supposed to be just less than the amount of force necessary to cause lower unit component damage. In this way, the hope is that the propeller and hub will be sacrificed in the event of a collision, but the more expensive lower unit components will survive unharmed. Although these systems do supply a measure of protection, this, unfortunately, is not always the case and lower unit component damage will still occur with the right impact or with a sufficient amount of force. ** WARNING Do not use excessive force when removing the propeller from the shaft as excessive force can result in damage to the propeller, shaft and, even other lower unit components. If the propeller cannot be removed by normal means, consider having a reputable marine shop remove it. Using heat or impact wrenches to free the propeller will likely lead to damage. • Clean and lubricate the propeller and shaft splines using a highquality, water-resistant, marine grease every time the propeller is removed from the shaft. This will help keep the hub from seizing to the shaft due to corrosion (which would require special tools to remove without damage to the shaft or gearcase.) MAINTENANCE 2-31 Fig. 72 This propeller is long overdue for repair or replacement Fig. 73 Although minor damage can be dressed with a file ... Fig. 74 ... a propeller specialist should repair large nicks or damage Many outboards are equipped with aftermarket propellers. Because of this, the attaching hardware may differ slightly from what is shown. Contact a reputable propeller shop or marine dealership for parts and information on other brands of propellers. INSPECTION + See Figures 72, 73 and 74 The propeller should be inspected before and after each use to be sure the blades are in good condition. If any of the blades become bent or nicked, this condition will set up vibrations in the motor. Remove and inspect the propeller. Use a file to trim nicks and burrs. Take care not to remove any more material than is absolutely necessary. ** CAUTION Never run the engine with serious propeller damage, as it can allow for excessive engine speed and/or vibration that can damage the motor. Also, a damaged propeller will cause a reduction in boat performance and handling. Check the rubber and splines inside the propeller hub for damage. If there is damage to either of these, take the propeller to your local marine dealer or a "prop shop." They can evaluate the damaged propeller and determine if it can be saved by rehubbing. Finally, the propeller should be removed at least every 100 hours of operation or at the end of each season, whichever comes first, for cleaning, greasing and inspection. Whenever the propeller is removed, apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or an equivalent water-resistant, marine grease to the propeller shaft and the inner diameter of the propeller hub. This is necessary to prevent possible propeller seizure onto the shaft that could lead to costly or troublesome repairs. Also, whenever the propeller is removed, any material entangled behind the propeller should be removed before any damage to the shaft and seals can occur. This may seem like a waste of time at first, but the small amount of time involved in removing the propeller is returned many times by reduced maintenance and repair, including the replacement of expensive parts. • Propeller shaft greasing and debris inspection should occur more often depending upon motor usage. Frequent use in salt, brackish or polluted waters would make it advisable to perform greasing more often. Similarly, frequent use in areas with heavy marine vegetation, debris or potential fishing line would necessitate more frequent removal of the propeller to ensure the lower unit seals are not indanger of becoming cut. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION • See Figures 75, 76, 77, 78 and 79 There are essentially 2 slightly ditlerent ways that propellers are secured to the propshaft on these outboards. Both place a thrust washer over the shaft, followed by the propeller, a spacer and a nut that is tightened to specification. The difference comes in the size of the nut (along with the resulting torque spec) and the method that the nut is secured to keep it from loosening in service. Some of the Evinrude/Johnson V motors use a slotted or castellated nut (so named because, when viewed from the side, it appears similar to the upper walls or tower of a castle.) On these models a cotter pin is placed through the slots in the nut in order to lock it in place. The rest of the models use a larger, standard flat-sided nut and a separate keeper that is fitted in place over the nut and then secured using a cotter pin. The difference is important as the castellated nut is only tightened to 120 inch lbs. (14 Nm), while the standard flat-nut (that utilizes a separate keeper) is tightened to 70-80 ft. lbs. (95-1 08 Nm). Fig. 75 Typical propeller mounting on models utilizing a castellated nut Cotter pin lat .. ut \ Thrust JSpacer j(Keeper Fig. 76 Typical propeller mounting on models using a flat nut with a separate keeper MAINTENANCE 2-31 Fig. 72 This propeller is long overdue for repair or replacement Fig. 73 Although minor damage can be dressed with a file ... Fig. 74 ... a propeller specialist should repair large nicks or damage Many outboards are equipped with aftermarket propellers. Because of this, the attaching hardware may differ slightly from what is shown. Contact a reputable propeller shop or marine dealership for parts and information on other brands of propellers. INSPECTION + See Figures 72, 73 and 74 The propeller should be inspected before and after each use to be sure the blades are in good condition. If any of the blades become bent or nicked, this condition will set up vibrations in the motor. Remove and inspect the propeller. Use a file to trim nicks and burrs. Take care not to remove any more material than is absolutely necessary. ** CAUTION Never run the engine with serious propeller damage, as it can allow for excessive engine speed and/or vibration that can damage the motor. Also, a damaged propeller will cause a reduction in boat performance and handling. Check the rubber and splines inside the propeller hub for damage. If there is damage to either of these, take the propeller to your local marine dealer or a "prop shop." They can evaluate the damaged propeller and determine if it can be saved by rehubbing. Finally, the propeller should be removed at least every 100 hours of operation or at the end of each season, whichever comes first, for cleaning, greasing and inspection. Whenever the propeller is removed, apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or an equivalent water-resistant, marine grease to the propeller shaft and the inner diameter of the propeller hub. This is necessary to prevent possible propeller seizure onto the shaft that could lead to costly or troublesome repairs. Also, whenever the propeller is removed, any material entangled behind the propeller should be removed before any damage to the shaft and seals can occur. This may seem like a waste of time at first, but the small amount of time involved in removing the propeller is returned many times by reduced maintenance and repair, including the replacement of expensive parts. • Propeller shaft greasing and debris inspection should occur more often depending upon motor usage. Frequent use in salt, brackish or polluted waters would make it advisable to perform greasing more often. Similarly, frequent use in areas with heavy marine vegetation, debris or potential fishing line would necessitate more frequent removal of the propeller to ensure the lower unit seals are not indanger of becoming cut. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION • See Figures 75, 76, 77, 78 and 79 There are essentially 2 slightly ditlerent ways that propellers are secured to the propshaft on these outboards. Both place a thrust washer over the shaft, followed by the propeller, a spacer and a nut that is tightened to specification. The difference comes in the size of the nut (along with the resulting torque spec) and the method that the nut is secured to keep it from loosening in service. Some of the Evinrude/Johnson V motors use a slotted or castellated nut (so named because, when viewed from the side, it appears similar to the upper walls or tower of a castle.) On these models a cotter pin is placed through the slots in the nut in order to lock it in place. The rest of the models use a larger, standard flat-sided nut and a separate keeper that is fitted in place over the nut and then secured using a cotter pin. The difference is important as the castellated nut is only tightened to 120 inch lbs. (14 Nm), while the standard flat-nut (that utilizes a separate keeper) is tightened to 70-80 ft. lbs. (95-1 08 Nm). Fig. 75 Typical propeller mounting on models utilizing a castellated nut Cotter pin lat .. ut \ Thrust JSpacer j(Keeper Fig. 76 Typical propeller mounting on models using a flat nut with a separate keeper 2-32 MAINTENANCE Fig. n Although designs vary, propeller nuts are secured with a cotter pin Fig. 78 Use a block of wood to keep the propeller from turning when loosening or tightening the nut Fig. 79 Notice the cotter pin is gently spread, NOT bent 90° or more You'll notice that in both cases, the nut is locked in place by a cotter pin to ensure that it cannot loosen while the motor is running. The pin passes through a hole in the propeller shaft, as well as through the notches in the sides of the castellated nut or the keeper. Install a new cotter pin anytime the propeller is removed and, perhaps more importantly, make sure the cotter pin is of the correct size and is made of materials designed for marine use. Make sure that you include the cotter pin in all pre· and post-launch checks. Whenever working around the propeller, check for the presence of black rubber material in the drive hub and spline grease. Presence of this material normally indicates that the hub has turned inside the propeller bore (have the propeller checked by a propeller repair shop). Keep in mind that a spun hub will not allow proper torque transfer from the motor to the propeller and will allow the engine to over-rev in order to produce thrust (or will just over-rev producing little or no thrust). If the propeller has spun on the hub it has been weakened and is more likely to fail completely in use. 1. For safety, disconnect the negative cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug leads from the plugs (ground the leads to prevent possible ignition damage should the motor be cranked at some point before the leads are reconnected to the spark plugs). ** CAUTION Don't ever take the risk of working around the propeller if the engine could accidentally be cranked or started. Always take precautions such as disconnecting the spark plug leads and, if equipped, the negative battery cable. 1. Cut the ends off the cotter pin (as that is easier than trying to straighten them in most cases). Next, free the pin by grabbing the head with a pair of needlenose pliers. Either tap on the pliers gently with a hammer to help free the pin from the nut or carefully use the pliers as a lever by prying back against the castellated nut. Discard the cotter pin once it is removed. 2. On models with a separate nut keeper, pull the keeper free and place it aside for installation purposes. 3. Place a block of wood between the propeller and the anti-ventilation housing to lock the propeller and shaft from turning, then loosen and remove the castellated nut. Note the orientation, then remove the splined spacer from the propeller shaft. 4. Slide the propeller from the shaft. If the prop is stuck, use a block of wood to prevent damage and carefully drive the propeller from the shaft. • If the propeller is completely seized on the shaft, have a reputable marine or propeller shop free it. Don't risk damage to the propeller or gearcase by applying excessive force. 5. Note the direction in which the thrust washer is facing (the shoulder is normally positioned to the aft, facing the propeller). Remove the thrust washer from the propshaft (if the washer appears stuck, tap lightly to free it from the propeller shaft). 6. Clean the thrust washer, propeller and shaft splines of any old grease. Small amounts of corrosion can be removed carefully using steel wool or fine grit sandpaper. 7. Inspect the shaft for signs of damage including twisted splines or excessively worn surfaces. Rotate the shaft while looking for any deflection. Replace the propeller shaft if these conditions are found. Inspect the thrust washer for signs of excessive wear or cracks and replace, if found. To Install: 8. Apply a light coat of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or equivalent high-quality, water-resistant, marine grease to all surfaces of the propeller shaft and to the splines inside the propeller hub. 9. Position the thrust washer over the propshaft in the direction noted during removal. On all models, the shoulder should normally face the propeller. 10. Carefully slide the propeller onto the propshaft, rotating the propeller to align the splines. Push the propeller forward until it seats against the thrust washer. 11. Install the splined spacer onto the propeller shaft, as noted during removal. 12. Place a block of wood between the propeller and housing to hold the prop from turning, then thread the castellated nut onto the shaft with the cotter pin grooves facing outward. 13. Tighten castellated nuts to 120 inch lbs. (14 Nm) or standard flat-nuts (that use a separate keeper) to 70·80 ft. lbs. (95·108 Nm) using a suitable torque wrench. 14. If used, install the keeper over the flat-nut. 15. Install a new cotter pin through the grooves in the nut or the keeper (as applicable) that align with the hole in the propshaft. If the cotter pin hole and the grooves do not align, tighten the nut additionally, just enough to align them (do not loosen the nut to achieve alignment.) Once the cotter pin is inserted, spread the ends sufficiently to lock the pin in place. Do not bend the ends over at 90° or greater angles as the pin will loose tension and rattle in the slot. 16. Connect the spark plug leads and/or the negative battery cable, as applicable. Jet Drive Impeller A jet drive motor uses an impeller enclosed in a jet drive housing instead of the propeller used by traditional lower units. Outboard jet drives are designed to permit boating in areas prohibited to a boat equipped with a conventional propeller outboard drive system. The housing of the jet drive barely extends below the hull of the boat allowing passage in ankle deep water, white water rapids, and over sand bars or in shoal water that would foul a propeller drive. The outboard jet drive provides reliable propulsion with a minimum of moving parts. It operates, simply stated, as water is drawn into the unit through an intake grille by an impeller. The impeller is driven by the driveshaft off the powerhead's crankshaft. Thrust is produced by the water that is expelled under pressure through an outlet nozzle that is directed away from the stern of the boat. · As the speed of the boat increases and reaches planing speed, only the very bottom of the jet drive where the intake grille is mounted facing downward remains in contact with the water. The jet drive is provided with a reverse-gate arrangement and linkage to permit the boat to be operated in reverse. When the gate is moved downward over the exhaust nozzle, the pressure stream is deflected (reversed) by the gate and the boat moves sternward. Conventional controls are used for powerhead speed, movement of the boat, shifting and power trim and tilt. 2-32 MAINTENANCE Fig. n Although designs vary, propeller nuts are secured with a cotter pin Fig. 78 Use a block of wood to keep the propeller from turning when loosening or tightening the nut Fig. 79 Notice the cotter pin is gently spread, NOT bent 90° or more You'll notice that in both cases, the nut is locked in place by a cotter pin to ensure that it cannot loosen while the motor is running. The pin passes through a hole in the propeller shaft, as well as through the notches in the sides of the castellated nut or the keeper. Install a new cotter pin anytime the propeller is removed and, perhaps more importantly, make sure the cotter pin is of the correct size and is made of materials designed for marine use. Make sure that you include the cotter pin in all pre· and post-launch checks. Whenever working around the propeller, check for the presence of black rubber material in the drive hub and spline grease. Presence of this material normally indicates that the hub has turned inside the propeller bore (have the propeller checked by a propeller repair shop). Keep in mind that a spun hub will not allow proper torque transfer from the motor to the propeller and will allow the engine to over-rev in order to produce thrust (or will just over-rev producing little or no thrust). If the propeller has spun on the hub it has been weakened and is more likely to fail completely in use. 1. For safety, disconnect the negative cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug leads from the plugs (ground the leads to prevent possible ignition damage should the motor be cranked at some point before the leads are reconnected to the spark plugs). ** CAUTION Don't ever take the risk of working around the propeller if the engine could accidentally be cranked or started. Always take precautions such as disconnecting the spark plug leads and, if equipped, the negative battery cable. 1. Cut the ends off the cotter pin (as that is easier than trying to straighten them in most cases). Next, free the pin by grabbing the head with a pair of needlenose pliers. Either tap on the pliers gently with a hammer to help free the pin from the nut or carefully use the pliers as a lever by prying back against the castellated nut. Discard the cotter pin once it is removed. 2. On models with a separate nut keeper, pull the keeper free and place it aside for installation purposes. 3. Place a block of wood between the propeller and the anti-ventilation housing to lock the propeller and shaft from turning, then loosen and remove the castellated nut. Note the orientation, then remove the splined spacer from the propeller shaft. 4. Slide the propeller from the shaft. If the prop is stuck, use a block of wood to prevent damage and carefully drive the propeller from the shaft. • If the propeller is completely seized on the shaft, have a reputable marine or propeller shop free it. Don't risk damage to the propeller or gearcase by applying excessive force. 5. Note the direction in which the thrust washer is facing (the shoulder is normally positioned to the aft, facing the propeller). Remove the thrust washer from the propshaft (if the washer appears stuck, tap lightly to free it from the propeller shaft). 6. Clean the thrust washer, propeller and shaft splines of any old grease. Small amounts of corrosion can be removed carefully using steel wool or fine grit sandpaper. 7. Inspect the shaft for signs of damage including twisted splines or excessively worn surfaces. Rotate the shaft while looking for any deflection. Replace the propeller shaft if these conditions are found. Inspect the thrust washer for signs of excessive wear or cracks and replace, if found. To Install: 8. Apply a light coat of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or equivalent high-quality, water-resistant, marine grease to all surfaces of the propeller shaft and to the splines inside the propeller hub. 9. Position the thrust washer over the propshaft in the direction noted during removal. On all models, the shoulder should normally face the propeller. 10. Carefully slide the propeller onto the propshaft, rotating the propeller to align the splines. Push the propeller forward until it seats against the thrust washer. 11. Install the splined spacer onto the propeller shaft, as noted during removal. 12. Place a block of wood between the propeller and housing to hold the prop from turning, then thread the castellated nut onto the shaft with the cotter pin grooves facing outward. 13. Tighten castellated nuts to 120 inch lbs. (14 Nm) or standard flat-nuts (that use a separate keeper) to 70·80 ft. lbs. (95·108 Nm) using a suitable torque wrench. 14. If used, install the keeper over the flat-nut. 15. Install a new cotter pin through the grooves in the nut or the keeper (as applicable) that align with the hole in the propshaft. If the cotter pin hole and the grooves do not align, tighten the nut additionally, just enough to align them (do not loosen the nut to achieve alignment.) Once the cotter pin is inserted, spread the ends sufficiently to lock the pin in place. Do not bend the ends over at 90° or greater angles as the pin will loose tension and rattle in the slot. 16. Connect the spark plug leads and/or the negative battery cable, as applicable. Jet Drive Impeller A jet drive motor uses an impeller enclosed in a jet drive housing instead of the propeller used by traditional lower units. Outboard jet drives are designed to permit boating in areas prohibited to a boat equipped with a conventional propeller outboard drive system. The housing of the jet drive barely extends below the hull of the boat allowing passage in ankle deep water, white water rapids, and over sand bars or in shoal water that would foul a propeller drive. The outboard jet drive provides reliable propulsion with a minimum of moving parts. It operates, simply stated, as water is drawn into the unit through an intake grille by an impeller. The impeller is driven by the driveshaft off the powerhead's crankshaft. Thrust is produced by the water that is expelled under pressure through an outlet nozzle that is directed away from the stern of the boat. · As the speed of the boat increases and reaches planing speed, only the very bottom of the jet drive where the intake grille is mounted facing downward remains in contact with the water. The jet drive is provided with a reverse-gate arrangement and linkage to permit the boat to be operated in reverse. When the gate is moved downward over the exhaust nozzle, the pressure stream is deflected (reversed) by the gate and the boat moves sternward. Conventional controls are used for powerhead speed, movement of the boat, shifting and power trim and tilt. MAINTENANCE 2-33 INSPECTION + See Fig. 80 The jet in:peller is a precisely machined and dynamically balanced locati. by cavitation "burn." edges of the blades may develop described. debns) should be inspected at regular intervals. grate and tmpeller, lthe Jnta . n:akes inspectio. motor immediately prior to the next launch. alummum spiral. Close observation will reveal drilled recesses at exact ons used to achieve this delicate balancing. Excessive vibration of the 1et dnve m..y be attributed to an out-of-balance condition caused by the jet impeller being struck excessively by rocks, gravel or from damage caused The term cavitation "burn" is a common expression used throughout the world among people working with pumps, impeller blades, and forceful water movement. These "burns" occur on the jet impeller blades from cavitation air bubbles exploding with considerable force against the impeller blades. The small dime-size areas resembling a . porous sponge, as the aluminum IS actually "eaten" by the condition just Excessive rounding of the jet impeller edges will reduce efficiency and performance. Therefore, the impeller and intake grate (that protects it from Before and after each use, make a quick visual inspection of the intake ?oking for obvio..s signs of damage. Always clear any debns such as plastic bags, vegetation or other items that sometimes become entangled in the water intake grate before starting the motor. If ke grate IS damaged, do not operate the motor, or you will risk destroying the 1mpeller 1f rocks or other debris are drawn upward by the jet drive. If possible, replace a damaged grate before the next launch. This n after use all that much more important. Imagine the disappointment 1f you only learn of a damaged grate while inspecting the An obviously damaged impeller should be removed and either repaired or replaced depending on the extent of the damage. If rounding is detected ' the impeller can be placed on a workbench and the edges restored to as sharp a condition as possible, using a file. Draw the file in only one direction. A back-and-forth motion will not produce a smooth edge. Take care not to . indicated in the accompanying illustrations. But, it is not humanly possible to accurately measure this clearance by eye. Close observation between outings is fine to maintain a general idea of impeller condition, but, at least annually, the clearance must be measured using a set of feeler gauges. Although some gauges may be long enough to make the measurement with the intake grate installed, removal is advised for access and to allow for a more thorough inspection of the impeller itself. The problem is that on some designs, removal of the intake grate, also results in removal of the intake casing liner to which the clearance must be measured. In these cases ' sufficiently long feeler gauges will be necessary. ** WARNING Whenever working around the impeller, ALWAYS disconnect the negative battery cable and/or disconnect the spark plug leads to make sure the e..gine ..annat be accidentally started during service. Failure to heed th1s caut1on could result in serious personal injury or death in the event that the engine is started. When checking clearance, a feeler gauge larger than the clearance specification should ..ot fit between the tips of the impeller and the housing. . A gauge Wllh1n specification should f1t, but w1th a slight drag. A smaller gauge should fit without any interference whatsoever. Check using the feeler gauge at vanous points around the housing, while slowly rotating the impeller by hand. AUer continued normal use, the clearance will eventually increase. In . anticipation of lh1s the manufacturer mounts the tapered impeller deep in its . housing, and positions spacers beneath the impeller to hold it in position. The spacers are used to position the impeller along the driveshaft with the des1red clearance between the jet impeller and the housing wall. When clearance has increased, spacers are removed from underneath the impeller and repositione.. behind it, dropping the impeller slightly in the housing and thereby decreasing the clearance again. Moving 1 spacer will decrease clearance approximately 0.007 in. (0.1 8mm). If adjustment is necessary, refer to the Jet Drive procedures under Lower Unit in this manual for impeller removal, shimming and installation procedures. mck the smooth surface of the jet impeller. Excessive nicking or pitting will create water t..rbulence and slow the flow of water through the pump. For more details on impell.er replacement or service, please refer to the tnformatJon on Jet Dnves 1n the Lower Unit section. CHECKING TE IMPELLER CLEARANCE + See Figures 81 and 82 ..roper operation of the jet drive depends upon the ability to create maximum thrust. In order for this to occur the clearance between the outer edge ?f the jet drive imp..ller and the water intake housing cone wall should be maintained at approximately 0.020-0.030 in. (0.5-0.Smm). This distance can be ..hecked visu..lly by shining a flashlight up through the intake grille and estimating the distance between the impeller and the casing cone, as Anodes (Zincs) + See Figure 83 The idea behind anodes (also known as sacrificial anodes) is simple: When d1ssmlar metals are dunked in water and a small electrical current is leaked between or amongst them, the less noble metal (galvanically speaking) is sacrificed (corrodes). The zinc alloy of which the anodes are made is designed to be less noble than the aluminum alloy of which your outboard is constructed. If there's any electrolysis, and there almost always is, the inexpensive zinc anodes are consumed in lieu of the expensive outboard motor. These zincs require a little attention in order to make sure they are capable of performing their function. Anodes must be solidly attached to a clean mounting site. Also, they must not be covered with any kind of paint, wax or manne growth. Fig. 80 Visually inspect the intake grate and impeller with each use Fig. 81 Jet drive impeller clearance is the gap between the edges of the impeller and its housing Fig. 82 Impeller clearance is adjusted by moving shims (usually from below to above the impeller) 2-34 MAINTENANCE Fig. 83 Extensive corrosion of an Fig. 84 All motors have at least one (1) Fig. 85 ... secured by a single bolt from anode suggests a problem or a complete anode mounted on the lower unit ... under the anti-ventilation plate disregard for maintenance INSPECTION + See Figures 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88 Visually inspect the anodes, especially those mounted on the lower unit, before and after each use. You'll want to know right away an anode has become loose or fallen off in service. Periodically inspect anodes closely to make sure they haven't eroded too much. At a certain point in the erosion process, the mounting holes start to enlarge, which is when the zinc might fall off. Obviously, once that happens, your engme no longer has any protection. Generally, a zinc anode is considered worn if it has shrunken to .. 2/3 or less than the original size. To help judge th1s, buy a spare and keep 11 handy (in the boat or tow vehicle for comparison). If you use your outboard in salt water or br..ckish water, a..d your zincs never seem to wear, inspect them carefully. Pamt, wax or manne growth on zincs will insulate them and prevent them from performing their function properly. They must be left bare and must be installed onto bare metal of the motor. If the zincs are installed properly and not pamted or waxed, inspect around them for sings of corrosio... If corrosion is found, strip it off immediately and repaint with a rust mh1b1tmg pa1nt. If m doubt, replace the zincs. On the other hand, if your zinc seems to erode in no time at all, this may . be a symptom of the zincs themselves. Each manufacturer uses a spec1f1c blend of metals in their zincs. If you are using zincs with the wrong blend of metals, they may erode more quickly or leave you with diminished protection. At least annually or whenever an anode has been removed or replaced, check the mounting for proper electrical contact using a multi meter. Set the multimeter to check resistance (ohms); connect one meter lead to the anode and the other to a good, unpainted or corroded ground on the motor. Resistance should be very low or zero. If resistance is high or infinite, the anode is insulated and cannot perform its function properly. • You can test anode effectiveness using an ohmmeter. In order for the anode to work it must be in good electrical contact with the motor. Connect one lead of an ohmmeter to a good ground on the powerhead and the other to the anode itself. The meter must show little or no resistance otherwise the anode and mounting surface must be ' cleaned ot the corrosion, paint or debris that is causing the resistance. SERVICE + See Figures 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88 Depending on your boat, motor and rigging, you may have any number of anodes, but typically these Evinrude/Johnson motors ut1l1ze .... l..ast 3. First off, an anode is typically mounted just above the ant1-ventll..llon plate on the lower unit. This anode is visible through ports on e1ther s1de of the gearcase, and accessed from underneath the anti-ventilation plate. This anode is bolted in position from underneath, but be careful not toconfuse . the unpainted anode retaining bolt with the pained gearcase retammg bolt. Most motors are also equipped with one or two transom bracket an..des, depending on the design of the transom clamp. Some bracketsare d..s1qned . so it is easier to have a single anode one each of the 2 protrusions st1ck1ng down from the bracket assembly, while others utilize a single large anode that spans the entire lower portion of the bracket. The anodes may be bolted . from the bottom or the sides, dependmg on the application. . Most of these outboards are also equipped with a propeller shaft bearmg housing anode that is not a periodic replacement item, but should be checked anytime the lower unit is opened for overhaul. Th1.. anode IS typically bolted to the underside of the propeller shaft beanng earner, mounted inside the gearcase. Finally, some motors may even be equipped with a powerhead mounted anode. When equipped, these anodes are also expected to g1ve a greater service life than the externally mounted gearcase and transom bracket anodes. But that is not to say they should never be checked. If equipped, be sure to check powerhead mounted anodes at least annually, more often if operated or stored in salty conditions. Regardless of the number, there are some fundamental ..ules to follow that will give your boat and motor's sacrificial anodes the ability to do the best job protecting your boat's underwater hardware that they can. Fig. 86 All motors also use at least one Fig. 87 .. .this one is secured by a bolt Fig. 88 Though not anodes, ground wires (1) anode on the bottom of the transom on either side are also used to fight corrosion bracket... Some people replace all zincs annually (not including anodes mounted inside the gearcase such as on the propshaft bearing housing). This may or may not be necessary, depending on the type of waters in which you boat and depending on whether or not the boat is hauled with each use or left in for the season. Either way, it is a good idea to remove zincs at least annually in order to make sure the mounting surfaces are still clean and free of corrosion. The first thing to remember is that zincs are electrical components and like all electrical components, they require good clean connections. So alter you've undone the mounting hardware you want to get the zinc mounting sites clean and shiny. Get a piece of coarse emery cloth or some 80 grit sandpaper. Thoroughly rough up the areas where the zincs altach (there's often a bit of corrosion residue in these spots). Make sure to remove every trace of corrosion. Zincs are attached with stainless steel machine screws that thread into the mounting for the zincs. Over the course of a season, this mounting hardware is inclined to loosen. Mount the zincs and tighten the mounting hardware securely. Tap the zincs with a hammer hitting the mounting screws squarely. This process tightens the zincs and allows the mounting hardware to become a bit loose in the process. Now, do the final tightening. This will insure your zincs stay put for the entire season. Power Steering Belt + See Figure 89 The power steering belt is a long-life component that, under normal circumstances should last up to 500 hours of operation. However, since it is easily accessed (at least for inspection purposes), we recommend inspecting it every time the engine top cover comes off. A quick visual check could prevent having to deal with a problem while you're on the water. Of course, the good news is that, in the event of a failure, you will not completely loose steering, but you will have to deal with greatly increased steering effort. INSPECTON + See Figure 89 Periodically remove the top cover and visually inspect the belt for signs of deterioration or damage. Small cracks across the belt do not constitute a problem, as this is a normal sign of aging for belt materials. But, look for signs of fraying or damage such as missing chunks or belt segments. Also, check the belt for signs of excessive play, as an overly loose belt can damage the pump bearings. Damaged belts should be replaced as soon as possible to avoid a failure in use. ** WARNING Should the power steering system loose hydraulic pressure or otherwise become inoperative, shut the engine OFF, cut the power steering belt and remove it from the pulleys. This is necessary to prevent the possibility of permanent damage to the pump if it is run without proper hydraulic fluid/pressure. Fig. 89 Check the power steering pump belt frequently-tension is adjusted by the threaded rod visible just underneath the belt in the illustration MAINTENANCE 2-35 An idler pulley controls power steering belt tension. The position of the idler pulley (and therefore the belt tension) is controlled using a threaded adjuster that is inserted through a boss on top of the powerhead. To adjust belt tension, loosen the idler housing pivot screws Uust slightly), then loosen the locknuts and washer and turn the adjuster in or out to increase or decrease belt tension. Once tension is correct, tighten the top idler pivot screw, followed by the bottom pivot screw to 108-132 inch lbs. (12-15 Nm). Tighten the adjustment rod locknuts to the same figure. Belt tension should be checked at least every 50 hours or once a season (during the pre-season tune-up) whichever comes first. The proper way to adjust belt tension is to start and run the engine (using a suitable source of cooling water) at about 800 rpm for 2 minutes. Then, stop the engine and check the tension using a bent tension gauge. Measuring mid-point between the idler and flywheel pulleys, belt tension should be about 25-30 pounds. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION • See Figure 89 Belt access is a relatively simple malter on MOST outboards. The belt, pump and idler pulleys are usually visible and accessible once the engine top cover is removed. However, the belt is driven off a pulley on the top of the crankshaft that is UNDER the flywheel. In some cases, the belt can be snaked out without removing the flywheel (though caution must be taken to ensure it is properly seated on the pulley under the flywheel during installation). In order to snake the belt out, some other components may be to be unbolted and repositioned on top of the powerhead, adjacent to the flywheel. Of course, removing the flywheel may just be the easier option for belt access. Once the flywheel is removed, the belt replacement procedure is very straightforward. • Whenever a belt is replaced, the belt tension should be rechecked and adjusted (as necessary) after 10 hours of operation. ** WARNING Use caution when adjusting the belt, as either a belt that is too loose or a belt that is too tight can permanently damage the pump. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Loosen the upper and lower idler housing pivot screws, then loosen locknuts and washer on the idler pulley tension adjuster, then turn the adjuster sufficiently to release belt tension. 3. If necessary for access, remove the Flywheel as detailed in the Powerhead section. If the flywheel is not removed, check the perimeter to make sure no other components must be removed in order to snake the belt out from underneath. • Snap-On A-144 flywheel holding fixture or equivalent can be used to hold the flywheel steady on these motors while a 1 7/1 6 in socket is used to loosen the flywheel retainer. 4. If the flywheel is being removed, loosen and remove the 6 screws securing the pulley to the flywheel. Then, use a universal puller to release the flywheel from the powerhead. 5. Remove the belt from the pulleys. To install: 6. Route the belt over the pulleys. If necessary, adjust the idler pulley to make this easier. • If the flywheel was not removed, use extreme caution to make sure the belt is properly seated in all pulley grooves before adjusting the belt tension. 7. Clean the crankshaft and flywheel tapers using Evinrude/Johnson Cleaning Solvent, or equivalent, and allow it to air dry. Align the flywheel keyway and install the flywheel, then coat the threads of a NEW retaining nut using Evinrude/Johnson Gasket Sealing Compound. Install the nut and tighten to 140-150 ft. lbs. (190-204 Nm). Some people replace all zincs annually (not including anodes mounted inside the gearcase such as on the propshaft bearing housing). This may or may not be necessary, depending on the type of waters in which you boat and depending on whether or not the boat is hauled with each use or left in for the season. Either way, it is a good idea to remove zincs at least annually in order to make sure the mounting surfaces are still clean and free of corrosion. The first thing to remember is that zincs are electrical components and like all electrical components, they require good clean connections. So alter you've undone the mounting hardware you want to get the zinc mounting sites clean and shiny. Get a piece of coarse emery cloth or some 80 grit sandpaper. Thoroughly rough up the areas where the zincs altach (there's often a bit of corrosion residue in these spots). Make sure to remove every trace of corrosion. Zincs are attached with stainless steel machine screws that thread into the mounting for the zincs. Over the course of a season, this mounting hardware is inclined to loosen. Mount the zincs and tighten the mounting hardware securely. Tap the zincs with a hammer hitting the mounting screws squarely. This process tightens the zincs and allows the mounting hardware to become a bit loose in the process. Now, do the final tightening. This will insure your zincs stay put for the entire season. Power Steering Belt + See Figure 89 The power steering belt is a long-life component that, under normal circumstances should last up to 500 hours of operation. However, since it is easily accessed (at least for inspection purposes), we recommend inspecting it every time the engine top cover comes off. A quick visual check could prevent having to deal with a problem while you're on the water. Of course, the good news is that, in the event of a failure, you will not completely loose steering, but you will have to deal with greatly increased steering effort. INSPECTON + See Figure 89 Periodically remove the top cover and visually inspect the belt for signs of deterioration or damage. Small cracks across the belt do not constitute a problem, as this is a normal sign of aging for belt materials. But, look for signs of fraying or damage such as missing chunks or belt segments. Also, check the belt for signs of excessive play, as an overly loose belt can damage the pump bearings. Damaged belts should be replaced as soon as possible to avoid a failure in use. ** WARNING Should the power steering system loose hydraulic pressure or otherwise become inoperative, shut the engine OFF, cut the power steering belt and remove it from the pulleys. This is necessary to prevent the possibility of permanent damage to the pump if it is run without proper hydraulic fluid/pressure. Fig. 89 Check the power steering pump belt frequently-tension is adjusted by the threaded rod visible just underneath the belt in the illustration MAINTENANCE 2-35 An idler pulley controls power steering belt tension. The position of the idler pulley (and therefore the belt tension) is controlled using a threaded adjuster that is inserted through a boss on top of the powerhead. To adjust belt tension, loosen the idler housing pivot screws Uust slightly), then loosen the locknuts and washer and turn the adjuster in or out to increase or decrease belt tension. Once tension is correct, tighten the top idler pivot screw, followed by the bottom pivot screw to 108-132 inch lbs. (12-15 Nm). Tighten the adjustment rod locknuts to the same figure. Belt tension should be checked at least every 50 hours or once a season (during the pre-season tune-up) whichever comes first. The proper way to adjust belt tension is to start and run the engine (using a suitable source of cooling water) at about 800 rpm for 2 minutes. Then, stop the engine and check the tension using a bent tension gauge. Measuring mid-point between the idler and flywheel pulleys, belt tension should be about 25-30 pounds. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION • See Figure 89 Belt access is a relatively simple malter on MOST outboards. The belt, pump and idler pulleys are usually visible and accessible once the engine top cover is removed. However, the belt is driven off a pulley on the top of the crankshaft that is UNDER the flywheel. In some cases, the belt can be snaked out without removing the flywheel (though caution must be taken to ensure it is properly seated on the pulley under the flywheel during installation). In order to snake the belt out, some other components may be to be unbolted and repositioned on top of the powerhead, adjacent to the flywheel. Of course, removing the flywheel may just be the easier option for belt access. Once the flywheel is removed, the belt replacement procedure is very straightforward. • Whenever a belt is replaced, the belt tension should be rechecked and adjusted (as necessary) after 10 hours of operation. ** WARNING Use caution when adjusting the belt, as either a belt that is too loose or a belt that is too tight can permanently damage the pump. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Loosen the upper and lower idler housing pivot screws, then loosen locknuts and washer on the idler pulley tension adjuster, then turn the adjuster sufficiently to release belt tension. 3. If necessary for access, remove the Flywheel as detailed in the Powerhead section. If the flywheel is not removed, check the perimeter to make sure no other components must be removed in order to snake the belt out from underneath. • Snap-On A-144 flywheel holding fixture or equivalent can be used to hold the flywheel steady on these motors while a 1 7/1 6 in socket is used to loosen the flywheel retainer. 4. If the flywheel is being removed, loosen and remove the 6 screws securing the pulley to the flywheel. Then, use a universal puller to release the flywheel from the powerhead. 5. Remove the belt from the pulleys. To install: 6. Route the belt over the pulleys. If necessary, adjust the idler pulley to make this easier. • If the flywheel was not removed, use extreme caution to make sure the belt is properly seated in all pulley grooves before adjusting the belt tension. 7. Clean the crankshaft and flywheel tapers using Evinrude/Johnson Cleaning Solvent, or equivalent, and allow it to air dry. Align the flywheel keyway and install the flywheel, then coat the threads of a NEW retaining nut using Evinrude/Johnson Gasket Sealing Compound. Install the nut and tighten to 140-150 ft. lbs. (190-204 Nm). 2-36 MAINTENANCE B. Install the 6 pulley screws and tighten to 60-84 inch lbs. (7-9 Nm). • The beH must not be loose enough to either slip or chatter on the pulleys, but it should not be so tight as to preload and damage the pump bearings. Gentle thumb pressure at the belt mid-span along the longest stretch between 2 pulleys should produce less than an inch of deflection. 9. Using the threaded adjuster, reposition the idler pulley to tension the belt. Measuring mid-point between the idler and flywheel pulleys, belt tension should be about 25-30 pounds. BOAT MAINTENANCE . Batteries + See Figures 90 and 91 Batteries require periodic servicing, so a definite maintenance program will help ensure extended life. A failure to maintain the battery in good order can prevent it from properly charging or properly performing its job even when fully charged. Low levels of electrolyte in the cells, loose or dirty cable connections at the battery terminals or possibly an excessively dirty battery top can all contribute to an improperly functioning battery. So battery maintenance, first and foremost, involves keeping the battery full of electrolyte, properly charged and keeping the casing/connections clean of corrosion or debris. Fig. 90 Explosive hydrogen gas is released from the batteries in a discharged state. This one exploded when the gas ignited from 10. Once tension is correct, tighten the top idler pivot screw, followed by the bottom pivot screw to 108-132 inch lbs. (12-15 Nm). Tighten the adjustment rod locknuts to the same figure. • The motor should be started and run at about BOO rpm for about 2 minutes, then the belt tension rechecked and readjusted, as necessary. Remember, the motor cannot be run, even for a few seconds, without a source of cooling water. 11. Connect the negative battery cable. 12. Recheck the belt after the first 10 hours of operation on a new belt. . If a battery charges and tests satisfactorily but still fails to perform properly in service, one of three problems could be the cause. 1. An accessory left on overnight or for a long period of time can discharge a battery. 2. Using more electrical power than the stator assembly or lighting coil can replace would slowly drain the battery during motor operation, resulting in an undercharged condition. 3. A defect in the charging system. A faulty stator assembly or lighting coil, defective regulator or rectifier or high resistance somewhere in the system could cause the battery to become undercharged. MAINTENANCE + See Figures 91, 92, 93 and 94 Electrolyte Level The most common and important procedure in battery maintenance is checking the electrolyte level. On most batteries this is accomplished by removing the cell caps and visually observing the level in the cells. The bottom of each cell has a split vent that will cause the surface of the electrolyte to appear distorted when it makes contact. When the distortion first appears at the bottom of the split vent, the electrolyte level is correct. Smaller marine batteries are sometimes equipped with translucent cases that are printed or embossed with high and low level markings on the side. On some of these, shining a flashlight through the battery case will help make it easier to determine the electrolyte level. During hot weather and periods of heavy use, the electrolyte level should be checked more often than during normal operation. Add distilled water to bring the level of electrolyte in each cell to the proper level. Take care not to overfill, because adding an excessive amount of water will cause loss of electrolyte and any loss will result in poor performance, short battery life and will contribute quickly to corrosion. • Never add electrolyte from another battery. Use only distilled water. Even tap water may contain minerals or additives that will promote corrosion on the battery plates, so distilled water is always the best solution. someone smoking with a cap. Explosions can also be caused by a spark from the battery terminals or jumper cables Although less common in marine applications than other uses today, sealed maintenance-free batteries also require electrolyte level checks, Fig. 91 Ignoring a battery (and corrosion) to this extent is asking for it to fail Fig. 92 Place a battery terminal tool over posts, then rotate back and forth ... Fig. 93 ... until the internal brushes expose a fresh, clean surface on the post MAINTENANCE 2-37 Fig. 94 Clean the insides of cable ring terminals using the tool's wire brush through the window built into the tops of the cases. The problem for marine applications is the tendency for deep cycle use to cause electrolyte evaporation and electrolyte cannot be replenished in a sealed battery. The second most important procedure in battery maintenance is periodically cleaning the battery terminals and case. Cleaning Dirt and corrosion should be cleaned from the battery as soon as it is discovered. Any accumulation of acid film or dirt will permit a small amount of current to flow between the terminals. Such a current flow will drain the battery over a period of time. Clean the exterior of the battery with a solution of diluted ammonia or a paste made from baking soda and water. This is a base solution to neutralize any acid that may be present. Flush the cleaning solution off with plenty of clean water. • Take care to prevent any of the neutralizing solution from entering the cells as it will quickly neutralize the electrolyte (ruining the battery). Poor contact at the terminals will add resistance to the charging circuit. This resistance will cause the voltage regulator to register a fully charged battery and thus cut down on the stator assembly or lighting coil output adding to the low battery charge problem. At least once a season, the battery terminals and cable clamps should be cleaned. Loosen the clamps and remove the cables, negative cable first. On batteries with top mounted posts, if the terminals appear stuck, use a puller specially made for this purpose to ensure the battery casing is not damaged. NEVER pry a terminal off a battery post. These are inexpensive and available in most parts stores. Clean the cable clamps and the battery terminal with a wire brush until all corrosion, grease, etc., is removed and the metal is shiny. It is especially important to clean the inside of the clamp thoroughly (a wire brush or brush part of a battery post cleaning tool is useful here), since a small deposit of foreign material or oxidation there will prevent a sound electrical connection and inhibit either starting or charging. It is also a good idea to apply some dielectric grease to the terminal, as this will aid in the prevention of corrosion. After the clamps and terminals are clean, reinstall the cables, negative cable last, do not hammer the clamps onto battery posts. Tighten the clamps securely but do not distort them. To help slow or prevent corrosion, give the clamps and terminals a thin external coating of grease after installation. Check the cables at the same time that the terminals are cleaned. If the insulation is cracked or broken or if its end is frayed, that cable should be replaced with a new one of the same length and gauge. TE TESTING + See Figure 95 A quick check of the battery is to place a voltmeter across the terminals. Although this is by no means a clear indication, it gives you a starting point when trying to troubleshoot an electrical problem that could be battery related. Most marine batteries will be of the 12 volt DC variety. They are constructed of 6 cells, each of which is capable of producing slightly more than two volts, wired in series so that total voltage is 12 and a fraction. A fully charged battery will normally show more than 12 and slightly less than 13 volts across its terminals. But keep in mind that just because a battery reads 12.6 or 12.7 volts does NOT mean it is fully charged. It is possible for it to have only a surtace charge with very little amperage behind it to maintain that voltage rating for long under load. A discharged battery will read some value less than 12 volts, but can be brought back to 12 volts through recharging. Of course a battery with one or more shorted or un-chargeable cells will also read less than 12, but it cannot be brought back to 12+ volts after charging. For this reason, the best method to check battery condition on most marine batteries is through a specific gravity check. A hydrometer is a device that measures the density of a liquid when compared to water (specific gravity). Hydrometers are used to test batteries by measuring the percentage of sulfuric acid in the battery electrolyte in terms of specific gravity. When the condition of the battery drops from fully charged to discharged, the acid is converted to water as electrons leave the solution and enter the plates, causing the specific gravity of the electrolyte to drop. It may not be common knowledge but hydrometer floats are calibrated for use at 80°F (27°C). If the hydrometer is used at any other temperature, hotter or colder, a correction factor must be applied. Fig. 95 A hydrometer is the best method for checking battery condition 2-38 MAINTENANCE • Remember, a liquid will expand if it is heated and wil.. ..ontract if .cooled. Such expansion and contraction will cause a defm1te change m the specific gravity of the liquid, in this case the electrolyte. A quality hydrometer will have a thermometer/temperature correction table in the lower portion, as illustrated in the accompanymg 1llustrat1on. By measuring the air temperature around the _ battery and from the table, a correction factor may be applied to the spec1f1c grav1ty read1ng of the hydrometer float. In this manner, an accurate determination may be made as to the condition of the battery. When using a hydrometer, pay careful attention to the following points: 1. Never attempt to take a reading immediately after adding water to the battery. Allow at least 1/4 hour of charging at a high rate to thoroughly m1x the electrolyte with the new water. This time will also allow for the necessary gases to be created. 2. Always be sure the hydrometer is clean inside and out as a precaution against contaminating the electrolyte. . . . 3. If a thermometer is an integral part of the hydrometer, draw liquid mto it several times to ensure the correct temperature before taking a reading. 4. Be sure to hold the hydrometer vertically and suck up liquid only until the float is free and floating. 5. Always hold the hydrometer at eye level and take the reading at the surface of the liquid with the float free and floating. . . .6. Disregard the slight curvature app..aring where the liqUI? nses against the float stem. This phenomenon 1s due to surface tens1on. . .7. Do not drop any of the battery fluid on the boat or on your cloth1ng, because it is extremely caustic. Use water and baking soda to neutralize any battery liquid that does accidentally drop. . .B. After drawing electrolyte from the battery cell unt1l the float 1s barely tree note the level of the liquid inside the hydrometer. If the level is w1thm the ..harged (usually green) band range for all cells, the condition of t. he battery is satisfactory. If the level is within the discharged (usually wh1te) band for all cells, the battery is in fair condition. 9. If the level is within the green or white band tor all cells except one, which registers in the red, the cell is shorted internally. No amount of charging will bring the battery back to satisfactory condition. . 10. If the level in all cells is about the same, even 11 11 falls 1n the red band, the battery may be recharged and returned to If the level tails to rise above the red band after charging, the only IS to replace the battery. STORAGE If the boat is to be laid up (placed into storage) for the winter or for more than a few weeks, special attention must be given to the battery to prevent complete discharge and/or possible damage to the terminals and wmng. Before putting the boat in storage, disconnect and remove the battenes. Clean them thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion and then charge them to full specific gravity readings. After they are fully charged, store them in a clean cool dry place where they will not be damaged or knocked over, preferably on a couple blocks of wood. Storing the battery up off the. deck, Will perm1t air to circulate freely around and under the battery and Will help to prevent condensation. Never store the battery with anything on top of it or cover the battery in such a manner as to prevent air from circulating around the filler caps. All batteries, both new and old, will discharge during periods of storage, more so if they are hot than if they remain cool. Therefore, the electrolyte level and the specific gravity should be checked at regular Intervals. A drop m the specific gravity reading is cause to charge them back to a full readmg. In cold climates, care should be exercised in selecting the battery storage area. A tully charged battery will freeze at about 600.. (17°..) below zero. The electrolyte of a discharged battery, almost dead, w111 beg1n form1ng ice at about 19of (-7°C) above zero. • For more information on batteries and the engine electrical systems, please refer to the Ignition and Electrical section of this manual. Fiber lass Hull INSPECTION AND CARE + See Figures 96, 97 and 98 Fiberglass reinforced plastic hulls are tough, durable and highly resistant to impact. However, like any other material they can be damaged. One. of the advantages of this type of construction is the relat1ve ease w1th wh1ch 11 may be repaired. A fiberglass hull has almost no internal stresses .. Therefore, when the hull is broken or stove-in, it retains its true form. It w1ll not dent to take an out-of-shape set. When the hull sustains a severe blow, the impact . Will be . either absorbed by deflection of the laminated panel or the blow Will result 1n a definite, localized break. In addition to hull damage, bulkheads, stnngers and other stiffening structures attached to the hull may also be affected and therefore, should be checked. Repairs are usually confined to the general area of the rupture. • The best way to care for a fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly, immediately after hauling the boat while the hull is still wet. A foul bottom can seriously affect boat performance. This is one reason why racers, large and small, both powerboat and sail, are constantly giving attention to the condition of the hull below the waterline. In areas where marine growth is prevalent, a coating of vinyl, anti-fouling bottom paint should be applied if the boat is going to be left m the water for extended periods of time such as all or a large part of the season. If _ growth has developed on the bottom, it can be removed w1th a diluted solut1on of muriatic acid applied with a brush or swab and then nnsed w1th clear water. Always use rubber gloves when working with Muriatic acid and take extra care to keep it away from your face and hands. The fumes are tox1c. Therefore, work in a well-ventilated area, or if outside, keep your face on the windward side of the work. • If marine growth is not too severe you may avoid the unpleasantness of working with muriatic acid by trying a pow..rwasher instead. Most marine vegetation can be removed w1th pressunzed water and a little bit of scrubbing using a rough sponge (don't use anything that will scratch or damage the surface). Barnacles have a nasty habit of making their home on the bottom of boats that have not been treated with anti-fouling paint. Actually they Will not harm the fiberglass hull but can develop into a major nuisance. Fig. 96 The best way to care for a fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly 2-38 MAINTENANCE • Remember, a liquid will expand if it is heated and wil.. ..ontract if .cooled. Such expansion and contraction will cause a defm1te change m the specific gravity of the liquid, in this case the electrolyte. A quality hydrometer will have a thermometer/temperature correction table in the lower portion, as illustrated in the accompanymg 1llustrat1on. By measuring the air temperature around the _ battery and from the table, a correction factor may be applied to the spec1f1c grav1ty read1ng of the hydrometer float. In this manner, an accurate determination may be made as to the condition of the battery. When using a hydrometer, pay careful attention to the following points: 1. Never attempt to take a reading immediately after adding water to the battery. Allow at least 1/4 hour of charging at a high rate to thoroughly m1x the electrolyte with the new water. This time will also allow for the necessary gases to be created. 2. Always be sure the hydrometer is clean inside and out as a precaution against contaminating the electrolyte. . . . 3. If a thermometer is an integral part of the hydrometer, draw liquid mto it several times to ensure the correct temperature before taking a reading. 4. Be sure to hold the hydrometer vertically and suck up liquid only until the float is free and floating. 5. Always hold the hydrometer at eye level and take the reading at the surface of the liquid with the float free and floating. . . .6. Disregard the slight curvature app..aring where the liqUI? nses against the float stem. This phenomenon 1s due to surface tens1on. . .7. Do not drop any of the battery fluid on the boat or on your cloth1ng, because it is extremely caustic. Use water and baking soda to neutralize any battery liquid that does accidentally drop. . .B. After drawing electrolyte from the battery cell unt1l the float 1s barely tree note the level of the liquid inside the hydrometer. If the level is w1thm the ..harged (usually green) band range for all cells, the condition of t. he battery is satisfactory. If the level is within the discharged (usually wh1te) band for all cells, the battery is in fair condition. 9. If the level is within the green or white band tor all cells except one, which registers in the red, the cell is shorted internally. No amount of charging will bring the battery back to satisfactory condition. . 10. If the level in all cells is about the same, even 11 11 falls 1n the red band, the battery may be recharged and returned to If the level tails to rise above the red band after charging, the only IS to replace the battery. STORAGE If the boat is to be laid up (placed into storage) for the winter or for more than a few weeks, special attention must be given to the battery to prevent complete discharge and/or possible damage to the terminals and wmng. Before putting the boat in storage, disconnect and remove the battenes. Clean them thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion and then charge them to full specific gravity readings. After they are fully charged, store them in a clean cool dry place where they will not be damaged or knocked over, preferably on a couple blocks of wood. Storing the battery up off the. deck, Will perm1t air to circulate freely around and under the battery and Will help to prevent condensation. Never store the battery with anything on top of it or cover the battery in such a manner as to prevent air from circulating around the filler caps. All batteries, both new and old, will discharge during periods of storage, more so if they are hot than if they remain cool. Therefore, the electrolyte level and the specific gravity should be checked at regular Intervals. A drop m the specific gravity reading is cause to charge them back to a full readmg. In cold climates, care should be exercised in selecting the battery storage area. A tully charged battery will freeze at about 600.. (17°..) below zero. The electrolyte of a discharged battery, almost dead, w111 beg1n form1ng ice at about 19of (-7°C) above zero. • For more information on batteries and the engine electrical systems, please refer to the Ignition and Electrical section of this manual. Fiber lass Hull INSPECTION AND CARE + See Figures 96, 97 and 98 Fiberglass reinforced plastic hulls are tough, durable and highly resistant to impact. However, like any other material they can be damaged. One. of the advantages of this type of construction is the relat1ve ease w1th wh1ch 11 may be repaired. A fiberglass hull has almost no internal stresses .. Therefore, when the hull is broken or stove-in, it retains its true form. It w1ll not dent to take an out-of-shape set. When the hull sustains a severe blow, the impact . Will be . either absorbed by deflection of the laminated panel or the blow Will result 1n a definite, localized break. In addition to hull damage, bulkheads, stnngers and other stiffening structures attached to the hull may also be affected and therefore, should be checked. Repairs are usually confined to the general area of the rupture. • The best way to care for a fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly, immediately after hauling the boat while the hull is still wet. A foul bottom can seriously affect boat performance. This is one reason why racers, large and small, both powerboat and sail, are constantly giving attention to the condition of the hull below the waterline. In areas where marine growth is prevalent, a coating of vinyl, anti-fouling bottom paint should be applied if the boat is going to be left m the water for extended periods of time such as all or a large part of the season. If _ growth has developed on the bottom, it can be removed w1th a diluted solut1on of muriatic acid applied with a brush or swab and then nnsed w1th clear water. Always use rubber gloves when working with Muriatic acid and take extra care to keep it away from your face and hands. The fumes are tox1c. Therefore, work in a well-ventilated area, or if outside, keep your face on the windward side of the work. • If marine growth is not too severe you may avoid the unpleasantness of working with muriatic acid by trying a pow..rwasher instead. Most marine vegetation can be removed w1th pressunzed water and a little bit of scrubbing using a rough sponge (don't use anything that will scratch or damage the surface). Barnacles have a nasty habit of making their home on the bottom of boats that have not been treated with anti-fouling paint. Actually they Will not harm the fiberglass hull but can develop into a major nuisance. Fig. 96 The best way to care for a fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly Fig. 97 If marine growth is a problem, apply a coating of anti-foul bottom paint If barnacles or other crustaceans have attached themselves to the hull, extra work will be required to bring the bottom back to a satisfactory condition. First, if practical, put the boat into a body of fresh water and allow it to remain for a few days. A large percentage of the growth can be TUNE-UP Introduction A proper tune-up is the key to long and trouble-free outboard life and the work can yield its own rewards. Studies have shown that a properly tuned and maintained outboard can achieve better fuel economy than an out-oftune engine. As a conscientious boater, set aside a Saturday morning, say once a month, to check or replace items that could cause major problems later. Keep your own personal log to jot down which services you performed, how much the parts cost you, the date and the number of hours on the engine at the time. Keep all receipts for such items as oil and filters, so that they may be referred to in case of related problems or to determine operating expenses. These receipts are the only proof you have that the required maintenance was performed. In the event of a warranty problem on newer engines, these receipts will be invaluable. The efficiency, reliability, fuel economy and enjoyment available from boating are all directly dependent on having your outboard tuned properly. The importance of performing service work in the proper sequence cannot be over emphasized. Before making any adjustments, check the specifications. Never rely on memory when making critical adjustments. Before tuning any outboard, insure it has satisfactory compression. An outboard with worn or broken piston rings, burned pistons or scored cylinder walls, will not perform properly no matter how much time and expense is spent on the tune-up. Poor compression must be corrected or the tune-up will not give the desired results. The extent of the engine tune-up is usually dependent on the time lapse since the last service. In this section, a logical sequence of tune-up steps will be presented in general terms. If additional information or detailed service work is required, refer to the section of this manual containing the appropriate instructions. Tune-Up Sequence A tune-up can be defined as pre-determined series of procedures (adjustments, tests and replacement of worn components) that are performed to bring the engine operating parameters back to original condition (or as near original as possible). The series of steps are important, as the later procedures (especially adjustments) are dependant upon the earlier procedures. In other words, a procedure is performed only when subsequent steps would not change the result of that procedure (this is mostly for adjustments or settings that would be incorrect after changing MAINTENANCE 2-39 Fig. 98 Fiberglass, vinyl and rubber care products, like those from Meguiar's protect your boat removed in this manner. If this remedy is not possible, wash the bottom thoroughly with a high-pressure fresh water source and use a scraper. Small particles of hard shell may still hold fast. These can be removed with sandpaper. another part or setting). For instance, fouled or excessively worn spark plugs may affect engine idle. If adjustments were made to the idle speed or mixture before these plugs were cleaned or replaced, the idle speed or mixture might be wrong after replacing the plugs. The possibilities of such an effect become much greater when dealing with multiple adjustments such as timing, idle speed and/or idle mixture. Therefore, be sure to follow each of the steps given here. Since many of the steps listed here are full procedures in themselves, refer to the procedures of the same name in this section for details. A complete pre-season tune-up should be performed at the beginning of each season or anytime a motor is removed from storage. Operating conditions, amount of use and the frequency of maintenance required by your motor may make one or more additional tune-ups necessary during the season. Perform additional tune-ups as use dictates. • Under normal conditions a tune-up is expected about every 100 hours of operation. Excessive idle or wide-open throttle operation, use of poor quality engine oil or fuels, or other variables may necessitate shortening that timeframe. 1. Before starting, inspect the motor thoroughly for signs of obvious leaks, damage and loose or missing components. Make repairs, as necessary. 2. If Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard of equivalent is not used consistently with each fill-up, remove carbon from the pistons and combustion chamber after every 50 hours of operation. Refer to the Decarboning the Pistons in this section. • Although the service literature and owners manuals do not specifically mention it, every dealer we've talked to felt that the use of Carbon Guard was unnecessary when using FICHT RAM oil with CarbX® combustion cleaner. 3. Perform a compression check to make sure the motor is mechanically ready for a tune-up. An engine with low compression on one or more cylinder should be overhauled, not tuned. A tune-up will not be successful without sufficient engine compression. Refer to the Compression Test in this section. Fig. 97 If marine growth is a problem, apply a coating of anti-foul bottom paint If barnacles or other crustaceans have attached themselves to the hull, extra work will be required to bring the bottom back to a satisfactory condition. First, if practical, put the boat into a body of fresh water and allow it to remain for a few days. A large percentage of the growth can be TUNE-UP Introduction A proper tune-up is the key to long and trouble-free outboard life and the work can yield its own rewards. Studies have shown that a properly tuned and maintained outboard can achieve better fuel economy than an out-oftune engine. As a conscientious boater, set aside a Saturday morning, say once a month, to check or replace items that could cause major problems later. Keep your own personal log to jot down which services you performed, how much the parts cost you, the date and the number of hours on the engine at the time. Keep all receipts for such items as oil and filters, so that they may be referred to in case of related problems or to determine operating expenses. These receipts are the only proof you have that the required maintenance was performed. In the event of a warranty problem on newer engines, these receipts will be invaluable. The efficiency, reliability, fuel economy and enjoyment available from boating are all directly dependent on having your outboard tuned properly. The importance of performing service work in the proper sequence cannot be over emphasized. Before making any adjustments, check the specifications. Never rely on memory when making critical adjustments. Before tuning any outboard, insure it has satisfactory compression. An outboard with worn or broken piston rings, burned pistons or scored cylinder walls, will not perform properly no matter how much time and expense is spent on the tune-up. Poor compression must be corrected or the tune-up will not give the desired results. The extent of the engine tune-up is usually dependent on the time lapse since the last service. In this section, a logical sequence of tune-up steps will be presented in general terms. If additional information or detailed service work is required, refer to the section of this manual containing the appropriate instructions. Tune-Up Sequence A tune-up can be defined as pre-determined series of procedures (adjustments, tests and replacement of worn components) that are performed to bring the engine operating parameters back to original condition (or as near original as possible). The series of steps are important, as the later procedures (especially adjustments) are dependant upon the earlier procedures. In other words, a procedure is performed only when subsequent steps would not change the result of that procedure (this is mostly for adjustments or settings that would be incorrect after changing MAINTENANCE 2-39 Fig. 98 Fiberglass, vinyl and rubber care products, like those from Meguiar's protect your boat removed in this manner. If this remedy is not possible, wash the bottom thoroughly with a high-pressure fresh water source and use a scraper. Small particles of hard shell may still hold fast. These can be removed with sandpaper. another part or setting). For instance, fouled or excessively worn spark plugs may affect engine idle. If adjustments were made to the idle speed or mixture before these plugs were cleaned or replaced, the idle speed or mixture might be wrong after replacing the plugs. The possibilities of such an effect become much greater when dealing with multiple adjustments such as timing, idle speed and/or idle mixture. Therefore, be sure to follow each of the steps given here. Since many of the steps listed here are full procedures in themselves, refer to the procedures of the same name in this section for details. A complete pre-season tune-up should be performed at the beginning of each season or anytime a motor is removed from storage. Operating conditions, amount of use and the frequency of maintenance required by your motor may make one or more additional tune-ups necessary during the season. Perform additional tune-ups as use dictates. • Under normal conditions a tune-up is expected about every 100 hours of operation. Excessive idle or wide-open throttle operation, use of poor quality engine oil or fuels, or other variables may necessitate shortening that timeframe. 1. Before starting, inspect the motor thoroughly for signs of obvious leaks, damage and loose or missing components. Make repairs, as necessary. 2. If Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard of equivalent is not used consistently with each fill-up, remove carbon from the pistons and combustion chamber after every 50 hours of operation. Refer to the Decarboning the Pistons in this section. • Although the service literature and owners manuals do not specifically mention it, every dealer we've talked to felt that the use of Carbon Guard was unnecessary when using FICHT RAM oil with CarbX® combustion cleaner. 3. Perform a compression check to make sure the motor is mechanically ready for a tune-up. An engine with low compression on one or more cylinder should be overhauled, not tuned. A tune-up will not be successful without sufficient engine compression. Refer to the Compression Test in this section. 2-40 MAINTENANCE 4. Since the spark plugs must be removed lor the compression check, take the opportunity to inspect them thoroughly lor signs of oil fouling, carbon fouling, damage due to detonation, etc. Clean and regap the plugs or, better yet, install new plugs, as no amount of cleaning will precisely match the performance and life of new plugs. Refer to Spark Plugs, in this section. 5. Inspect all ignition system components lor signs of obvious defects. Look lor signs of burnt, cracked or broken insulation. Replace wires or components with obvious defects. If spark plug condition suggests weak or no spark on one or more cylinders, perform ignition system testing to eliminate possible worn or defective components. Refer to the Ignition System Inspection procedures in this section and the Ignition and Electrical System section. 6. Remove and clean (on serviceable filters) or replace the inline filter and/or fuel pump filter, as equipped. Refer to the Fuel Filter procedures in this section. Perform a thorough inspection of the fuel system, hoses and components. Replace any cracked or deteriorating hoses. 7. Perform engine Timing and Synchronization adjustments as described in this section. • Although most of the motors covered by this manual allow for certain ignition timing and carburetor adjustment procedures, none of them require the level of tuning attention that was once the norm. Many of the motors are equipped with electronic ignition systems that limit or eliminate timing adjustments. Most of the carburetors used by these motors are U.S. EPA regulated and contain few mixture adjustments (many with fixed low and/or high speed jets). FICHT motors are all but completely controlled by the Engine Management Module (EMM) and contain no timing or fuel adjustments (although most include methods for physical timing pointer verification and crankshaft position sensor air gap adjustments). 8. Except for jet drive models, remove the propeller in order to inspect for leaks thoroughly at the shaft seal. Inspect the propeller or rotor condition, look for nicks, cracks or other signs of damage and repair or replace, as necessary. If available, install a test wheel to run the motor in a test tank after completion of the tune-up. IIno test wheel is available, lubricate the shaft/splines, then install the propeller. Refer to the procedure for Propeller, in this section. 9. Change the lower unit oil as directed under the Lower Unit Oil procedures in this section. If you are conducting a pre-season tune-up and the oil was changed immediately prior to storage this is not necessary. But, be sure to check the oil level and condition. Drain the oil anyway if significant contamination is present. • Anytime large amounts of water or debris is present in the lower unit oil, be sure to troubleshoot and repair the problem before returning the lower unit to service. The presence of water may indicate problems with the seals, while debris could a sign that overhaul is required. 10. Check all accessible bolts and fasteners and tighten any that are loose.11. Pressurize the fuel system according to the procedures found in the Fuel System section, then check carefully for leaks. 12. Perform a test run of the engine to verily proper operation of the starting, fuel, oil and cooling systems. Although this can be performed using a flush/test adapter, or even on the boat itself (if operating with a normal load/passengers), the preferred method is the use of a test tank. II possible, run the engine, in a test tank using the appropriate test wheel. Monitor the cooling system indicator stream to ensure the water pump is working properly. Once the engine is fully warmed, slowly advance the engine to wide-open throttle, then note and record the maximum engine speed. Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart to compare engine speeds with the test propeller minimum rpm specifications. II engine speeds are below specifications, yet engine compression was sufficient at the beginning of this procedure, recheck the fuel and ignition system adjustments. Decarboning the Pistons A by-product of the normal combustion process; carbon will build-up on the pistons and in the combustion chambers of a motor over time. Engine tuning and condition will affect this process, as a properly tuned engine running high-quality fuels under proper conditions will reduce the amount of build-up, but not stop it completely. Generally speaking an out-of-tune motor, a motor running too rich or a motor run under extended idle conditions will increase the rate at which carbon deposits are formed. Carbon, when its presence becomes significant enough, will increase the compression ratio (by decreasing effective combustion chamber size) and will lead to detonation. Also, over time, carbon may cause piston rings to stick, which would lead to blow-by. For this reason, Johnson/Evinrude recommends the use of Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard fuel additive with each fill up in order to help slow this process. • Although the service and owner's literature do not specifically mention the exception, every dealer we've approached feels that Carbon Guard is not necessary on FICHT motors that use Evinrude/Johnson FICHT RAM Oil with CarbX® combustion chamber cleaner. The manufacturer also warns that, if this fuel additive is not used, the pistons and combustion chambers should be cleaned of deposits using Evinrude/Johnson Engine Tuner after, at least every 50 hours of engine operation. As noted earlier, variables such as types of fuel used and patterns of usage (wide-open throttle vs. extensive idle) will also have an effect upon how often this procedure should be followed. Let your own experience (and the amount of carbon found on your spark plugs) be your guide. >:<* WARNING Because of the direct fuel injection system used on FICHT motors, spraying Johnson/Evinrude Engine Tuner into the throttle bodies of a running FICHT outboard will result in an increase ofspeed. To prevent the possibility of dangerous overspeed and resulting powerhead damage on FICHT motors, it is best to perform this operation with the motor running in-gear and the boat attached securely to a dock or the trailer (or alternately to use a test tank and an appropriate test wheel). Your other option for these motors is to remove the spark plugs, tilt the motor fully upward, and spray the tuner directly onto the top of each piston while it is at TDC. Turn the motor slowly by hand, in a clockwise direction when viewed from above the flywheel, so each piston is at TDC when spraying. If using this method, be sure to thoroughly coat the inside of the combustion chamber, deflector pin, fuel injector and top of the piston. Perform the TDC spray and soak procedure at least 2 times for each cylinder, using the entire can of Engine Tuner. I. Provide the engine with a cooling water source (either and engine flushing adapter, a test tank, or if necessary, perform this procedure with the boat and motor in the water, attached to a sturdy dock). 2. Start and run the engine at normal idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. 3. Set the engine to last idle (except on fuel injected motors where the idle speed is controlled by the computer module). For most engines a last idle of around 1200 rpm is sufficient. 4. For severe cases of carbon build-up, run the engine to normal operating temperature, then shut the engine off and remove the spark plugs. Lay the engine into a horizontal position and peer through the spark plug holes as you slowly turn the motor over by hand (do so by turning the engine clockwise when viewed from above the flywheel). With the pistons leveled so as to best block of the ports, cover the tops of the pistons with engine tuner and let sit for approximately I hour. Alter at least that amount of time, rotate the engine a couple of revolutions by hand to begin removing the cleaner. Then, proceed with the next step to finish the can of Engine Tuner. • Evinrude/Johnson service literature gives 2 conflicting recommendations for the amount of time Engine Tuner should be left in the motor. Materials published before 1996, for the 1992-95 model years tell technicians to leave the Engine Tuner in for no MORE than 1 hour. But, literature published for 1996 and later model years instructs the technician to allow the engine tuner to soak for 3-16 hours. There does not appear to be any change in design or materials on these later motors AND, perhaps more importantly, the cans of Engine Tuner available while this text was being written do not give any cautions against letting the motor soak longer than an hour. You'll have to make up your own mind, but we can't find the harm in allowing the motor to soak longer. 2-40 MAINTENANCE 4. Since the spark plugs must be removed lor the compression check, take the opportunity to inspect them thoroughly lor signs of oil fouling, carbon fouling, damage due to detonation, etc. Clean and regap the plugs or, better yet, install new plugs, as no amount of cleaning will precisely match the performance and life of new plugs. Refer to Spark Plugs, in this section. 5. Inspect all ignition system components lor signs of obvious defects. Look lor signs of burnt, cracked or broken insulation. Replace wires or components with obvious defects. If spark plug condition suggests weak or no spark on one or more cylinders, perform ignition system testing to eliminate possible worn or defective components. Refer to the Ignition System Inspection procedures in this section and the Ignition and Electrical System section. 6. Remove and clean (on serviceable filters) or replace the inline filter and/or fuel pump filter, as equipped. Refer to the Fuel Filter procedures in this section. Perform a thorough inspection of the fuel system, hoses and components. Replace any cracked or deteriorating hoses. 7. Perform engine Timing and Synchronization adjustments as described in this section. • Although most of the motors covered by this manual allow for certain ignition timing and carburetor adjustment procedures, none of them require the level of tuning attention that was once the norm. Many of the motors are equipped with electronic ignition systems that limit or eliminate timing adjustments. Most of the carburetors used by these motors are U.S. EPA regulated and contain few mixture adjustments (many with fixed low and/or high speed jets). FICHT motors are all but completely controlled by the Engine Management Module (EMM) and contain no timing or fuel adjustments (although most include methods for physical timing pointer verification and crankshaft position sensor air gap adjustments). 8. Except for jet drive models, remove the propeller in order to inspect for leaks thoroughly at the shaft seal. Inspect the propeller or rotor condition, look for nicks, cracks or other signs of damage and repair or replace, as necessary. If available, install a test wheel to run the motor in a test tank after completion of the tune-up. IIno test wheel is available, lubricate the shaft/splines, then install the propeller. Refer to the procedure for Propeller, in this section. 9. Change the lower unit oil as directed under the Lower Unit Oil procedures in this section. If you are conducting a pre-season tune-up and the oil was changed immediately prior to storage this is not necessary. But, be sure to check the oil level and condition. Drain the oil anyway if significant contamination is present. • Anytime large amounts of water or debris is present in the lower unit oil, be sure to troubleshoot and repair the problem before returning the lower unit to service. The presence of water may indicate problems with the seals, while debris could a sign that overhaul is required. 10. Check all accessible bolts and fasteners and tighten any that are loose.11. Pressurize the fuel system according to the procedures found in the Fuel System section, then check carefully for leaks. 12. Perform a test run of the engine to verily proper operation of the starting, fuel, oil and cooling systems. Although this can be performed using a flush/test adapter, or even on the boat itself (if operating with a normal load/passengers), the preferred method is the use of a test tank. II possible, run the engine, in a test tank using the appropriate test wheel. Monitor the cooling system indicator stream to ensure the water pump is working properly. Once the engine is fully warmed, slowly advance the engine to wide-open throttle, then note and record the maximum engine speed. Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart to compare engine speeds with the test propeller minimum rpm specifications. II engine speeds are below specifications, yet engine compression was sufficient at the beginning of this procedure, recheck the fuel and ignition system adjustments. Decarboning the Pistons A by-product of the normal combustion process; carbon will build-up on the pistons and in the combustion chambers of a motor over time. Engine tuning and condition will affect this process, as a properly tuned engine running high-quality fuels under proper conditions will reduce the amount of build-up, but not stop it completely. Generally speaking an out-of-tune motor, a motor running too rich or a motor run under extended idle conditions will increase the rate at which carbon deposits are formed. Carbon, when its presence becomes significant enough, will increase the compression ratio (by decreasing effective combustion chamber size) and will lead to detonation. Also, over time, carbon may cause piston rings to stick, which would lead to blow-by. For this reason, Johnson/Evinrude recommends the use of Evinrude/Johnson Carbon Guard fuel additive with each fill up in order to help slow this process. • Although the service and owner's literature do not specifically mention the exception, every dealer we've approached feels that Carbon Guard is not necessary on FICHT motors that use Evinrude/Johnson FICHT RAM Oil with CarbX® combustion chamber cleaner. The manufacturer also warns that, if this fuel additive is not used, the pistons and combustion chambers should be cleaned of deposits using Evinrude/Johnson Engine Tuner after, at least every 50 hours of engine operation. As noted earlier, variables such as types of fuel used and patterns of usage (wide-open throttle vs. extensive idle) will also have an effect upon how often this procedure should be followed. Let your own experience (and the amount of carbon found on your spark plugs) be your guide. >:<* WARNING Because of the direct fuel injection system used on FICHT motors, spraying Johnson/Evinrude Engine Tuner into the throttle bodies of a running FICHT outboard will result in an increase ofspeed. To prevent the possibility of dangerous overspeed and resulting powerhead damage on FICHT motors, it is best to perform this operation with the motor running in-gear and the boat attached securely to a dock or the trailer (or alternately to use a test tank and an appropriate test wheel). Your other option for these motors is to remove the spark plugs, tilt the motor fully upward, and spray the tuner directly onto the top of each piston while it is at TDC. Turn the motor slowly by hand, in a clockwise direction when viewed from above the flywheel, so each piston is at TDC when spraying. If using this method, be sure to thoroughly coat the inside of the combustion chamber, deflector pin, fuel injector and top of the piston. Perform the TDC spray and soak procedure at least 2 times for each cylinder, using the entire can of Engine Tuner. I. Provide the engine with a cooling water source (either and engine flushing adapter, a test tank, or if necessary, perform this procedure with the boat and motor in the water, attached to a sturdy dock). 2. Start and run the engine at normal idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. 3. Set the engine to last idle (except on fuel injected motors where the idle speed is controlled by the computer module). For most engines a last idle of around 1200 rpm is sufficient. 4. For severe cases of carbon build-up, run the engine to normal operating temperature, then shut the engine off and remove the spark plugs. Lay the engine into a horizontal position and peer through the spark plug holes as you slowly turn the motor over by hand (do so by turning the engine clockwise when viewed from above the flywheel). With the pistons leveled so as to best block of the ports, cover the tops of the pistons with engine tuner and let sit for approximately I hour. Alter at least that amount of time, rotate the engine a couple of revolutions by hand to begin removing the cleaner. Then, proceed with the next step to finish the can of Engine Tuner. • Evinrude/Johnson service literature gives 2 conflicting recommendations for the amount of time Engine Tuner should be left in the motor. Materials published before 1996, for the 1992-95 model years tell technicians to leave the Engine Tuner in for no MORE than 1 hour. But, literature published for 1996 and later model years instructs the technician to allow the engine tuner to soak for 3-16 hours. There does not appear to be any change in design or materials on these later motors AND, perhaps more importantly, the cans of Engine Tuner available while this text was being written do not give any cautions against letting the motor soak longer than an hour. You'll have to make up your own mind, but we can't find the harm in allowing the motor to soak longer. MAINTENANCE 2-41 5. For less severe (typical cases of carbon build-up), spray the entire contents of the Evinrude/Johnson Engine Tuner can with the engine still running from Step 3 above. Spray the Tuner either through the carburetor throats, through the fuel primer solenoid fogging fitting, or through the holes in the throttle plates (inside the throttle body throats) on FIGHT motors. When equipped, it is best to use the fogging fitting to ensure even distribution of the Engine Tuner. But, if the engine is not equipped with an electric primer solenoid, move the spray nozzle from carburetor-tocarburetor (or throttle body-to-throttle body), back and forth in sequence until the can is emptied. Once all of the Engine Tuner has been sprayed, shut the engine off and allow the cleaner to penetrate for at least 15 minutes (but more time is permissible). 6. If removed, reconnect the flushing device or place the engine back in the water (test tank or dockside), then start the engine again and warm it to normal operating temperature. When warmed, run the engine above 1/2 throttle for at least 3-5 minutes. 7. Shut the engine off, then remove and inspect the spark plugs. Shine a small light through each spark plug bore to examine the tops of the pistons and compare the visual evidence of carbon build-up to that before the procedure. If necessary, repeat the procedure using a second can of engine tuner and following the step for severe cases. • Some FICHT motors are equipped with an Exhaust Pressure (EP) sensor mounted inside the Engine Management Module and a pressure diaphragm mounted near the module. For these motors a sensor tube is mounted in the exhaust (usually on the starboard side). Check the tube for blockage each time the motor is de-carboned. To do this, disconnect the hose from the tube side (not the EMM side) of the pressure diaphragm and gently blow through it to make sure there are no obstructions. If it is obviously restricted, or you cannot tell, remove it for cleaning and inspection (by disconnecting the hose from the end of the tube and carefully unthreading the fitting). You may be able to clean it by soaking it overnight in Engine Tuner, but if not, replace the tube to ensure proper operation. Be careful when disconnecting the hose from the plastic diaphragm housing or from the tube itself. Compres..ion Check The quickest (but not necessarily most accurate) way to gauge the condition of an internal combustion engine is through a compression check. In order for an internal combustion engine to work properly, it must be able to generate sufficient compression in the combustion chamber to take advantage of the explosive force generated by the expanding gases after ignition. This is true on all motors whether they are of the 2-or 4-stroke design. If the combustion chambers or ports (or any mating surfaces like cylinder heads and gaskets) are worn or damaged in some fashion as to allow pressure to escape, the engine cannot develop sufficient horsepower. Under these circumstances, combustion will not occur properly, air/fuel mixtures cannot be set to maximize power and minimize emissions. An engine with poor compression on one or more cylinders cannot be given a proper tune-up, it should be overhauled. There are two types of compression checks generally conducted by technicians. The first, which is included here, is called a compression check or sometimes a tune-up compression check. It is a quick-test used during a tune-up to determine if you should continue or stop and overhaul the motor. This test is what technicians think of when you say compression check as it measures the ability of a motor to create compression. A compression check requires a compression gauge and a spark plug port adapter that matches the plug threads of your motor. Some technicians, during deeper diagnostic work or to verify a rebuild before returning it to service, will perform a second compression check known as a leakage or leak-down check. This test, which uses special gauges, adapters and a pressurized air supply, measures the ability of an engine to hold pressure (as opposed to create it). PERFORMING A TUNE-UP COMPRESSION CHECK + See Figure 99 When analyzing the results of a compression check, generally the actual amount of pressure measured during a compression check is not AS important as the variation from cylinder-to-cylinder on the same motor. However, it appears that the manufacturer changed its recommendations to Evinrude/Johnson field technicians over the years. Through 1995, Evinrude/Johnson advised that the variations between cylinders should not exceed 15 psi (1 00 kPa) or more. However, starting in 1996 (with no apparent change in design or construction), Evinrude/Johnson eased a bit on the compression specifications. Beginning in 1996, the manufacturer instructed technicians that there should be no more than a 20% variation between the lowest and highest cylinders (i.e. that the lowest cylinder reading must be 80% or more of the highest cylinder reading. • It does not appear that Evinrude/Johnson changed the motors between 1995 and 1996 leading to different specifications for compression checks. It seems that they instead changed their mind set, adopting a new, and somewhat less strict, set of standards. Which one you decide to follow is your own choice. Following the stricter standard, however, could lead to overhauling a motor that otherwise is performing properly. We'd recommend that a motor, even from 19921995 model years, that is out of the 15 psi (100 kPa) spec, but STILL within the 80% spec, be tuned. If it runs properly, then an overhaul is not necessary ... yet. Of course, the MOST important specification when it comes to compression checks is, how much has the spec changed from the last test. The first thing you should do with a new motor is to take a compression reading for each cylinder and mark it down. The same should be done with each successive tune-up thereafter. In this way, you can track the internal wear in the motor over time, possibly even predicting at what point an overhaul might be necessary (unless a component failure necessitates one sooner). Even for a used motor, a compression check is the first step in knowing where you stand. Ok, for the point of argument's sake let's say you bought the engine used and the last owner didn't have any information regarding previous compression checks, or let's say you never checked compression the first season or so, assuming it wasn't something you needed to worry about. You're not alone. Although Evinrude/Johnson does not publish a specification for the exact amount of compression each of their engines should generate, a general rule of thumb that can be applied is that internal combustion engines should generate at least 1 00 psi (690 kPa). Another point of comparison for your compression specifications can be one of the tear-down motors we used for this book. A 2001 90 hp (1 726cc) 60 degree V4 showed compression readings of 140-145 psi (965-1 000 kPa) while we conducted its 20 hour break-in service. Some other brands of marine engines show published specifications of 115-142 psi (800-1 000 kPa). BUT, keep in mind that these are typical specs and not specifications for Evinrude/Johnson motors, so don't put too much credence on your results as compared to these. Again, comparison figures with the other cylinders on the same motor (or readings when the motor was new) are most important. When taking readings during the compression check, repeat the procedure a few times for each cylinder, recording the highest reading for that cylinder. Then, compare the readings. The compression reading on the lowest cylinder should within 15 psi (1 00 kPa) or 80% (depending on the year or standard that you wish to apply) of the highest reading. 2-42 MAINTENANCE Fig. 99 Compression check on a typical multi-cylinder powerhead • When using the 80% standard, the compression reading on the lowest cylinder reading should be equal to 80% or more of the reading from the highest cylinder reading. In other words, the lowest reading should be the equal to or greater than the highest cylinder reading multiplied by 0.8. For example, if the highest reading was 150 psi (1 034 kPa), then the lowest reading must be equal to or more than 150 psi x 0.8 (1035 kPa x 0.8) or 120 psi (827 kPa). • If the powerhead has been in storage for an extended period, the piston rings may have relaxed. This will often lead to initially low and misleading readings. Always run an engine to normal operating temperature to ensure that the readings are accurate. • If you've never removed the spark plugs from this cylinder head before, break each one loose and retighten them, to make sure they will not seize in the head once it is warmed. Better yet, remove each one and coat the threads very lightly with some fresh anti-seize compound. 1. Using a test tank, flush fitting adapter or other water supply, start and run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature, then shut the engine off. 2. Disable the ignition system by connecting each spark plug wire to a good engine ground (using a jumper wire from the ground to the wire inside each spark plug boot). Never simply disconnect all the plug wires. ** CAUTION Removing all of the spark plugs and cranking the powerhead can lead to an explosion if raw fuel/oil sprays out of the plug holes. A plug wire could spark and ignite this mix outside of the combustion chamber if it isn't grounded to the engine. Also, on many of the ignition systems covered, cranking the engine and firing the coil without allowing the coils to discharge through the spark plug leads can lead to severe damage to the ignition system. 3. Remove all the spark plugs and be sure to keep them in order. Carefully inspect the plugs, looking for any inconsistency in coloration and for any sign of water or rust near the tip. Refer to the procedures on Spark Plugs in this section for more details. • On FICHT motors, the spark plugs must be indexed during i nstallation (notice the markings that probably appear on the shaft at this time, before you remove them). The markings are made during installation to make sure the gap winds up facing the fuel injector. Take note of this for installation purposes. For more details, refer to the Spark Plug procedures in this section. 3. Thread the compression gauge into the No. 1 spark-plug hole, taking care to not crossthread the fitting. 4. Open the throttle to the wide open throttle position and hold it there. • Some engines allow only minimal opening if the gearshift is in neutral, to guard against over-revving. 5. Crank over the engine an equal number of times for each cylinder you test, zeroing the gauge for each cylinder. 6. If you have electric start, count the number of seconds you crank. On manual start, pull the starter rope four to five times for each cylinder you are testing. (And, if you have manual start, and are about to try a compression check on one of these monsters, eat your spinach first, because you are going to be ONE TIRED PUPPY when you're finished). • For manual start motors, it really does make sense to remove ALL of the spark plugs before attempting to check compression. Removing the plugs on the cylinders not being checked will relieve compression on those cylinders making it easier to turn the motor using the rope. 7. Record your readings from each cylinder. When all cylinders are tested, compare the readings and determine if pressures are within the 15 psi (100 kPa) or 80% criterion, as applicable. • Starting in 1996, Evinrude/Johnson also began advising technicians to average the compression readings for each bank (starboard and port) and to make sure that the averages of each bank do not differ by more than 15 psi (1 00 kPa). 8. If compression readings are lower than normal for any cylinders, try a "wet" compression test, which will temporarily seal the piston rings and determine if they are the cause of the low reading. Using a can of fogging oil, fog the cylinder with a circular motion to distribute oil spray all around the perimeter of the piston. Retest the cylinder: a. If the compression rises noticeably in a wet test, the piston rings are sticking. You may be able to cure the problem by decarboning the powerhead. b. If the dry compression test was really low and no change is evident during the wet test, the cylinder is dead. The piston and/or cylinder are worn beyond specification (possibilities include damaged pistons, broken or stuck pistons rings, scored cylinder walls or a blown head gasket) and a powerhead overhaul or replacement is necessary. 9. If two adjacent cylinders on a multi-cylinder engine give a similarly low reading then the problem may be a faulty head gasket. This should be suspected especially if there is evidence of water or rust on the spark plugs from these cylinders. 10. If the engine has compression within specification on all cylinders, yet is hard to start and runs poorly, there may still be damage to the powerhead, suspect the possibilities of scored cylinder walls, damaged pistons and/or stuck or worn piston rings. Spark Plugs The spark plug performs four main functions: • First and foremost, it provides spark for the combustion process to occur . • It also removes heat from the combustion chamber. • Its removal provides access to the combustion chamber (for inspection or testing) through a hole in the cylinder head. • It acts as a dielectric insulator for the ignition system. It is important to remember that spark plugs do not create heat, they help remove it. Anything that prevents a spark plug from removing the proper amount of heat can lead to pre-ignition, detonation, premature spark plug failure and even internal engine damage, especially in 2-stroke engines. In the simplest of terms, the spark plug acts as the thermometer of the engine. Much like a doctor examining a patient, this "thermometer" can be used to effectively diagnose the amount of heat present in each combustion chamber. Spark plugs are valuable tuning tools, when interpreted correctly. They will show symptoms of other problems and can reveal a great deal about the engine's overall condition. Evaluating the appearance of the spark plug's firing tip, gives visual cues to determine the engine's overall operating condition, in order to get a feel for air/fuel ratios and even diagnose driveability problems. 2-42 MAINTENANCE Fig. 99 Compression check on a typical multi-cylinder powerhead • When using the 80% standard, the compression reading on the lowest cylinder reading should be equal to 80% or more of the reading from the highest cylinder reading. In other words, the lowest reading should be the equal to or greater than the highest cylinder reading multiplied by 0.8. For example, if the highest reading was 150 psi (1 034 kPa), then the lowest reading must be equal to or more than 150 psi x 0.8 (1035 kPa x 0.8) or 120 psi (827 kPa). • If the powerhead has been in storage for an extended period, the piston rings may have relaxed. This will often lead to initially low and misleading readings. Always run an engine to normal operating temperature to ensure that the readings are accurate. • If you've never removed the spark plugs from this cylinder head before, break each one loose and retighten them, to make sure they will not seize in the head once it is warmed. Better yet, remove each one and coat the threads very lightly with some fresh anti-seize compound. 1. Using a test tank, flush fitting adapter or other water supply, start and run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature, then shut the engine off. 2. Disable the ignition system by connecting each spark plug wire to a good engine ground (using a jumper wire from the ground to the wire inside each spark plug boot). Never simply disconnect all the plug wires. ** CAUTION Removing all of the spark plugs and cranking the powerhead can lead to an explosion if raw fuel/oil sprays out of the plug holes. A plug wire could spark and ignite this mix outside of the combustion chamber if it isn't grounded to the engine. Also, on many of the ignition systems covered, cranking the engine and firing the coil without allowing the coils to discharge through the spark plug leads can lead to severe damage to the ignition system. 3. Remove all the spark plugs and be sure to keep them in order. Carefully inspect the plugs, looking for any inconsistency in coloration and for any sign of water or rust near the tip. Refer to the procedures on Spark Plugs in this section for more details. • On FICHT motors, the spark plugs must be indexed during i nstallation (notice the markings that probably appear on the shaft at this time, before you remove them). The markings are made during installation to make sure the gap winds up facing the fuel injector. Take note of this for installation purposes. For more details, refer to the Spark Plug procedures in this section. 3. Thread the compression gauge into the No. 1 spark-plug hole, taking care to not crossthread the fitting. 4. Open the throttle to the wide open throttle position and hold it there. • Some engines allow only minimal opening if the gearshift is in neutral, to guard against over-revving. 5. Crank over the engine an equal number of times for each cylinder you test, zeroing the gauge for each cylinder. 6. If you have electric start, count the number of seconds you crank. On manual start, pull the starter rope four to five times for each cylinder you are testing. (And, if you have manual start, and are about to try a compression check on one of these monsters, eat your spinach first, because you are going to be ONE TIRED PUPPY when you're finished). • For manual start motors, it really does make sense to remove ALL of the spark plugs before attempting to check compression. Removing the plugs on the cylinders not being checked will relieve compression on those cylinders making it easier to turn the motor using the rope. 7. Record your readings from each cylinder. When all cylinders are tested, compare the readings and determine if pressures are within the 15 psi (100 kPa) or 80% criterion, as applicable. • Starting in 1996, Evinrude/Johnson also began advising technicians to average the compression readings for each bank (starboard and port) and to make sure that the averages of each bank do not differ by more than 15 psi (1 00 kPa). 8. If compression readings are lower than normal for any cylinders, try a "wet" compression test, which will temporarily seal the piston rings and determine if they are the cause of the low reading. Using a can of fogging oil, fog the cylinder with a circular motion to distribute oil spray all around the perimeter of the piston. Retest the cylinder: a. If the compression rises noticeably in a wet test, the piston rings are sticking. You may be able to cure the problem by decarboning the powerhead. b. If the dry compression test was really low and no change is evident during the wet test, the cylinder is dead. The piston and/or cylinder are worn beyond specification (possibilities include damaged pistons, broken or stuck pistons rings, scored cylinder walls or a blown head gasket) and a powerhead overhaul or replacement is necessary. 9. If two adjacent cylinders on a multi-cylinder engine give a similarly low reading then the problem may be a faulty head gasket. This should be suspected especially if there is evidence of water or rust on the spark plugs from these cylinders. 10. If the engine has compression within specification on all cylinders, yet is hard to start and runs poorly, there may still be damage to the powerhead, suspect the possibilities of scored cylinder walls, damaged pistons and/or stuck or worn piston rings. Spark Plugs The spark plug performs four main functions: • First and foremost, it provides spark for the combustion process to occur . • It also removes heat from the combustion chamber. • Its removal provides access to the combustion chamber (for inspection or testing) through a hole in the cylinder head. • It acts as a dielectric insulator for the ignition system. It is important to remember that spark plugs do not create heat, they help remove it. Anything that prevents a spark plug from removing the proper amount of heat can lead to pre-ignition, detonation, premature spark plug failure and even internal engine damage, especially in 2-stroke engines. In the simplest of terms, the spark plug acts as the thermometer of the engine. Much like a doctor examining a patient, this "thermometer" can be used to effectively diagnose the amount of heat present in each combustion chamber. Spark plugs are valuable tuning tools, when interpreted correctly. They will show symptoms of other problems and can reveal a great deal about the engine's overall condition. Evaluating the appearance of the spark plug's firing tip, gives visual cues to determine the engine's overall operating condition, in order to get a feel for air/fuel ratios and even diagnose driveability problems. MAINTENANCE 2-43 As spark plugs grow older, they lose their sharp edges and material from the center and ground electrodes slowly erodes away. As the gap between these two points grows, the voltage required to bridge this gap increases proportionately. The ignition system must work harder to compensate for this higher voltage requirement and hence there is a greater rate of misfires or incomplete combustion cycles. Each misfire means lost horsepower, reduced fuel economy and higher emissions. Replacing worn out spark plugs with new ones (that have sharp new edges) effectively restores the ignition system's efficiency and reduces the percentage of misfires, restoring power, economy and reducing emissions. • Although spark plugs can typically be cleaned and regapped if they are not excessively worn, no amount of cleaning or regapping will return most spark plugs to original condition and it is usually best to just go ahead and replace them. How long spark plugs last will depend on a variety of factors, including engine compression, fuel used, gap, center/ground electrode material and the conditions in which the outboard is operated. SPARK PLUG HEAT RANGE + See Figure 100 Spark plug heat range is the ability of the plug to dissipate heat from the combustion chamber. The longer the insulator (or the farther it extends into the engine), the hotter the plug will operate; the shorter the insulator (the closer the electrode is to the engine's cooling passages) the cooler it will operate. Selecting a spark plug with the proper heat range will ensure that the tip maintains a temperature high enough to prevent fouling, yet cool enough to prevent pre-ignition. A plug that absorbs little heat and remains too cool will quickly accumulate deposits of oil and carbon since it won't be able to burn them off. This leads to plug fouling and consequently to misfiring. A plug that absorbs too much heat will have no deposits but, due to the excessive heat, the electrodes will burn away quickly and might also lead to pre-ignition or other ignition problems. Pre-ignition takes place when plug tips get so hot that they glow sufficiently to ignite the air/fuel mixture before the actual spark occurs. This early ignition will usually cause a pinging during heavy loads and if not corrected, will result in severe engine damage. While there are many other things that can cause pre-ignition, selecting the proper heat range spark plug will ensure that the spark plug itself is not a hot-spot source. • The manufacturer recommended spark plugs for carbureted motors are listed in the Tune-Up Specifications chart. When provided, alternate plugs for extended idle and/or extended wide-open throttle service are also listed. For fuel injected outboards, please refer to Spark Plugs for FICHT Motors. lHE SHORTER SPARK PLUGS FOR FIGHT MOTORS When introduced in 1997 FIGHT motors went through some growing pains-Mostly due to problems with excessive carbon deposit buildup from extended low-speed operation. Multiple spark plugs were used during this time period and the original Emission Control Information labels early-model FIGHT motors may refer you to use almost anything. In fact, at the time of authoring, the factory service information published by OMC and still sold by Bombardier does not give you spark plug or gap specifications. In almost all cases we were referred to the Emission Control Information label. However, after speaking with local dealers and researching the subject, we were able to find a couple of recommendations. First of all, most Emission Control labels on FIGHT motors will advise the technician to use a spark plug gap within a range, instead of just a fixed number. Most FIGHT labels recommend the a spark plug gap of 0.030 in. (0.76mm) give or take 0.003 in. (0.076mm). This translates into a range of 0.027-0.033 in. (0.69-0.84mm). But, FIGHT motors use a multi-spark ignition system (that fires multiple times for each power stroke during certain conditions) and are generally very tough on their spark plugs causing accelerated wear. For this reason, we recommend gapping FIGHT plugs at the low end of the range, more like 0.027 in (0.69mm) or 0.028 in. (0.71 mm) to give the plug more time and gap to wear while in service. By the time the gap starts to exceed specification, there's a good chance the motor will begin showing signs of hard-starting, stumbling or missing, especially at high-speeds. As for plug types, we normally recommend sticking with what is on the Emission Control Information label, but since some early-model powerheads may have been changed or serviced and we can't be sure the labels were always updated, we've got a few words of advice on the subject. Some early 90-175 hp 60° V4 and V6 FIGHT motors were equipped with non-deflector pin cylinder heads. These models were generally produced only for the 1997-1 999 model years. We find most dealers are using Champion 771 2 spark plugs on these motors. However, many of these powerheads were replaced if carbon buildup or other mechanical problems were experienced by the original owners (or by the rigging dealer). If you're working on one of these early-model 60° FIGHTs, check the cylinder head for a small Allen® head bolt right next to each of the spark plugs (right between the spark plug and the FIGHT fuel injector). When present, the powerhead contains updated "pinned" cylinder heads. These heads contain a deflector pin in the combustion chamber (positioned between the fuel injector and the spark plug, retained by the Allen® head bolt). The deflector pin is used to keep fuel from spraying directly on the spark plug, and helps to reduce plug fouling. All 2000 and later 75-175 hp 60° V4 and V6 FIGHT motors use the pinned cylinder heads from the factory. On all motors with a pinned cylinder head, use Champion XC12PEP plugs. For all 200-250 hp 90° V6 FIGHT motors, use Champion QC12PEP spark plugs. Of course, we stated earlier that we NORMALLY recommend sticking with the information on the Emission label, but in this case, we'll advise that we think you should use your heads. If the label, especially on an earlymodel powerhead, recommends a plug that is no longer available, use what we've suggested here or the superceding part from a dealer. If your FIGHT motor is showing signs of plug fouling, and a plug other than what is listed here was used, again, try what we've suggested. Last, we've heard that the THE PATH. THE 7712 and QC12PEP plugs seem to work best for motors that have been experiencing plug fouling, so again, if you've tried other plugs and not had success, give them a try. Of course, you can always check with a local dealer to see what they recommend. You never know who might have found FASTER THE HEAT IS DIS. SIPATED AND THE COOLER THE PlUG SlOWER THE HEAT IS DIS· SIPATED ANO THE HOTTER SHORT TRIP something that works even better. Just make sure whatever plug you use is a suppression type plug, as the use of non-suppression plugs may lead to performance problems. • Some FICHT motors that show signs of carbon fouling are not the result of excessive low-speed operation, but are instead the victims of leaky oil or fuel diaphragms in the lift pumps. To check this, disconnect HEAVY LOADS. STOP·AND-GO pumps can also be pressure-checked. For details, please refer to LONG Insulator TrpFasl Heat Transter Slow Heat Transfer FICHT Fuel Injection under Fuel System or FICHT Oil Injection under LOWE R Heat Range HIGHER Heat Range Lubrication and Cooling. COLO PLUG SHORT Insulator T1p HOT Pl:UG • Another culprit that may lead to spark plug fouling is problems Fig. 100 Spark plug heat range with the Thermostats. For more details, please refer to the Lubrication and Cooling section. HIGH SPEEDS the pulse lines from the pumps and look for signs of leakage. The + See Figures 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 and 107 • New technologies in spark plug and ignition system design have eatly extended spark plug life over the years. But, spark plug life will st1ll vary greatly with e..gine tuning, condition and usage. In general, you number them, they may become mixed up. Take a minute before you begin and number the wires with tape. switch OFF. 3. If the engine cool (unless P. from a hot cylinder head could cause the plugs to seize and damage the + See Figures 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 and 107 • New technologies in spark plug and ignition system design have eatly extended spark plug life over the years. But, spark plug life will st1ll vary greatly with e..gine tuning, condition and usage. In general, you number them, they may become mixed up. Take a minute before you begin and number the wires with tape. switch OFF. 3. If the engine cool (unless P. from a hot cylinder head could cause the plugs to seize and damage the 2-44 MAINTENANCE Fig. 101 On some motors, the lower engine cases interfere with access to the plugs Fig. 1 02 With the lead removed, loosen the plug using a plug socket... Fig. 103 ... then remove the spark plug from the cylinder head Fig. 104 To prevent corrosion, apply a small amount of grease to the plug and boot during installation Fig. 105 On FICHT motors, place an indexing mark on the plug Fig. 106 Use these indexing regions as a guide when tightening the plug (it must roughly align between 1 and 2) REMOVAL & INSTALLATION gr . 2-stroke motors are a little tougher on plugs, especially if great care is ..ot taken to maintain proper oil/fuel mixtures on pre-mix motors. But, it IS not uncommon for plugs to last up to 100 hours of operation. Typically, spark plugs will require replacement once a season. The electrode on a new spark plug has a sharp edge but with use, this edge becomes rounded by wear, causing the plug gap to increase. As the gap Increases, the plu..'s voltage requirement also increases. It requires a greater voltage to JUmp the w1der gap and about two to three times as much voltage to fire a plug at high speeds then at idle. • Fouled plugs can cause hard-starting, engine mis-firing or other problems. You don't want that happening on the water. Take time, at least once a month to remove and inspect the spark plugs. Early signs of other tuning or mechanical problems may be found on the plugs that could save you from becoming stranded or even allow you to address a problem before it ruins the motor. Tools needed for spark plug replacement include: a ratchet, short extension, spark plug socket (there are two types; either 13/1 6 in. or 5/8 in., dependmg upon the type of plug), a combination spark plug gauge and gappmg tool and a can of anti-seize type compound. • FICHT motors require the spark plugs to be indexed (marked) in order to ensure that the gap is facing the fuel injector once it is installed and tightened. Be sure to follow the FICHT steps in the accompanying procedures when working on any FICHT Fuel Injection (FFI) motors. t When removing spark plugs from multi-cylinder motors, work on one at a t1me. Don't start by removing the plug wires all at once, because unless 2. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable or turn the battery ..as been run recently, allow the engine to thoroughly erform1ng a compress1on check). Attempting to remove plugs threads m the cylmder head, especially on aluminum heads! • To ensure an accurate reading during a compression check, the spark plugs must be removed from a hot engine. But, DO NOT force a plug if it feels like it is seized. Instead, wait until the engine has cooled, remove the plug and coat the threads lightly with anti-seize then reinstall and tighten the plug, then back off the tightened position a little less than 1/4 turn. With the plug(s) installed in this manner re-warm ' the engine and conduct the compression check. . 4. Carefully twist the spark plug wire boot to loosen it, then pull the boot us1ng a tWISting mot1on to remove it from the plug. Be sure to pull on the boot and not on the wire, otherwise the connector located inside the boot may become separated from the high-tension wire. • A spark plug wire removal tool is recommended as it will make removal easier and help prevent damage to the boot and wire assembly. Most tools have a wire loom that fits under the plug boot so the force of pulling upward is transmitted directly to the bottom of the boot. 5. Using compressed air (and safety glasses), blow debris from the spark plug area to assure that no harmful contaminants are allowed to enter the combustion chamber when the spark plug is removed. If compressed air 1s not available, use a rag or a brush to clean the area. Compressed air is available from both an a1r compressor or from compressed air in cans available at photography stores. In a pinch, blow up a balloon by hand and use the escaping air to blow debris from the spark plug port(s). MAINTENANCE 2-45 Fig. 107 On FICHT motors, make sure the plug indexing mark roughly faces the centerline of the fuel injector once it is tightened between 15-22 fl. lbs. (20-30 Nm) • Remove the spark plugs when the engine is cold, if possible, to prevent damage to the threads. If plug removal is difficult, apply a few drops of penetrating oil to the area around the base of the plug and allow it a few minutes to work. 6. Before proceeding any further on FIGHT motors, look for the indexing mark on the old plug, it should be facing (roughly speaking) the fuel injector for that cylinder). Note the positioning, it does not have to be matched exactly, but that gives you an idea of what you will have to achieve during installation. 7. Using a spark plug socket that is equipped with a rubber insert to properly hold the plug, turn the spark plug counterclockwise to loosen and remove the spark plug from the bore. ** WARNING Avoid the use of a flexible extension on the socket. Use of a flexible extension may allow a shear force to be applied to the plug. A shear force could break the plug off in the cylinder head, leading to costly and/or frustrating repairs. In addition, be sure to support the ratchet with your other hand-this will also help prevent the socket from damaging the plug. 8. Evaluate each cylinder's performance by comparing the spark condition. Check each spark plug to be sure they are from the same plug manufacturer and have the same heat range rating. Inspect the threads in the spark plug opening of the block and clean the threads before installing the plug. 9. When purchasing new spark plugs, always ask the dealer if there has been a spark plug change for the engine being serviced. Sometimes manufacturers will update the type of spark plug used in an engine to offer better efficiency or performance. 10. Inspect the spark plug boot for tears or damage. If a damaged boot is found, the spark plug boot and possibly the entire wire will need replacement. To install: 11. Check the spark plug gap prior to installing the plug. Most spark plugs do not come gapped to the proper specification. 12. For FIGHT motors, place an indexing mark on the ceramic portion of each replacement spark plug. The mark must be made along the length of the plug, directly inline with the electrode gap. The mark will be used once the plugs are threaded to determine whether or not the gap is facing the fuel injector. 13. Apply a thin coating of anti-seize on the thread of the plug. This is extremely important on aluminum head engines to prevent corrosion and heat from seizing the plug in the threads (which could lead to a damaged cylinder head upon removal). 14. Carefully thread the plug into the bore by hand. If resistance is felt before the plug completely bottoms, back the plug out and begin threading again. ** WARNING Do not use the spark plug socket to thread the plugs. Always carefully thread the plug by hand or using an old plug wire/boot to prevent the possibility of crossthreading and damaging the cylinder head bore. An old plug wire/boot can be used to thread the plug if you turn the wire by hand. Should the plug begin to crossthread, the wire will twist before the cylinder head would be damaged. This trick is useful when accessories or a deep cylinder head design prevents you from easily keeping fingers on the plug while it is threaded by hand. 15. Carefully tighten the spark plug to specification using a torque wrench as follows: • Carbureted motors: 18-21 ft. lbs. (24-28 Nm) • FIGHT motors (refer to the accompanying illustration for details): first tighten the plug to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) and check the plug indexing mark. If the indexing mark is in range 2 (approximately 4-7 O'clock, facing roughly toward the fuel injector), do not tighten it any further. If the plug is in range 1 (approximately 11-4 O'clock, tighten the plug additionally until it aligns directly with the center of the injector OR reaching 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm) whichever happens first. If, at 15ft. lbs. (20 Nm) the plug is in range 3 (approximately 7-1 1 O'clock), the plug probably won't work on this bank of cylinders, loosen and rethread it or try it in the other bank. • Whenever possible, spark plugs should be tightened to the factory torque specification. If a torque wrench is not available, and the plug you are installing is equipped with a crush washer, tighten the plug until the washer seats, then turn it 1/4 turn to crush the washer. 16. Apply a small amount of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or a silicone dielectric grease to the ribbed, ceramic portion of the spark plug lead and inside the spark plug boot to prevent sticking, then install the boot to the spark plug and push until it clicks into place. The click may be felt or heard. Gently pull back on the boot to assure proper contact. 17. Connect the negative battery cable or turn the battery switch ON. 18. Test run the outboard (using a test tank or flush fitting) and insure proper operation. READING SPARK PLUGS + See Figures 108, 109, 110, 111, 112 and 113 Reading spark plugs can be a valuable tuning aid. By examining the insulator firing nose color, you can determine much about the engine's overall operating condition. In general, a light tan/gray color tells you that the spark plug is at the optimum temperature and that the engine is in good operating condition. Dark coloring, such as heavy black wet or dry deposits usually indicate a fouling problem. Heavy, dry deposits can indicate an overly rich condition, too cold a heat range spark plug, possible vacuum leak, low compression, overly retarded timing or too large a plug gap. • Note, carbon fouling can also occur from excessive idling conditions. If you put through a lot of no wake zones, for hours at a time, then you either need a hotter plug, or you need to balance that use by running the motor up at or near wide-open throttle too for periods of time. If you can do this for a while on the way back to the dock or ramp, after those idling conditions, you may alleviate the need to change to a different type of plug. If the deposits are wet, it can be an indication of a breached head gasket (water) or an extremely rich condition (fuel/oil), depending on what liquid is present at the firing tip. Also look for signs of detonation, such as silver specs, black specs or melting or breakage at the firing tip. 2-46 MAINTENANCE Fig. 108 A normally worn spark plug should have light tan or gray deposits on the firing tip (electrode) Fig. 111 An oil-fouled spark plug indicates a powerhead with worn piston rings or a malfunctioning oil injection system that allows excessive oil to enter the combustion chamber Fig. 109 A carbon-fouled plug, identified by soft, sooty black deposits, may indicate an improperly tuned powerhead Fig. 112 A physically damaged spark plug may be evidence of severe detonation in that cylinder. Watch the cylinder carefully between services, as a continued detonation will not only damage the plug but will most likely damage the powerhead Compare your plugs to the illustrations shown to identify the most common plug conditions. Fouled Spark Plugs A spark plug is "fouled" when the insulator nose at the firing tip becomes coated with a foreign substance, such as fuel, oil or carbon. This coating makes it easier for the voltage to follow along the insulator nose and leach back down into the metal shell, grounding out, rather than bridging the gap normally. Fig. 110 This spark plug has been left in the powerhead too long, as evidenced by the extreme gap. Plugs with such an extreme gap can cause misfiring and stumbling accompanied by a noticeable lack of power Fig. 113 A bridged or almost bridged spark plug, identified by the build-up between the electrodes caused by excessive carbon or oil build up on the plug Fuel, oil and carbon fouling can all be caused by different things but in any case, once a spark plug is fouled, it will not provide voltage lathe firing tip and that cylinder will not fire properly. In many cases, the spark plug cannot be cleaned sufficiently to restore normal operation. It is therefore recommended that fouled plugs be replaced. Signs of fouling or excessive heat must be traced quickly to prevent further deterioration of performance and to prevent possible engine damage. MAINTENANCE 2-47 Overheated Spark Plugs When a spark plug tip shows signs of melting or is broken, it usually means that excessive heat and/or detonation was present in that particular combustion chamber or that the spark plug was suffering from thermal shock. Since spark plugs do not create heat by themselves, one must use this visual clue to track down the root cause of the problem. In any case, damaged firing tips most often indicate that cylinder pressures or temperatures were too high. Left unresolved, this condition usually results in more serious engine damage. Detonation refers to a type of abnormal combustion that is usually preceded by pre-ignition. It is most often caused by a hot spot formed in the combustion chamber. As air and fuel is drawn into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke, this hot spot will "pre-ignite" the air fuel mixture without any spark from the spark plugs. Detonation Detonation exerts a great deal of downward force on the pistons as they are being forced upward by the mechanical action of the connecting rods. When this occurs, the resulting concussion, shock waves and heat can be severe. Spark plug tips can be broken or melted and other internal engine components such as the pistons or connecting rods themselves can be damaged. Left unresolved, engine damage is almost certain to occur, with the spark plug usually suffering the first signs of damage. • When signs of detonation or pre-ignition are observed, they are symptom of another problem. You must determine and correct the situation that caused the hot spot to form in the first place. INSPECTION & GAPPING + See Figures 114 and 115 A particular spark plug might fit hundreds of powerheads and although the factory will typically set the gap to a pre-selected setting, this gap may not be the right one for your particular powerhead. Insufficient spark plug gap can cause pre-ignition, detonation, even engine damage. Too much gap can result in a higher rate of misfires, a noticeable loss of power, plug fouling and poor economy. • Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart or the emission control information label on your motor for spark plug gaps. No specifications are published on FICHT motors. For all FICHT engines, you MUST refer to the label (though the gap on one of our tear-down motors, a 2001 90 hp (1726cc) 60 degree V4, was 0.030 in. (0.8mm) which is the same as the gap specified for MOST carbureted Evinrude/Johnson V-motors). Check the spark plug gap before installation. The ground electrode (the L -shaped one connected to the body of the plug) must be parallel to the center electrode and the specified size wire gauge must pass between the electrodes with a slight drag. Do not use a flat feeler gauge when measuring the gap on a used plug, because the reading may be inaccurate. A round-wire type gapping tool is the best way to check the gap. The correct gauge should pass through the electrode gap with a slight drag. If you're in doubt, try a wire that is one size smaller and one larger; the smaller gauge should go through easily, while the larger one shouldn't go through at all. Wire gapping tools usually have a bending tool attached. USE IT! This tool greatly reduces the chance of breaking off the electrode and is much more accurate. Never attempt to bend or move the center electrode. Also, be careful not to bend the side electrode too far or too often as it may weaken and break off within the engine, requiring removal of the cylinder head to retrieve it. Fig. 115 Most plug gapping tools have an adjusting fitting used to bend the ground electrode Spark Plug Wires • All Evinrude/Johnson V-motors are equipped with secondary spark leads or spark plug wires to carry ignition voltage from the coils to the spark plugs. Overtime the insulation on these wires will break down, allowing arcing (voltage leakage or shorts to ground) and/or corrosion (causing higher resistance). The wires must be inspected periodically and replaced when worn or damaged in order to ensure optimum ignition performance. .®. TESTING + See Figures 116 and 117 Each time you remove the engine cover, visually inspect the spark plug wires for burns, cuts or breaks in the insulation. Check the boots on the coil and at the spark plug end. Replace any wire that is damaged. Once a year, this should probably be performed when you change your spark plugs during a pre-season tune-up, check the resistance of the spark plug wires with an ohmmeter. Wires with excessive resistance will cause misfiring and may make the engine difficult to start. In addition worn wires will allow arcing and misfiring in humid conditions. Remove the spark plug wire from the engine. Test the wires by connecting one lead of an ohmmeter to the coil end of the wire and the other lead to the spark plug end of the wire. Typically resistance for spark plug leads would measure approximately 7000 ohms per foot of wire. However, on carbureted Evinrude/Johnson motors, the manufacturer calls for a reading very close to or equal to zero ohms resistance. 2-48 MAINTENANCE Fig. 116 Visually inspect the spark plug boot and wire (under the protective cover) ... If a spark plug wire is found to have excessive resistance the entire set should be replaced. • Keep in mind that just because a spark plug wire passes a resistance test doesn't mean that it is in good shape. Cracked or deteriorated insulation will allow the circuit to misfire under load, especially when wet. Always visually check wires to cuts, cracks or breaks in the insulation. If found, run the engine in a test tank or on a flush device either at night (looking for a blueish glow from the wires that would indicate arcing) or while spraying water (from a spray bottle, NOT a garden hose) on them while listening for an engine stumble. Regardless of resistance tests and visual checks, it is never a bad idea to replace spark plug leads at least every couple of years, and to keep the old ones around for spares. Think of spark plug wires as a relatively low cost item that whose replacement can also be considered maintenance. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figure 104 When installing a new set of spark plug wires, replace the wires one at a time so there will be no confusion. Coat the inside of the boots with Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard or dielectric grease to prevent sticking. Install the boot firmly over the spark plug until it clicks into place. The click may be felt or heard. Gently pull back on the boot to assure proper contact. Repeat the process for each wire. TIMING'AND SYNCHRONIZATION + See Figures 118 and 119 In simple terms, synchronization is timing the fuel system to the ignition system and the mechanical rotation of the motor. Timing and synchronization ensures that as the throttle is advanced to increase powerhead rpm, the fuel and the ignition systems are both advanced equally and at the same rate. Various models have unique methods of checking ignition timing. As appropriate, these differences will be explained in detail in the text. Any time the fuel system or the ignition system on a powerhead is serviced to replace a faulty part or any adjustments are made for any reason, powerhead timing and synchronization must be carefully checked and verified. Depending on the engine, adjustment of the timing and synchronization can be extremely important to obtain maximum efficiency. The powerhead cannot perform properly and produce its designed horsepower output if the Fig. 117 ... all the way back to the ignition coils for signs of wear or damage • It is important to route the new spark plug wire the same as the original and install it in a similar manner on the powerhead. Improper routing of spark plug wires may cause powerhead performance problems. Ignition System Maintenance TE INSPECTION Modern electronic ignition systems have become one of the most reliable components on an outboard. There is very little maintenance involved in the operation of these ignition systems and even less to repair if they fail. Most systems are sealed and there is no option other than to replace failed components. Just as a tune-up is pointless on an engine with no compression, a installing new spark plugs will not do much for an engine with a damaged ignition system. At each tune-up, visually inspect all ignition system components for signs of obvious defects. Look for signs of burnt, cracked or broken insulation. Replace wires or components with obvious defects. If spark plug condition suggests weak or no spark on one or more cylinders, perform ignition system testing to eliminate possible worn or defective components. If trouble is suspected, it is very important to narrow down the problem to the ignition system and replace the correct components rather than just replace parts hoping to solve the problem. Electronic components can be very expensive and are usually not returnable. Refer to the "Ignition and Electrical" section for more information on troubleshooting and repairing ignition systems. fuel and ignition systems have not been precisely adjusted. We say, depending on the engine because some of the models covered by this manual are equipped with a FIGHT Fuel Injection (FFI) system which requires few, if any adjustments once installed. As a matter of fact, because of the EPA regulated carburetors used on most of the motors covered here, very few adjustments are possible on most carburetors. There are no periodic mixture adjustments necessary on the motors covered. The high-speed jets are fixed units and the low speed mixture screws (when used instead of fixed jets) are sealed to prevent unnecessary tampering. However, any carburetor will require initial set-up and adjustment after disassembly or rebuilding. Also, all carburetors or fuel injection throttle bodies will require synchronization with each other after one or more has been removed or separated. Although some of the motors covered by this manual utilize fully electronically controlled ignition and timing systems, most of the 2-stroke motors allow for some form of timing adjustment. Care should be taken to ensure settings are correct during each tune-up. Fig. 119 Flywheel timing marks, aligned with a timing pointer Most models have timing marks on the flywheel and CDI base. A timing light is normally used to check the ignition timing with the powerhead operating (dynamically). Most of the motors, excluding the FFI units, require idle and/or maximum advance timing adjustments. • Before making any adjustments to the ignition timing or synchronizing the ignition to the fuel system, both systems should be verified to be in good working order. Timing and synchronizing the ignition and fuel systems on an outboard motor are critical adjustments. The following equipment is essential and is called out repeatedly in this section. This equipment must be used as described, unless otherwise instructed by the equipment manufacturer. Naturally, the equipment is removed following completion of the adjustments. For many of the adjustments, the manufacturer recommends the use of a test wheel instead of a normal propeller in order to put a load on the engine and propeller shaft. The use of the test wheel both ensures that the proper load is placed on the motor during adjustments while it also prevents the engine from overspeed (excessive rpm). • Timing Light-During many procedures in this section, the timing mark on the flywheel must be aligned with a stationary timing mark on the engine while the powerhead is being cranked or is running. Only through use of a timing light connected to the No. 1 spark plug lead, can the timing mark on the flywheel be observed while the engine is operating MAINTENANCE 2-49 • The 60° motors (75-175 Hp [1726/2589cc] V4N6 engines) do not require the use of a timing light, as adjustments are made statically. However, adjustments on these outboards cannot be made without the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer tool . • Tachometer-A tachometer connected to the powerhead must be used to accurately determine engine speed during idle and high-speed adjustment. A good tachometer will provide engine speed readings that range from 0-6,000 rpm, in increments of 100 rpm. Choose a tachometer with solid state electronic circuits, eliminating the need for relays or batteries and contribute to their accuracy. For maximum performance, the idle rpm should be adjusted under actual operating conditions. Under such conditions it is necessary to attach a tachometer closer to the powerhead than the one installed on the control panel. • Flywheel Rotation-The instructions may call for rotating the flywheel until certain marks are aligned with the timing pointer. When the flywheel must be rotated, always move the flywheel in the indicated direction. If the flywheel should be rotated in the opposite direction, the water pump impeller vanes would be twisted. Should the powerhead be started with the pump tangs bent back in the wrong direction, the tangs may not bend in the correct direction before they are damaged. Even the slightest amount of damage to the water pump will affect cooling of the powerhead. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the powerhead anytime the powerhead is operating to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump impeller . • Test Tank-Since the engine must be operated at various times and engine speeds during some procedures, a test tank or moving the boat into a body of water, is necessary. If installing the engine in a test tank, outfit the engine with an appropriate test propeller. If using a body of water, make sure it is in a low traffic area and that you have an assistant to navigate the boat. • Remember that some powerheads will not start without the emergency tether in place behind the kill switch knob. ** CAUTION Never operate the powerhead above a fast idle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. Operating the powerhead at a high rpm with no load on the propeller shaft could cause the powerhead to runaway causing extensive damage to the unit. Homemade Synchronization Tool + See Figures 120 and 121 • When making a synchronization adjustment, it is important to understand exactly what to look for and why. For most motors, the most critical portion of adjustment is finding the spot when the throttle shaft in the carburetors or throttle bodies begin to move. First, realize that the instant the cam follower makes contact with the cam is not the point at which the throttle shaft starts to move. Instead, the critical instant for adjustment is when the follower hits the designated position and the throttle shaft (in the carb or throttle body) itself begins to move. On most motors, a considerable amount of play exists between the follower at the top of the carburetor or throttle body (through the linkage) to the actual throttle shaft. Therefore, the most important consideration is to watch for movement of the throttle shaft, and not the follower. Movement of the shaft can be exaggerated by attaching a short piece of stiff wire (or a drill bit) to an alligator clip; grinding down the teeth on one side of the clip; and then attaching the clip to the throttle shaft, as shown in the illustrations. Movement of the drill bit or a jiggling of the wire will instantly indicate movement of the actual shaft. Fig. 119 Flywheel timing marks, aligned with a timing pointer Most models have timing marks on the flywheel and CDI base. A timing light is normally used to check the ignition timing with the powerhead operating (dynamically). Most of the motors, excluding the FFI units, require idle and/or maximum advance timing adjustments. • Before making any adjustments to the ignition timing or synchronizing the ignition to the fuel system, both systems should be verified to be in good working order. Timing and synchronizing the ignition and fuel systems on an outboard motor are critical adjustments. The following equipment is essential and is called out repeatedly in this section. This equipment must be used as described, unless otherwise instructed by the equipment manufacturer. Naturally, the equipment is removed following completion of the adjustments. For many of the adjustments, the manufacturer recommends the use of a test wheel instead of a normal propeller in order to put a load on the engine and propeller shaft. The use of the test wheel both ensures that the proper load is placed on the motor during adjustments while it also prevents the engine from overspeed (excessive rpm). • Timing Light-During many procedures in this section, the timing mark on the flywheel must be aligned with a stationary timing mark on the engine while the powerhead is being cranked or is running. Only through use of a timing light connected to the No. 1 spark plug lead, can the timing mark on the flywheel be observed while the engine is operating MAINTENANCE 2-49 • The 60° motors (75-175 Hp [1726/2589cc] V4N6 engines) do not require the use of a timing light, as adjustments are made statically. However, adjustments on these outboards cannot be made without the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer tool . • Tachometer-A tachometer connected to the powerhead must be used to accurately determine engine speed during idle and high-speed adjustment. A good tachometer will provide engine speed readings that range from 0-6,000 rpm, in increments of 100 rpm. Choose a tachometer with solid state electronic circuits, eliminating the need for relays or batteries and contribute to their accuracy. For maximum performance, the idle rpm should be adjusted under actual operating conditions. Under such conditions it is necessary to attach a tachometer closer to the powerhead than the one installed on the control panel. • Flywheel Rotation-The instructions may call for rotating the flywheel until certain marks are aligned with the timing pointer. When the flywheel must be rotated, always move the flywheel in the indicated direction. If the flywheel should be rotated in the opposite direction, the water pump impeller vanes would be twisted. Should the powerhead be started with the pump tangs bent back in the wrong direction, the tangs may not bend in the correct direction before they are damaged. Even the slightest amount of damage to the water pump will affect cooling of the powerhead. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the powerhead anytime the powerhead is operating to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump impeller . • Test Tank-Since the engine must be operated at various times and engine speeds during some procedures, a test tank or moving the boat into a body of water, is necessary. If installing the engine in a test tank, outfit the engine with an appropriate test propeller. If using a body of water, make sure it is in a low traffic area and that you have an assistant to navigate the boat. • Remember that some powerheads will not start without the emergency tether in place behind the kill switch knob. ** CAUTION Never operate the powerhead above a fast idle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. Operating the powerhead at a high rpm with no load on the propeller shaft could cause the powerhead to runaway causing extensive damage to the unit. Homemade Synchronization Tool + See Figures 120 and 121 • When making a synchronization adjustment, it is important to understand exactly what to look for and why. For most motors, the most critical portion of adjustment is finding the spot when the throttle shaft in the carburetors or throttle bodies begin to move. First, realize that the instant the cam follower makes contact with the cam is not the point at which the throttle shaft starts to move. Instead, the critical instant for adjustment is when the follower hits the designated position and the throttle shaft (in the carb or throttle body) itself begins to move. On most motors, a considerable amount of play exists between the follower at the top of the carburetor or throttle body (through the linkage) to the actual throttle shaft. Therefore, the most important consideration is to watch for movement of the throttle shaft, and not the follower. Movement of the shaft can be exaggerated by attaching a short piece of stiff wire (or a drill bit) to an alligator clip; grinding down the teeth on one side of the clip; and then attaching the clip to the throttle shaft, as shown in the illustrations. Movement of the drill bit or a jiggling of the wire will instantly indicate movement of the actual shaft. 2-50 MAINTENANCE Fig. 120 Use an alligator clip and drill bit (or piece of wire) as a homemade tool Fig. 121 Attach the clip to the carburetor throttle shaft and watch the bit or wire for movement 65 Jet 115 Hp (1632cc) V4 Motors ADJUSTMENTS Some of the timing and synchronization procedures for these units require operating the motor at idle rpm under load and at wide-open throttle. Therefore, the outboard must be placed in a test tank or a body of water with the boat well secured to the dock or in a slip (except for the idle timing setting which must be conducted on an unrestrained boat). Never attempt to make the load adjustments or run the engine at wide open throttle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. The powerhead operating at high rpm with such a device, would likely cause a runaway condition from a lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. • If a test tank must be used for most of the settings, all settings from the idle timing on should be checked and adjusted again once the motor is finally mounted on a boat. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if the pointer or manifold has been disturbed, or at least verifying proper positioning if you believe that they have not). Then, instructions for adjusting the throttle cable (on TTL models), throttle valve synchronization, cam follower pickup, maximum spark advance, cam follower pickup timing, wide open throttle stop positioning and idle speed. The TTL models also require a shift lever detent adjustment. Since the carburetors are equipped with fixed high and low speed jets, no adjustment procedure is provided. Procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. The idle speed portion of the synchronization procedures for these units require that the engine be operated at idle rpm mounted on the boat, under load and unrestrained. For this reason, the adjustments should take place on a low-traffic body of water and only with an assistant to navigate while you make the adjustments. Removing the air intake silencer may make some of the preliminary adjustments easier. If possible, it is best to have the silencer installed when the engine is running, but it may be left off if access necessitates it. • For remote control models, remove both remote control cables from the engine before beginning these procedures. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124 and 125 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or intake manifold has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the cam follower pickup timing and maximum spark advance procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or Fig. 122 Timing pointer accuracy should be verified to ensure proper adjustments 2-50 MAINTENANCE Fig. 120 Use an alligator clip and drill bit (or piece of wire) as a homemade tool Fig. 121 Attach the clip to the carburetor throttle shaft and watch the bit or wire for movement 65 Jet 115 Hp (1632cc) V4 Motors ADJUSTMENTS Some of the timing and synchronization procedures for these units require operating the motor at idle rpm under load and at wide-open throttle. Therefore, the outboard must be placed in a test tank or a body of water with the boat well secured to the dock or in a slip (except for the idle timing setting which must be conducted on an unrestrained boat). Never attempt to make the load adjustments or run the engine at wide open throttle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. The powerhead operating at high rpm with such a device, would likely cause a runaway condition from a lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. • If a test tank must be used for most of the settings, all settings from the idle timing on should be checked and adjusted again once the motor is finally mounted on a boat. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if the pointer or manifold has been disturbed, or at least verifying proper positioning if you believe that they have not). Then, instructions for adjusting the throttle cable (on TTL models), throttle valve synchronization, cam follower pickup, maximum spark advance, cam follower pickup timing, wide open throttle stop positioning and idle speed. The TTL models also require a shift lever detent adjustment. Since the carburetors are equipped with fixed high and low speed jets, no adjustment procedure is provided. Procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. The idle speed portion of the synchronization procedures for these units require that the engine be operated at idle rpm mounted on the boat, under load and unrestrained. For this reason, the adjustments should take place on a low-traffic body of water and only with an assistant to navigate while you make the adjustments. Removing the air intake silencer may make some of the preliminary adjustments easier. If possible, it is best to have the silencer installed when the engine is running, but it may be left off if access necessitates it. • For remote control models, remove both remote control cables from the engine before beginning these procedures. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124 and 125 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or intake manifold has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the cam follower pickup timing and maximum spark advance procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or Fig. 122 Timing pointer accuracy should be verified to ensure proper adjustments MAINTENANCE 2-51 SLIDER Fig. 123 A piston stop tool... POINTER Fig. 124 ...or a dial gauge can be used Fig. 125 Timing pointer verification to measure piston height electric start models the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 3. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 1/2 in. (4cm) past the timing pointer. ** WARNING Under NO circumstances should you EVER rotate the flywheel counterclockwise. If you do there is a good chance that the water pump impeller vanes will become damaged. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PIN 384887 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Adjust the tool using the slider to a point where it makes contact with the piston, then lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 6. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel inline with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. 7. Using a flexible scale, measure along the flywheel to locate the exact midway point between the first and second marks and place a mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 8. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 9. Install the spark plugs. Throttle Cable Adjustment (TTL Models Only) + See Figures 126, 127 and 128 1. Turn the idle speed adjustment knob on the tiller handle counterclockwise (as you face the steering handle) to the full slow position. 2. Check to verify that the throttle cable bracket is secured to the powerhead using the forward mounting hole. 3. Loosen the idle speed screw (threaded horizontally at a slight angle downward against the throttle cam) and the wide-open throttle screw (threaded horizontally into the powerhead, just below the pivot point for the throttle linkage, so the bottom of the linkage will contact the screw head at WOT). 4. Turn the twist grip to the full open and then full closed positions. Check the clearance between the throttle cam roller and the end of the throttle cam slot in each position. The roller should have about a 1/4 in. (6mm) gap between itself and the respective end in each position. 5. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the locknut on the throttle cable bracket, then rotate the thumbwheel until the correct gaps are achieved. Tighten the locknut after adjustment. die speed adjustment knob Fig. 126 Turn the idle speed adjustment knob to the slowest idle position Fig. 127 Idle speed screw 2-52 MAINTENANCE Fig. 128 WOT stop screw Throttle Valve Synchronization + See Figure 129 In order for the motor to idle properly, the throttle valves in each of the carburetors must be completely closed. Improper adjustment will often result in the linkage holding one or more of the valves open. If, when the engine is idling with the shifter in neutral, loosening the carburetor lever adjustment screws causes a better idle, there is a good chance that the throttle valves are not properly synchronized. Following this procedure should correct such a problem. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1. Loosen the cam follower screw, then push the follower away from the throttle cam. The follower cannot touch the cam during this procedure or the adjustment will be incorrect. 2. Loosen the lower carburetor lever adjusting screw, then verify that all throttle plates are closed. Partially open the throttle shafts and allow them to snap closed in order to ensure that the throttle valves are closed. 3. With all throttle plates closed, apply a light downward pressure to the tab of the adjusting link (of the lower carburetor lever) in order to remove all backlash, then tighten the lower lever adjusting screw. 4. Move the cam follower and verify that the throttle shafts start to rotate at the same time. • The cam follower screw can be left loose, as this is part of the starting point for the next adjustment-The Cam Follower Pickup point. Fig. 129 Both the throttle cam follower and lower carburetor lever adjusting screws must be loosened for throttle valve synchronization Cam Follower Pickup + See Figure 121 and 130 1. Connect a homemade synchronization tool to the throttle plate of the upper carburetor. 2. With the cam follower screw still loose from the previous adjustment procedure, align the embossed mark with the center of the follower. With the throttle valves closed, hold the follower against the cam's embossed mark and tighten the follower screw. 3. Verify the adjustment by advancing the throttle cam and watching the homemade synchronization tool for movement. The throttle cam mark should align with the roller just as the end of the tool begins to move. Fig. 130 The embossed mark on the throttle cam must align with the center of the roller just at the throttle shaft begins to move Maximum Spark Advance + See Figure 131 • For the ignition timing maximum spark advance specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check the maximum spark advance, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel. Because of the wide variety of propellers available with different sizes and pitches, the manufacturer does not recommend performing this procedure using the propeller. Furthermore, never operate the powerhead with a propeller above idle speeds while using a flush adapter. Fig. 131 To adjust maximum spark advance, loosen the advance rod locknut and rotate the thumb screw to change rod length 2-52 MAINTENANCE Fig. 128 WOT stop screw Throttle Valve Synchronization + See Figure 129 In order for the motor to idle properly, the throttle valves in each of the carburetors must be completely closed. Improper adjustment will often result in the linkage holding one or more of the valves open. If, when the engine is idling with the shifter in neutral, loosening the carburetor lever adjustment screws causes a better idle, there is a good chance that the throttle valves are not properly synchronized. Following this procedure should correct such a problem. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1. Loosen the cam follower screw, then push the follower away from the throttle cam. The follower cannot touch the cam during this procedure or the adjustment will be incorrect. 2. Loosen the lower carburetor lever adjusting screw, then verify that all throttle plates are closed. Partially open the throttle shafts and allow them to snap closed in order to ensure that the throttle valves are closed. 3. With all throttle plates closed, apply a light downward pressure to the tab of the adjusting link (of the lower carburetor lever) in order to remove all backlash, then tighten the lower lever adjusting screw. 4. Move the cam follower and verify that the throttle shafts start to rotate at the same time. • The cam follower screw can be left loose, as this is part of the starting point for the next adjustment-The Cam Follower Pickup point. Fig. 129 Both the throttle cam follower and lower carburetor lever adjusting screws must be loosened for throttle valve synchronization Cam Follower Pickup + See Figure 121 and 130 1. Connect a homemade synchronization tool to the throttle plate of the upper carburetor. 2. With the cam follower screw still loose from the previous adjustment procedure, align the embossed mark with the center of the follower. With the throttle valves closed, hold the follower against the cam's embossed mark and tighten the follower screw. 3. Verify the adjustment by advancing the throttle cam and watching the homemade synchronization tool for movement. The throttle cam mark should align with the roller just as the end of the tool begins to move. Fig. 130 The embossed mark on the throttle cam must align with the center of the roller just at the throttle shaft begins to move Maximum Spark Advance + See Figure 131 • For the ignition timing maximum spark advance specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check the maximum spark advance, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel. Because of the wide variety of propellers available with different sizes and pitches, the manufacturer does not recommend performing this procedure using the propeller. Furthermore, never operate the powerhead with a propeller above idle speeds while using a flush adapter. Fig. 131 To adjust maximum spark advance, loosen the advance rod locknut and rotate the thumb screw to change rod length ** .WARNING Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 1. Install the spark plugs (which were removed for timing pointer verification) and connect the leads. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead. 3. Start the engine and run it at idle until it reaches operating temperature. 4. Once the motor is fully warmed, run it at full throttle, with the outboard in forward gear (the timer base must be fully advanced). Aim the timing light at the timing marks on the flywheel perimeter. The mark on the timing pointer should align at the correct degree mark on the flywheel (refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart in this section). 5. If the timing requires adjustment, shut down the powerhead for safety and adjust as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on the spark advance rod. b. Turn the adjustment thumb screw in order to correct the timing. Rotate the top of the thumb screw toward the crankcase to advance timing or away from the crankcase to retard timing. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. Cam Follower Pickup Timing • See Figures 130, 132 and 133 1. With the timing light still connected to the No. 1 spark plug lead (from the previous adjustment) and the warmed and running at idle, point the timing light to the scale while moving the spark advance lever by hand. 2. Once the timing light indicates the 3-5°BTDC, check the embossed mark on the throttle cam to make sure it aligns with the center of the cam follower. 3. If the pickup timing must be adjusted, stop the engine for safety, then loosen the locknut and rotate the top of the thumbwheel away from the crankcase to increase pickup timing or rotate the top of the wheel toward the crankcase to decrease timing. 4. Once adjustment is completed, hold the thumbwheel from turning while you tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and verify proper cam follower pickup timing using the timing light and the spark advance lever. Wide Open Throttle Stop • See Figures 128 and 134 1. With the engine not running manually advance the throttle lever to the Wide Open Throttle (WOT) position. 2. With the throttle lever at WOT, check each of the roil pins in the carburetor shafts (located behind the linkage tabs, just before the shaft enters the carburetor body). The roll pins should be fully vertical, but NOT overrotated past vertical. 3. If adjustment is necessary, turn the WOT screw to achieve the proper setting. MAINTENANCE 2-53 Idle Speed • See Figure 127 • Always adjust the idle speed with the correct propeller installed. Here's your excuse, show this page to your better half in case she (or he) doesn't believe you. It's time to take the boat out because that's how the manufacturer wants you to adjust the idle speed. Not in a test tank, not on a trailer or even attached to a dock, but with the motor mounted on a boat, underway. For safety, use an assistant to navigate while you make the adjustment. • On remote motors, the throttle and shift cables must be reconnected at this point to ensure safe operation. Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart for idle speed specs. 1. Connect an accurate shop tachometer. 2. Start the engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 3. Once the engine has fully warmed, operate the engine at idle with the lower unit in the forward position. 4. If adjustment is necessary, either stop the engine for safety or use extreme caution around moving parts. Adjust engine rpm by turning the idle speed screw. Turning the screw inward (clockwise) raises idle speed, while backing the screw out (counterclockwise) lowers idle speed. Restart the engine and recheck idle speed with the lower unit in the forward setting. Repeal this cycle until the proper setting is obtained. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Fig. 132 Check the cam follower pickup timing by moving the spark advance lever by hand while watching the timing light Fig. 133 If the embossed mark on the throttle cam does not align with the center of the cam follower at the correct timing specification, adjust the timing point using the thumbwheel Fig. 134 The roll pins in the carburetor throttle shafts must be completely vertical at WOT ** .WARNING Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 1. Install the spark plugs (which were removed for timing pointer verification) and connect the leads. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead. 3. Start the engine and run it at idle until it reaches operating temperature. 4. Once the motor is fully warmed, run it at full throttle, with the outboard in forward gear (the timer base must be fully advanced). Aim the timing light at the timing marks on the flywheel perimeter. The mark on the timing pointer should align at the correct degree mark on the flywheel (refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart in this section). 5. If the timing requires adjustment, shut down the powerhead for safety and adjust as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on the spark advance rod. b. Turn the adjustment thumb screw in order to correct the timing. Rotate the top of the thumb screw toward the crankcase to advance timing or away from the crankcase to retard timing. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. Cam Follower Pickup Timing • See Figures 130, 132 and 133 1. With the timing light still connected to the No. 1 spark plug lead (from the previous adjustment) and the warmed and running at idle, point the timing light to the scale while moving the spark advance lever by hand. 2. Once the timing light indicates the 3-5°BTDC, check the embossed mark on the throttle cam to make sure it aligns with the center of the cam follower. 3. If the pickup timing must be adjusted, stop the engine for safety, then loosen the locknut and rotate the top of the thumbwheel away from the crankcase to increase pickup timing or rotate the top of the wheel toward the crankcase to decrease timing. 4. Once adjustment is completed, hold the thumbwheel from turning while you tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and verify proper cam follower pickup timing using the timing light and the spark advance lever. Wide Open Throttle Stop • See Figures 128 and 134 1. With the engine not running manually advance the throttle lever to the Wide Open Throttle (WOT) position. 2. With the throttle lever at WOT, check each of the roil pins in the carburetor shafts (located behind the linkage tabs, just before the shaft enters the carburetor body). The roll pins should be fully vertical, but NOT overrotated past vertical. 3. If adjustment is necessary, turn the WOT screw to achieve the proper setting. MAINTENANCE 2-53 Idle Speed • See Figure 127 • Always adjust the idle speed with the correct propeller installed. Here's your excuse, show this page to your better half in case she (or he) doesn't believe you. It's time to take the boat out because that's how the manufacturer wants you to adjust the idle speed. Not in a test tank, not on a trailer or even attached to a dock, but with the motor mounted on a boat, underway. For safety, use an assistant to navigate while you make the adjustment. • On remote motors, the throttle and shift cables must be reconnected at this point to ensure safe operation. Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart for idle speed specs. 1. Connect an accurate shop tachometer. 2. Start the engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 3. Once the engine has fully warmed, operate the engine at idle with the lower unit in the forward position. 4. If adjustment is necessary, either stop the engine for safety or use extreme caution around moving parts. Adjust engine rpm by turning the idle speed screw. Turning the screw inward (clockwise) raises idle speed, while backing the screw out (counterclockwise) lowers idle speed. Restart the engine and recheck idle speed with the lower unit in the forward setting. Repeal this cycle until the proper setting is obtained. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Fig. 132 Check the cam follower pickup timing by moving the spark advance lever by hand while watching the timing light Fig. 133 If the embossed mark on the throttle cam does not align with the center of the cam follower at the correct timing specification, adjust the timing point using the thumbwheel Fig. 134 The roll pins in the carburetor throttle shafts must be completely vertical at WOT 2-54 MAINTENANCE Before reconnecting the cable, make sure the rubber grommet in the front lower engine cover is in good shape and take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson TripleGuard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from neutral to the forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. Move the engine throttle lever tightly against the idle stop screw, then attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the locknut and washer. Tighten the nut securely. 4. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 5. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. Fig. 136 The shift and throttle cables are adjusted using thumb wheels Remote Shift Cable Installation and Adjustment + See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, if the remote shift cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. 2. Shift the remote control handle to Neutral. Make sure the handle and the neutral lockout plate is in the proper position. 3. Move the remote control handle from Neutral to the fully Forward (WOT) position. 4. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, shift the gearcase into Forward. 5. Pull firmly on the shift cable casing to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Install the anchor pocket cover and tighten the retainer to 60-84 inch lbs. (7-9 Nm). 7. Shift the remote control handle into neutral. 8. Temporarily remove the shift cable and verify that the gearcase is in the neutral detent. • If there is insufficient threads to allow adjustment, or if the gearcase detent does not align with the remote control NEUTRAL positioning, the gearcase shift rod height is out of adjustment. 9. Slide the rubber grommet onto the control cables and press it into the lower cover groove. 1 0. Verify proper installation and operation of the shift and throttle cables. Lift the fast idle lever to the start position and watch, if correctly attached, the throttle cable and throttle lever will move. Shift Lever Detent Adjustment (TIL only) 1. Check the distance that the shift rod extends through the clevis at the detent bracket. It must extend 1-2 turns through the clevis. 2. Rotate the propeller shaft slowly by hand while moving the shift lever into the Neutral position. 3. Loosen the 2 shift detent bolts, then move the shift lever to the Neutral detent and tighten the 2 shift detent bolts securely. 4. Verify that both the gearcase and shift lever are in the Neutral position. 75-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS There's good news and there's bad news to tell you about these engines. The good news is that the adjustments are relatively straightforward and not particularly difficult in themselves. The bad news is that because all adjustments are to be done statically, a special Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer (from the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Test Kit # 434017) is necessary. We've talked to a number of people who've attempted to make the adjustments dynamically or without the analyzer and most attempts have failed. Therefore, we cannot, in good conscience, instruct you to try. It is best to get your hands on the Ignition Analyzer and follow the instructions we've provided here. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if disturbed). Then instructions are provided to adjust the throttle plate synchronization, idle timing, maximum spark advance, spark/throttle pickup point and finally, either shift lock out adjustment (tiller models) or reinstallation of the throttle cable (remote models) after the adjustments are finished. No periodic carburetor mixture adjustments should be necessary on these motors, so none are provided in this section. For more details on carburetor adjustments refer to the information found under Fuel System. However, adjustment of the carburetor low-speed mixture screws should 2-54 MAINTENANCE Before reconnecting the cable, make sure the rubber grommet in the front lower engine cover is in good shape and take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson TripleGuard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from neutral to the forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. Move the engine throttle lever tightly against the idle stop screw, then attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the locknut and washer. Tighten the nut securely. 4. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 5. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. Fig. 136 The shift and throttle cables are adjusted using thumb wheels Remote Shift Cable Installation and Adjustment + See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, if the remote shift cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. 2. Shift the remote control handle to Neutral. Make sure the handle and the neutral lockout plate is in the proper position. 3. Move the remote control handle from Neutral to the fully Forward (WOT) position. 4. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, shift the gearcase into Forward. 5. Pull firmly on the shift cable casing to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Install the anchor pocket cover and tighten the retainer to 60-84 inch lbs. (7-9 Nm). 7. Shift the remote control handle into neutral. 8. Temporarily remove the shift cable and verify that the gearcase is in the neutral detent. • If there is insufficient threads to allow adjustment, or if the gearcase detent does not align with the remote control NEUTRAL positioning, the gearcase shift rod height is out of adjustment. 9. Slide the rubber grommet onto the control cables and press it into the lower cover groove. 1 0. Verify proper installation and operation of the shift and throttle cables. Lift the fast idle lever to the start position and watch, if correctly attached, the throttle cable and throttle lever will move. Shift Lever Detent Adjustment (TIL only) 1. Check the distance that the shift rod extends through the clevis at the detent bracket. It must extend 1-2 turns through the clevis. 2. Rotate the propeller shaft slowly by hand while moving the shift lever into the Neutral position. 3. Loosen the 2 shift detent bolts, then move the shift lever to the Neutral detent and tighten the 2 shift detent bolts securely. 4. Verify that both the gearcase and shift lever are in the Neutral position. 75-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) V4N6 Motors CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS There's good news and there's bad news to tell you about these engines. The good news is that the adjustments are relatively straightforward and not particularly difficult in themselves. The bad news is that because all adjustments are to be done statically, a special Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer (from the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Test Kit # 434017) is necessary. We've talked to a number of people who've attempted to make the adjustments dynamically or without the analyzer and most attempts have failed. Therefore, we cannot, in good conscience, instruct you to try. It is best to get your hands on the Ignition Analyzer and follow the instructions we've provided here. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if disturbed). Then instructions are provided to adjust the throttle plate synchronization, idle timing, maximum spark advance, spark/throttle pickup point and finally, either shift lock out adjustment (tiller models) or reinstallation of the throttle cable (remote models) after the adjustments are finished. No periodic carburetor mixture adjustments should be necessary on these motors, so none are provided in this section. For more details on carburetor adjustments refer to the information found under Fuel System. However, adjustment of the carburetor low-speed mixture screws should only be necessary due to carburetor replacement, overhaul or otherwise un-resolvable idle problems after all other adjustments are completed. The adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. • For remote control models, remove the throttle cable from the control arm and the anchor pocket prior to beginning these procedures. The cable ends or trunnion anchor may be accessible on some models through the access cover on the side of the motor, but for other models, you will have to remove the lower engine covers for access. For details, please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124, 125 and 136a A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or intake manifold has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the cam follower pickup timing and maximum spark advance procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on it's way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Remove the timing wheel cover (electric start) or manual starter assembly (rope start) for access, as applicable: • For electric start models, remove the 3 bolts securing the timing wheel cover, and then remove the cover. Fig. 136a Timing pointer verification-rope start models MAINTENANCE 2-55 • For rope start models, if equipped with a starter interlock, remove the bolt securing the lockout cable clamp, then remove the lockout slide from the starter housing. Remove the 4 bolts securing the power pack and reposition for access, then remove the 3 bolts (one in back and two in front) securing the manual starter housing to the powerhead 3. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 4. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 in. (25.4mm) past the timing pointer. ** WARNING Under NO circumstances should you EVER rotate the flywheel counterclockwise. If you do there is a good chance that the water pump impeller vanes will become damaged. 5. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (P/N 384887 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Adjust the tool using the slider to a point where it makes contact with the piston, then lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 6. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool and make a mark on the flywheel directly inline with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 7. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. 8. Using a flexible scale, measure along the flywheel to locate the exact midway point between the first and second marks and place a mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 9. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 10. Install the spark plugs. Throttle Plate Synchronization + See Figures 137, 138, 139, 140 and 141 In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the carburetors must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle . This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1. Remove the air intake silencer for access. 2. Loosen the spark lever screw, then push the spark lever roller away from the cam. 3. Check to make sure that the throttle cam and cam roller are not touching 4. Next loosen the carburetor link screw. On rope start models, you'll probably have to remove the fuel filter from the bracket for access. • There is one throttle shaft connector screw on each side for V4 motors and 2 connector screws on each side for V6 motors. 5. Use a 9/64 in. hex key or driver to loosen the starboard and port throttle shaft connector screws. Be sure to only loosen and not to remove the screws. only be necessary due to carburetor replacement, overhaul or otherwise un-resolvable idle problems after all other adjustments are completed. The adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. • For remote control models, remove the throttle cable from the control arm and the anchor pocket prior to beginning these procedures. The cable ends or trunnion anchor may be accessible on some models through the access cover on the side of the motor, but for other models, you will have to remove the lower engine covers for access. For details, please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124, 125 and 136a A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or intake manifold has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the cam follower pickup timing and maximum spark advance procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on it's way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Remove the timing wheel cover (electric start) or manual starter assembly (rope start) for access, as applicable: • For electric start models, remove the 3 bolts securing the timing wheel cover, and then remove the cover. Fig. 136a Timing pointer verification-rope start models MAINTENANCE 2-55 • For rope start models, if equipped with a starter interlock, remove the bolt securing the lockout cable clamp, then remove the lockout slide from the starter housing. Remove the 4 bolts securing the power pack and reposition for access, then remove the 3 bolts (one in back and two in front) securing the manual starter housing to the powerhead 3. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 4. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 in. (25.4mm) past the timing pointer. ** WARNING Under NO circumstances should you EVER rotate the flywheel counterclockwise. If you do there is a good chance that the water pump impeller vanes will become damaged. 5. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (P/N 384887 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Adjust the tool using the slider to a point where it makes contact with the piston, then lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 6. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool and make a mark on the flywheel directly inline with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 7. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. 8. Using a flexible scale, measure along the flywheel to locate the exact midway point between the first and second marks and place a mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 9. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 10. Install the spark plugs. Throttle Plate Synchronization + See Figures 137, 138, 139, 140 and 141 In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the carburetors must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle . This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1. Remove the air intake silencer for access. 2. Loosen the spark lever screw, then push the spark lever roller away from the cam. 3. Check to make sure that the throttle cam and cam roller are not touching 4. Next loosen the carburetor link screw. On rope start models, you'll probably have to remove the fuel filter from the bracket for access. • There is one throttle shaft connector screw on each side for V4 motors and 2 connector screws on each side for V6 motors. 5. Use a 9/64 in. hex key or driver to loosen the starboard and port throttle shaft connector screws. Be sure to only loosen and not to remove the screws. 2-56 MAINTENANCE Fig. 141 Light pressure on the roller should hold the throttle plates/linkage closed while tightening the shaft connector and link screws 6. Close all carburetor throttle plates and then tighten the throttle shaft screws. • A second set of hands will be helpful to apply light pressure to the throttle plates, ensuring that they remain closed while the connector and link screws are tightened. 7. With all of the throttle plates closed and the shaft screws tightened, carefully tighten the carburetor link screw (still supporting the linkage in position as it is tightened). Fig. 139 Throttle shaft connector screwsVG shown (V4 uses one on each side) 8. Leave the spark lever screw loose so the Idle Timing can be properly set. Follow the Idle Timing procedure in this section. Idle Timing + See Figure 142, 143, 144, 145 and 146 Idle timing must be performed statically using the special Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer (from the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Test Kit # 434017) is necessary. We've talked to a number of people who've attempted to make the adjustments dynamically or without the analyzer and most attempts have failed. Therefore, we cannot, in good conscience, instruct you to try. It is best to get your hands on the Ignition Analyzer and follow the instructions we've provided here. • For the idle timing specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. 1. On electric start models, remove the regulator/rectifier cover for access. 2. Disengage the timing sensor plug from the top of the motor, next to the flywheel. Connect the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer from the Ignition Test Kit No. 434017 to the timing sensor. Connect the Analyzer to a 12-volt power source (such as a well-charged marine or automotive battery). • Set the Ignition Analyzer switch to position B for V4 motors or to position A for VG motors. 3. Loosen the timer base detent screw, then move both the inner and outer detent tabs completely forward on the detent plate. 4. Verify that the timer base lever is against the stop on the flywheel cover (you'll find the base lever and stop just under the perimeter of the flywheel, next to the base detent screw). 5. Using a socket, slowly rotate the crankshaft (CLOCKWISE when viewed from above) until the timing pointer aligns with the idle timing specification. (Idle timing is generally about 4° ATDC for V4 motors and 6° ATDC for V6 motors, but please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart to find the spec for your particular motor.) 6. Now, to adjust the idle timing, hold the timing wheel in position and hold the INSIDE detent tab in position against the stop, while you move the detent plate forward until the Ignition Analyzer CYL light goes off. 7. Mark the location of the inside detent tab on the detent plate (in case the plate becomes moved during the next procedure), but leave the timer base detent screw loose for the Maximum Spark Advance adjustment, which should be performed next. • This idle timing procedure should provide optimum idle performance, including the maintenance of an idle speed in the specified range of 600-700 rpm, but will vary somewhat with propeller selection. If idle speed is too high after adjustment, check the intake system for air leaks. If idle speed is too low and all other engine systems/components are operating properly, try decreasing the idle timing by one or two degrees (say from 6° ATDC on VG motors, to 4° ATDC) in order to increase idle speed. If however, idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in the Fuel System section. 2-56 MAINTENANCE Fig. 141 Light pressure on the roller should hold the throttle plates/linkage closed while tightening the shaft connector and link screws 6. Close all carburetor throttle plates and then tighten the throttle shaft screws. • A second set of hands will be helpful to apply light pressure to the throttle plates, ensuring that they remain closed while the connector and link screws are tightened. 7. With all of the throttle plates closed and the shaft screws tightened, carefully tighten the carburetor link screw (still supporting the linkage in position as it is tightened). Fig. 139 Throttle shaft connector screwsVG shown (V4 uses one on each side) 8. Leave the spark lever screw loose so the Idle Timing can be properly set. Follow the Idle Timing procedure in this section. Idle Timing + See Figure 142, 143, 144, 145 and 146 Idle timing must be performed statically using the special Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer (from the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Test Kit # 434017) is necessary. We've talked to a number of people who've attempted to make the adjustments dynamically or without the analyzer and most attempts have failed. Therefore, we cannot, in good conscience, instruct you to try. It is best to get your hands on the Ignition Analyzer and follow the instructions we've provided here. • For the idle timing specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. 1. On electric start models, remove the regulator/rectifier cover for access. 2. Disengage the timing sensor plug from the top of the motor, next to the flywheel. Connect the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer from the Ignition Test Kit No. 434017 to the timing sensor. Connect the Analyzer to a 12-volt power source (such as a well-charged marine or automotive battery). • Set the Ignition Analyzer switch to position B for V4 motors or to position A for VG motors. 3. Loosen the timer base detent screw, then move both the inner and outer detent tabs completely forward on the detent plate. 4. Verify that the timer base lever is against the stop on the flywheel cover (you'll find the base lever and stop just under the perimeter of the flywheel, next to the base detent screw). 5. Using a socket, slowly rotate the crankshaft (CLOCKWISE when viewed from above) until the timing pointer aligns with the idle timing specification. (Idle timing is generally about 4° ATDC for V4 motors and 6° ATDC for V6 motors, but please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart to find the spec for your particular motor.) 6. Now, to adjust the idle timing, hold the timing wheel in position and hold the INSIDE detent tab in position against the stop, while you move the detent plate forward until the Ignition Analyzer CYL light goes off. 7. Mark the location of the inside detent tab on the detent plate (in case the plate becomes moved during the next procedure), but leave the timer base detent screw loose for the Maximum Spark Advance adjustment, which should be performed next. • This idle timing procedure should provide optimum idle performance, including the maintenance of an idle speed in the specified range of 600-700 rpm, but will vary somewhat with propeller selection. If idle speed is too high after adjustment, check the intake system for air leaks. If idle speed is too low and all other engine systems/components are operating properly, try decreasing the idle timing by one or two degrees (say from 6° ATDC on VG motors, to 4° ATDC) in order to increase idle speed. If however, idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in the Fuel System section. MAINTENANCE 2-57 Fig. 146 ... and then slide the detent plate forward until the Analyzer CYL light goes out Maximum Spark Advance + See Figures 147, 148 and 149 Idle timing must be performed statically using the special Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer (from the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Test Kit # 434017) is necessary. We've talked to a number of people who've attempted to make the adjustments dynamically or without the analyzer and most attempts have failed. Therefore, we cannot, in good conscience, instruct you to try. It is best to get your hands on the Ignition Analyzer and follow the instructions we've provided here. Fig. 148 Adjust max spark advance by moving the OUTSIDE detent tab until the CYL light goes out on the analyzer • For the ignition timing maximum spark advance specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. 1. The spark lever screw should still be loose from the Throttle Plate Synchronization and Idle Timing adjustment procedures. But, if necessary, re-loosen it. 2. Using the spark lever, manually advance the spark cam to the WideOpen- Throttle (WOT) position. 3. With the Evinrude/Johnson Ignition Analyzer still connected to the timing sensor and the base detent screw still loosened from the Idle Timing procedure, slowly rotate the crankshaft (CLOCKWISE when viewed from above), until the timing pointer aligns with the maximum ignition timing specification. 2-58 MAINTENANCE Fig. 150 To adjust spark/throttle pickup point, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward ... • Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart for the maximum ignition timing specification, as it varies slightly by year and model, but generally speaking the spec is about 20° BTDC. 4. To adjust the maximum spark advance, hold the timing wheel in position, then move the OUTSIDE detent tab rearward on the plate until the Ignition Analyzer CYL light goes off 5. Verify the location of the inside detent tab (using the mark made in the previous procedure), then tighten the timer base detent screw. 6. Move the spark lever rearward and disconnect the Ignition Analyzer. Reconnect the timing sensor wiring, but continue to leave the spark lever screw loose for the next adjustment procedure, Spark/Throttle Pickup Point. Spark/Throttle Pickup Point + See Figures 150, 151, 152 and 153 1. On tiller/rope start models, slowly reduce the throttle with the twist grip until the slowest idle position is reached (and the throttle shaft completely closes the throttle plates). Next, remove the anchor block cover screw and remove the cover, then loosen the throttle cable sufficiently to allow cable adjustment. Finally, adjust the throttle cable until there is 0.030 in. (0.7mm) between the carburetor throttle cam and its roller. 2. Make sure the spark lever screw is STILL loose from the previous adjustment procedures. If not, re-loosen it. 3. For electric start models: a. With the engine off, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward, then slowly move the spark lever forward until the roller just touches the spark cam. b. Hold the spark lever in position and slowly move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam just touches the cam roller. c. Now, verily the adjustment by moving the linkage rearward and then slowly forward while observing the base/linkage. The timer base and carburetor linkage must begin to move at precisely the same time. 4. For tiller/rope start models: a. With the engine off, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward, then slowly move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam just touches the cam roller. b. Hold the throttle linkage in position and slowly move the spark lever forward until the spark cam just touches the lever roller. 5. Carefully tighten the spark lever screw. 6. Once the adjustment is verified, install the timing wheel cover on electric start models or the manual starter and power pack on rope start models (removed initially for Timer Point verification). Also, install the air intake silencer (removed initially for Throttle Plate Synchronization). 7. If not done already, install and tighten the spark plugs to specification. 8. For rope start models, perform the Shift Lockout Adjustment. 9. Properly reconnect the throttle cable. Shift Lock Out Adjustment (Tiller Models Only) 1. Move the shift lever to Neutral. 2. Loosen the retaining screw, then reposition the Y-shaped shift detent bracket and the throttle tower shaft until they are parallel and tighten the retaining screw to secure in this position. 3. Check the adjustment by gently pulling on the manual starter while the shifter is in various positions, the starter must only engage when the lever is in Neutral and must not engage when in Forward or Reverse. 4. With the boat launched or the motor equipped with a cooling water supply, start and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Verify that the motor is running properly after all adjustments. Fig. 151 ... next, move the spark lever forward until the roller JUST touches the spark cam, then ... Fig. 152 ... move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam JUST touches the cam roller Fig. 153 Finally, tighten the spark lever screw to hold the adjustments 2-58 MAINTENANCE Fig. 150 To adjust spark/throttle pickup point, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward ... • Refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart for the maximum ignition timing specification, as it varies slightly by year and model, but generally speaking the spec is about 20° BTDC. 4. To adjust the maximum spark advance, hold the timing wheel in position, then move the OUTSIDE detent tab rearward on the plate until the Ignition Analyzer CYL light goes off 5. Verify the location of the inside detent tab (using the mark made in the previous procedure), then tighten the timer base detent screw. 6. Move the spark lever rearward and disconnect the Ignition Analyzer. Reconnect the timing sensor wiring, but continue to leave the spark lever screw loose for the next adjustment procedure, Spark/Throttle Pickup Point. Spark/Throttle Pickup Point + See Figures 150, 151, 152 and 153 1. On tiller/rope start models, slowly reduce the throttle with the twist grip until the slowest idle position is reached (and the throttle shaft completely closes the throttle plates). Next, remove the anchor block cover screw and remove the cover, then loosen the throttle cable sufficiently to allow cable adjustment. Finally, adjust the throttle cable until there is 0.030 in. (0.7mm) between the carburetor throttle cam and its roller. 2. Make sure the spark lever screw is STILL loose from the previous adjustment procedures. If not, re-loosen it. 3. For electric start models: a. With the engine off, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward, then slowly move the spark lever forward until the roller just touches the spark cam. b. Hold the spark lever in position and slowly move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam just touches the cam roller. c. Now, verily the adjustment by moving the linkage rearward and then slowly forward while observing the base/linkage. The timer base and carburetor linkage must begin to move at precisely the same time. 4. For tiller/rope start models: a. With the engine off, move the spark lever and throttle linkage rearward, then slowly move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam just touches the cam roller. b. Hold the throttle linkage in position and slowly move the spark lever forward until the spark cam just touches the lever roller. 5. Carefully tighten the spark lever screw. 6. Once the adjustment is verified, install the timing wheel cover on electric start models or the manual starter and power pack on rope start models (removed initially for Timer Point verification). Also, install the air intake silencer (removed initially for Throttle Plate Synchronization). 7. If not done already, install and tighten the spark plugs to specification. 8. For rope start models, perform the Shift Lockout Adjustment. 9. Properly reconnect the throttle cable. Shift Lock Out Adjustment (Tiller Models Only) 1. Move the shift lever to Neutral. 2. Loosen the retaining screw, then reposition the Y-shaped shift detent bracket and the throttle tower shaft until they are parallel and tighten the retaining screw to secure in this position. 3. Check the adjustment by gently pulling on the manual starter while the shifter is in various positions, the starter must only engage when the lever is in Neutral and must not engage when in Forward or Reverse. 4. With the boat launched or the motor equipped with a cooling water supply, start and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Verify that the motor is running properly after all adjustments. Fig. 151 ... next, move the spark lever forward until the roller JUST touches the spark cam, then ... Fig. 152 ... move the throttle linkage forward until the throttle cam JUST touches the cam roller Fig. 153 Finally, tighten the spark lever screw to hold the adjustments Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment + See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, make sure any grommets in the front lower engine cover is in good shape. Take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from Neutral to the Forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards Neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. If not done already, remove the timing sensor cover for access. With the throttle linkage closed, make sure the timer base lever is against the stop on the flywheel cover. 4. Securely attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the cotter clip and washer. 5. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. FICHT MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Management Module (EMM) on these models. The EMM is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. As a matter of fact, none of the timing and synchronization procedures need to be performed periodically, though a well-rounded pre-season tune-up can include checking the throttle plate synchronization and crankshaft position sensor air gap. Of course, the timing and synchronization procedures must be performed after related components are serviced or replaced (such as the throttle bodies or crankshaft position sensor). Ignition timing can only be properly verified using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software (designed for use with most IBM compatible laptops) and a suitable interface cable (which should be supplied with the software). Timing verification is not a typical maintenance procedure, but should be performed after any one of the following procedures: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory MAINTENANCE 2-59 Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the EMM does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. When it comes to FIGHT motors, a good adage applies here, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." Don't go looking for problems just to have something to adjust, enjoy the fact that your buddies are still working on their tenth adjustment procedure after you install new spark plugs and launch for the first time that season. Should adjustments be required, the adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. Of course, this does not mean that if you replace the crankshaft position sensor, that you would need to go back and adjust the throttle plate synchronization. For what we hope are reasons that make sense, there is no need to perform the throttle plate synchronization procedure if the act of replacing a component such as the crankshaft position sensor did not cause you to disturb the throttle plate linkage. Throttle Plate Synchronization + See Figures 154, 155, 156 and 157 • The throttle plate linkage adjusting screws are normally Torx® head and require a suitably sized Torx driver. Make sure the driver fits properly, as many Torx® head screws are easily stripped if a slightly smaller driver is used. In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the throttle bodies must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. • Remove the throttle cable from the control arm and the cable trunnion pocket prior to beginning these procedures. The cable trunnion anchor is accessible through the cable entry cover on the side of the motor, but the lower engine covers may need to be removed for access to the throttle arm connection. For details, please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. 1. Loosen the 2 thumbscrews (there is one on either side) and remove the air intake silencer assembly from the outboard. Fig. 154 Throttle plate synchronization takes place at the linkage on top of the throttle bodies on either side of the front of the motor (right behind the air intake silencer) Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment + See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, make sure any grommets in the front lower engine cover is in good shape. Take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from Neutral to the Forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards Neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. If not done already, remove the timing sensor cover for access. With the throttle linkage closed, make sure the timer base lever is against the stop on the flywheel cover. 4. Securely attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the cotter clip and washer. 5. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. FICHT MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Management Module (EMM) on these models. The EMM is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. As a matter of fact, none of the timing and synchronization procedures need to be performed periodically, though a well-rounded pre-season tune-up can include checking the throttle plate synchronization and crankshaft position sensor air gap. Of course, the timing and synchronization procedures must be performed after related components are serviced or replaced (such as the throttle bodies or crankshaft position sensor). Ignition timing can only be properly verified using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software (designed for use with most IBM compatible laptops) and a suitable interface cable (which should be supplied with the software). Timing verification is not a typical maintenance procedure, but should be performed after any one of the following procedures: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory MAINTENANCE 2-59 Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the EMM does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. When it comes to FIGHT motors, a good adage applies here, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." Don't go looking for problems just to have something to adjust, enjoy the fact that your buddies are still working on their tenth adjustment procedure after you install new spark plugs and launch for the first time that season. Should adjustments be required, the adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. Of course, this does not mean that if you replace the crankshaft position sensor, that you would need to go back and adjust the throttle plate synchronization. For what we hope are reasons that make sense, there is no need to perform the throttle plate synchronization procedure if the act of replacing a component such as the crankshaft position sensor did not cause you to disturb the throttle plate linkage. Throttle Plate Synchronization + See Figures 154, 155, 156 and 157 • The throttle plate linkage adjusting screws are normally Torx® head and require a suitably sized Torx driver. Make sure the driver fits properly, as many Torx® head screws are easily stripped if a slightly smaller driver is used. In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the throttle bodies must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. • Remove the throttle cable from the control arm and the cable trunnion pocket prior to beginning these procedures. The cable trunnion anchor is accessible through the cable entry cover on the side of the motor, but the lower engine covers may need to be removed for access to the throttle arm connection. For details, please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. 1. Loosen the 2 thumbscrews (there is one on either side) and remove the air intake silencer assembly from the outboard. Fig. 154 Throttle plate synchronization takes place at the linkage on top of the throttle bodies on either side of the front of the motor (right behind the air intake silencer) 2-60 MAINTENANCE Fig. 155 With the throttle closed there should be clearance between the cam and follower roller Fig. 156 To adjust the plate linkage, loosen the port side adjusting screw ... Fig. 157 ... then make sure all throttle plates are fully, before re-tightening the screw 2. Verily that the throttle cam and cam follower, on top of the starboard side linkage, are not touching. An easy way to do this is to insert a thin bladed tool or piece of paper between the cam and follower roller. 3. Loosen the throttle plate link adjusting screw on top of the port side throttle bodies. 4. Check each of the plates in the throttle body bores to make sure they are all fully seated. II necessary, apply light pressure to the plates while tightening the adjusting screw. 5. Hold the linkage in position (with the throttle plates closed) and tighten the port side adjusting screw. 6. Reconnect the throttle control cable and adjust as detailed in the Control Cable Adjustment procedure in this section. 7. Install the air intake silencer assembly. Make sure the rubber spacers are in position on the thumbscrews. Make sure the thumbscrews are secure, but do not overtighten them and damage the spacers. Control Cable Adjustment + See Figures 36, 155, 158, 159 and 160 The throttle and or shift control cables must be disconnected before certain procedures (such as throttle plate synchronization) to ensure no preload from the cable interteres with adjustment. Once adjustments are complete or anytime a control cable is removed lor service or other reasons, the cable must be properly adjusted to ensure proper motor operation. II no changes were made to the cable or related components, there is a good chance that the setting (if undisturbed) will already be correct, but you'll still want to verily it to be sure. • This procedure covers installation and adjustment of both cables. Furthermore, it assumes that the trunnion anchor bracket was removed, which is not necessary if you are just disconnecting one or more cables from the linkage in order to make adjustments or minor repairs. Follow only the steps that are appropriate for the circumstances under which you are working. 1. Move the remote to the full throttle position, then manually move the engine throttle lever to the full throttle position also. Install the cable guide on the throttle lever, using the washer and clip to secure the guide. 2. Move the control to Neutral. Hold the throttle cable trunnion in the bracket on the side of the motor and check that the throttle closes completely. There MUST be clearance between the throttle cam and the follower roller. II necessary, adjust the throttle cable trunnion (using the thumbwheel) to keep clearance without excessive play. 3. II the shift cable was disconnected, move the remote to Reverse, then move the engine shifter lever to the matching Reverse position. Install the cable guide on the shift lever, using the washer and clip to secure the guide. Move the control to Neutral. Hold the shift cable trunnion in the bracket on the side of the motor, the trunnion must align with the bracket; otherwise, adjust the trunnion as necessary (using the shift cable thumbwheel). 4. Hold the cables in position against the trunnion pocket, then install the trunnion anchor and tighten the mounting screw. 5. II removed, install the lower engine covers. 6. Make sure the rubber grommet is properly positioned over the cables and hoses. The bracket must be seated against the engine cover and the tab should hold it in position. 7. Slide the nylon sleeve forward (we've seen them installed both over and under the rubber grommet, but the factory literature says to place it OVER the grommet), make sure the sleeve and grommet are properly positioned and then install the cable/hose cover to the engine side cover. Make sure no hoses, cables or wires are pinched by the cover, then install and tighten the 3 retaining screws. Crankshaft Position Sensor Air Gap Adjustment + See Figures 161 and 162 The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls ignition and fuel injection functions based on signals from various powerhead mounted sensors. One of the most important sensor signals is the Crankshaft Position (CP) sensor, whose signal is used to determine the mechanical positioning of the pistons in relations to the cylinders (using the physical position of the crankshaft). In order to function properly, the crankshaft position sensor must be mounted in precise relation to the raised tooth of the flywheel. Anytime the sensor is removed, the air gap should be adjusted to specification as follows: Fig. 158 Control cables are attached at the control levers (1 ) and the trunnion Fig. 159 Adjust the trunnion position (and cable free-play) using Fig. 160 During installation, don't pinch anything with the cable/hose cover anchor (2) the thumbwheels MAINTENANCE 2-61 1. If equipped, remove the EMM cover to expose the top of the flywheel, the EMM and the crankshaft position sensor. 2. If order to relieve engine compression and make it easier to rotate the crankshaft, remove the Spark Plugs, as detailed in this section. • A slot (2, in the accompanying illustration) is provided in the flywheel cover. The slot can be used to align a flywheel tooth and then, to insert a feeler gauge, checking the gap. 3. Thread a 5/16-18 in. bolt into the top of the crankshaft, then use the bolt and a wrench or socket to slowly turn the crankshaft clockwise when viewed from above, until the crown of a flywheel tooth is aligned with the center of the sensor. 4. Using a feeler gauge set, check the gap between the sensor and the crown of the flywheel tooth. For most models, the gap should be 0.0450.055 in. (1.1-1.4mm), but on 2000 and later 75/90/115 V4 or 175 hp V6 models a gap of 0.035-0.055 in. (0.9-1 .4mm) is acceptable. .:I Remember, when using a feeler gauge, the proper sized gauge should pass through the gap with a slight drag. The next smaller gauge should pass through the gap with no resistance at all, when conversely the next larger gauge should not fit. Fig. 162 The crankshaft position sensor (1) air gap is checked using a feeler gauge inserted through the slot (2) provided in the flywheel cover 5. If adjustment is necessary, unplug to 2-pin wiring connector from the back of the sensor and loosen the 2 clamp screws, then rotate the sensor until the proper gap is set. 6. Once the sensor position is properly adjusted, hold it to keep it from moving while tightening the clamp screws, then reconnect the wiring. 7. If possible (if you have access to the Evinrude/Johnson software) follow the Timing Pointer Verification procedure and check ignition timing. Otherwise, check engine performance by running the motor, on the boat, under load, once everything has been reassembled. 8. Index and install the spark plugs. 9. If equipped install the EMM cover. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 123, 124, 161 and 163 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the flywheel cover on these motors. If the timing pointer has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the ignition timing verification procedure when using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just a fixed rod with, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place to physically mark a point early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and afterTDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. If not done already for service or Crankshaft Position Sensor Air Gap Adjustment, remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. II The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. Fig. 163 Timing pointer verification-75·175 hp FICHT motors 2-62 MAINTENANCE 2. Locate the timing pointer (along the edge of the flywheel cover). Some FIGHT motors may be equipped with marks on the pointer, one that is to be used for V4 motors and another that is to be used to V6 motors. When equipped, the pointer marks are labeled, but be sure to use the correct one for your motor. 3. Rotate the crankshaft (clockwise when viewed from above) until the 30° After Top Dead Center (ATDC) mark is aligned with the pointer. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PiN 342679 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Unless you are using a dial gauge, rotate the flywheel, VERY, VERY slowly backwards (yes, counterclockwise) until the piston makes contact with the tool. 6. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool (or with the dial gauge zeroed) and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 7. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. It may be necessary to turn the flywheel, very slightly counterclockwise to unload the tool before it can be removed. 8. Use the marks that are cast into the flywheel surface to find the spot midway between the first and second marks and place a new mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 9. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywhee! again. 10. Index and install the spark plugs. Checking Ignition Timing The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls all ignition and fuel injection function on these motors. No timing adjustment is either necessary or possible, however, using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software and an IBM compatible laptop, it is possible to check and verify ignition timing. Follow the instructions included with the software for conducting this check anytime one of the following has occurred: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/3300/4000cc V4N6N8 Motors CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS + See Figures 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 Some of the timing and synchronization procedures for these units require operating the motor at idle rpm under load and at wide-open throttle. Therefore, the outboard must be placed in a test tank or a body of water with the boat well secured to the dock or in a slip (except for the idle speed/timing setting which must be conducted using the test wheel or on an unrestrained boat). Never attempt to make the load adjustments or run the engine at wide open throttle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. The powerhead operating at high rpm with such a device, would likely cause a runaway condition from a lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if the pointer has been disturbed, or at least verifying proper positioning if you believe that it has not). Then details are provided for throttle plate synchronization, preliminary throttle adjustment (rope/tiller models only), setting the cam pickup point, adjusting the wide open throttle stop, remote throttle and shift cable installation and adjustment, setting maximum spark advance and setting the idle timing. No periodic carburetor mixture adjustments should be necessary on these motors, so none are provided in this section. For more details on carburetor adjustments refer to the information found under Fuel System. However, adjustment of the carburetor low-speed mixture screws should only be necessary due to carburetor replacement, overhaul or otherwise un-resolvable idle problems after all other adjustments are completed. The adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. Removing the air intake silencer may make some of the preliminary adjustments easier. If possible, it is best to have the silencer installed when the engine is running, but it may be left off if access necessitates it. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. • For remote models, remove throttle cable from the throttle control arm and from the cable trunnion pocket before beginning these procedures. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124 and 125 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or mounting has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer ·.. and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 3. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 1/2 in. (4cm) past the timing pointer. 2-62 MAINTENANCE 2. Locate the timing pointer (along the edge of the flywheel cover). Some FIGHT motors may be equipped with marks on the pointer, one that is to be used for V4 motors and another that is to be used to V6 motors. When equipped, the pointer marks are labeled, but be sure to use the correct one for your motor. 3. Rotate the crankshaft (clockwise when viewed from above) until the 30° After Top Dead Center (ATDC) mark is aligned with the pointer. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PiN 342679 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Unless you are using a dial gauge, rotate the flywheel, VERY, VERY slowly backwards (yes, counterclockwise) until the piston makes contact with the tool. 6. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool (or with the dial gauge zeroed) and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 7. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. It may be necessary to turn the flywheel, very slightly counterclockwise to unload the tool before it can be removed. 8. Use the marks that are cast into the flywheel surface to find the spot midway between the first and second marks and place a new mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 9. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywhee! again. 10. Index and install the spark plugs. Checking Ignition Timing The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls all ignition and fuel injection function on these motors. No timing adjustment is either necessary or possible, however, using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software and an IBM compatible laptop, it is possible to check and verify ignition timing. Follow the instructions included with the software for conducting this check anytime one of the following has occurred: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/3300/4000cc V4N6N8 Motors CARBURETED MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS + See Figures 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 Some of the timing and synchronization procedures for these units require operating the motor at idle rpm under load and at wide-open throttle. Therefore, the outboard must be placed in a test tank or a body of water with the boat well secured to the dock or in a slip (except for the idle speed/timing setting which must be conducted using the test wheel or on an unrestrained boat). Never attempt to make the load adjustments or run the engine at wide open throttle with a propeller and a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. The powerhead operating at high rpm with such a device, would likely cause a runaway condition from a lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to set the timing pointer (if the pointer has been disturbed, or at least verifying proper positioning if you believe that it has not). Then details are provided for throttle plate synchronization, preliminary throttle adjustment (rope/tiller models only), setting the cam pickup point, adjusting the wide open throttle stop, remote throttle and shift cable installation and adjustment, setting maximum spark advance and setting the idle timing. No periodic carburetor mixture adjustments should be necessary on these motors, so none are provided in this section. For more details on carburetor adjustments refer to the information found under Fuel System. However, adjustment of the carburetor low-speed mixture screws should only be necessary due to carburetor replacement, overhaul or otherwise un-resolvable idle problems after all other adjustments are completed. The adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. Removing the air intake silencer may make some of the preliminary adjustments easier. If possible, it is best to have the silencer installed when the engine is running, but it may be left off if access necessitates it. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. • For remote models, remove throttle cable from the throttle control arm and from the cable trunnion pocket before beginning these procedures. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124 and 125 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the engine, on or near the flywheel cover. If the timing pointer or mounting has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the procedures that later follow). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just an adjustable rod with a locknut, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place contacting the piston crown (using the locknut) at some early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this random point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer ·.. and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 3. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 1/2 in. (4cm) past the timing pointer. MAINTENANCE 2-63 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25Throttle levers Fig. 164 Linkage adjustment points-1992-96 remote V4 models (except the 125WT} and 1992 V6 models 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers Fig. 165 Linkage adjustment points-1997 and later remote V4 models 2-64 MAINTENANCE 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8 Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers Fig. 166 Linkage adjustment points-1992-96 125WT V4, 1993-96 remote V6 and, 1992-96 VB models 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8 Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers Fig. 167 Linkage adjustment points-1997 and later remote V6NB models Fig. 168 Linkage adjustment points-rope start V4 models ** WARNING Under NO circumstances should you EVER rotate the flywheel counterclockwise. If you do there is a good chance that the water pump impeller vanes will become damaged. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PIN 384887 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Adjust the tool using the slider to a point where it makes contact with the piston, then lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 6. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. 7. Using a flexible scale, measure along the flywheel to locate the exact midway point between the first and second marks and place a mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 8. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 9. Install the spark plugs. MAINTENANCE 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8 Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers Throttle Plate Synchronization 2-65 In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the carburetors must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1992-96 Remote Models and all Rope/Tiller Models + See Figures 164, 166 and 168 • In order to make sure they close completely, be sure to apply light pressure to the throttle plates during this procedure. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Remove the air intake silencer for visual access to the throttle plates. 2. Check to make sure that the throttle cam (5) and the throttle cam follower (13) are not touching. If necessary, loosen the cam follower screw (12) and move the follower away from the cam. 3. Back out the carb link stop screw (9) four full turns. 4. Loosen both carb link adjustments screws (7), but do not loosen them more than 1/2 a turn. 5. For V6N8 motors, loosen (but do NOT remove) the bottom screw on the port throttle shaft connector (21 ) and the top screw on the starboard throttle shaft connector (20). Seat all of the throttle plates, then tighten the throttle shaft connector screws, starting with the top on the starboard connector and then moving to the bottom on the port shaft connector. Fig. 168 Linkage adjustment points-rope start V4 models ** WARNING Under NO circumstances should you EVER rotate the flywheel counterclockwise. If you do there is a good chance that the water pump impeller vanes will become damaged. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PIN 384887 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Adjust the tool using the slider to a point where it makes contact with the piston, then lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 6. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. 7. Using a flexible scale, measure along the flywheel to locate the exact midway point between the first and second marks and place a mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 8. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 9. Install the spark plugs. MAINTENANCE 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8 Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers Throttle Plate Synchronization 2-65 In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the carburetors must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. 1992-96 Remote Models and all Rope/Tiller Models + See Figures 164, 166 and 168 • In order to make sure they close completely, be sure to apply light pressure to the throttle plates during this procedure. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Remove the air intake silencer for visual access to the throttle plates. 2. Check to make sure that the throttle cam (5) and the throttle cam follower (13) are not touching. If necessary, loosen the cam follower screw (12) and move the follower away from the cam. 3. Back out the carb link stop screw (9) four full turns. 4. Loosen both carb link adjustments screws (7), but do not loosen them more than 1/2 a turn. 5. For V6N8 motors, loosen (but do NOT remove) the bottom screw on the port throttle shaft connector (21 ) and the top screw on the starboard throttle shaft connector (20). Seat all of the throttle plates, then tighten the throttle shaft connector screws, starting with the top on the starboard connector and then moving to the bottom on the port shaft connector. 2-66 MAINTENANCE 6. Turn the carb link stop screw (9) slowly back inward until the port carburetors just begin to open, then back out the screw, just enough to fully close the throttle plates again. 7. While holding the ends of the carb link against the stop screw (9), tighten both the carb link adjustment screws (7). 8. Operate the throttle linkage by hand while watching both the port and starboard throttle plates. They must open at exactly the same time. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the carb link adjustment screws (7), no more than 1/2 turn and then turn the carb link stop screw (9) inward or outward as necessary. Then repeat the previous step to tighten the adjustment screws and verify proper throttle synchronization. 9. Leave the cam follower screw (12) loose so the Cam Pickup Point can be properly set. Follow the Cam Pickup Point procedure in this section. 1997 and Later Remote Models + See Figures 165 and 167 • In order to make sure they close completely, be sure to apply light pressure to the throttle plates during this procedure. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Remove the air intake silencer for visual access to the throttle plates. 2. Loosen, but do not remove, the port and starboard side throttle lever screws (22, 23). • Do NOT remove the throttle link (24) from either throttle lever stud. 3. For V6N8 motors, loosen (but do NOT remove) the bottom screw on the port throttle shaft connector (21) and the top screw on the starboard throttle shaft connector (20). Seat all of the throttle plates, tighten the throttle shaft connector screws, starting with the top on the starboard connector and then moving to the bottom on the port shaft connector. 4. Verify that the 2 throttle levers (25) can each rotate freely around their throttle respective shafts. 5. Seat all of the throttle plates and then rotate the starboard throttle lever (25) and the throttle cam (5) until the cam follower (13) just touches the cam at the throttle cam alignment mark (4). The mark is also known as the bisect point, as it aligns with the center of the roller on the cam follower (1 3). 6. Tighten the starboard throttle lever screw (23), making sure the starboard carburetor throttle plates remain closed. 7. Tigthen the port throttle lever screw (22), making sure the port carburetor throttle plates remain closed. 8. Operate the throttle linkage by hand while watching both the port and starboard throttle plates. They must open at exactly the same time. If further adjustment is necessary, repeat the adjustment procedure. Preliminary Throttle Adjustment (Tiller Control Models Only) + See Figures 126 and 168 Refer to the accompanying exploded view for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Turn the idle speed adjustment knob on the tiller handle counterclockwise (as you face the steering handle) to the full slow position. 2. Turn the throttle arm stop screw (15) and the wide open throttle stop screw (18) until the plastic caps are closest to the throttle arm. 3. Loosen the throttle cable locknut (26) and turn the thumbwheel (27) in order to center the cable travel, then retighten the locknut. • The throttle cable will travel past normal maximum settings in both directions when the thumb wheel is properly adjusted. 4. There should be about 7 threads exposed on the timer base link, also, the rear edge of the spark lever (28) should be flush with the slide (29). If necessary, adjust the spark lever slide screw. 5. Proceed with the Cam Pickup Point adjustment, as detailed in this section. Cam Pickup Point 1992-96 Remote Models and all Rope/Tiller Models + See Figures 164, 166 and 168 Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. • The throttle cam follower screw (12) should still be loose from the proceeding adjustment (Throttle Plate Synchronization). If not, loosen it now. 1. For V4 models (except the 125WT or all rope/tiller models) and 1992 V6 models, loosen the expansion link lockring (14), then turn the adjustment knob (11) counterclockwise until the internal spring tension is relieved. 2. Hold the cam follower (13) against the throttle cam (5) and, at the same time, carefully adjust the throttle arm stop screw (15) until the cam and follower are just touching at the throttle cam alignment mark (4). The alignment mark is also known as the bisect point, as it should align with the center of the cam follower roller (13). 3. Once the throttle arm stop screw (15) is adjusted so the cam (5) and cam follower roller ( 13) are touching at the bisect point, tighten the cam follower screw (12) to hold the adjustment. • Do NOT touch the cam follower screw after this step. 4. After adjustment, proceed as follows, depending on the model: • For the 125WT and all rope/tiller models, 1993 and later V6 models and all V8 models, use a feeler gauge to check the gap between the throttle cam (5) and the cam follower/roller (13). There must be a 0.005 in. (0.13mm) gap to ensure that all throttle plates fully close at idle. • ForV4 motors (except the 125WT and all rope/tiller models) and 1992 V6 models, turn the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) counterclockwise 1 turn in order to move the throttle cam (5) just slightly away from the cam follower/roller (13). 1997 and Later Remote Models + See Figures 165 and 167 Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. Adjust the throttle arm stop screw (15) until there is a 0.005 in. (0.13mm) gap between the throttle cam (5) and the follower/roller (13). Once the linkage is properly adjusted, both the port and starboard throttle plates must be fully closed and the specified clearance must remain between the cam (5) and roller (13). Wide Open Throttle Stop + See Figures 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. With the engine not running manually advance the throttle arm (16) and linkage (remote models) or twist the tiller grip (rope/tiller models) to the Wide Open Throttle (WOT) position. 2. Loosen the WOT screw locknut (1 9), then adjust the WOT stop screw (18) so the carburetor throttle plates approach the wide open position. 3. Next, proceed as follows, depending on the year of the outboard: • For 1992-96 models and all rope/tiller models, adjust the WOT stop screw (18) until the WOT mark (1 0) in the cam follower bracket is facing directly forward and perpendicular (at a right angle to) the air intake silencer base.• For 1997 and later remote models, adjust the WOT stop screw (1 8) until the throttle plates are wide open as viewed from the front of each carburetor bore. By wide open, we mean at a right angle to the bore (turned 90 degrees from the fully closed position) and not turned past or overcenter. 4. Hold the screw (18) in position and tighten the WOT screw locknut (1 9) Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, make sure the rubber grommet in the front lower engine cover is in good shape and take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson TripleGuard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from Neutral to the Forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards Neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. Move the engine throttle lever tightly against the idle stop screw, then attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the locknut and washer. Tighten the nut securely. 4. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 5. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. Remote Shift Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, if the remote shift cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. 2. Shift the remote control handle to Neutral. Make sure the handle and the neutral lockout plate is in the proper position. 3. Move the remote control handle from Neutral to the fully Forward (WOT) position. MAINTENANCE 2-67 4. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, shift the gearcase into Forward. 5. Pull firmly on the shift cable casing to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Install the anchor pocket cover and tighten the retainer to 60-84 inch lbs. (7-9 Nm). 7. Shift the remote control handle into Neutral. 8. Temporarily remove the shift cable and verify that the gearcase is in the Neutral detent. • If there is insufficient threads to allow adjustment, or if the gearcase detent does not align with the remote control NEUTRAL positioning, the gearcase shift rod height is out of adjustment. 9. Slide the rubber grommet onto the control cables and press it into the lower cover groove. 10. Verify proper installation and operation of the shift and throttle cables. Lift the fast idle lever to the start position and watch, if correctly attached, the throttle cable and throttle lever will move. Maximum Spark Advance + See Figures 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 • For the ignition timing maximum spark advance specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check the maximum spark advance, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel. Because of the wide variety of propellers available with different sizes and pitches, the manufacturer does not recommend performing this procedure using the propeller. Furthermore, never operate the powerhead with a propeller above idle speeds while using a flush adapter. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Install the spark plugs (which were removed for timing pointer verification) and connect the leads. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead. 3. Start the engine and run it at idle until it reaches operating temperature. 4. Once the motor is fully warmed, run it at full throttle (between 45005000 rpm), with the outboard in forward gear. Aim the timing light at the timing marks on the flywheel. The timing pointer should align at the correct degree mark on the flywheel (refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart in this section). 5. If the timing requires adjustment, shut down the powerhead for safety and adjust. 6. For remote models, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on the max spark advance timing screw (2). b. Turn the screw (2), as needed, in order to correct the timing. One turn of the screw clockwise retards the timing about 1°, while one turn of the screw counterclockwise advances the timing about 1°. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. 7. For rope/tiller models, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on spark lever slide screw (30). b. Turn the screw (30), as needed, in order to correct the timing. One turn of the screw clockwise advances the timing about 1°, while one turn of the screw counterclockwise retards the timing about 1°. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. 1. With the engine not running manually advance the throttle arm (16) and linkage (remote models) or twist the tiller grip (rope/tiller models) to the Wide Open Throttle (WOT) position. 2. Loosen the WOT screw locknut (1 9), then adjust the WOT stop screw (18) so the carburetor throttle plates approach the wide open position. 3. Next, proceed as follows, depending on the year of the outboard: • For 1992-96 models and all rope/tiller models, adjust the WOT stop screw (18) until the WOT mark (1 0) in the cam follower bracket is facing directly forward and perpendicular (at a right angle to) the air intake silencer base.• For 1997 and later remote models, adjust the WOT stop screw (1 8) until the throttle plates are wide open as viewed from the front of each carburetor bore. By wide open, we mean at a right angle to the bore (turned 90 degrees from the fully closed position) and not turned past or overcenter. 4. Hold the screw (18) in position and tighten the WOT screw locknut (1 9) Remote Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, the remote throttle cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, therefore the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, make sure the rubber grommet in the front lower engine cover is in good shape and take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson TripleGuard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. • Rotating the propeller shaft in the next step is only necessary if the shift cable is still or already installed. 2. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, move the remote control handle from Neutral to the Forward detent and then 1/2 the distance back towards Neutral again. This places the remote in proper position for throttle cable adjustment. ** WARNING Failure to pay close attention to this adjustment may cause accelerated wear and damage to the shift system as well as binding or high shift effort. 3. Move the engine throttle lever tightly against the idle stop screw, then attach the cable casing guide to the throttle lever pin using the locknut and washer. Tighten the nut securely. 4. Pull firmly on the throttle cable to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 5. Loosely install the cable retaining and screw, then check cable adjustment. If the throttle cable is too loose, idle speed may be high and inconsistent. If the cable is too tight, control effort may be too tight, causing difficult shifting through the operating range. Tighten the cable retaining screw once you are certain adjustment is correct. Remote Shift Cable Installation and Adjustment • See Figures 135 and 136 On remote motors, if the remote shift cable was disconnected prior to beginning these adjustments, the cable itself must be reconnected and properly adjusted before the engine can be returned to service. Before reconnecting the cable, take the opportunity to extend the cable and apply a fresh coating of Evinrude/Johnson Triple-Guard Grease, or equivalent marine grease. 1. Verify that the fast idle lever is down in the Run position. 2. Shift the remote control handle to Neutral. Make sure the handle and the neutral lockout plate is in the proper position. 3. Move the remote control handle from Neutral to the fully Forward (WOT) position. MAINTENANCE 2-67 4. While an assistant rotates the propeller shaft slowly by hand, shift the gearcase into Forward. 5. Pull firmly on the shift cable casing to remove all backlash, then install the trunnion nut into the anchor pocket (adjusting the trunnion nut, as necessary). 6. Install the anchor pocket cover and tighten the retainer to 60-84 inch lbs. (7-9 Nm). 7. Shift the remote control handle into Neutral. 8. Temporarily remove the shift cable and verify that the gearcase is in the Neutral detent. • If there is insufficient threads to allow adjustment, or if the gearcase detent does not align with the remote control NEUTRAL positioning, the gearcase shift rod height is out of adjustment. 9. Slide the rubber grommet onto the control cables and press it into the lower cover groove. 10. Verify proper installation and operation of the shift and throttle cables. Lift the fast idle lever to the start position and watch, if correctly attached, the throttle cable and throttle lever will move. Maximum Spark Advance + See Figures 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 • For the ignition timing maximum spark advance specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check the maximum spark advance, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel. Because of the wide variety of propellers available with different sizes and pitches, the manufacturer does not recommend performing this procedure using the propeller. Furthermore, never operate the powerhead with a propeller above idle speeds while using a flush adapter. ** CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. Install the spark plugs (which were removed for timing pointer verification) and connect the leads. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead. 3. Start the engine and run it at idle until it reaches operating temperature. 4. Once the motor is fully warmed, run it at full throttle (between 45005000 rpm), with the outboard in forward gear. Aim the timing light at the timing marks on the flywheel. The timing pointer should align at the correct degree mark on the flywheel (refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart in this section). 5. If the timing requires adjustment, shut down the powerhead for safety and adjust. 6. For remote models, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on the max spark advance timing screw (2). b. Turn the screw (2), as needed, in order to correct the timing. One turn of the screw clockwise retards the timing about 1°, while one turn of the screw counterclockwise advances the timing about 1°. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. 7. For rope/tiller models, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut on spark lever slide screw (30). b. Turn the screw (30), as needed, in order to correct the timing. One turn of the screw clockwise advances the timing about 1°, while one turn of the screw counterclockwise retards the timing about 1°. c. Tighten the locknut, then restart the engine and check the timing. Repeat until maximum timing is correct. 2-68 MAINTENANCE Idle Speedrriming • For the ignition idle speed/timing specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check and set the idle speed/timing, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel or, preferably, be operated with the engine/boat launched and navigated under normal operating conditions (with the correct propeller installed). This adjustment MUST be made under load. If the adjustment is made using the test wheel, the idle speed/timing should be checked again once the engine is reinstalled and the boat is launched. ** CAUTION For safety, don't even THINK about attempting this adjustment unless you have an assistant to help by navigating the craft. In order to make the adjustment properly the boat must be underway, not tied to the dock, anchored or fettered in any way. 1992-96 V4 Models (Except 125WT and all rope/tiller models) and 1992 V6 Models + See Figure 164 Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. If not already done, install the air intake silencer to insure proper idle adjustments. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead and a shop tachometer to the engine. 3. Loosen the expansion lock ring (14), then turn the lockring and adjustment knob (1 1) slowly clockwise until they bottom. 4. Start the engine and allow it to idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. The powerhead MUST reach a temperature of at least 96oF (36°C) in order to make the adjustment. 5. Check the idle speed and engine timing with the engine operating at idle in Forward gear, but make sure the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) is against the crankcase. 6. The idle timing should match what's listed in the Tune-Up Specifications chart. If it does not, stop the engine and adjust the idle timing screw (6) clockwise to advance idle timing or counterclockwise to retard idle timing. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. 7. Restart the engine and verify the idle timing. This should allow for idle speeds in the 575-700 rpm range, depending on propeller selection and condition. If the speed is incorrect, check the following: a. If the speed it too high, check the induction system for air leaks. b. If the speed is too low, and engine components and systems are operating properly, decrease the idle timing by one or two degrees (say from 6 ATDC to 5 or 4 ATDC) to achieve the desired rpm. c. If idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in the Fuel System section. B. Start the motor and shift to the Forward detent, then turn the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) clockwise until the tachometer reads 950 rpm, then shut the engine off. 9. Without disturbing the throttle arm position, turn the expansion link adjustment knob (1 1) counterclockwise until the timer base just begins to move away from the idle timing screw (6), then tighten the expansion lock ring (14). • On these models, the throttle cam (5) must not touch the cam follower (13) when the remote control is in NEUTRAL. 10. Gently push back on the throttle arm (1 6) while turning the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) counterclockwise until the original cam pickup point is reached. Continue to turn the throttle arm stop screw 1 full turn counterclockwise after the cam pickup point is reached. All Other Models + See Figures 165, 166, 167 and 168 This idle speed/timing procedure is used for all motors except those listed separately in this section. It should be used for all rope/tiller models, aii 125WT models, all 1997 and later V4 motors, 1993 and later V6 motors and all VB motors. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. If not already done, install the air intake silencer to insure proper idle adjustments. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead and a shop tachometer to the engine. 3. Start the engine and allow it to idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. The powerhead MUST reach a temperature of at least 96°F (36°C) in order to make the adjustment. 4. Check the idle speed and engine timing with the engine operating at idle in Forward gear. 5. The idle speed and timing should match what's listed in the Tune-Up Specifications chart. If it does not, stop the engine for safety, then adjust the idle speed screw (1 ). For rope/tiller models, loosen the idle speed screw (1 ) and manually adjust the spark cam. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. 6. If adjustment is necessary on remote models, loosen the locknut, then turn the idle speed screw (1 ) a full turn clockwise to decrease idle speed or a full turn counterclockwise to increase idle speed. 7. If adjustment is necessary on rope/tiller models, loosen the idle speed screw (1 ), then manually adjust the spark cam. Move the cam rearward to reduce idle speed or forward to increase it. Retighten the screw (1 ) once the adjustment is made. B. Restart the motor and verify idle speed/timing. If the timing is not within range, recheck the linkage adjustments. 9. Once the adjustment is correct on remote models, shut the engine off and hold the idle speed screw (1 ) steady while tightening the locknut. • If idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in this Fuel System section. 2-68 MAINTENANCE Idle Speedrriming • For the ignition idle speed/timing specifications, please refer to the Tune-Up Specifications chart. To check and set the idle speed/timing, the outboard must be operated with the proper test wheel or, preferably, be operated with the engine/boat launched and navigated under normal operating conditions (with the correct propeller installed). This adjustment MUST be made under load. If the adjustment is made using the test wheel, the idle speed/timing should be checked again once the engine is reinstalled and the boat is launched. ** CAUTION For safety, don't even THINK about attempting this adjustment unless you have an assistant to help by navigating the craft. In order to make the adjustment properly the boat must be underway, not tied to the dock, anchored or fettered in any way. 1992-96 V4 Models (Except 125WT and all rope/tiller models) and 1992 V6 Models + See Figure 164 Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. If not already done, install the air intake silencer to insure proper idle adjustments. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead and a shop tachometer to the engine. 3. Loosen the expansion lock ring (14), then turn the lockring and adjustment knob (1 1) slowly clockwise until they bottom. 4. Start the engine and allow it to idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. The powerhead MUST reach a temperature of at least 96oF (36°C) in order to make the adjustment. 5. Check the idle speed and engine timing with the engine operating at idle in Forward gear, but make sure the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) is against the crankcase. 6. The idle timing should match what's listed in the Tune-Up Specifications chart. If it does not, stop the engine and adjust the idle timing screw (6) clockwise to advance idle timing or counterclockwise to retard idle timing. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. 7. Restart the engine and verify the idle timing. This should allow for idle speeds in the 575-700 rpm range, depending on propeller selection and condition. If the speed is incorrect, check the following: a. If the speed it too high, check the induction system for air leaks. b. If the speed is too low, and engine components and systems are operating properly, decrease the idle timing by one or two degrees (say from 6 ATDC to 5 or 4 ATDC) to achieve the desired rpm. c. If idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in the Fuel System section. B. Start the motor and shift to the Forward detent, then turn the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) clockwise until the tachometer reads 950 rpm, then shut the engine off. 9. Without disturbing the throttle arm position, turn the expansion link adjustment knob (1 1) counterclockwise until the timer base just begins to move away from the idle timing screw (6), then tighten the expansion lock ring (14). • On these models, the throttle cam (5) must not touch the cam follower (13) when the remote control is in NEUTRAL. 10. Gently push back on the throttle arm (1 6) while turning the throttle arm stop screw (1 5) counterclockwise until the original cam pickup point is reached. Continue to turn the throttle arm stop screw 1 full turn counterclockwise after the cam pickup point is reached. All Other Models + See Figures 165, 166, 167 and 168 This idle speed/timing procedure is used for all motors except those listed separately in this section. It should be used for all rope/tiller models, aii 125WT models, all 1997 and later V4 motors, 1993 and later V6 motors and all VB motors. Refer to the accompanying exploded views for help identifying the various linkage components on your outboard. In order to help simplify the procedures components will be referenced in the text using the number used to label the same part in the illustration. But, because some outboards do not use the same linkage components as others, not all illustrations will contain all of the numbers in the keylist. 1. If not already done, install the air intake silencer to insure proper idle adjustments. 2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder spark plug lead and a shop tachometer to the engine. 3. Start the engine and allow it to idle until it reaches normal operating temperature. The powerhead MUST reach a temperature of at least 96°F (36°C) in order to make the adjustment. 4. Check the idle speed and engine timing with the engine operating at idle in Forward gear. 5. The idle speed and timing should match what's listed in the Tune-Up Specifications chart. If it does not, stop the engine for safety, then adjust the idle speed screw (1 ). For rope/tiller models, loosen the idle speed screw (1 ) and manually adjust the spark cam. ** CAUTION We at Seloc realize that most people probably don't shut the engine off before playing with the idle speed screw, but the manufacturer does not recommend attempting to adjust the idle speed with the engine running for safety reasons and we cannot disagree. If you choose to ignore this caution, make sure that you take all possible precautions to prevent injury by making sure someone else is navigating. Also, keep your hands and clothing away from any hot or moving parts on the outboard. 6. If adjustment is necessary on remote models, loosen the locknut, then turn the idle speed screw (1 ) a full turn clockwise to decrease idle speed or a full turn counterclockwise to increase idle speed. 7. If adjustment is necessary on rope/tiller models, loosen the idle speed screw (1 ), then manually adjust the spark cam. Move the cam rearward to reduce idle speed or forward to increase it. Retighten the screw (1 ) once the adjustment is made. B. Restart the motor and verify idle speed/timing. If the timing is not within range, recheck the linkage adjustments. 9. Once the adjustment is correct on remote models, shut the engine off and hold the idle speed screw (1 ) steady while tightening the locknut. • If idle speed is inconsistent or the engine runs rough or spits, and no problems can be found, suspect an incorrect carburetor mixture problem, refer to Carburetor Initial Low Speed Setting adjustment in this Fuel System section. MAINTENANCE 2-69 FIGHT MOTOR ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Management Module (EMM) on these models. The EMM is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. As a matter of fact, none of the timing and synchronization procedures need to be performed periodically, though a well-rounded pre-season tune-up can include checking the throttle plate synchronization and crankshaft position sensor air gap. Of course, the timing and synchronization procedures must be performed after related components are serviced or replaced (such as the throttle bodies or crankshaft position sensor). Ignition timing can only be properly verified using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software (designed for use with most IBM compatible laptops) and a suitable interface cable (which should be supplied with the software). Timing verification is not a typical maintenance procedure, but should be performed after any one of the following procedures: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the EMM does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. When it comes to FIGHT motors, a good adage applies here, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." Don't go looking for problems just to have something to adjust, enjoy the fact that your buddies are still working on their tenth adjustment procedure after you install new spark plugs and launch for the first time that season. Should adjustments be required, the adjustment procedures should be performed exactly as directed and in the order given (or noted) to ensure proper adjustments. Of course, this does not mean that if you replace service the throttle bodies and perform a synchronization procedure, that you'd have to go back and check the crankshaft position sensor air gap. For what we hope are reasons that make sense, if the crankshaft position sensor nor they flywheel was touched, there is little or no chance that the air gap changed. • Remove the throttle cable from the control arm and the anchor pocket prior to beginning these procedures. The cable ends or trunnion anchor may be accessible on some models through the access cover on the side of the motor, but for other models, you will have to remove the lower engine covers for access. For details, please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in this section. Setting the Timing Pointer + See Figures 122, 123, 124 and 125 A timing pointer is mounted to the top of the powerhead on these motors. If the timing pointer has been disturbed use this procedure to check and set the pointer positioning (thereby ensuring the accuracy of the ignition timing verification procedure when using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software). This procedure describes the use of the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop tool, which is basically just a fixed rod with, mounted through spark plug threads. A substitute could be fabricated with a little creativity (using the casing of a spark plug or even a plug thread chaser). The key to the tool is that it can be locked in place to physically mark a point early point in the piston's downstroke. The idea of either tool is to physically measure the exact height of the piston in the cylinder bore at a prescribed distance before and after TDC (on its way up and down in the cylinder bore). The first mark you make on the flywheel translates into this point. Then, the piston is brought the rest of the way down in its travel and back up again (by rotating the flywheel) until it reaches the very same height in the bore (and contacts the tool again, but this time on the way up). A second mark represents the exact same physical point in the bore, on the exact opposite side of Top Dead Center (TDC) or the very top of the piston travel. By locating the exact point midway between these to marks, you've found the spot on the flywheel that corresponds perfectly to Top Dead Center with regards to the pointer's current position. • Following the logic of the tool, a dial gauge could also be used instead of the piston stop tool. The gauge could be zeroed at the random downward point of travel. When turning the engine again to bring the piston back upward in the cylinder bore, stop when the gauge zeros again, meaning the piston has once again reached the exact same height. 1. Remove the spark plugs from the cylinder heads using the procedures found under Spark Plugs in this section. • The spark plugs are removed in order to relieve engine compression (making the motor easier to turn by hand) and for access to the No. 1 cylinder. 2. Loosen the screw fastening the timing pointer, then center the pointer and retighten the screw to hold it in position. 3. Slowly rotate the flywheel clockwise (when viewed from above) until the cast Top Dead Center (TDC) mark is about 1 1/2 in. (4cm) past the timing pointer. 4. Install the Evinrude/Johnson Piston Stop Tool (PIN 342679 or equivalent, or a dial gauge) into the spark plug bore for the top (No.1) cylinder. Lock the tool in place using the lock ring (or zero the dial gauge, as applicable). 5. Unless you are using a dial gauge, rotate the flywheel, VERY, VERY slowly backwards (yes, counterclockwise) until the piston makes contact with the tool. 6. Hold the flywheel (and thereby the piston) firmly against the piston stop tool (or with the dial gauge zeroed) and make a mark on the flywheel directly in line with the timing pointer. Label this mark 1 to distinguish it from the next mark. • In the next step you will rotate the flywheel and therefore the engine until the piston goes down in the cylinder bore and comes back up again to the exact same height. 7. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the piston contacts the tool again, then make a second mark (label it 2) on the flywheel in line with the timing pointer, then remove the piston stop tool. It may be necessary to turn the flywheel, very slightly counterclockwise to unload the tool before it can be removed. B. Use the marks that are cast into the flywheel surface to find the spot midway between the first and second marks and place a new mark at this location labeled 3. This mark represents TDC to the timing pointer's current setting. If this mark and the cast TDC mark on the flywheel align, then the pointer position is correct. 9. If adjustment is necessary (the 3 mark and the cast TDC do not align), rotate the flywheel clockwise to align this TDC mark with the timing pointer. Then, holding the flywheel in this position, loosen the timing pointer screw again. Slide the pointer away from the center mark and align it with the cast TDC mark on the flywheel itself. Tighten the timing pointer retaining screw securely as it is now set for accurate readings on the flywheel again. 10. Index and install the spark plugs. Crankshaft Position Sensor Air Gap Adjustment The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls ignition and fuel injection functions based on signals from various powerhead mounted sensors. One of the most important sensor signals is the Crankshaft Position (CP) sensor, whose signal is used to determine the mechanical positioning 2-70 MAINTENANCE of the pistons in relations to the cylinders (using the physical position of the crankshaft). In order to function properly, the crankshaft position sensor must be mounted in precise relation to the raised tooth of the flywheel. Anytime the sensor is removed, the air gap should be adjusted to specification as follows: The crankshaft position sensor is located on the starboard side of the powerhead, mounted directly underneath the flywheel. 1. Using a feeler gauge set, check the gap between the sensor and the flywheel. The gap should be 0.040-0.080 in. (1.0-2.0mm). • Remember, when using a feeler gauge, the proper sized gauge should pass through the gap with a slight drag. The next smaller gauge should pass through the gap with no resistance at all, when conversely the next larger gauge should not fit. 2. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the sensor retaining bolt, then install or remove shims between the sensor and the spacer in order to bring the gap into spec. 3. Once the sensor position is properly adjusted, tighten the retaining bolt and recheck the gap. Throttle Plate Synchronization • See Figure 169 In order for the motor to operate properly, the throttle plates in each of the throttle bodies must be open and close at the same time. Through throttle plate synchronization you will ensure that all of the plates close completely at idle, preventing the possible idle problems that could occur if the linkage was to hold one or more of the plates open at idle. This adjustment is made with the engine not running and the air intake silencer removed so that you can observe the throttle valves. • Apply light pressure to the throttle plates during this procedure to make sure they close completely. 1. Remove the air intake silencer assembly. 2. Loosen, but do NOT remove, the port (1 ) and starboard (2) throttle lever screws. Do NOT remove the links (3). 3. Loosen, but do NOT remove, the bottom screw for the port throttle shaft connector (4) and the top screw for the starboard shaft connector. 4. Seat all of the throttle plates and then tighten the starboard shaft connector screw, followed by the port screw. 5. Make sure that the throttle levers (6 and 7) can rotate freely around their throttle shaft. 6. Seat all of the throttle plates, then adjust the idle stop (1 0) so that the cam follower roller (8) JUST touches the throttle cam at the bisect point (9). 7. Tighten the starboard throttle lever screw (2), making sure that the starboard throttle plates remain fully closed. 8. Tighten the port throttle lever screw (1 ), making sure that the port throttle plates remain fully closed. 9. Observe the throttle plates as you actuate the linkage, both the port and starboard throttle plates must open at precisely the same time. If necessary, repeat the adjustment procedure until the plates operate simultaneously. 10. Push the throttle lever (12) to the Wide Open Throttle (WOT) position and adjust the throttle stop screw (1 1) until the plates are wide open. 11. Return the throttle lever (12) to the idle position, then back out the idle stop screw (10) 1 1/2 turns. Hold the screw in that position and tighten the locknut. Make sure that the roller turns freely after tightening. 12. Reattach the throttle control cable. 1 Idle speed screw 2 Max spark timing advance screw 3 Throttle cam follower 4 Throttle cam alignment mark 5 Throttle cam 6 Idle timing screw 7 Carb link adjustment screw 8 Timing pointer 9 Carb link stop screw 10 W.O.T. mark 11 Lockring and adjustment knob/screw 12 Cam follower screw 13 Cam follower/roller 14 Expansion link lockring 15 Throttle arm stop screw 16 Throttle arm 17 Throttle anchor screw 18 WOT stop screw 19 WOT screw locknut 20 Starboard throttle shaft connector 21 Port throttle shaft connector 22 Throttle lever screw (port) 23 Throttle lever screw (starboard) 24 Throttle link 25 Throttle levers 26 Throttle cable locknut 27 Thumbwheel 28 Spark lever 29 Slide 30 Slide screw Fig. 169 Throttle plate synchronization adjustment points Control Cable Adjustment + See Figures 159 and 169 The throttle and or shift control cables must be disconnected before certain procedures (such as throttle plate synchronization) to ensure no preload from the cable interferes with adjustment. Once adjustments are complete or anytime a control cable is removed for service or other reasons, the cable must be properly adjusted to ensure proper motor operation. If no changes were made to the cable or related components, there is a good chance that the setting (if undisturbed) will already be correct, but you'll still want to verify it to be sure. • This procedure covers installation and adjustment of both cables. Furthermore, it assumes that the trunnion anchor bracket was removed, which is not necessary if you are just disconnecting one or more cables from the linkage in order to make adjustments or minor repairs. Follow only the steps that are appropriate for the circumstances under which you are working. 1. If the shift cable was disconnected, move the remote to Reverse, then move the engine shifter lever to the matching Reverse position. Install the cable guide on the shift lever, using the washer and nut to secure the guide. Move the control to Neutral . Hold the shift cable trunnion in the bracket on the side of the motor, the trunnion must align with the bracket; otherwise, adjust the trunnion as necessary (using the shift cable thumbwheel). STORAGE (WHAT TO DO BEFORE AND AFTER) Winterization + See Figure 170 Taking extra time to store the boat and motor properly at the end of each season or before any extended period of storage will greatly increase the chances of satisfactory service at the next season. Remember, that next to hard use on the water, the time spent in storage can be the greatest enemy of an outboard motor. Ideally, outboards should be used regularly. If weather in your area allows it, don't store the motor, enjoy it. Use it, at least on a monthly basis. It's best to enjoy and service the boat's steering and shifting mechanism several times each month. If a small amount of time is spent in such maintenance, the reward will be satisfactory performance, increased longevity and greatly reduced maintenance expenses. But, in many cases, weather or other factors will interfere with time for enjoying a boat and motor. If you must place them in storage, take time to properly winterize the boat and outboard. This will be your best shot at making time stand still for them. For many years there was a widespread belief that simply shutting off the fuel at the tank and then running the powerhead until it stops constituted prepping the motor for storage. Right? Well, WRONG! First, it is not possible to remove all fuel in the carburetor or fuel injection system by operating the powerhead until it stops. Considerable fuel will remain trapped in the float chamber and other passages, especially in the lines leading to carburetors. The only guaranteed method of removing all fuel is to take the physically drain the carburetors from the float bowls. On FFI systems, disassembling the fuel injection components to drain the fuel is impractical so properly mixing fuel stabilizer becomes that much more important. Actually, the manufacturer recommends prepping all of the motors using fuel stabilizer as opposed to draining the fuel system, but on carbureted motors, you always have the option. • On VR02 equipped motors, disconnecting the fuel line to run the engine out of may cause the consumption of excessive amounts of oil. This can lead to hard starting problems later, from deposits formed in the combustion chamber. MAINTENANCE 2-71 2. Move the remote to the full throttle position, then manually move the engine throttle lever to the full throttle position also. Install the cable guide on the throttle lever, using the washer and nut to secure the guide. 3. Move the control to Neutral and make sure the fast idle lever is in the down position, then pull back lightly on the trunnion to remove any freeplay from the cable. Adjust the trunnion (using the thumbwheel) to fit in the pocket and hold slight tension against the idle stop screw. This adjustment should apply a slight drag on a piece of paper inserted between the idle stop screw and the powerhead. 4. Hold the cables in position against the trunnion pocket, install the trunnion anchors and tighten the mounting screws. 5. If removed, install the lower engine covers. Checking Ignition Timing The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls all ignition and fuel injection function on these motors. No timing adjustment is either necessary or possible, however, using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software and an IBM compatible laptop, it is possible to check and verify ignition timing. Follow the instructions included with the software for conducting this check anytime one of the following has occurred: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory Proper storage involves adequate protection of the unit from physical damage, rust, corrosion and dirt. The following steps provide an adequate maintenance program for storing the unit at the end of a season. Fig. 170 Add fuel stabilizer to the system anytime it will be stored without being completely drained Control Cable Adjustment + See Figures 159 and 169 The throttle and or shift control cables must be disconnected before certain procedures (such as throttle plate synchronization) to ensure no preload from the cable interferes with adjustment. Once adjustments are complete or anytime a control cable is removed for service or other reasons, the cable must be properly adjusted to ensure proper motor operation. If no changes were made to the cable or related components, there is a good chance that the setting (if undisturbed) will already be correct, but you'll still want to verify it to be sure. • This procedure covers installation and adjustment of both cables. Furthermore, it assumes that the trunnion anchor bracket was removed, which is not necessary if you are just disconnecting one or more cables from the linkage in order to make adjustments or minor repairs. Follow only the steps that are appropriate for the circumstances under which you are working. 1. If the shift cable was disconnected, move the remote to Reverse, then move the engine shifter lever to the matching Reverse position. Install the cable guide on the shift lever, using the washer and nut to secure the guide. Move the control to Neutral . Hold the shift cable trunnion in the bracket on the side of the motor, the trunnion must align with the bracket; otherwise, adjust the trunnion as necessary (using the shift cable thumbwheel). STORAGE (WHAT TO DO BEFORE AND AFTER) Winterization + See Figure 170 Taking extra time to store the boat and motor properly at the end of each season or before any extended period of storage will greatly increase the chances of satisfactory service at the next season. Remember, that next to hard use on the water, the time spent in storage can be the greatest enemy of an outboard motor. Ideally, outboards should be used regularly. If weather in your area allows it, don't store the motor, enjoy it. Use it, at least on a monthly basis. It's best to enjoy and service the boat's steering and shifting mechanism several times each month. If a small amount of time is spent in such maintenance, the reward will be satisfactory performance, increased longevity and greatly reduced maintenance expenses. But, in many cases, weather or other factors will interfere with time for enjoying a boat and motor. If you must place them in storage, take time to properly winterize the boat and outboard. This will be your best shot at making time stand still for them. For many years there was a widespread belief that simply shutting off the fuel at the tank and then running the powerhead until it stops constituted prepping the motor for storage. Right? Well, WRONG! First, it is not possible to remove all fuel in the carburetor or fuel injection system by operating the powerhead until it stops. Considerable fuel will remain trapped in the float chamber and other passages, especially in the lines leading to carburetors. The only guaranteed method of removing all fuel is to take the physically drain the carburetors from the float bowls. On FFI systems, disassembling the fuel injection components to drain the fuel is impractical so properly mixing fuel stabilizer becomes that much more important. Actually, the manufacturer recommends prepping all of the motors using fuel stabilizer as opposed to draining the fuel system, but on carbureted motors, you always have the option. • On VR02 equipped motors, disconnecting the fuel line to run the engine out of may cause the consumption of excessive amounts of oil. This can lead to hard starting problems later, from deposits formed in the combustion chamber. MAINTENANCE 2-71 2. Move the remote to the full throttle position, then manually move the engine throttle lever to the full throttle position also. Install the cable guide on the throttle lever, using the washer and nut to secure the guide. 3. Move the control to Neutral and make sure the fast idle lever is in the down position, then pull back lightly on the trunnion to remove any freeplay from the cable. Adjust the trunnion (using the thumbwheel) to fit in the pocket and hold slight tension against the idle stop screw. This adjustment should apply a slight drag on a piece of paper inserted between the idle stop screw and the powerhead. 4. Hold the cables in position against the trunnion pocket, install the trunnion anchors and tighten the mounting screws. 5. If removed, install the lower engine covers. Checking Ignition Timing The Engine Management Module (EMM) controls all ignition and fuel injection function on these motors. No timing adjustment is either necessary or possible, however, using the Evinrude/Johnson Diagnostic Software and an IBM compatible laptop, it is possible to check and verify ignition timing. Follow the instructions included with the software for conducting this check anytime one of the following has occurred: • Powerhead replacement • Crankshaft replacement • Flywheel or flywheel cover replacement • Crankshaft position sensor replacement • EMM replacement • After any updated fuel mapping or other modifications are made to EMM memory Proper storage involves adequate protection of the unit from physical damage, rust, corrosion and dirt. The following steps provide an adequate maintenance program for storing the unit at the end of a season. Fig. 170 Add fuel stabilizer to the system anytime it will be stored without being completely drained 2-72 MAINTENANCE PREPPING FOR STORAGE Where to Store Your Boat and Motor Ok, a well lit, locked, heated garage and work area is the best place to store you precious boat and motor, right? Well, we're probably not the only ones who wish we had access to a place like that, but if you're like most of us, we place our boat and motor wherever we can. Of course, no matter what storage limitations are placed by where you live or how much space you have available, there are ways to maximize the storage site. If possible, select an area that is dry. Covered is great, even if it is under a carport or sturdy portable structure designed for off-season storage. Many people utilize canvas and metal frame structures for such purposes. If you've got room in a garage or shed, that's even better. If you've got a heated garage, God bless you, when can we come over? If you do have a garage or shed that's not heated, an insulated area will help minimize the more extreme temperature variations and an attached garage is usually better than a detached for this reason. Just take extra care to make sure you've properly inspected the fuel system before leaving your boat in an attached garage for any amount of time. If a storage area contains large windows, mask them to keep sunlight off the boat and motor otherwise, use a high-quality, canvas cover over the boat, motor and if possible, the trailer too. A breathable cover is best to avoid the possible build-up of mold or mildew, but a heavy duty, non-breathable cover will work too. If using a non-breathable cover, place wooden blocks or length's of 2 x 4 under various reinforced spots in the cover to hold it up off the boat's surface. This should provide enough room for air to circulate under the cover, allowing for moisture to evaporate and escape. • Marine supply stores normally sell various types of desiccant (water absorbent) products. These mesh bags or small plastic pails are filled with a material that tends to draw moisture from the air and hold it in suspension. They can be very helpful in the prevention of mildew when insufficient airflow is present to naturally remove moisture from underneath a cover (or shrink wrapping). Follow the product instructions closely when using such products (and keep them away from small children). Whenever possible, avoid storing your boat in industrial buildings or parksareas where corrosive emissions may be present. The same goes for storing your boat too close to large bodies of saltwater. Hey, on the other hand, if you live in the Florida Keys, we're jealous again, just enjoy it and service the boat often to prevent corrosion from causing damage. Finally, when picking a place to store your motor, consider the risk or damage from fire, vandalism or even theft. Check with your insurance agent regarding coverage while the boat and motor is stored. Storage Checklist (Preparing the Boat and Motor) + See Figure 171 The amount of time spent and number of steps followed in the storage procedure will vary with factors such as the length of planed storage time, the conditions under which boat and motor are to be stored and your personal decisions regarding storage. But, even considering the variables, plans can change, so be careful if you decide to perform only the minimal amount of preparation. A boat and motor that has been thoroughly prepared for storage can remain so with minimum adverse affects for as short or long a time as is reasonably necessary. The same cannot be said for a boat or motor on which important winterization steps were skipped. • Always store an Evinrude/Johnson motor vertically on the boat or on a suitable engine stand. 1. Thoroughly wash the boat motor and hull. Be sure to remove all traces of dirt, debris or marine life. Check the water stream fitting, water inlet(s) and, on jet models, the impeller grate for debris. If equipped, inspect the speedometer opening at the leading edge of the lower unit or any other lower unit drains for debris (clean debris with a compressed air or a piece of thin wire). • The manufacturer recommends the use of Evinrude/Johnson 2+4 Fuel Conditioner when treating the fuel systems on Evinrude/Johnson motors. In the past, Evinrude/Johnson recommended using 2+4 in a ratio of 1.0 oz. (30 ml) for every gallon (3.8 L), but products may change, so be sure to follow the directions on the bottle if they differ. On carbureted motors, you always have the work intensive option of draining the fuel system instead, either using the float bowl drains on the carburetor(s) or by removing the carburetor(s) completely from the motor. For more details on carburetor service, please refer to the Fuel System section, but keep in mind that the manufacturer recommends using the fuel conditioner method. Of course, if the engine is to be stored for an undetermined amount of time (more than 1 or 2 seasons), removing and completely draining the carburetors is probably the best option. 2. Stabilize the engine's fuel supply and fog the motor using a high quality fuel stabilizer and storage fogging oil. At the same time, take this opportunity to thoroughly flush the engine cooling system as well: • For FFI motors (or carbureted motors if you wish to spray some fogging oil down the carburetor throttle bodies while the motor is running), remove the air intake silencer for access. a. Add an appropriate amount of fuel stabilizer to the fuel tank and top off to minimize the formation of moisture through condensation in the fuel tank. b. Next, prepare a fuel storage mixture as directed. Use a portable 6.0 gal. (23L) gas tank to mix: • 5.0 gal. (19L) of gas • 2.0 qt. (1.9L) of Evinrude/Johnson Storage Fogging Oil • For carbureted motors also add 1 pt. (0.47L) of Evinrude/Johnson 2-stroke engine oil. • Add 2.5 oz. (74ml) of Evinrude/Johnson 2+4 Fuel Conditioner or equivalent storage fluids. • Through 1994 Evinrude/Johnson recommended adding 1 pt. (0.47L) of 2+4, but beginning in 1995 they changed the recommendation to 2.5 oz. (74ml). Although we cannot confirm, we believe the change was not due to differing requirements by the motors themselves, but to either a change in thinking or a change in the formulation of 2+4. If you're working on a 1994 or earlier motor, the choice is yours, but we'd go with the updated specification of 2.5oz (74ml). c. Connect this tank to the engine in order to provide a treated fuel mixture to the engine for storage. Fig. 171 Fogging oil can be sprayed down the throats of the throttle bodies (or carburetors), but it should still be added directly to the cylinders through the spark plug ports d. Attach a flushing attachment as a cooling water/flushing source. For details, please refer to the information on Flushing the Cooling System, in this section. e. Start and run the engine at about 1500 rpm for approximately 5 minutes on carbureted models or 10 minutes on FFI models. This will ensure the entire fuel supply system contains the appropriate storage mixtures. f. On FFI models (or carbureted models too, if you wish to spray fogging oil down the throats of the carburetors while the motor is running), follow the instructions provided on the can of fogging oil and spray the oil into the mouth of each throttle body (or carburetor). g. Stop the engine and remove the flushing source, keeping the outboard perfectly vertical. Allow the cooling system to drain completely, especially if the outboard might be exposed to freezing temperatures during storage. ** WARNING NEVER keep the outboard tilted when storing in below-freezing temperatures as water could remain trapped in the cooling system. Any water left in cooling passages might freeze and could cause severe engine damage by cracking the powerhead or lower unit. h. Finish the fogging procedure by removing all of the spark plugs, and placing the engine is the fully-tilted position then spraying a generous amount of fogging oil directly into each of the cylinders. • On models equipped with power steering, allow the engine to sit in the fully-tilted position for at LEAST 5 minutes in order to completely drain the oil cooler. But, the engine must be returned to a fully-vertical position for long term storage. i. Turn the crankshaft slowly (by hand) in a clockwise direction a few complete turns to evenly distribute the fogging oil throughout the cylinders. j. Spray a small amount of additional fogging lubricant into each of the cylinders, then reinstall and torque the Spark Plugs (as detailed in this section). k. To prevent accidental starting, leave the spark plug wires tagged and disconnected. To prevent potential damage to the ignition system, make sure the motor is not cranked with the wires disconnected. The best thing to do is to ground the spark plug wires to the powerhead. But, alternately, you could secure a reminder note to the ignition switch (a wire tie and a note in a plastic bag has infinitely better chance of lasting than a piece of paper and some tape. May we suggest the following text for the note "LISTEN DUMMY, DON'T CRANK THE MOTOR, THE SPARK PLUG WIRES ARE DISCONNECTED." 3. Drain and refill the engine gearcase while the oil is still warm (for details, refer to the Lower Unit Oil procedures in this section). Take the opportunity to inspect for problems now, as storage time should allow you the opportunity to replace damaged or defective seals. More importantly, remove the old, contaminated gear oil now and place the motor into storage with fresh oil to help prevent internal corrosion. 4. For models equipped with portable fuel tanks, disconnect and relocate them to a safe, well-ventilated, storage area, away from the motor. Drain any fuel lines that remain attached to the tank. • On VRO or FFI motors, DO NOT disconnect the oil tank lines. Top off the tanks and leave the lines connected to help protect the system from moisture. 5. Remove the battery or batteries from the boat and store in a cool dry place. If possible, place the battery on a smart charger or Battery Tender®, otherwise, trickle charge the battery once a month to maintain proper charge. ** WARNING Remember that the electrolyte in a discharged battery has a much lower freezing point and is more likely to freeze {cracking/destroying the battery case) when stored for long periods in areas exposed to freezing temperatures. Although keeping the battery charged offers one level or protection against freezing; the other is to store the battery in a heated or protected storage area. MAINTENANCE 2-73 6. For models equipped with a boat mounted fuel filter or filter/water canister, clean or replace the boat mounted fuel filter at this time. The engine mounted fuel filters should be left intact, so the sealed system remains filled with treated fuel during the storage period. 7. For motors with external oil tanks, if possible, leave the oil supply line connected to the motor. This is the best way to seal moisture out of the system. If the line must be disconnected for any reason (such as to remove the motor or oil tank from the boat), seal the line by sliding a snug fitting cap over the end. Most motors equipped with remote oil tanks are equipped with a cap, mounted somewhere on the engine, such as on the fuel line, near the fuel pump. Top off the oil tank to displace moisture-laden air and help prevent contamination of the oil in storage. Also, clean and inspect the VR02 reservoir and pickup filter at this time. Replace the filter if it is damaged in any way. 8. For FFI motors or motors equipped_with a lower unit speedometer pickup, disconnect the speedometer hose from the upper most connector and blow all water from the lower unit speedometer pickup. If compressed air is available, use less than 25 psi (167 kPa) of air pressure in order to prevent damage to t..e system .. 9. Perform a complete lubrication service following the procedures in this section. 10. Remove the propeller and check thoroughly for damage. Clean the propeller shaft and apply a protective coating of grease. On Jet models, thoroughly inspect the impeller and check the impeller clearance. Refer to the procedures in this section. 11. Check the motor for loose, broken or missing fasteners. Tighten fasteners and, again, use the storage time to make any necessary repairs. • If the motor is to be removed from the boat for storage, carefully examine all mounting fasteners as well as the steering, throttle and shift systems. Replace any damaged or missing components. Also, keep close track of the fasteners, during installation NEVER substitute the mounting hardware from a smaller motor {especially on V8 motors) since a mounting failure during service could cause loss of control {or loss of the motor). 12. Inspect and repair all electrical wiring and connections at this time. Make sure nothing was damaged during the season's use. Repair any loose connectors or any wires with broken, cracked or otherwise damaged insulation. 13. Clean all components under the engine cover and apply a corrosion preventative spray. 14. Too many people forget the boat and trailer, don't be one of them. a. Take the opportunity to touch-up any damaged paint on the motor cases or trailer (if you're using a painted trailer). b. Coat the boat and all outside painted surfaces of the motor with a fresh coating of wax then cover it with a breathable cover c. If possible place the trailer on stands or blocks so the wheels are supported off the ground. d. Check the air pressure in the trailer tires. If it hasn't been done in a while, remove the wheels to clean and repack the wheel bearings. 15. Sleep well, since you know that your baby will be ready for you come next season. Recommissioning REMOVAL FROM STORAGE The amount of service required when recommissioning the boat and motor after storage depends on the length of non-use, the thoroughness of the storage procedures and the storage conditions. At minimum, a thorough spring or pre-season tune-up and a full lubrication service is essential to getting the most out of your engine. If the engine has been properly winterized, it is usually no problem to get it in top running condition again in the springtime. If the engine has just been put in the garage and forgotten for the winter, then it is doubly important to perform a complete tune-up before putting the engine back into service. If you have ever been stranded on the water because your engine has died and you had .. to suffer the embarrassment of having to be towed back to the marina you d. Attach a flushing attachment as a cooling water/flushing source. For details, please refer to the information on Flushing the Cooling System, in this section. e. Start and run the engine at about 1500 rpm for approximately 5 minutes on carbureted models or 10 minutes on FFI models. This will ensure the entire fuel supply system contains the appropriate storage mixtures. f. On FFI models (or carbureted models too, if you wish to spray fogging oil down the throats of the carburetors while the motor is running), follow the instructions provided on the can of fogging oil and spray the oil into the mouth of each throttle body (or carburetor). g. Stop the engine and remove the flushing source, keeping the outboard perfectly vertical. Allow the cooling system to drain completely, especially if the outboard might be exposed to freezing temperatures during storage. ** WARNING NEVER keep the outboard tilted when storing in below-freezing temperatures as water could remain trapped in the cooling system. Any water left in cooling passages might freeze and could cause severe engine damage by cracking the powerhead or lower unit. h. Finish the fogging procedure by removing all of the spark plugs, and placing the engine is the fully-tilted position then spraying a generous amount of fogging oil directly into each of the cylinders. • On models equipped with power steering, allow the engine to sit in the fully-tilted position for at LEAST 5 minutes in order to completely drain the oil cooler. But, the engine must be returned to a fully-vertical position for long term storage. i. Turn the crankshaft slowly (by hand) in a clockwise direction a few complete turns to evenly distribute the fogging oil throughout the cylinders. j. Spray a small amount of additional fogging lubricant into each of the cylinders, then reinstall and torque the Spark Plugs (as detailed in this section). k. To prevent accidental starting, leave the spark plug wires tagged and disconnected. To prevent potential damage to the ignition system, make sure the motor is not cranked with the wires disconnected. The best thing to do is to ground the spark plug wires to the powerhead. But, alternately, you could secure a reminder note to the ignition switch (a wire tie and a note in a plastic bag has infinitely better chance of lasting than a piece of paper and some tape. May we suggest the following text for the note "LISTEN DUMMY, DON'T CRANK THE MOTOR, THE SPARK PLUG WIRES ARE DISCONNECTED." 3. Drain and refill the engine gearcase while the oil is still warm (for details, refer to the Lower Unit Oil procedures in this section). Take the opportunity to inspect for problems now, as storage time should allow you the opportunity to replace damaged or defective seals. More importantly, remove the old, contaminated gear oil now and place the motor into storage with fresh oil to help prevent internal corrosion. 4. For models equipped with portable fuel tanks, disconnect and relocate them to a safe, well-ventilated, storage area, away from the motor. Drain any fuel lines that remain attached to the tank. • On VRO or FFI motors, DO NOT disconnect the oil tank lines. Top off the tanks and leave the lines connected to help protect the system from moisture. 5. Remove the battery or batteries from the boat and store in a cool dry place. If possible, place the battery on a smart charger or Battery Tender®, otherwise, trickle charge the battery once a month to maintain proper charge. ** WARNING Remember that the electrolyte in a discharged battery has a much lower freezing point and is more likely to freeze {cracking/destroying the battery case) when stored for long periods in areas exposed to freezing temperatures. Although keeping the battery charged offers one level or protection against freezing; the other is to store the battery in a heated or protected storage area. MAINTENANCE 2-73 6. For models equipped with a boat mounted fuel filter or filter/water canister, clean or replace the boat mounted fuel filter at this time. The engine mounted fuel filters should be left intact, so the sealed system remains filled with treated fuel during the storage period. 7. For motors with external oil tanks, if possible, leave the oil supply line connected to the motor. This is the best way to seal moisture out of the system. If the line must be disconnected for any reason (such as to remove the motor or oil tank from the boat), seal the line by sliding a snug fitting cap over the end. Most motors equipped with remote oil tanks are equipped with a cap, mounted somewhere on the engine, such as on the fuel line, near the fuel pump. Top off the oil tank to displace moisture-laden air and help prevent contamination of the oil in storage. Also, clean and inspect the VR02 reservoir and pickup filter at this time. Replace the filter if it is damaged in any way. 8. For FFI motors or motors equipped_with a lower unit speedometer pickup, disconnect the speedometer hose from the upper most connector and blow all water from the lower unit speedometer pickup. If compressed air is available, use less than 25 psi (167 kPa) of air pressure in order to prevent damage to t..e system .. 9. Perform a complete lubrication service following the procedures in this section. 10. Remove the propeller and check thoroughly for damage. Clean the propeller shaft and apply a protective coating of grease. On Jet models, thoroughly inspect the impeller and check the impeller clearance. Refer to the procedures in this section. 11. Check the motor for loose, broken or missing fasteners. Tighten fasteners and, again, use the storage time to make any necessary repairs. • If the motor is to be removed from the boat for storage, carefully examine all mounting fasteners as well as the steering, throttle and shift systems. Replace any damaged or missing components. Also, keep close track of the fasteners, during installation NEVER substitute the mounting hardware from a smaller motor {especially on V8 motors) since a mounting failure during service could cause loss of control {or loss of the motor). 12. Inspect and repair all electrical wiring and connections at this time. Make sure nothing was damaged during the season's use. Repair any loose connectors or any wires with broken, cracked or otherwise damaged insulation. 13. Clean all components under the engine cover and apply a corrosion preventative spray. 14. Too many people forget the boat and trailer, don't be one of them. a. Take the opportunity to touch-up any damaged paint on the motor cases or trailer (if you're using a painted trailer). b. Coat the boat and all outside painted surfaces of the motor with a fresh coating of wax then cover it with a breathable cover c. If possible place the trailer on stands or blocks so the wheels are supported off the ground. d. Check the air pressure in the trailer tires. If it hasn't been done in a while, remove the wheels to clean and repack the wheel bearings. 15. Sleep well, since you know that your baby will be ready for you come next season. Recommissioning REMOVAL FROM STORAGE The amount of service required when recommissioning the boat and motor after storage depends on the length of non-use, the thoroughness of the storage procedures and the storage conditions. At minimum, a thorough spring or pre-season tune-up and a full lubrication service is essential to getting the most out of your engine. If the engine has been properly winterized, it is usually no problem to get it in top running condition again in the springtime. If the engine has just been put in the garage and forgotten for the winter, then it is doubly important to perform a complete tune-up before putting the engine back into service. If you have ever been stranded on the water because your engine has died and you had .. to suffer the embarrassment of having to be towed back to the marina you 2-74 MAINTENANCE know how it can be a miserable experience. Now is the time to prevent that from occurring. Take the opportunity to perform any annual maintenance procedures that were not conducted immediately prior to placing the motor into storage. If the motor was stored for more than one off-season, pay special attention to inspection procedures, especially those regarding hoses and fittings. Check the engine gear oil for excessive moisture contamination. The same goes for oil tanks on oil or fuel injected motors. If necessary, change the lower unit or drain and refill the injection tank oil to be certain no bad or contaminated fluids are used. • Although not absolutely necessary, it is a good idea to ensure optimum cooling system operation by replacing the water pump impeller at this time. In the old days, seasonal replacement was a regular thing. To be honest, the impellers and pumps are usually made of better materials now and can easily last a couple of seasons, but it is cheap insurance. Other items that require attention include: 1. Install the battery (or batteries) if so equipped. 2. Inspect all wiring and electrical connections. Rodents have a knack for feasting on wiring harness insulation over the winter. If any signs of rodent life are found, check the wiring carefully for damage, do not start the motor until damaged wiring has been fixed or replaced. CLEARING A SUBMERGED MOTOR The good news is that motors of this size are rarely lost overboard (unless there is serious neglect of the mounting fasteners or unless there is a catastrophic failure to the boat, transom or motor). It is rare enough that Evinrude/Johnson does not even discuss the possibility in literature for many of the motors covered in this guide. On the other hand, accidents do occur, and if you're reading this for some other reason than morbid curiosity then you've obviously got a situation with which you must deal. Should a large V outboard become submerged, it is usually possible to salvage, service and enjoy the motor again. In order to prevent severe damage, be sure to recover an engine that is dropped overboard or otherwise completely submerged as soon as possible. It is really best to recover it immediately. But, keep in mind that once a submerged motor is recovered exposure to the atmosphere will allow corrosion to begin etching highly polished bearing surfaces of the crankshaft, connecting rods and bearings. For this reason, not only do you have to recover it right away, but you should service it right away too. Make sure the motor is serviced within 3 hours of initial submersion. OK, maybe now you're saying "3 hours, it will take me that long to get it to a shop or to my own garage." Well, if the engine cannot be serviced immediately (or sufficiently serviced so it can be started), re-submerge it in a tank of fresh water to minimize exposure to the atmosphere and slow the corrosion process. Even if you do this, do not delay any more than absolutely necessary, service the engine as soon as possible. This is especially important if the engine was submerged in salt, brackish or polluted water as even submersion in fresh water will not preserve the engine indefinitely. Service the engine, at the MOST within a few days of protective submersion. ** WARNING Keep in mind that even fresh water will cause etching on the highly polished bearing surfaces of the crankshaft, connecting rods and bearings. We simply cannot over-emphasize the need to purge the motor of moisture once submersion has occurred. After the engine is recovered, vigorously wash all debris from the engine using pressurized freshwater. • If the engine was submerged while still running, there is a good chance of internal damage (such as a bent connecting rod). Under these circumstances, don't start the motor, follow the beginning of this procedure to try turning it over slowly by hand, feeling for mechanical problems. If necessary, refer to Powerhead Overhaul for complete disassembly and repair instructions. 3. For models with a remote oil tank, if the line was disconnected, remove the cover and reconnect the line, then prime the system to ensure proper operation once the motor is started. 4. If not done when placing the motor into storage clean and/or replace the boat fuel filters at this time. Also, clean or replace the engine mounted filters (which should have been neglected during winterization so the fuel system would remain sealed with treated fuel. 5. If the fuel tank was emptied, or if it must be emptied because the fuel is stale fill the tank with fresh fuel. Keep in mind that even fuel that was treated with stabilizer will eventually become stale, especially if the tank is stored for more than one off-season. Pump the primer bulb and check for fuel leakage or flooding at the carburetor or vapor separator tank. For FFI motors, pressurize the high pressure fuel circuit turning the ignition on (and listening to verify that the fuel pump runs for a few seconds). Inspect the fuel rail and fittings under the engine top case for leaks. 6. Attach a flush device or place the outboard in a test tank and start the engine. Run the engine at idle speed and warm it to normal operating temperature. Check for proper operation of the cooling, electrical and warning systems. ** CAUTION Before putting the boat in the water, take time to verify the drain plug is installed. Countless number of spring boating excursions have had a very sad beginning because the boat was eased into the water only to have the boat begin to fill with it. ** WARNING NEVER try to start a recovered motor until at least the first few steps (the ones dealing with draining the motor and checking to see it if is hydro-locked or damaged) are performed. Keep in mind that attempting to start a hydro-locked motor could cause major damage to the powerhead, including bending or breaking a connecting rod. If the motor was submerged for any length of time it should be horoughly disassembled and cleaned. Of course, this depends on whether or not water intruded into the motor itself. To help determine this check the lower unit oil for signs of contamination. Also, be sure to remove the spark plugs and visually check for signs of moisture. The extent of cleaning and disassembly that must take place depends also on the type of water in which the engine was submerged. Engines totally submerged, for even a short length of time, in salt, brackish or polluted water will require more thorough servicing than ones submerged in fresh water for the same length of time. But, as the total length of submerged time or time before service increases, even engines submerged in fresh water will require more attention. Complete powerhead disassembly and inspection is required when sand, silt or other gritty material is found inside the engine cover. Many engine components suffer the corrosive effects of submersion in salt, brackish or polluted water. The symptoms may not occur for some time after the event. Salt crystals will form in areas of the engine and promote significant corrosion. Electrical components should be dried and cleaned or replaced, as necessary. If the motor was submerged in salt water, the wire harness and connections are usually affected in a shorter amount of time. Since it is difficult (or nearly impossible) to remove the salt crystals from the wiring connectors, it is best to replace the wire harness and clean all electrical component connections. The starter motor, relays and switches on the engine usually fail if not thoroughly cleaned or replaced. To ensure a through cleaning and inspection: 1. Remove the engine cover and wash all material from the engine using pressurized freshwater. If sand, silt or gritty material is present inside the engine cover, completely disassemble and inspect the powerhead. 2. Tag and disconnect the spark plugs leads. Be sure to grasp the spark plug cap and not the wire, then twist the cap while pulling upward to free it from the plug. Remove the spark plugs. For more details, refer to the Spark Plug procedure in this section. MAINTENANCE 2-75 3. Disconnect the fuel supply line from the engine, then drain and clean all fuel lines. Depending on the circumstances surrounding the submersion, inspect the fuel tank for contamination and drain, if necessary. 4. On oil or fuel injected models, drain and clean the oil supply system. On carbureted models, be sure to drain and clean the VR02 oil reservoir. Purge any potentially contaminated oil from the supply lines. Properly prime the oil system before attempting to start and run the motor. ** WARNING When attempting to turn the flywheel for the first time after the submersion, be sure to turn it SLOWLY, feeling for sticking or binding that could indicate internal damage from hydro-lock. This is a concern, especially if the engine was cranked before the spark plug(s) were removed to drain water or if the engine was submerged while still running. 5. Support the engine horizontally with the spark plug port(s) facing downward, allowing water, if present, to drain. Force any remaining the water out by slowly rotating the flywheel by hand about 20 times or until there are no signs of water. If there signs of water are present, spray some fogging oil into the spark plug ports before turning the flywheel. This will help dislodge moisture and lubricate the cylinder walls. 6. On carbureted models, drain the carburetor(s). The best method to thoroughly drain/clean the carburetor is to remove and disassemble it For details refer to the Carburetor procedures under Fuel System. 7. Support the engine in the normal upright position. Check the engine lower unit oil for contamination. Refer to the procedures for Lower Unit Oil in this section. The lower unit is sealed and, if the seals are in good condition, should have survived the submersion without contamination. But, if contamination is found, look for possible leaks in the seals, then drain the lower unit and make the necessary repairs before refilling it For more details, refer to the section on Lower Units. 8. Remove all external electrical components for disassembly and cleaning. Spray all connectors with electrical contact cleaner and then apply a small amount of dielectric grease prior to reconnection to help prevent corrosion. For electric start models, remove, disassemble and clean the starter components. For details on the electrical system components, refer to the Ignition and Electrical section. 9. Reassemble the motor and mount the engine or place it in a test tank. Start and run the engine for 1/2 hour using a break-in fuel/oil mixture. If the engine won't start, remove the spark plugs again and check for signs of moisture on the tips. If necessary, use compressed air to clean moisture from the electrodes or replace the plugs. 10. Stop the engine and recheck the lower unit oil. 11. Perform all other lubrication services. 12. Try not to let it get away from you (or anyone else) again! 2-76 MAINTENANCE SPECIFICATIONS General Engine Specifications (Hp) No. Engine and Appx Type Displacement Stroke Gear Weight of Cyl Degree Year cu. in. (cc) ln. (mm) Ratio lb. (kg) 65 Jet 4 90 CV 1992-95 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) na 288-314 (1 31-142) 80 Jet 4 90 CV 1992-97 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) na 288-314 (131-142) 85 4 90 CV 1992-95 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) 13:26 (0.50) 288-314 (1 31-142) 88 4 90 CV 1992-96 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) 13:26 (0.50) 288-314 (131-142) 90 4 90 CV 1992-98 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) 13:26 (0.50) 288-314 (1 31-142) 100 4 90 CV 1992-97 100 (1 632) 3.50 X 2.59 (89 X 66) 13:26 (0.50) 368-378 (1 68-1 72) 105 Jet 6 60 LV 1992-01 158 (2589) 3.60-2.59 (91 X 66) na ® 135 6 60 LV 2001 158 (2589) 3.60-2.59 (91 X 66) 14:26 (0.54) ® 150 6 60 LV 1992-01 158 (2589) 3.60-2.59 (91 X 66) 14:26 (0.54) ® 175 6 60 LV 1992-01 158 (2589) 3.60-2.59 (91 X 66) 14:26 (0.54) ® 185 6 90 LV 1992-94 183 (3000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 450-471 (204-214) 6 90 LV 1992-01 183 (3000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 450-471 (204-214) 225 6 90 LV 1992-01 183 (3000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 450-471 (204-214) 250 6 90 LV 1999-01 183 (3000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 450-471 (204-214) 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) 3.85 X 2.86 (98 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 498-512 (226-232) 225 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) 3.85 X 2.86 (98 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 512-518 (232-235) 250 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) 3.85 X 2.86 (98 X 73) 14:26 (0.54) 512-518 (232-235) 250 8 90 LV 1992-98 244 (4000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 17:30 (0.57) 555-61 1 (252-277) 300 8 90 LV 1992-95 244 (4000) 3.69 X 2.86 (94 X 73) 17:30 (0.57) 555-61 1 (252-277) CV -Cross flow-charged "V" cylinder LV -Loop-charged "V" cylinder configuration motor z -I m z )> z (') m 1\) I -...J-...J 1\) I ....... Q) General Specifications Model No. Engine Displace Oil Injection Ignition Starting Cooling Fuel Charging (Hp) of Cyl Type Year cu. in. (cc) System 250 8 90 LV 1992-98 244 (4000) VR02 Mag CD RE, EP IMP I UG/TC 4-2BC 35-amp FR 500 (620) z 300 8 90 LV 1992-95 244 (4000) VR02 Mag CD RE, EP 4-2BC 35-amp FR 500 (620) -I m ® Minimum recommended cca (mea) ratings when motor/cables are new. Replacements must meet or exceed specification z ® Unlike other models covered here, these motors use a true 2-barrel carburetor w/ integral throttle body (") m ® Most models equipped with a 9-amp fully regulated charging system, but some versions may be equipped with a 6-amp non-regulated system ® Minimum recommended battery: 360 cca (465 mea) w/ 90 min reserve (50 ah) (j) Specification is for FICHT motors under normal operating conditions, when operating FICHT in ambient temperatures below 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) use a 675 cca (845 mea) with at least a 107 amp-hour rating @ Carbureted models utilize a conventional MAG CD ignition system, while FICHT motors use a electronic module controlled CD ignition ® Carbureted models utilize a 20-amp fully-regulated charging system, while FICHT models are equipped with a 35-amp fully-regulated system © Carbureted models should be equipped with a 360 cca (465 mea) battery w/ 90 min reserve (50 ah), while FICHT motors require a 500 cca (620 mea) battery w/ a 60 amp-hour rating for normal opearting conditions (for severe conditions on FICHT motors, refer to footnote (J)) ® Most models equipped w/ a 20-amp fully-regulated charging system, but an AC model is available whose output is 81 watts@ idle and 117 at WOT @ Most models equipped w/ a 9-amp fully-regulated charging system, but a 100 watt AC model is available @ Carbureted models are equipped with a 35-amp fully-regulated charging system, while FICHT motors either utlize a 35-amp fully-regulated system or a 40amp fully-regulated system (the 40-amp system is found on models with hard fuel rails) ® Equip carbureted models w/ a 500 cca (620 mea) battery of 90 min reserve (60 ah). Equip FICHT motors w/ a 675 cca (845 mea) battery of at least a 107 ah rating for normal operating conditions or a 750 cca (940 mea) battery when operating in ambient temperatures below freezing @ Carbureted models are equipped with 2 -2BC and 2-1 BC (for a total of 6 barrels), but FICHT models were also available for all but the 185 hp motor #be: Number of barrels or throats in each carburetor/throttle body assembly EMM CD: Electronic Management Module, Capacitor Discharge NR: Non-Regulated (equipped with rectifier) EP: Electric Primer R: Rope FICHT: FICHT Fuel Injection system RE: Remote Electric Start FR: Fully-Regulated (equipped with regulator/rectifier) TC: Thermostatically controlled IMP: Impeller pump TE: Tiller Electric Start Mag CD: Magneto Powered Capacitor Discharge UG: Upper gearcase mounted MP: Manual Primer VR02: OMC's VRO automatic oiling system (VRO pump and external oil tank) NA: Not applicable Maintenance Intervals Chart 2-Stroke engine oil (except pre-mix systems) Anode(s) Battery condition and conneclions (if equipped)' Boat hun• Bolts and nuts (allaccessible fasteners)" Case finish (wash and wax) Cylinder head botts Electricical wiring and connectors• Emergency stop switch, clip &lor lanyard• Engine mounting bolts Flush cooling syste m Fuel filter (clean or replace, as applicable) Fuel hose and system components• Gear oil Impeller clearance/intake grate Qet models) Jet drive bearing lubrication Lubri cation points Oil system hose and components• Pistons (Decarbon) Power steering belt fiuid, filter (if equipped) Power trim and tilt (If equipped) Propeller Propeller shaft and nut Remote control• Spark plugs Steering cable• Steering friction Tune-up Water pump intake grate and indicator A-Adjust C-Ciean Each Use I (top off tank as, as needed) I I (condition/connections) I I C (satt I brackish I polluted water) I I if in saH I brackish I polluted water I I (for signs of leakage) I (intake grate for debris or damage) L (fill vent hose after each day) I I I (quick-check of belvtluid) I I I I I I Monthly or First Every Off As Needed 20-Hour Check 12mths/1 00hrs A (as needed) I I z A (as needed) I (annually) Perform pre-season tune-up -; m !-Inspect and Clean, Adjust, Lubricate or Replace, as necessary R-Replace z L-Lubricate T-Tighten )> • Denotes possible safety item (although, all maintenance inspections/service can be considered safety related when it means not being stranded on the water should a component faiL) z <.D Many items are listed for both every 100 hours and off season. Since most boaters use their crafts less than 100 hours a year, these items should most often be performed annually. If you find yoursen right around 100 hours perseason, try to time the 0 service so it occurs immediately prior to placing the motor in storage, as some items must be reperformed if the engine is used again (even once) before storage. m ®Varies with use, generally every30 da.. when used in salt, brackish or polluted water and every 60 da.. when used in fresh water (refer to Lubrication Chart for more details) ®Every 50 hours is OMC Carbon Guard additive is NOT used consistently with fuel. 1\) I "".J CD 2-80 MAINTENANCE Lubrication Chart Applicable Models Electric starter motor pinion except 60 degree z -I m z )> z 0 m Tune-Up Spark Model No. Engine Displace Gap (Hp) of Cyl Type Year cu. in. (cc) Make Type ln. (mm) 120 4 90 LV 1992 122 (2000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 ® 0.030 (0.8) 4 90 LV 1993-94 122 (2000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) 125 Com 4 90 LV 1992-94 122 (2000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 4 90 LV 1995 122 (2000) Champion QL 16Vor L 16V fixed gap plug 4 90 LV 1996 122 (2000) Champion QL82YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 4 90 LV 1997-98 122 (2000) Champion QL78YC 0.030 (0.8) 130 4 90 LV 1994 122 (2000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 4 90 LV 1995 122 (2000) Champion QL 16V or L 16V fixed gap plug 4 90 LV 1996 122 (2000) Champion QL82YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 105 Jet 6 60 LV 1992-95 158 (2589) Champion QL77JC4(J) ® 0.030 (0.8) 135 6 60 LV 2001 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 6 60 LV 1998.01 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® Degrees RPM Idle Max (In Gear) 8ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575-700 8 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575-700 4-8 ATDC ® 15-17 BTDC 600-700 ® 4 90 LV 1997-00 122 (2000) Champion QL78YC 0.030 (0.8) 135 4 90 LV 2001 122 (2000) Champion QL78YC 0.030 (0.8) 140 4 90 LV 1992 122 (2000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 ® 0.030 (0.8) 4 90 LV 1993-94 122 (2000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1996 158 (2589) Champion QL82YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1997 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1998 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1999-01 158 (2589) Champion OL78YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 150 6 60 LV 1992-95 158 (2589) Champion QL77JC4(J; ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1996 158 (2589) Champion QL82YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1997 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1998-01 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 175 6 60 LV 199 2-95 158 (2589) Champion QL77JC4(J) ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1996 158 (2589) Champion QL82YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) 6 60 LV 1997 158 (2589) Champion QL78YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 185 6 90 LV 1992 183 (3000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1993 -94 183 (3000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) 200 6 90 LV 1992 183 (3000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1993-94 183 (3000) Champion QL77JC4 or L77JC4 (j) 0.030 (0.8) Ignition 4-8 ATDC ® 15-17 BTDC 600-700 ® 4-8 ATDC ® 15-17 BTDC 600-700 ® 4-8 ATDC ® 15-17 BTDC 600-700 ® 8ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575-700 6-10 ATDC 17·19 BTDC 575-700 2-6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 2-6ATDC 18 BTDC 600-700 2-6 ATDC 18 BTDC 600-700 8ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575-700 8ATDC 17·19 BTDC 575-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 6ATDC 20 BTDC 600-700 6ATDC 22 BTDC 600-700 6ATDC ® 20 BTDC ® 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 6ATDC ® 20 BTDC ® 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 5-7 ATDC 19-21 BTDC 600-700 6ATDC ® 20 BTDC ® 600.700 6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575·700 4-8 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 650.750 6ATDC 17·19 BTDC 575-700 17-19 BTDC 650-750 Test Prop* Test 386246 433068 ® 5300 387388 ® 387388 5000 ® 387388 387388 5000 433068 ® 387388 ® 5300 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 433068 ® 433068 ® not app not app not app not app not app 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 ® 387388 436080 387388 ® 436080 @ 5300 RPM" 5200 5000 5000 5300 5300 5300 5300 5300 not app not app not app not app not app 4500 4500 4500 4500 4500 @ 4800 4800 4800 4800 ® 5500 5500 5500 ® 5500 ® )> z -I m z )> z () m 1\) I co (,.) "ficaf 00 Model No. Engine Displace Gap (Hp) of Cyl Type Year cu. in. (cc) Make Type ln. (mm) 6 90 LV 1995 183 (3000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1996 183 (3000) Champion QL82YC 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1997-99 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 6 90 LV 2000-0 1 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 6 90 LV 1992 183 (3000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1993-94 183 (3000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1995 183 (3000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 1996 183 (3000) Champion QL82YC 0.030 (0.8) 6 90 LV 199 7-99 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 6 90 LV 200()..01 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 250 6 90 LV 1999 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 6 90 LV 20())-01 183 (3000) Champion QL78YC ® ® 0.030 (0.8) ® 200 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) Champion QC1 2PEP @ ® 0.028 (0.71) @ 225 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) Champion QC1 2PEP @ ® 0.028 (0.71) @ 250 6 90 LV 2001 200 (3300) Champion QC1 2PEP @ ® 0.028 (0.71) @ Degrees 250 8 90 LV 1992-94 244 (4000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 8 90 LV 1995 244 (4000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 (D 8 90 LV 1996 244 (4000) Champion QL82YC ® 0.030 (0.8) 0-4 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 396277 @ 5500 0.030 (0.8) 2 8-2 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 550-650 396277 @ 5500 0.030 (0.8) 8 90 LV 1997 244 (4000) Champion QL78YC 8 90 LV 1998 244 (4000) Champion QL82YC 8 90 LV 199 2-95 244 (4000) Champion QL 77 JC4 or L 77 JC4 Ignition Speed RPM Test 0.030 (0.8) 0-4 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 396277 @ 5500 0.030 (0.8) 1·5 ATDC 18 BTDC 500-700 396277 @ Min. 5500 0.030 (0.8) Idle Max (In Gear) Prop* 2·6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 436080 @ 2·6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 436080 @ 2-6 ATDC ® 18 8TDC ® 600-700 ® 436080 @ 2-5 ATDC ® 18 8TDC ® 625-725 ® 436080 ® 6ATDC 17-19 BTDC 575-700 387388 ® 4-8 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 650-750 436080 @ 2-6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 436080 @ 2·6 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 436080 @ 2-6 ATDC ® 18 BTDC ® 600-700 ® 436080 @ 2·5 ATDC ® 18 8TDC ® 625-725 ® 436080 @ 2-6 ATDC ® 18 BTDC ® 600-700 ® 436080 ® 2-5 ATDC ® 18 8TDC ® 625-725 ® 436080 ® @ @ @ n/a @ @ @ nla @ @ @ n/a 0-4 ATDC 17-19 BTDC 600-700 396277 @ 6-10 ATDC 15-17 BTDC 650-750 Test RPM* 5500 0 5500 0 5000 5000 5700 5700 5700 5700 5000 5000 5000 5000 n/a n/a n/a 5500 5500 :s: )> z -I m z )> z () m • Note: Test propeller and rpm not applicable to Jet models nla: not available not app: not applicable (D For sustained high speed operation, use Champion QL 16V or L 16V fixed gap spark plug <£l For sustained high speed operation, substitute QL 78V or L 78V fixed gap plugs (1) Throttle pickup liming 3-5 degrees BTDC @Use test prop 382861 for all models, except the 100WTL and 100WTX which use 387388 @ Refer to emission control label on motor or appropriate section of text for more details ® Use of non-suppression spark plugs WILL cause ignHion problems (J) For sustained high-speed, use Champion fixed-gap plugs QL 16V ® For extended idle use Champion QL87YC ® Specification Is for carbureted motors, on FICHT motors, refer to the emission control label (NOTE liming and Idle speed Is EMM controlled on FICHT motors) @Specification is carbureted motors, min test RPM on FICHT motors is 5100 Plug Ignition Timing Speed OMC Min. Model No. Displace Gap Degrees RPM Test Test (Hp) of Cyl Engine Year cu. ln. (cc) Make Type ln. (rnm) Idle Max (In Gear) Prop* RPM* Type ®Specification is for all except the 1998 non-RW models, on which the min. lest speed is 4800 .. Part number is for all except SX, PX and FPX models, which should use test propeller 387388 ®Specification is for ES models only, other models use QL 16V or L 16V fixed gap plugs. For sustained high speed operation on ALL models, substitute QL78V or L78V fixed gap plugs ® Part number is for all except TX, TXETF and TXATF models, which should use test propeller 396277 or ex models which should use 398673 ® Specification is for all except RW models, on which idle liming/spark screw should be set to achieve 650 rpm at Idle CB Part number and specification is for all except ES models, on which part number 386246 should be used with a min speed of 5300 rpm ® Specification is for all except ex models. which use test propeller 398673 ® Part number is for all except ex, FeX and NX models, which should use test propeller 398673 ®Specification is for carbureted and FleHT motors, except the 1999 150 FleHT, on which min test speed Is 4700 ®Specification is for carbureted motors, for the 175 FleHT, min test speed is 4500 for all years except1999 which Is 5200 @Specification is for all except STL models, on which min test speed Is 5700 @ Part number listed or 396277 can be used for all except ex models, which should use 436081 or 398674 @Part number listed can be used for all except ex models, which should use 398674 0 Timing and Idle speed is EMM controlled on FleHT motors, use the diagnostic software to verifY s:: )> z -i m z )> z () m 1\) I co CJ1 2-86 MAINTENANCE SPARK PLUG DIAGNOSIS Tr•cking Arc High voltage arcs between a fouling deposit on the insulator tip and spark plug shelL This ignites the fuel/air mi>cture at some point along the insulator tip. retarding the ignition timing which causes a power and fuel toss. Wide Gap Spark plug electrodes are worn so that the high voltage charge cannot arc across the electrodes. Improper gapping of electrodes on new or -cleaned" spark plugs could cause a similar condition. Fuel remains unburned and a power loss results. A•$hover A damaged spark plug boot. along with dirt and moisture. could permit the high voltage charge to short over the insulator to the spark plug shell or the engine. A t.uttressinsulator design helps prevent high voltage flashover. Fouled Spark Plug Deposits that have formed on the insulator tip may become conductive and provide a "shunt" path to the shell. This preventsthe hig h voltage from arcing between the electrodes. A powerand fuel loss is the result. Bridged Electrodes Fouling deposits between the electrodes · ground out-the high voltage needed to fire the spark plug. The arc between the electrodes does not occur and the fuel air mixture is not ignited. This causes a power loss and exha usting of raw fuel. Cracked Insulator A crack in the spark plug insulator could cause the high voltage charge to "gro;..nd out.· Here. the sparlr. does not iump the electrodegap and the fuel air mixture is not ignited. This causes a power loss and raw fuel is exhausted. FICHT FUEL INJECTION (FFI) ..... 3·44 FUEL SYSTEM BASICS. . . . . . . . . . 3·2 FUEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIR INTAKE SILENCER ......... 3-68 FUEL SYSTEM REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-69 SERVICE CAUTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 CIRCULATION PUMP .......... 3-75 FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURIZATION 3-5 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-76 PRESSURIZING TESTING .................. 3-76 THE FUEL SYSTEM-CRANKSHAFT CHECKING FOR LEAKS. . . . . . . POSITION (CP) SENSOR . . . . . . . 3-87 RELIEVING FUEL SYSTEM REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-88 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-88 PRESSURE-FFI MOTORS ONLY . . DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION . 3-44 SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION ..... 3-47 FUEL TANK AND LINES . . . . . . . . FUEL LINES AND FITIINGS . . . . . 3-8 DIAGNOSTIC CHARTS . . . . . . . . . 3-52 ALL 75-250 HP MOTORS, EXCEPT SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150/1 75 HP WITH FUEL RAILS . 3-52 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUEL TANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150/1 75 HP WITH FUEL RAILS . 3-55 SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ECM PINOUTS/CIRCUIT CHECKS 3-61 CARBURETED FUEL SYSTEM .... 3-11 CAPACITOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94 CARBURETOR-55 JET-115 HP (1632CC) 90CV4 MOTORS ...... 3-15 DESCRIPTION .............. 3-15 OVERHAUL ................ 3-16 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-15 CARBURETOR-SO JET-175 HP (1 726/2589CC) 60LV4N6 MOTORS ............ 3-18 CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT ................ 3-25 DESCRIPTION .............. 3-18 OVERHAUL ................ 3-21 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-20 CARBURETOR-120-300 HP (2000/3000/4000CC) 90LV4N6N8 MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT ................ 3-30 DESCRIPTION .............. 3-25 OVERHAUL ................ 3-27 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-25 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION . 3-1 1 ELECTRIC FUEL PRIMER ....... 3-34 ASSEMBLY ................. 3-36 DISASSEMBLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-37 PRIMER TESTING ........... 3-34 REMOVAL ................. 3-35 SOLENOID & CIRCUIT CHECK . 3-35 FFI MAIN SYSTEM RELAY . . . . . . 3-94 TESTING & SERVICE ......... 3-95 FUEL COMPONENT BRACKET ... 3-38 ASSEMBLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39 CLEANING AND INSPECTING .. 3-39 DISASSEMBLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-38 INSTALLATION .............. 3-40 REMOVAL ................. 3-38 FUEL PUMP ................. 3-30 OVERHAUL ................ 3-32 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-31 TESTING .................. 3-31 MANUAL FUEL PRIMER ........ 3-33 SERVICING ................ 3-33 TESTING .................. 3-33 RECIRCULATION HOSE ROUTING 3-43 RECIRCULATION SYSTEM ...... 3-41 CHECKING ................. 3-41 TROUBLESHOOTING .......... 3-12 COMMON PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . 3-12 FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTINGBY SYMPTOM .............. 3-14 VR02 FUEL SYSTEM TEST PROCEDURES ........ 3-15 ENGINE MANAGEMENT MODULE 3-93 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-93 FIGHT COMPONENT TESTING ... 3-62 CHECKING THE FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM .......... 3-62 CHECKING THE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM .... 3-65 CHECKING THE IGNITION SYSTEM ........... 3-66 PIN CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62 FILTER MODULE .............. 3-94 TESTING .................. 3-94 FLAME ARRESTER ............ 3-68 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-69 FUEL FILTER WATER SENSOR .. 3-94 TESTING .................. 3-94 FUEL INJECTORS ............. 3-82 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-83 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-82 FUEL PRESSURE REGULATOR .. 3-94 FUEL VAPOR SEPARATOR ...... 3-75 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-76 TESTING .................. 3-76 HIGH PRESSURE FUEL PUMP ... 3-75 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-76 TESTING .................. 3-76 LIFT PUMP .................. 3-70 OVERHAUL ................ 3-75 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-71 TESTING .................. 3-70 LOW PRESSURE FUEL PUMP ... 3-70 OVERHAUL ................ 3-75 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-71 TESTING .................. 3-70 PRESSURE SENSORS ......... 3-92 SELF-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM .... 3-49 MANUALLY CLEARING CODES . 3-51 READING CODES ........... 3-49 TROUBLE CODE CHART . . . . . . 3-50 SHIFT INTERRUPT SWITCH ..... 3-92 TESTING .................. 3-92 TEMPERATURE SENSORS/SWITCHES . . . . . . . . . 3-88 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-91 TESTING .................. 3-89 THROTILE BODY ............. 3-70 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-70 THROTILE POSITION (TP) SENSOR ................ 3-91 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ... 3-92 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-92 TROUBLESHOOTING .......... 3-47 ISOLATING PROBLEMS ....... 3-48 SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3·96 CARBURETOR SET-UP SPECIFICATIONS ............. 3-96 3-2 FUEL SYSTEM FUEL SYSTEM BASICS ** CAUTION If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. ** CAUTION . · · Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. The carburetion or fuel injection, and the ignition principles of engine operation must be understood in order to troubleshoot and repair an outboard motor's fuel system or to perform a proper tune-up on carbureted motors. If you have any doubts concerning your understanding of engine operation, it would be best to study The Basic Operating Principles of an engine as detailed under Troubleshooting in Section 1, before tackling any work on the fuel system. The fuel systems used on engines covered by this manual include multiple carburetors and electronic fuel injection. For the most part, the carbureted motors covered here utilize fuel-enrichment for quicker cold starting in the form of an electric primer solenoid (though a few models are equipped with a manual primer). Similarly, although a few motors may be rigged to require pre-mixing of the fuel and oil, the majority of Evinrude/Johnson V-motors utilize the Variable Rate Oiling (VR02) automatic oiling system. Refer to the General Engine System Specifications chart in Section 2 for more details as to what systems were commonly used on what motors, but keep in mind that during boaVmotor rigging, systems such as VR02 or an electric fuel primer solenoid could have been added (or even deleted). For details on the VR02 oiling system, please refer to the section on Lubrication and Cooling. Fuel System Service Cautions There is no way around it. Working with gasoline can provide for many different safety hazards and requires that extra caution be used during all steps of service. To protect yourself and others, you must take all necessary precautions against igniting the fuel or vapors (which will cause a fire at best or an explosion at worst). ** CAUTION Take extreme care when working with the fuel system. NEVER smoke (it's bad for you anyhow, but smoking during fuel system service could kill you much faster!) or allow flames or sparks in the work area. Flames or sparks can ignite fuel, especially vapors, resulting in a fire at best or an explosion at worst. For starters, disconnect the negative battery cable EVERY time a fuel system hose or fitting is going to be disconnected. It takes only one moment of forgetfulness for someone to crank the motor, possibly causing a dangerous spray of fuel from the opening. This is especially true on the high-pressure fuel circuit of Ficht Fuel Injection (FFI) motors, where just turning the key to on will energize the fuel pump. Gasoline contains harmful additives and is quickly absorbed by exposed skin. As an additional precaution, always wear gloves and some form of eye protection (regular glasses help, but only safety glasses offer any significant protection for your eyes). • Throughout service, pay attention to ensure that all components, hoses and fittings are installed them in the correct location and orientation to prevent the possibility of leakage. Matchmark components before they are removed as necessary. Because of the dangerous conditions that result from working with gasoline and fuel vapors always take extra care and be sure to follow these guidelines for safety: • Keep a Coast Guard approved fire extinguisher handy when working. • Allow the engine to cool completely before opening a fuel fitting. Don't all gasoline to drip on a hot engine. • The first thing you must do after removing the engine cover is to check for the presence of gasoline fumes. If strong fumes are present, look for leaking or damage hoses, fittings or other fuel system components and repair . • Do not repair the motor or any fuel system component near any sources of ignition, including sparks, open flames, or anyone smoking . • Clean up spilled gasoline right away using clean rags. Keep all fuel soaked rags in a metal container until they can be properly disposed of or cleaned. NEVER leave solvent, gasoline or oil soaked rags in the hull. • Don't use electric powered tools in the hull or near the boat during fuel system service or after service, until the system is pressurized and checked for leaks. • Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Fuel · + See Figure 1 Fuel recommendations have become more complex as the chemistry of modern gasoline changes. The major driving force behind many of the changes in gasoline chemistry was the search for additives to replace lead as an octane booster and lubricant, these additives are governed by the types of emissions they produce in the combustion process. Also, the replacement additives do not always provide the same level of combustion stability, making a fuel's octane rating less meaningful. In the 1960's and 1970's, leaded fuel was common. The lead served two functions. First, it served as an octane booster (combustion stabilizer) and second, in 4-stroke engines, it served as a valve seat lubricant. For 2-stroke engines, the primary benefit of lead was to serve as a combustion stabilizer. Lead served very well for this purpose, even in high heat applications. For decades now, all lead has been removed from the refining process. This means that the benefit of lead as an octane booster has been eliminated. Several substitute octane boosters have been introduced in the place of lead. While many are adequate in automobile engines, most do not perform nearly as well as lead did, even though the octane rating of the fuel is the same. OCTANE RATING + See Figure 1 A fuel's octane rating is a measurement of how stable the fuel is when heat is introduced. Octane rating is a major consideration when deciding whether a fuel is suitable for a particular application. For example, in an engine, we want the fuel to ignite when the spark plug fires and not before, even under high pressure and temperatures. Once the fuel is ignited, it must burn slowly and smoothly, even though heat and pressure are building up while the burn occurs. The unburned fuel should be ignited by the traveling flame front, not by some other source of ignition, such as carbon deposits or the heat from the expanding gasses. A fuel's octane rating is known as a measurement of the fuel's anti-knock properties (ability to burn without exploding). Essentially, the octane rating is a measure of a fuel's stability. Usually a fuel with a higher octane rating can be subjected to a more severe combustion environment before spontaneous or abnormal combustion occurs. To understand how two gasoline samples can be different, even though they have the same octane rating, we need to know how octane rating is determined. The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed a universal method of determining the octane rating of a fuel sample. The octane rating you see on the pump at a gasoline station is known as the pump octane number. Look at the small print on the pump. 3-2 FUEL SYSTEM FUEL SYSTEM BASICS ** CAUTION If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. ** CAUTION . · · Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. The carburetion or fuel injection, and the ignition principles of engine operation must be understood in order to troubleshoot and repair an outboard motor's fuel system or to perform a proper tune-up on carbureted motors. If you have any doubts concerning your understanding of engine operation, it would be best to study The Basic Operating Principles of an engine as detailed under Troubleshooting in Section 1, before tackling any work on the fuel system. The fuel systems used on engines covered by this manual include multiple carburetors and electronic fuel injection. For the most part, the carbureted motors covered here utilize fuel-enrichment for quicker cold starting in the form of an electric primer solenoid (though a few models are equipped with a manual primer). Similarly, although a few motors may be rigged to require pre-mixing of the fuel and oil, the majority of Evinrude/Johnson V-motors utilize the Variable Rate Oiling (VR02) automatic oiling system. Refer to the General Engine System Specifications chart in Section 2 for more details as to what systems were commonly used on what motors, but keep in mind that during boaVmotor rigging, systems such as VR02 or an electric fuel primer solenoid could have been added (or even deleted). For details on the VR02 oiling system, please refer to the section on Lubrication and Cooling. Fuel System Service Cautions There is no way around it. Working with gasoline can provide for many different safety hazards and requires that extra caution be used during all steps of service. To protect yourself and others, you must take all necessary precautions against igniting the fuel or vapors (which will cause a fire at best or an explosion at worst). ** CAUTION Take extreme care when working with the fuel system. NEVER smoke (it's bad for you anyhow, but smoking during fuel system service could kill you much faster!) or allow flames or sparks in the work area. Flames or sparks can ignite fuel, especially vapors, resulting in a fire at best or an explosion at worst. For starters, disconnect the negative battery cable EVERY time a fuel system hose or fitting is going to be disconnected. It takes only one moment of forgetfulness for someone to crank the motor, possibly causing a dangerous spray of fuel from the opening. This is especially true on the high-pressure fuel circuit of Ficht Fuel Injection (FFI) motors, where just turning the key to on will energize the fuel pump. Gasoline contains harmful additives and is quickly absorbed by exposed skin. As an additional precaution, always wear gloves and some form of eye protection (regular glasses help, but only safety glasses offer any significant protection for your eyes). • Throughout service, pay attention to ensure that all components, hoses and fittings are installed them in the correct location and orientation to prevent the possibility of leakage. Matchmark components before they are removed as necessary. Because of the dangerous conditions that result from working with gasoline and fuel vapors always take extra care and be sure to follow these guidelines for safety: • Keep a Coast Guard approved fire extinguisher handy when working. • Allow the engine to cool completely before opening a fuel fitting. Don't all gasoline to drip on a hot engine. • The first thing you must do after removing the engine cover is to check for the presence of gasoline fumes. If strong fumes are present, look for leaking or damage hoses, fittings or other fuel system components and repair . • Do not repair the motor or any fuel system component near any sources of ignition, including sparks, open flames, or anyone smoking . • Clean up spilled gasoline right away using clean rags. Keep all fuel soaked rags in a metal container until they can be properly disposed of or cleaned. NEVER leave solvent, gasoline or oil soaked rags in the hull. • Don't use electric powered tools in the hull or near the boat during fuel system service or after service, until the system is pressurized and checked for leaks. • Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Fuel · + See Figure 1 Fuel recommendations have become more complex as the chemistry of modern gasoline changes. The major driving force behind many of the changes in gasoline chemistry was the search for additives to replace lead as an octane booster and lubricant, these additives are governed by the types of emissions they produce in the combustion process. Also, the replacement additives do not always provide the same level of combustion stability, making a fuel's octane rating less meaningful. In the 1960's and 1970's, leaded fuel was common. The lead served two functions. First, it served as an octane booster (combustion stabilizer) and second, in 4-stroke engines, it served as a valve seat lubricant. For 2-stroke engines, the primary benefit of lead was to serve as a combustion stabilizer. Lead served very well for this purpose, even in high heat applications. For decades now, all lead has been removed from the refining process. This means that the benefit of lead as an octane booster has been eliminated. Several substitute octane boosters have been introduced in the place of lead. While many are adequate in automobile engines, most do not perform nearly as well as lead did, even though the octane rating of the fuel is the same. OCTANE RATING + See Figure 1 A fuel's octane rating is a measurement of how stable the fuel is when heat is introduced. Octane rating is a major consideration when deciding whether a fuel is suitable for a particular application. For example, in an engine, we want the fuel to ignite when the spark plug fires and not before, even under high pressure and temperatures. Once the fuel is ignited, it must burn slowly and smoothly, even though heat and pressure are building up while the burn occurs. The unburned fuel should be ignited by the traveling flame front, not by some other source of ignition, such as carbon deposits or the heat from the expanding gasses. A fuel's octane rating is known as a measurement of the fuel's anti-knock properties (ability to burn without exploding). Essentially, the octane rating is a measure of a fuel's stability. Usually a fuel with a higher octane rating can be subjected to a more severe combustion environment before spontaneous or abnormal combustion occurs. To understand how two gasoline samples can be different, even though they have the same octane rating, we need to know how octane rating is determined. The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed a universal method of determining the octane rating of a fuel sample. The octane rating you see on the pump at a gasoline station is known as the pump octane number. Look at the small print on the pump. Fig. 1 Damaged piston, possibly caused by; using too-low an octane fuel; using fuel that had "soured" or by insufficient oil Fig. 1 Damaged piston, possibly caused by; using too-low an octane fuel; using fuel that had "soured" or by insufficient oil The rating has a formula. The rating is determined by the RtM/2 method. This number is the average of the research octane reading and the motor octane rating. • The Research Octane Rating is a measure of a fuel's anti-knock properties under a light load or part throttle conditions. During this test, combustion heat is easily dissipated. • The Motor Octane Rating is a measure of a fuel's anti-knock properties under a heavy load or full throttle conditions, when heat buildup is at maximum. In general, 2-stroke engines tend to respond more to the motor octane rating than the research octane rating, because a 2-stroke engine has a power stroke (with heat buildup) every revolution. Therefore, in a 2-stroke outboard motor, the motor octane rating of the fuel is one of the best indications of how it will perform. VAPOR PRESSURE Fuel vapor pressure is a measure of how easily a fuel sample evaporates. Many additives used in gasoline contain aromatics. Aromatics are light hydrocarbons distilled off the top of a crude oil sample. They are effective at increasing the research octane of a fuel sample but can cause vapor lock (bubbles in the fuel line) on a very hot day. If you have an inconsistent running engine and you suspect vapor lock, use a piece of clear fuel line to look for bubbles, indicating that the fuel is vaporizing. One negative side effect of aromatics is that they create additional combustion products such as carbon and varnish. If your engine requires highoctane fuel to prevent detonation, de-carbon the engine more frequently with an internal engine cleaner to prevent ring sticking due to excessive varnish buildup. ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS When the Environmental Protection Agency mandated a phase-out of the leaded fuels in January of 1986; fuel suppliers needed an additive to improve the octane rating of their fuels. Although there are multiple methods currently employed, the addition of alcohol to gasoline seems to be favored because of its favorable results and low cost. Two types of alcohol are used in fuel today as octane boosters, methanol (wood alcohol) or ethanol (grain alcohol). When used as a fuel additive, alcohol tends to raise the research octane of the fuel, so these additives will have limited benefit in an outboard motor. There are, however, some special considerations due to the effects of alcohol in fuel. • Since alcohol contains oxygen, it replaces gasoline without oxygen content and tends to cause the air/fuel mixture to become leaner. FUEL SYSTEM 3-3 • On older outboards, the leaching affect of alcohol will, in time, cause fuel lines and plastic components to become brittle to the point of cracking. Unless replaced, these cracked lines could leak fuel, increasing the potential for hazardous situations . • When alcohol blended fuels become contaminated with water, the water combines with the alcohol then settles to the bottom of the tank. This leaves the gasoline (and the oil for 2-stroke models using premix) on a top layer. • Modern outboard fuel lines and plastic fuel system components have been specially formulated to resist alcohol-leaching effects. HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION At elevated altitudes there is less oxygen in the atmosphere than at sea level. Less oxygen means lower combustion efficiency and less power output. As a general rule, power output is reduced three percent for every thousand feet above sea level. On carbureted engines, re-jetting for high altitude does not restore lost power, it simply corrects the air-fuel ratio for the reduced air density and makes the most of the remaining available power. The most important thing to remember when re-jetting for high altitude is to reverse the jetting when return to sea level. If the jetting is left lean when you return to sea level conditions, the correct air/fuel ratio will not be achieved (the motor will run very lean) and possible powerhead damage may occur. RECOMMENDATIONS According to the fuel recommendations that come with your outboard, there is no engine in the product line that requires more than 87 octane when rated by the RtM/2 method (the method used throughout the U.S.). The same 87 RON rating normally translates into a 90 RON rating (most often displayed and used outside the U.S.). An 89 or higher octane rating generally means middle to premium grade unleaded. Premium unleaded is more stable under severe conditions but also produces more combustion products. Therefore, when using premium unleaded, more frequent de-carboning is necessary. • Check the emissions label found on your motor as it will normally list the minimum required fuel octane rating for your specific model. However, some emission labels only display the fuel requirement of "unleaded." CHECKING FOR SY STALE/CONTAMINATED FUEL + See Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 Outboard motors often sit weeks at a time making them the perfect candidate for fuel problems. Gasoline has a short life, as combustibles begin evaporating almost immediately. Even when stored properly, fuel starts to deteriorate within a few months, leaving behind a stale fuel mixture that can cause hard-starting, poor engine performance and even lead to possible engine damage. Further more, as gasoline evaporates it leaves behind gum deposits that can clog filters, lines and small passages. Although the sealed high-pressure fuel system of an FFI motor is less susceptible to fuel evaporation, the low-pressure fuel systems of all engines can easily suffer the affects. Carburetors, due to their tiny passages and naturally vented designs are the most susceptible components on non-FFI motors. As mentioned under Alcohol-Blended Fuels, many modern fuels contain alcohol, which is hydroscopic (meaning it absorbs water). And, over time, fuel stored in a partially filled tank or a tank that is vented to the atmosphere will absorb water. The water/alcohol settles to the bottom of the tank, promoting rust (in metal tanks) and leaving a non-combustible mixture at the bottom of a tank that could leave a boater stranded. One of the first steps to fuel system troubleshooting is to make sure the fuel source is not at fault for engine performance problems. Check the fuel if the engine will not start and there is no ignition problem . Stale or contaminated fuels will often exhibit an unusual or even unpleasant unusual odor. 3-4 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 2 Carburetor float bowls are Fig. 3 ... to drain the carburetor, remove Fig. 4 Commercial additives, such as normally equipped with a drain screw ... the drain screw Sta-bil, may be used to help prevent "souring" Fig. 5 There are a LOT of float bowls and screws on this VS, but at least they were all pretty easily accessed (once the air intake was removed) • The best method of disposing stale fuel is through a local waste pickup service, automotive repair facility or marine dealership. But, this can be a hassle. If fuel is not too stale or too badly contaminated, it may be mixed with greater amounts of fresh fuel and used to power lawn/yard equipment or even an automobile (if greatly diluted so as to prevent misfiring, unstable idle or damage to the automotive engine). But we feel that it is much less of a risk to have a lawn mower stop running because of the fuel problem than it is to have your boat motor quit or refuse to start. Carburetors are normally equipped with a float bowl drain screw that can be used to drain fuel from the carburetor for long-term storage or for inspection. On FFI motors, there is not usually a dedicated drain for the high-pressure system. However, FFI motors are normally equipped with one or more high-pressure fuel circuit test ports (found on top of the vapor separator and/or inline on the high-pressure fuel lines). To obtain a sample of fuel from the high-pressure circuit, attach a fuel pressure gauge (equipped with a pressure bleed line) to the test fitting, then use the pressure bleed to drain a small amount of the fuel from the lines. If necessary, cycle the ignition key to run the fuel pump (with the pressure bleed closed) in order to rebuild system pressure and obtain a larger sample. On all motors, fuel samples can be taken from the low-pressure circuit, by simply disconnecting the fuel pump inlet hose and using the primer bulb to push out a sample. For some motors, it may be easier to drain a fuel sample from the hoses leading to or from the low-pressure fuel filter or fuel pump. Removal and installation instructions for the fuel filters are provided in the Maintenance Section, while fuel pump procedures are found in this section. To check for stale or contaminated fuel: 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. Secure it or place tape over the end so that it cannot accidentally contact the terminal and complete the circuit. ** CAUTION Throughout this procedure, clean up any spilled fuel to prevent a fire hazard. 2. For carbureted motors, remove the float bowl drain screw (and orifice plug, if equipped), then allow a small amount of fuel to drain into a glass container. • If there is no fuel present in the carburetor, disconnect the inlet line from the fuel pump and use the fuel primer bulb to obtain a sample. 3. For FFI motors, if a fuel sample is desired from the high-pressure circuit, attach a fuel pressure gauge (equipped with a bleed hose) to the pressure test fitting, then use the pressure bleed to drain a small fuel sample. If there is insufficient fuel/pressure present to obtain the sample, close the pressure bleed and cycle the ignition keyswitch to on, wait for 10 seconds and turn the keyswitch off again. Repeat as necessary to build system pressure and obtain a sufficient sample. 4. On either carbureted or FFI motors, obtain a sample from the low pressure circuit by disconnecting the fuel supply hose from the pump or low pressure fuel filter (as desired), then squeezing the fuel primer bulb to obtain a small sample of fuel. Place the sample in a clear glass container and reconnect the hose. • If a sample cannot be obtained from the fuel filter or pump supply hose, there is a problem with the fuel tank-to-motor fuel circuit. Check the tank, primer bulb, fuel hose, fuel pump, fitting or inlet needle on carbureted models. 5. Check the appearance and odor of the fuel. An unusual smell, signs of visible debris or a cloudy appearance (or even the obvious presence of water) points to a fuel that should be replaced. 6. If contaminated fuel is found, drain the fuel system and dispose of the fuel in a responsible manner, then clean the entire fuel system. On FFI models, properly drain the high-pressure fuel system by relieving pressure from the high-pressure circuit. • If debris is found in the fuel system, clean and/or replace all fuel filters. 7. When finished, reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system and check for leaks. FUEL SYSTEM 3-5 Fuel System Pressurization ** WARNING When it comes to safety and outboards, the condition of the fuel system is of the utmost importance. The system must be checked for signs of damage or leakage with every use and checked, especially carefully when portions of the system have been opened for service. The best method to check the fuel system is to visually inspect the lines, hoses and fittings once the system has been properly pressurized. Furthermore, FFI motors are equipped with two inter-related fuel circuits, a low pressure circuit that is similar to the circuit that feeds carburetors on other motors and a high pressure circuit that feeds the fuel injection system. As its name implies, the high-pressure circuit contains fuel under pressure that, if given the chance, will spray from a damaged/loose hose or fitting. When servicing components of the high pressure system, the fuel pressure must first be relieved in a safe and controlled manner to help avoid the potential explosive and dangerous conditions that would result from simply opening a fitting and allowing fuel to spray uncontrolled into the work area. Disconnecting the negative battery cable serves 2 important safety purposes. The first is that it prevents the electric fuel pump from activating during service. This could occur is someone was to turn the ignition keyswitch to the ON position for any reason (which would result in the pump running for 10 seconds, possibly spewing high-pressure fuel spray from any open fittings). The second is to prevent an accidental grounding of a hot lead during service (which would result in sparks that could ignite fuel vapors in the work area). It only takes a couple of seconds to protect yourself and your boat, so always disconnect the negative battery cable when working on fuel system components. 2. Connect a fuel pressure gauge (equipped with a pressure bleed valve and a drain hose) to the high-pressure fuel circuit ies! port. Place the drain hose into a suitable container and slowly open the bleed valve to release system pressure. RELIEVING FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE FFI MOTORS ONLY + See Figure 6 Before servicing the high-pressure fuel circuit or related components, including the vapor separator tank, high-pressure fuel pump, fuel injectors and/or related high-pressure lines, the pressure must be released. Failure to do so in a proper manner could lead to high pressure fuel spray, excessive concentrations of vapors and an extremely dangerous, potentially explosive condition. FFI motors are equipped with a high-pressure fuel circuit ies! port. • Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. 3. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the highand low-pressure fuel circuits, then thoroughly check the system for leakage. PRESSURIZING THE FUEL SYSTEM CHECKING FOR LEAKS ** CAUTION The port is normally located either on top of the vapor separator tank or is found in one of the high-pressure circuit fuel lines. The test port is useful when checking fuel system performance and pump operating pressures, but it is also used to provide a means of controlled pressure release prior to servicing the system. In order to do this, you'll need a fuel pressure gauge equipped with a bleed valve. Attach the gauge to the port and, if the gauge is not already equipped, a drain hose to the gauge bleed valve. Carefully bleed system pressure through the drain hose into a suitable container. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service. Fig. 6 The high-pressure fuel circuit test port can be used to carefully release system pressure and to connect a pressure gauge for system tests Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Carbureted Models Carbureted engines covered by this manual are equipped only with a low-pressure fuel system, making pressure release before service a nonissue. But, even a low-pressure fuel system should be checked following repairs to make sure that no leaks are present. Only by checking a fuel system under normal operating pressures can you be sure of the system's integrity. Carbureted engines should be equipped with a fuel primer bulb mounted in line between the fuel tank and engine. The bulb can be used to pressurize that portion of the fuel system. Squeeze the bulb until it and the fuel lines feel firm with gasoline. At this point check all fittings between the tank and motor for signs of leakage and correct, as necessary. Once fuel reaches the engine it is the job of the fuel pump to distribute it to the carburetors. On pre-mix 2-stroke motors the fuel is pumped directly from the pump to the carburetor. When equipped with the VR02 system (as are most Evinrude/Johnson V-motors), VRO pump (consisting of a fuel and oil pump, as well as a fuel/oil-mixing unit) is responsible for feeding a fuel/oil mixture to the carburetors. No matter what system you are inspecting, start and run the motor with the engine top case removed, then check each of the system hoses, fittings and gasket-sealed components to be sure there is no leakage after service. FFI Models Ficht Fuel Injection (FFI) models covered by this manual utilize 2 fuel circuits. A low-pressure circuit consisting of a fuel tank, primer bulb, mechanical fuel pump (also known as the lift pump), one or more low-pressure filters and the low-pressure fuel line to the vapor separator tank all operate in the same manner as the low-pressure fuel system of a carbureted motor. The high-pressure circuit consists of the electric fuel pump, vapor separator tank, fuel injectors and the high-pressure lines. 3-6 FUEL SYSTEM Although it is necessary to pressurize and inspect both systems after repairs have been performed on the motor, it is especially important to properly check the high-pressure circuit. Leaks from the high-pressure circuit will, as you might expect, be under much greater pressures leading to potentially more hazardous conditions than a low-pressure leak. That's not to say that a low-pressure leak isn't dangerous, but a high-pressure leak can be even more so. 1. Pressurize and check the low-pressure circuit as follows: Make sure the fuel tank is sufficiently full to provide an uninterrupted fuel source, then squeeze the bulb until it begins to feel firm. Check the low-pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage before continuing. FUEL TANK AND LINES + See Figure 7 ** CAUTION If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. ** CAUTION Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. If a problem is suspected in the fuel supply, tank and/or lines, by far the easiest test to eliminate these components as possible culprits is to substitute a known good fuel supply. This is known as running a motor on a test tank (as opposed to running a motor IN a test tank, which is an entirely different concept). If possible, borrow a portable tank, fill it with fresh gasoline (or gas and oil for pre-mix models) and connect it to the motor. • When using a test fuel tank, make sure the inside diameter of the fuel hose and fuel fittings is at least 5/16 in. (8mm) or larger for V4 models or 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger on V6N8 motors. Also, please note that although a 5/16 in. (8mm) line/fitting is acceptable for V4 motors, a 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger line/fitting is preferred. All models should utilize a pickup tube filter of stainless steel No. 304 wire cloth, 100 mesh with a wire diameter of 0.0045 in. The pickup tube filter should a cylindrical screen of the same outer diameter of the pickup tube and at least 1 in. (25.4mm) in length. Fig. 7 Although most V-motors are not rigged with portable tanks, they are useful to keep around as shop or test tanks 2. Pressurize the high-pressure fuel circuit as follows: Make sure the negative battery cable is connected (if removed for service), then turn the key switch to ON for 10 seconds and then OFF again for about 3-5 seconds. Repeat the key switch cycle 3-4 times, while listening at the fuel pump to hear the electric high-pressure pump run each time the key is turned to the ON position. If the pump does not run, check the fuel pump and circuit as described in this section. Once pressurized, check the high-pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage. 3. Start the engine, then allow it to idle it for a few seconds, while continuing to scan all fuel system components for signs of leakage. 4. Stop the motor and recheck the fittings. 5. Repair any leakage and then recheck the fuel system integrity. • A 6-gallon shop tank is needed for the factory recommended winterization procedure (for details, see the information on Winterization in the Maintenance And Tune-Up section). So, it's probably not a bad idea to obtain a shop or test tank if you need to diagnose fuel system problems. Fuel Tank + See Figure 8 There are 2 different types of fuel tanks that might be used along with these Evinrude/Johnson motors. Some commercial or specially rigged boats might choose to use portable fuel tanks. But, the majority of V-motors will use a permanently mounted, integral (boat mounted) fuel tank. In both cases, a tank that is not mounted to the engine itself (as occurs with some tiny, portable outboards) is commonly called a remote tank. • Although many Evinrude/Johnson dealers rig boats using Evinrude/Johnson fuel tanks, there are many other tank manufacturers and tank designs may vary greatly. Your outboard might be equipped with a tank from the engine manufacturer or more likely, the boat manufacturer. Although components used, as well as the techniques for cleaning and repairing tanks are similar for almost all fuel tanks, be sure to use caution and common sense. If the design varies from the instructions included here, stop and assess the situation instead of following the instructions blindly. If we reference 2 or 4 screws for something and the component is still tight after removing that many, look for another or for another means of securing the component, don't force it. Refer to a reputable marine repair shop or marine dealership when parts are needed for aftermarket fuel tanks. Whether or not your boat is equipped with a boat mounted, built-in tank depends mostly on the boat builder and partially on the initial engine installer. Boat mounted tanks can be hard to access (sometimes even a little hard to find if parts of the deck must be removed. When dealing with boat mounted tanks, look for access panels (as most manufacturers are smart or kind enough to install them for tough to reach tanks). At the very least, all manufacturers must provide access to fuel line fittings and, usually, the fuel level sender assembly. No matter what type of tank is used, all must be equipped with a vent (either a manual vent or an automatic one-way check valve) that allows air in (but should prevent vapors from escaping). An inoperable vent (one that is blocked in some fashion) would allow the formation of a vacuum that could prevent the fuel pump from drawing fuel from the tank. A blocked vent could cause fuel starvation problems. Whenever filling the tank, check to make sure air does not rush into the tank each time the cap is loosened (which could be an early warning sign of a blocked vent). If fuel delivery problems are encountered, first try running the motor with the fuel tank cap removed to ensure that no vacuum Jock will occur in the tank or lines due to vent problems. If the motor runs properly with the cap removed but stall, hesitates or misses with the cap installed, you know the problem is with the tank vent system. 3-6 FUEL SYSTEM Although it is necessary to pressurize and inspect both systems after repairs have been performed on the motor, it is especially important to properly check the high-pressure circuit. Leaks from the high-pressure circuit will, as you might expect, be under much greater pressures leading to potentially more hazardous conditions than a low-pressure leak. That's not to say that a low-pressure leak isn't dangerous, but a high-pressure leak can be even more so. 1. Pressurize and check the low-pressure circuit as follows: Make sure the fuel tank is sufficiently full to provide an uninterrupted fuel source, then squeeze the bulb until it begins to feel firm. Check the low-pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage before continuing. FUEL TANK AND LINES + See Figure 7 ** CAUTION If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. ** CAUTION Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. If a problem is suspected in the fuel supply, tank and/or lines, by far the easiest test to eliminate these components as possible culprits is to substitute a known good fuel supply. This is known as running a motor on a test tank (as opposed to running a motor IN a test tank, which is an entirely different concept). If possible, borrow a portable tank, fill it with fresh gasoline (or gas and oil for pre-mix models) and connect it to the motor. • When using a test fuel tank, make sure the inside diameter of the fuel hose and fuel fittings is at least 5/16 in. (8mm) or larger for V4 models or 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger on V6N8 motors. Also, please note that although a 5/16 in. (8mm) line/fitting is acceptable for V4 motors, a 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger line/fitting is preferred. All models should utilize a pickup tube filter of stainless steel No. 304 wire cloth, 100 mesh with a wire diameter of 0.0045 in. The pickup tube filter should a cylindrical screen of the same outer diameter of the pickup tube and at least 1 in. (25.4mm) in length. Fig. 7 Although most V-motors are not rigged with portable tanks, they are useful to keep around as shop or test tanks 2. Pressurize the high-pressure fuel circuit as follows: Make sure the negative battery cable is connected (if removed for service), then turn the key switch to ON for 10 seconds and then OFF again for about 3-5 seconds. Repeat the key switch cycle 3-4 times, while listening at the fuel pump to hear the electric high-pressure pump run each time the key is turned to the ON position. If the pump does not run, check the fuel pump and circuit as described in this section. Once pressurized, check the high-pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage. 3. Start the engine, then allow it to idle it for a few seconds, while continuing to scan all fuel system components for signs of leakage. 4. Stop the motor and recheck the fittings. 5. Repair any leakage and then recheck the fuel system integrity. • A 6-gallon shop tank is needed for the factory recommended winterization procedure (for details, see the information on Winterization in the Maintenance And Tune-Up section). So, it's probably not a bad idea to obtain a shop or test tank if you need to diagnose fuel system problems. Fuel Tank + See Figure 8 There are 2 different types of fuel tanks that might be used along with these Evinrude/Johnson motors. Some commercial or specially rigged boats might choose to use portable fuel tanks. But, the majority of V-motors will use a permanently mounted, integral (boat mounted) fuel tank. In both cases, a tank that is not mounted to the engine itself (as occurs with some tiny, portable outboards) is commonly called a remote tank. • Although many Evinrude/Johnson dealers rig boats using Evinrude/Johnson fuel tanks, there are many other tank manufacturers and tank designs may vary greatly. Your outboard might be equipped with a tank from the engine manufacturer or more likely, the boat manufacturer. Although components used, as well as the techniques for cleaning and repairing tanks are similar for almost all fuel tanks, be sure to use caution and common sense. If the design varies from the instructions included here, stop and assess the situation instead of following the instructions blindly. If we reference 2 or 4 screws for something and the component is still tight after removing that many, look for another or for another means of securing the component, don't force it. Refer to a reputable marine repair shop or marine dealership when parts are needed for aftermarket fuel tanks. Whether or not your boat is equipped with a boat mounted, built-in tank depends mostly on the boat builder and partially on the initial engine installer. Boat mounted tanks can be hard to access (sometimes even a little hard to find if parts of the deck must be removed. When dealing with boat mounted tanks, look for access panels (as most manufacturers are smart or kind enough to install them for tough to reach tanks). At the very least, all manufacturers must provide access to fuel line fittings and, usually, the fuel level sender assembly. No matter what type of tank is used, all must be equipped with a vent (either a manual vent or an automatic one-way check valve) that allows air in (but should prevent vapors from escaping). An inoperable vent (one that is blocked in some fashion) would allow the formation of a vacuum that could prevent the fuel pump from drawing fuel from the tank. A blocked vent could cause fuel starvation problems. Whenever filling the tank, check to make sure air does not rush into the tank each time the cap is loosened (which could be an early warning sign of a blocked vent). If fuel delivery problems are encountered, first try running the motor with the fuel tank cap removed to ensure that no vacuum Jock will occur in the tank or lines due to vent problems. If the motor runs properly with the cap removed but stall, hesitates or misses with the cap installed, you know the problem is with the tank vent system. FUEL SYSTEM 3-7 Fig. 8 Remote tanks are connected to the motor using a fuel line with a primer bulb TE SERVICE Portable Fuel Tanks + See Figures 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 Because of a V-motor's size and power, portable fuel tanks are the exception and not the norm. But, because unique rigging and applications, especially for some of the commercial models, could make multiple portable fuel tanks preferable to a boat mounted unit, we've chosen to include information on portable tanks as well. Modern fuel tanks are vented to prevent vapor lock of the fuel supply system, but are normally vented by a one-way valve to prevent pollution through the evaporation of vapors. A squeeze bulb is used to prime the system until the powerhead is operating. Once the engine starts, the fuel pump, mounted on the powerhead pulls fuel from the tank and feeds the carburetors, or FFI high-pressure fuel circuit, as applicable. The pickup unit in the tank is usually sold as a complete unit, but without the gauge and float. To disassemble and inspect or replace tank components, proceed as follows: 1. For safety, remove the filler cap and drain the tank into a suitable container. 2. Disconnect the fuel supply line from the tank fitting. 3. To replace the pickup unit, first remove the screws (normally 4) securing the unit in the tank. Next, lift the pickup unit up out of the tank. 4. Remove the Phillips screws (usually 2) securing the fuel gauge to the bottom of the pickup unit and set the gauge aside for installation onto the new pickup unit. • If the pickup unit is not being replaced, clean and check the screen for damage. It is possible to bend a new piece of screen material around the pickup and solder it in place without purchasing a complete new unit. 5. If equipped with a level gauge assembly, check for smooth, non-binding movement of the float arm and replace if binding is found. Check the float itself for physical damage or saturation and replace, if found. 6. Check the fuel tank for dirt or moisture contamination. If any is found use a small amount of gasoline or solvent to clean the tank. Pour the solvent in and slosh it around to loosen and wash away deposits, then pour out the solvent and recheck. Allow the tank to air dry, or help it along with the use of an air hose from a compressor. Fig. 9 Exploded view of a typical Evinrude/Johnson portable fuel tank ** WARNING Use extreme care when working with solvents or fuel. Remember that both are even more dangerous when their vapors are concentrated in a small area. No source of ignition from flames to sparks can be allowed in the workplace for even an instant. To install: 7. Attach the fuel gauge to the new pickup unit and secure it in place with the Phillips screws. 8. Clean the old gasket material from fuel tank and, if being used, the old pickup unit. Position a new gasket/seal, then work the float arm down through the fuel tank opening, and at the same time the fuel pickup tube into the tank. It will probably be necessary to exert a little force on the float arm in order to feed it all into the hole. The fuel pickup arm should spring into place once it is through the hole. 9. Secure the pickup and float unit in place with the attaching screws. 10. If removed, connect the fuel tank, then pressurize the fuel system and check for leaks. Boat Mounted Fuel Tanks The other type of remote fuel tank usually used on these models is a boat mounted, built-in tank. Depending on the boat manufacturer, built-in tanks may vary greatly in actual shape/design and access. All should be of a one-way vented to prevent a vacuum lock, but capped to prevent evaporation design. Most boat manufacturers are kind enough to incorporate some means of access to the tank should fuel lines, fuel pickup or floats require servicing. But, the means of access will vary greatly from boat-to-boat. Some might contain simple access panels, while others might require the removal of one or more minor or even major components for access. If you encounter difficulty, seek the advice of a local dealer for that boat builder. The dealer or his/her techs should be able to set you in the right direction. 3-8 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 10 To service the tank, disconnect the fuel line from the quick-connect fitting ... Fig. 11 . .. then remove the screws holding the pickup and float assembly to the tank Fig. 12 When removing the pickup and float, be careful not to damage the float arm Fig. 13 The assembly must be tilted to remove the float arm from the tank ** CAUTION ' Observe all fuel system cautions, especially when working in recessed portions of a hull. Fuel vapors tend to gather in enclosed areas causing an even more dangerous possibility of explosion. Anti-Siphon Valve On many boats with built-in fuel tanks, the fuel system is provided with cause hesitation or missing at higher engine rpm. Worn or damaged lines or fittings could cause similar problems (also including stalling, poor/rough idle) as air might be drawn into the system instead of fuel. Similarly, a clogged fuel line, fuel filter or dirty fuel pickup or vacuum lock (from a clogged tank vent as mentioned under Fuel Tank) could cause these symptoms by starving the motor for fuel. If fuel delivery problems are suspected, check the tank first to make sure it is properly vented, then turn your attention to the fuel lines. First check the lines and valves for obvious signs of leakage and then check for collapsed hoses that could cause restrictions. • If there is a restriction between the primer bulb and the fuel tank, vacuum from the fuel pump may cause the primer bulb to collapse. Watch for this sign when troubleshooting fuel delivery problems. ** CAUTION Only use the proper fuel lines containing suitable Coast Guard ratings on a boat. Failure to do so may cause an extremely dangerous condition should fuel lines fail during adverse operating conditions. TESTING Fuel Line Quick Check + See Figure 8 TE Stalling, hesitation, rough idle, misses at high rpm are all possible results of problems with the fuel lines. A quick visual check of the lines for leaks, kinked or collapsed lengths or other obvious damage may uncover the problem. If no obvious cause is found, the problem may be due to a restriction in the line or a problem with the fuel pump. If a fuel delivery problem due to a restriction or lack of proper fuel flow is suspected, operate the engine while attempting to duplicate the miss or hesitation. While the condition is present, squeeze the primer bulb rapidly to manually pump fuel from the tank to (and through) the fuel pump to the carburetors (or FFI vapor separator tank). If the engine then runs properly while under these conditions, suspect a problem with a clogged restricted fuel line, a clogged fuel filter or a problem with the fuel pump. Checking Fuel Flow at Motor an anti-siphon valve to prevent fuel from being siphoned from the tank in the event the fuel line is broken or disconnected. The valve is mounted on top of the tank. It should be removed periodically and checked to verify adequate fuel flow under normal conditions and no fuel flow when the valve is closed. Fuel Lines and Fittings + See Figure 8 In order for an engine to run properly it must receive an uninterrupted and unrestricted flow of fuel. This cannot occur if improper fuel lines are used or if any of the lines/fittings are damaged. Too small a fuel line could + See Figures 8, 14 and 15 To pertorm a more thorough check of the fuel lines and isolate or eliminate the possibility of a restriction, proceed as follows: 1. For safety, disconnect the spark plug leads, then ground each of them to the powerhead to prevent sparks and to protect the ignition system. 2. Disconnect the fuel line from the engine. Place a suitable container over the end of the fuel line to catch the fuel discharged. If using a quickconnector, insert a small screwdriver into the end of the line to hold the valve open. FUEL FLOW FUEL FLOW FUEL SYSTEM 3-9 3. Squeeze the primer bulb and observe if there is satisfactory fuel flow from the line. If there is no fuel discharged from the line, the check valve in the squeeze bulb may be defective, or there may be a break or obstruction in the fuel line. 4. If there is a good fuel flow, reconnect the tank-to-motor fuel supply line and disconnect the fuel line from the carburetors or FFI vapor separator, directing that line into a suitable container. Crank the powerhead. If the fuel pump is operating properly, a healthy stream of fuel should pulse out of the line. If sufficient fuel does not pulse from the line, compare flow at either side of the in line fuel filter (if equipped) or check the fuel pump. 5. Continue cranking the powerhead and catching the fuel for about 15 pulses to determine if the amount of fuel decreases with each pulse or maintains a constant amount. A decrease in the discharge indicates a restriction in the line. If the fuel line is plugged, the fuel stream may stop. If there is fuel in the fuel tank but no fuel flows out the fuel line while the powerhead is being cranked, the problem may be in one of several areas: 6. Plugged fuel line from the fuel pump to the carburetor(s). 7. Defective 0-ring or seal in fuel line connector into the fuel tank. 8. Defective 0-ring or seal in fuel line connector into the engine. 9. Defective fuel pump. 10. The line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump may be plugged; the line may be leaking air; or the squeeze bulb may be defective. 11. Defective fuel tank. 12. If the engine does not start even though there is adequate fuel flow from the fuel line, the fuel inlet needle valve and the seat may be gummed together and prevent adequate fuel flow into the float bowl or FFI vapor separator tank. Checking the Primer Bulb + See Figures 8, 14 and 16 The way most outboards are rigged, fuel will evaporate from the system during periods of non-use. Also, anytime quick-connect fittings on portable tanks are removed, there is a chance that small amounts of fuel will escape and some air will make it into the fuel lines. For this reason, outboards are normally rigged with some method of priming the fuel system through a hand-operated pump (primer bulb). When squeezed, the bulb forces fuel from inside the bulb, through the one-way check valve toward the motor filling the carburetor float bowls or FFI vapor separator tank with the fuel necessary to start the motor. When the bulb is released, the one-way check valve on the opposite end (tank side of the bulb) opens under vacuum to draw fuel from the tank and refill the bulb. When using the bulb, squeeze it gently as repetitive or forceful pumping may flood the carburetor (or overfill the FFI vapor separator tank. The bulb is operating normally if a few squeezes will cause it to become firm, meaning the float bowl/tank is full, and the float valve is closed. If the bulb collapses and does not regain its shape, the bulb must be replaced. For the bulb to operate properly, both check valves must operate properly and the fuel lines from the check valves back to the tank or forward to the motor must be in good condition (properly sealed). To check the bulb and check valves use hand operated vacuum/pressure pump (available from most marine or automotive parts stores): 1. Remove the fuel hose from the tank and the motor. If equipped, remove the clamps for the quick-connect valves at the ends of the hose and carefully remove the quick-connect valve from the motor side of the fuel line. • Most quick-connect valves are secured to the fuel supply hose using disposable plastic ties that must be cut and discarded for removal. If equipped, spring-type or threaded metal clamps may be reused, but be sure they are in good condition first. Do not overtighten threaded clamps and crack the valve or cut the hose. 2. Place the end of the line into the filler opening of the fuel tank. Gently pump the primer bulb to empty the hose into the fuel tank. • Be careful when removing the quick-connect valve from the fuel line as fuel will likely still be present in the hose and will escape (drain or splash) if the valve is jerked from the line. Also, make sure the primer bulb is empty of fuel before proceeding. 3. If equipped, remove the quick-connect valve from the tank side of the fuet line, draining any residual fuel into the tank. • For proper orientation during testing or installation, the primer bulb is marked with an arrow that faces the engine side check valve. 4. Securely connect the pressure pump to the hose on the tank side of the primer bulb. Using the pump, slowly apply pressure while listening for air escaping from the end of the hose that connects to the motor. If air escapes, both one-way check valves on the tank side and motor side of the prime bulb are opening. 5. If air escapes prior to the motor end of the hose, hold the bulb, check valve and hose connections under water (in a small bucket or tank). Apply additional air pressure using the pump and watch for escaping bubbles to determine what component or fitting is at fault. Repair the fitting or replace the defective hose/bulb component. 6. If no air escapes, attempt to draw a vacuum form the tank side of the primer bulb. The pump should draw and hold a vacuum without collapsing the primer bulb, indicating that the tank side check valve remained closed. 7. Securely connect the pressure pump to the hose on the motor side of the primer bulb. Using the pump, slowly apply pressure while listening for air escaping from the end of the hose that connects to the motor. This time, the check valve on the tank side of the primer bulb should remain closed, preventing air from escaping or from pressurizing the bulb. If the bulb pressurizes, the motor side check valve is allowing pressure back into the bulb, but the tank side valve is operating properly. 8. Replace the bulb and/or check valves if they operate improperly. SERVICE + See Figures 15, 16, 17 and 18 Whenever work is performed on the fuel system, check all hoses for wear or damage. Replace hoses that are soft and spongy or ones that are hard and brittle. Fuel hoses should be smooth and free of surface cracks, and they should definitely not have split ends (there's a bad hair joke in there, but we won't sink that low). Do not cut the split ends of a hose and attempt to reuse it, whatever caused the split (most likely time and deterioration) will cause the new end to follow soon. Fig. 14 Remove the fuel supply line from Fig. 15 When used, make sure the quick Fig. 16 The primer bulb contains an the motor, usually only portable tanks will connector 0-ring and check valve are in arrow that indicates the direction of fuel utilize a quick-disconnect fitting such as good condition flow (points toward the motor) pictured here 3-1 0 FUEL SYSTEM Check valve Fig. 17 Use two picks, punches or other small tool to replace quick-connect 0-rings. One to push the valve and the other work the 0-ring free Fuel hoses are safety items, don't scrimp on them, instead, replace them when necessary. If one hose is too old, check the rest, as they are likely also in need of replacement. • When replacing fuel lines, make sure the inside diameter of the fuel hose and fuel fittings is at least 5116 in. (8mm) or larger forV4 models or 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger on V6N8 motors. Also, please note that although a 5/16 in. (8mm) line/fitting is acceptable for V4 motors, a 3/8 in. (9.5mm) or larger line/fitting is preferred. Lastly, be certain to use only marine fuel line the meets or exceeds United States Coast Guard (USCG) A1 or 81 guidelines. When replacing fuel lines only use Evinrude/Johnson replacement hoses or other marine fuel supply lines that meet United States Coast Guard (USCG) requirements A1 or 81 for marine applications. All lines must ..e of the same inner diameter as the original to prevent leakage and mamtam the proper seal that is necessary for fuel system operation. • Using a smaller fuel hose than specified could cause fuel starvation problems leading to misfiring, hesitation, rough idling and possibly even engine damage. The USCG ratings for fuel supply lines have to do with whether or not the lines have been testing regarding length of time it might take for them to succumb to flame (burn through) in an emergency situation. A line is "A" rated if it passes specific requirements regarding burn-through times, while "8" rated lines are not tested in this fashion. The A 1 and 81 lines (normally recommended on Evinrude/Johnson applications) are capable of containing liquid fuel at all times. The A2 and 82 rated lines are designed to contain fuel vapor, but not liquid. ** CAUTION Fig. 18 A squeeze bulb kit usually includes the bulb, 2 check valves, and two tie straps released and reconnected, it is usually a good idea to replace them. Obviously wire ties are cut for removal, which requires that they be replaced. Some applications use metal spring-typ.. clamps that contam tabs wh1ch are squeezed, releasing pressure and allow1ng the clamp to slid up the hose and over the end of the fitting so the hose can be pulled from the f1!!1ng. Threaded metal clamps are nice since they are very secure and can be reused, but do not overtighten threaded clamps as they will start to cut into the hose and they can even damage some fitti..gs underneath the. hose. Metal clamps should be replaced anytime theyve lost tens1on (spnng type clamps), are corroded, bent or otherwise damaged. • The best way to ensure proper fuel fitting connection is to use the same size and style clamp that was originally installed (unless of course the "original" clamp never worked correctly, but in those cases, someone probably replaced it with the wrong type before you ever saw it). To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. On most installations with portable tanks, the fuel line is provided with quick-disconnect fittings at the tank and at the powerhead. If there is reason to believe the problem is at the quick-disconnects, the hose ends can be replaced as an assembly, or new 0-rings may be installed. A supply of n..w 0-rings should be carried on board for use in isolated areas where a manne store is not available (like dockside, or worse, should you need one wh1le on the water). For a small additional expense, the entire fuel line can be replaced and eliminate this entire area as a problem source for many future To help prevent the possibility of significant personal injury or death, do not substitute "8" rated lines when "A" rated lines are required. Similarly, do not use "A2" or "82" lines when "A1" or " A2" lines are specified. Various styles of fuel line clamps may be found on these motors. Many applications will simply secure lines with plastic wire ties or special plastic locking clamps. Although some of the plastic locking clamps may be seasons. (If the fuel line is replaced, keep the old one around as a spare, just in case). If a quick-connect 0-ring must be replaced, use two small punches, picks or similar tools, one to push down the check valve of the connect..r and the other to work the 0-ring out of the hole. Apply JUS! a drop of o1l mto the hole of the connector. Apply a thin coating of oil to the surface of the Orin g. Pinch the 0-ring together and work it into the hole while simultaneously using a punch to depress the check valve inside the connector. FUEL SYSTEM 3-1 1 The primer squeeze bulb can be replaced in a short time. A squeeze bulb assembly kit, complete with the check valves installed, may be obtained from your local Evinrude/Johnson dealer. The replacement kit will usually include two tie straps to secure the bulb properly in the line. An arrow is clearly visible on the squeeze bulb to indicate the direction of fuel flow. The squeeze bulb must be installed correctly in the line because the check valves in each end of the bulb will allow fuel to flow in only one direction. Therefore, if the squeeze bulb should be installed backwards, in a moment of haste to get the job done, fuel will not reach the carburetors or FFI vapor separator tank. CARBURETED FUEL SYSTEM ** WARNING If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. ** WARNING Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Carbureted motors covered by this manual are equipped with one carburetor barrel or throat per cylinder. The 65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) 90CV4 motors are the only Evinrude/Johnson V-motors which utilize true 2 barrel carburetors (a single carburetor/throttle body assembly with a dual-throated body). The rest of the carbureted V-motors utilize a single throttle body on which two or three carburetor throats (carburetor bodies) are mounted. This method allows for the same basic carburetor and throttle body assembly to be used on multiple applications. One type of carburetor body is used on the 60°, BO Jet-175 Hp (1726/25B9cc) V4 and V6 models. The carburetor body is mounted to either a 2 (V4) or 3 (V6) bore throttle body assembly. One throttle/carburetor body assembly is then used on each bank of cylinders. The modular style carburetor/throttle body assembly is taken a step further on the 90° looper models. For the 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) V4N6NB motors a dual throat throttle body is mounted for each pair of cylinders on each bank. This means 2 of these units are mounted on V4 motors, while 4 of them are used on VB motors. Each unit then contains 2 carburetor bodies, resulting in 4 barrels on V4 motors or B barrels on VB motors. For V6 motors, a single throat throttle body is attached to the dual throat unit on each side. The additional throttle body also uses an additional carburetor body, for a total of 6 barrels on these V6 motors. Although on initial inspection some these carbureted motors may look somewhat complicated, they're actually very basic, especially when compared with other modern fuel systems (such as an automotive or marine fuel injection system). The entire system essentially consists of a fuel tank, a fuel supply line, and a mechanical fuel pump assembly mounted to the powerhead (and for most motors, the oil/fuel mixing system that uses a unique fuel/oil pump). These components are all designed to feed the carburetors with the fuel/oil mixture necessary to power the motor. Cold starting is enhanced by the use a manual primer (on a few, mostly commercial/tiller models) or an electric fuel primer solenoid (generally all remote models). For information on fuels, tanks and lines please refer to the sections on Fuel System Basics and Fuel Tanks and Lines. For more information on the VR02 oil/fuel mixing system, please refer to the Lubrication and Cooling section. The most important fuel system maintenance that a boat owner can perform is to provide and to stabilize fuel supplies before allowing the system to sit idle for any length of time more than a few weeks. The next most important item is to provide the system with fresh gasoline if the system has stood idle for any length of time, especially if it was without fuel system stabilizer during that time. To replace the bulb, first unsnap the clamps on the hose at each end of the bulb. Next, pull the hose out of the check valves at each end of the bulb. New clamps are included with a new squeeze bulb. If the fuel line has been exposed to considerable sunlight, it may have become hardened, causing difficulty in working it over the check valve. To remedy this situation, simply immerse the ends of the hose in boiling water for a few minutes to soften the rubber. The hose will then slip onto the check valve without further problems. After the lines on both sides have been installed, snap the clamps in place to secure the line. Check a second time to be sure the arrow is pointing in the fuel flow direction, towards the powerhead. . If a sudden increase in gas consumption is noticed, or if the engine does not perform properly, a carburetor overhaul, including cleaning or replacement of the fuel pump may be required. Description and Operation BASIC FUNCTIONS The Role of a Carburetor + See Figures 19 and 20 The carburetor is merely a metering device for mixing fuel and air in the proper proportions for efficient engine operation. At idle speed, an outboard engine requires a mixture of about B parts air to 1 part fuel. At high speed or under heavy load, the mixture may change to as much as 12 parts air to 1 part fuel. Carburetors are wonderful devices that succeed in precise air/fuel mixture ratios based on tiny passages, needle jets or orifices and the variable vacuum that occurs as engine rpm and operating conditions vary. Because of the tiny passages and small moving parts in a carburetor (and the need for them to work precisely to achieve exact air/fuel mixture ratios) it is important to retain fuel system integrity. Introduction of water (that might lead to corrosion), debris (that could clog passages) or even the presence of unstabilized fuel that could evaporate over time can cause big problems for a carburetor. Keep in mind that when fuel evaporates it leaves behind a gummy deposit that can clog those tiny passages, preventing the carburetor (and therefore preventing the engine) from operating properly. Float Systems + See Figures 19 and 20 Ever lift the tank lid off the back of your toilet? Pretty simple stuff once you realize what's going on in there. A supply line keeps the tank full until a valve opens allowing all or some of the liquid in the tank to be drawn out through a passage. The dropping level in the tank causes a float to change position, and, as it lowers in the tank it opens a valve allowing more pressurized liquid back into the tank to raise levels again. OK, we were talking about a toilet right, well yes and no, we're also talking about the float bowl on a carburetor. The carburetor uses a more precise level control, uses vacuum to draw out fuel from the bowl through a metered passage and, most importantly, stores gasoline instead of water, but otherwise, they basically work in the same way. A small chamber in the bottom of the carburetor serves as a fuel reservoir. A float valve admits fuel into the reservoir to replace the fuel consumed by the engine. Fuel level in each chamber is extremely critical and must be maintained accurately. Accuracy is obtained through proper adjustment of the float. This adjustment will provide a balanced metering of fuel to each cylinder at all speeds. Improper levels will lead to engine operating problems. Too high a level can promote rich running and spark plug fouling, while excessively low float bowl fuel levels can cause lean conditions, possibly leading to engine damage. Following the fuel through its course from carburetor float bowl to the cylinder combustion chamber, will provide an appreciation of exactly what is taking place. At the carburetor, fuel from the pump or, more likely, the fuel/oil mixing unit, passes through the inlet passage to the needle and seat, and then into the float chamber (reservoir). A float in the chamber rides up and down on the surface of the fuel. After fuel enters the chamber and the level I High orifice Choke valve igh speed nozzle Float chamber I High orifice Choke valve igh speed nozzle Float chamber 3-1 2 FUEL SYSTEM Idle and Throttle intake Slow speed needle In order to obtain the proper air/fuel mixture for all engine speeds, highand low-speed orifices or needle valves are installed. On most modern powerheads the high-speed needle valve (and on a few the low speed needle valve as well) has been replaced with a fixed high-speed orifice (to discourage tampering and to help maintain proper emissions under load). There is no adjustment with the orifice type (other than replacing the orifice with one that uses a larger or smaller opening). The needle valves are used to compensate for changing atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, most motors (excluding the cross-flow models and a few of the loopers) utilize low-speed needles, so that idle air/fuel mixture can be precisely adjusted for conditions other than what occurs at atmospheric sea-level. Although the low speed needle should not normally require periodic adjustment, it can be adjusted to compensate for high-altitude (river/lake) operation or to adjust for component wear within the fuel system. Powerhead operation at sea level compared with performance at high altitudes is quite noticeable. A throttle valve controls the volume of air/fuel mixture drawn into the powerhead. A cold engine requires a richer fuel mixture to start and during the brief period it is warming to normal operating temperature. On these models, an enrichment system is used to provide extra fuel through additional passages. When the enrichment system is actuated, a rich fuel mixture is drawn into the engine. This mixture will help wake-up a cold motor, but will quickly foul the plugs on a warm engine so it should only be used for cold starts. The throat of the carburetor is usually referred to as the "barrel." As detailed earlier, carburetors installed on these engines are equipped with a single throat or barrel per cylinder. Each barrel or throat will incorporate an individual metering jet and throttle (except the true 2 barrel or dual-throat carburetors used by the cross-flow motors, that use 2 throttle plates mounted on a single throttle shaft for each carburetor assembly). Single barrel or throat carburetors are fed by one float and chamber. So, as far as carburetors go, these are relatively easy carburetors to understand, rebuild or adjust. The real key to proper operation of these carburetors comes with the throttle plate or valve synchronization procedures found in the Timing and Synchronization section. In order for these carburetors/outboards to operate properly, ALL of the throttle valves must open simultaneously when the throttle is activated and must close completely when released. Fig. 19 Fuel flow through the venturi, showing principal and related parts controlling intake and outflow (carburetor with manual choke circuit shown) Inducedlow air Atmospheric air pressure Fig. 20 Air flow principal of a modern carburetor, demonstrates how the low pressure induced behind the venturi draws fuel through the high speed nozzle Troubleshooting the Carbureted Fuel System TE COMMON PROBLEMS The last step fuel system troubleshooting is to adjust or rebuild and then adjust the carburetor. We say it is the last step, because it is the most involved repair procedures on the fuel system and should only be performed after all other possible causes of fuel system trouble have been eliminated. Fuel Delivery rises to a predetermined point, a tang on the float closes the inlet needle and additional fuel is cutoff from entering the chamber. When fuel leaves the chamber as the powerhead operates, the fuel level drops and the float tang allows the inlet needle to move off its seat and fuel enters the chamber once again. In this manner a constant reservoir of fuel is maintained in the chamber to satisfy the demands of the engine at all speeds. A fuel chamber vent hole is located near the top of the carburetor body to permit atmospheric pressure to act against the fuel in each chamber. This pressure assures an adequate fuel supply to the various operating systems of the engine. Air/Fuel Mixture + See Figures 19 and 20 A suction effect is created each time the piston moves upward in the cylinder of a 2-stroke motor. This suction draws air through the throat of the carburetor. A restriction in the throat, called a venturi, controls air velocity and has the effect of reducing air pressure at this point. The difference in air pressures at the throat and in the fuel chamber, causes the fuel to be pushed out metering jets extending down into the fuel chamber. When the fuel leaves the jets, it mixes with the air passing through the venturi. This air/fuel mixture should then be in the proper proportion for burning in the cylinder for maximum engine performance. + See Figures 21, 22 and 23 Many times fuel system troubles are caused by a plugged fuel filter, a defective fuel pump, or by a leak in the line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump. Aged fuel left in the carburetor and the formation of varnish could cause the needle to stick in its seat and prevent fuel flow into the bowl. A defective choke may also cause problems. Would you believe, a majority of starting troubles, which are traced to the fuel system, are the result of an empty fuel tank or aged fuel. If fuel delivery problems are suspected, refer to the testing procedures in Fuel Tank and Lines to make sure the tank vent is working properly and that there are no leaks or restrictions that would prevent fuel from getting to the pump and/or carburetors. A blocked fuel filter causes hard starting, stalling, misfire or poor performance. Typically the engine malfunction worsens with increased engine speed. This filter prevents contaminants from reaching the fuel pump. Most models are equipped with a form of an inline filter, though the non-VR02 equipped motors are usually equipped with a fuel filter screen under the pump inlet cover. Refer to the Fuel Filter in the section on Maintenance and Tune-Up for more details on checking, cleaning or replacing fuel filters. FUEL SYSTEM 3-1 3 Fig. 21 Typical Evinrude/Johnson fuel pumps from non-VR02 equipped motors ... Fig. 22 ... most non-VR02 pumps are equipped with filter elements under the pump inlet covers FUEL/ SUPPLY Fig. 23 Most V-motors are equipped with the VR02 fuel/oil pump assembly Sour Fuel Fuel will begin to sour in a matter of weeks, and within a couple of months, will cause engine starting problems. Therefore, leaving the motor setting idle with fuel in the carburetor, lines, or tank during the off-season, usually results in very serious problems. A fuel additive such as Sta-Bil® may be used to prevent gum from forming during storage or prolonged idle periods. Refer to the information on Fuel System Basics in this section, specifically the procedure under Fuel entitled Checking For Stale/Contaminated Fuel for information on how to determine if stale fuel is present in the system. If draining the system of stale/contaminated fuel and refilling it with fresh fuel does not make a difference in the problem, look for restrictions or other problems with the fuel delivery system. If stale fuel was left in the tank/system for a long period of time and evaporation occurred, there is a good chance that the carburetors are gummed (tiny passages are clogged by deposits left behind when the fuel evaporated). If no fuel delivery problems are found, the carburetor(s) should be removed for disassembly and cleaning. • Although there are some commercially available fuel system cleaning products that are either added to the fuel mixture or sprayed into the carburetor throttle bores, the truth is that although they can provide some measure of improvement, there is no substitute for a thorough disassembly and cleaning. The more fuel that was allowed to evaporate, the more gum or varnish that may have been left behind and the more likely that only a disassembly will be able to restore proper performance. Enrichment Problems + See Figure 24 When the engine is hot, the fuel system can cause starting problems. After a hot engine is shut down, the temperature inside the fuel bowl may rise to 200°F (94°C) and cause the fuel to actually boil. Carburetors are normally vented to allow this pressure to escape to the atmosphere. However, some of the fuel may percolate over the main nozzle. If the enrichment circuit (manual or electric) fail to operate, while the engine is cold, it will be hard to start. Likewise, if the enrichment circuit remains activated during normal engine operating temperatures, the engine will flood making it very difficult to start or, once started, making it buck or hesitate, especially at lower speeds. In order for this raw fuel to vaporize enough to burn, considerable air must be added to lean out the mixture. Therefore, one remedy is to make sure the enrichment circuit is off and open the throttle to the fully open position (to allow in maximum air) and hold it there while the engine is cranked. If this doesn't work, the only remedy remaining is to remove the spark plugs and ground the leads, then crank the powerhead through about ten revolutions to blow out raw fumes. Then, clean the plugs; install the plugs again; and start the engine. If the needle valve and seat assembly is leaking, an excessive amount of fuel may enter the intake manifold in the following manner: After the powerhead is shut down, the pressure left in the fuel line will force fuel past the leaking needle valve. This extra fuel will raise the level in the fuel bowl and cause fuel to overflow into the intake manifold. A continuous overflow of fuel into the intake manifold may be due a defective float or overpriming the system using the primer bulb which would cause an extra high level of fuel in the bowl and overflow into the intake manifold. Rough Engine Idle If a powerhead does not idle smoothly, the most reasonable approach to the problem is to perform a tune-up to eliminate such areas as faulty spark plugs and timing or synchronization out of adjustment. Other problems that can prevent an engine from running smoothly include an air leak in the intake manifold; uneven compression between the cylinders; and sticky or broken reed valves. Of course any problem in the carburetors affecting the air/fuel mixture will also prevent the engine from operating smoothly at idle speed. These problems usually include too high a fuel level in the bowl; a heavy float; leaking needle valve and seat; defective enrichment circuit; and improper idle (low-speed) needle valve adjustments or the installation of an improperly sized idle orifice. "Sour" fuel (fuel left in a tank without a preservative additive) will cause an engine to run rough and idle with great difficulty. Remember that fuel enriched with alcohol is hydroscopic and could accumulate/absorb water over time. As with all troubleshooting procedures, start with the easiest items to check/fix and work towards the more complicated ones. Recirculation Hoses and Check Valves The recirculation hoses and check valves remove any excess fuel/oil build-up from the low point in each of the cylinders and lower bearing cavity. The build-up is scavenged and returned to the intake manifold where it is mixed with a fresh air/fuel charge from the carburetor. 3-14 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 24 Fouled spark plug, possibly Fig. 25 Marine growth on the lower unit caused by over-choking or a will create "drag" and seriously hamper malfunctioning enrichment circuit boat performance Fig. 26 A corroded hub on a small engine propeller. Hub and propeller damage will also cause poor performance If one of the hoses or fittings become plugged, or the check valve malfunctions, the fuel/oil mixture will build up in the cylinder and eventually cause the cylinder to misfire, foul the spark plug or cause excessive smoke during acceleration after an extended idling period. Excessive Fuel Consumption + See Figures 25 and 26 Excessive fuel consumption can result from a variety of conditions, including excessively rich carburetors and wrong size and pitch propeller for the boat and user application. The most common and over looked conditions are as follows: 1. Inefficient engine operation. 2. Damaged hull, outdrive or propeller, including excessive marine growth. 3. Poor operator boating habits. If the fuel consumption suddenly increases over what could be considered normal, then the cause can probably be attributed to the engine or boat and not the operator (unless he/she just drastically changed the manner in which the boat is operated). Marine growth on the hull can have a very marked effect on boat performance. This is why racing sailboats always try to have a haul-out as close to race time as possible. While you are checking the bottom take note of the propeller condition. A bent blade or other damage will definitely cause poor boat performance. If the hull and propeller are in good shape, check the fuel system for possible leaks. For pre-mix motors, check the line between the fuel pump and the carburetors. For oil injected motors, check the fuel distribution manifold and hoses between the VR02 pump(s) and the carburetors while the powerhead is running and the fuel supply hose between the fuel tank and the VR02 pump when the powerhead is not operating. Many times, a fuel leak between the tank and the fuel pump will not appear when the powerhead is operating, because the suction created by the pump drawing fuel will not allow the fuel to escape. Once the powerhead is turned off and the suction no longer exists, fuel may begin to leak slowly from the supply hose or fittings. If no other problems are found, a minor tune-up has been performed and the spark plugs and engine timing/synchronization are properly adjusted, then the problem most likely is in the carburetors, indicating an overhaul is in order. Check for damage to the needle valve and seat, which will cause an internal leak. Use extra care when making any adjustment or bleed air orifice and high speed jet changes. ** WARNING . . A powerhead running too lean may be severely damaged by operation. Check with a local dealer for the proper size orifices and jets for the specific size powerhead and application. Engine Surge If the engine operates as if the load on the boat is being constantly increased and decreased, even if there is no change to the throttle, the problem can most likely be attributed to the fuel pump. Refer to Fuel Tank and Lines in this section for information on checking the lines for restrictions and checking fuel flow. Also, refer to Fuel Pump under Carbureted Fuel System for more information on fuel pump operation and service. FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING-BY SYMPTOM Powerhead Fails to Start • Poort quality or old "sour" fuel. • Fuel supply restricted to the fuel pump and carburetors. • Fuel primer valve leaking, flooding the powerhead. • Out of fuel. Powerhead Fails to Idle • Fuel supply restricted to the powerhead. • Fuel primer valve is leaking. • VR02 or fuel pump is sucking air. • Throttle linkage misadjusted. • Carburetors gummed or dirty. • Recirculation hoses and fittings plugged or disconnected. • Intake manifold air leaks. • Reed valves bent or broken. Powerhead Fails to Idle Slowly • Fuel supply anti-siphon valve or filter restricted. • Fuel primer valve is leaking. • VR02 or fuel pump malfunction. • Throttle linkage misadjusted. • Internal carburetor leakage. Powerhead Coughs/Spits at Idle • Fuel system leaks air. • Throttle linkage misadjusted. • Carburetor leaking air. • Recirculation fittings plugged or hoses misrouted. • Intake manifold leaking air. Powerhead Operates Rich at Idle • Fuel primer valve leaks. • VR02 pump is damaged. e Carburetor malfunction. • Recirculation system hoses loose. Excessive Oil Use (VR02 Motors Only) • Restricted fuel supply. • VR02 pump malfunction. Powerhead Stalls During Acceleration • Restricted fuel supply . • VR02 or fuel pump malfunction. • Throttle linkage misadjusted . • Carburetor malfunction. • Intake manifold leaking air. • Reed plates bent or broken. FUEL SYSTEM 3-15 Powerhead Surges at High RPM • Restricted fuel supply . • VR02 or fuel pump malfunction . • Carburetors gummed or dirty . • Air silencer/baffle missing. Runs Rich at High Speed • Fuel primer valve leaks . • Internal carburetor leakage. Powerhead Fails to Obtain WOT RPM • Fuel supply restricted to the powerhead . • VR02 or fuel pump malfunction . • Carburetors gummed or dirty . • Reed valves bent or broken. Fuel Spits From Carburetor(s) • Reed valves bent, broken. • Manifold seal is leaking air. VR02 FUEL SYSTEM TEST PROCEDURES On models equipped with the Variable Ratio Oil (VR02) injection system, please refer to the System Verification and Troubleshooting procedures found for the VR02 System in the Lubrication and Cooling system section. We've placed all VR02 service in one section, separate from the Fuel System section to prevent confusing those people working on non oilinjected motors. Carburetor-65 Jet-1 15 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 Motors + See Figure 27 This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal and installation and overhaul (disassembly/cleaning & inspection/assembly), for the carburetors normally found on 65 Jet-1 15 Hp (1632cc) goo, cross-flow V4 motors. DESCRIPTION + See Figure 27 This, more conventionally designed 2 barrel or throat carburetor is normally used on 65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) goo, cross-flow V4 motors. In most cases, one dual throat carburetor will service a pair of cylinders. This dual throat carburetor contains two High Speed fixed orifices, two Idle Air Bleed orifices, and two Intermediate Fuel orifices. The single float chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor for both throats. One carburetor provides the fuel/air mix1ure for two cylinders. Therefore two dual throat carburetors are installed on a V4 powerhead. TE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figure 27 • The fuel hose fittings are delicate on these models. To protect the fittings, gently push the hoses from them instead of grasping and pulling on the hose itself. If pushing won't free the hose, use a utility knife to carefully slit the hose from the end to a point at or near the fitting flange, then peel the hose from the fitting and replace it upon reinstallation. 1. Remove the spark plug leads and/or disconnect the negative battery cable (if equipped) to prevent accidental starting of the engine. • Remember, half of the point of disconnecting the negative battery cable is to prevent the possibility of sparks that could ignite fuel vapors. The other half of the point is to prevent someone from cranking the motor while fuel lines or fittings are open. 2. Loosen the intake air silencer cover retaining bolts (usually g), then remove the air silencer cover and discard the gasket. Fig. 27 Exploded view of the carburetor used on 65 Jet-115 Hp (1632cc) 90°, cross-flow V4 motors 3. Loosen the intake air silencer base retaining bolts (usually 4), then remove the VR02 pump retaining bolts. Disconnect the drain hose and then remove the intake air silencer base. 4. Disconnect the carburetor throttle linkage. 5. Loosen and remove the Allen head retaining bolts and pull the carburetor(s) from the intake manifold. Support the carburetor(s) while removing the primer hoses. Then, cut the wire tie(s) and carefully remove the fuel supply line(s). Set the carburetor(s) aside. 6. Remove and discard the carburetor gasket. Carefully clean the gasket mating surfaces of any remaining material. To install: 7. Inspect the carburetor base gasket(s) to make sure there is a hole to match the primer fitting. Position a new base gasket on the carburetor, using the Allen head screws to hold it in position on the carburetor. • Install the carburetor gasket dry. Do not use sealer. 8. Attach the fuel supply and primer hoses and secure using new wire ties. g. Position the carburetor and gasket to the intake manifold. Make sure the gasket is positioned properly, thread the screws and tighten securely. 10. Reconnect the carburetor throttle linkage. Refer to the information under Timing and Synchronization for throttle adjustments. 11. Apply a light coating of Evinrude/Johnson Screw Lock, or equivalent threadlock to the intake air silencer base retaining screws. Place the screws aside for use in a couple of steps. 12. Install the VR02 pump to the back of the air silencer base and tighten the screws to 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm). 13. Connect the drain hose to the air silencer base, then install the silencer base to the carburetors using a new gasket. Install the gasket dry, using NO sealer, then install the silencer base screws (coated with threadlock) and tighten to 35-60 inch lbs. (4-6.8 Nm). 14. Pressurize the fuel system using the primer bulb and check the fuel system for leaks. For more details, please refer to Fuel System Pressurization for details. 15. Install the air intake silencer cover using a new gasket and tighten the bolts securely. 16. Reconnect the negative battery cable and/or install the spark plugs, as applicable. 3-1 6 FUEL SYSTEM TE OVERHAUL + See Figure 27 • Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts after they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent foreign matter from entenng passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled fuel as some fuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the float bowl. Tak.. this opportunity to closely inspect the fuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always matchmark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a complete rebuild and the initial bench settings, perform the complete T..m..ng and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. • To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. Disassembly + See Figures 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32 and 33 The following procedures pickup the work after the carburetor has been removed from the intake manifold on the powerhead. If both carburetors are to be serviced, repeat all given steps for the other carburetor. It is recommended to perform all the steps on one carburetor before beginning work on another. Such a procedure will prevent possible mix-up of internal components. 1. Invert the carburetor and drain any gasoline remaining in the float bowl through the vent. 2. Remove the four screws securing the float bowl assembly to the carburetor. Lilt off the float bowl assembly and gasket. Discard the gasket. 3. Loosen and remove the two float bowl drain plugs on each side of the float bowl. Discard the gasket on each plug. • The bleed air orifices and jets are made of a soft brass material. A slot on the end of the orifice is provided to insert a common flat blade screwdriver. H _ owever, _ the _ manufacturer has a specially designed tool P/ _ N 317002 _ dnver, which f1ts the slotted opening nicely and will not slip. If multiple carburetors are to be serviced the cost of this tool justifies the modest expenditure compared wit h the price of a couple bleed air orifices. ** WARNING Use extreme caution when a common screwdriver is used. If the end of the orifice is damaged, it must be replaced with a new orifice. .4. Using the Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent, remove the two high speed jets from the float bowl drain plug bores-one on each Side of the float bowl. Note the size and location as each jet is removed. ** CAUTION The bleed air orifices and jets appear identical in size but have different drill size openings and thread sized. A numbe.. is stamped on the end of each orifice and jet for size. Note the size number and location prior to removal. Installation of the wrong size orifice could cause poor performance and severe powerhead damage. 5. Using Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002 or equivalent, remove the two intermediate fuel orifices from the interior 'at the float bowl. Note the size and location as each orifice is removed. 6. Pull the pin from the float hinges. Lift out the float assembly and needle valve from the carburetor body. 7. Using a wide flat blade screwdriver, remove the needle valve seat and gasket from the carburetor body. Discard the gasket. If the carburetor being serviced is a late model unit, a cover plate and gasket covering the idle circuit passages is located on top of the carburetor. Remove the four screws securing the cover and gasket. Discard the gasket. 8 . . Using the Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent, remove the two idle air bleed orifices from the throat of the carburetor. Note the size and location of each orifice removed. 9. Clean and inspect the carburetor, as detailed in this section. Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 27, 34 and 35 Never submerge the carburetor or any of its components into a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Use Evinrude/Johnson Carburetor and Choke cleaner or an equivalent product m a spray can. Flush all passages, tubes and orifices with the spray carburetor cleaner or a syringe filled with isopropyl alcohol. Use a clean b..1stle brush to remove any gum or varnish deposits. Blow out all passages w1th low pressure compressed air at approximately 25 psi (172 kPa). Never use a p1ece of w1re or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in the carburetor. . Inspect the carburetor body and float bowl gasket sealing surfaces for mcks, gouges or irregularities that could cause a leak. Check all nozzle and pickup tubes for security and cleanliness. Inspect the nylon tip of the needle valve for wear, distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve and seat if damaged or worn. Good shop practice dictates to always replace the needle valve and needle seat when the carburetor is fully disassembled. Check the throttle plate and shaft for excessive wear. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be loose, replace. the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are not available. Venfy the throttle plate retaining screws are tight, and check alignment of the throttle plate to the throttle body bore. This carburetor has two calibration pockets in the top of the fuel chamber which are covered with soft plugs. Fig. 28 Remove the four screws securing the float bowl Fig. 29 Remove the 2 float bowl drainplugs and discard the gaskets (0-rings) Fig. 30 Remove the 2 high speed jets from the bowl drain plug bores 3-1 6 FUEL SYSTEM TE OVERHAUL + See Figure 27 • Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts after they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent foreign matter from entenng passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled fuel as some fuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the float bowl. Tak.. this opportunity to closely inspect the fuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always matchmark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a complete rebuild and the initial bench settings, perform the complete T..m..ng and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. • To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. Disassembly + See Figures 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32 and 33 The following procedures pickup the work after the carburetor has been removed from the intake manifold on the powerhead. If both carburetors are to be serviced, repeat all given steps for the other carburetor. It is recommended to perform all the steps on one carburetor before beginning work on another. Such a procedure will prevent possible mix-up of internal components. 1. Invert the carburetor and drain any gasoline remaining in the float bowl through the vent. 2. Remove the four screws securing the float bowl assembly to the carburetor. Lilt off the float bowl assembly and gasket. Discard the gasket. 3. Loosen and remove the two float bowl drain plugs on each side of the float bowl. Discard the gasket on each plug. • The bleed air orifices and jets are made of a soft brass material. A slot on the end of the orifice is provided to insert a common flat blade screwdriver. H _ owever, _ the _ manufacturer has a specially designed tool P/ _ N 317002 _ dnver, which f1ts the slotted opening nicely and will not slip. If multiple carburetors are to be serviced the cost of this tool justifies the modest expenditure compared wit h the price of a couple bleed air orifices. ** WARNING Use extreme caution when a common screwdriver is used. If the end of the orifice is damaged, it must be replaced with a new orifice. .4. Using the Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent, remove the two high speed jets from the float bowl drain plug bores-one on each Side of the float bowl. Note the size and location as each jet is removed. ** CAUTION The bleed air orifices and jets appear identical in size but have different drill size openings and thread sized. A numbe.. is stamped on the end of each orifice and jet for size. Note the size number and location prior to removal. Installation of the wrong size orifice could cause poor performance and severe powerhead damage. 5. Using Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002 or equivalent, remove the two intermediate fuel orifices from the interior 'at the float bowl. Note the size and location as each orifice is removed. 6. Pull the pin from the float hinges. Lift out the float assembly and needle valve from the carburetor body. 7. Using a wide flat blade screwdriver, remove the needle valve seat and gasket from the carburetor body. Discard the gasket. If the carburetor being serviced is a late model unit, a cover plate and gasket covering the idle circuit passages is located on top of the carburetor. Remove the four screws securing the cover and gasket. Discard the gasket. 8 . . Using the Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent, remove the two idle air bleed orifices from the throat of the carburetor. Note the size and location of each orifice removed. 9. Clean and inspect the carburetor, as detailed in this section. Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 27, 34 and 35 Never submerge the carburetor or any of its components into a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Use Evinrude/Johnson Carburetor and Choke cleaner or an equivalent product m a spray can. Flush all passages, tubes and orifices with the spray carburetor cleaner or a syringe filled with isopropyl alcohol. Use a clean b..1stle brush to remove any gum or varnish deposits. Blow out all passages w1th low pressure compressed air at approximately 25 psi (172 kPa). Never use a p1ece of w1re or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in the carburetor. . Inspect the carburetor body and float bowl gasket sealing surfaces for mcks, gouges or irregularities that could cause a leak. Check all nozzle and pickup tubes for security and cleanliness. Inspect the nylon tip of the needle valve for wear, distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve and seat if damaged or worn. Good shop practice dictates to always replace the needle valve and needle seat when the carburetor is fully disassembled. Check the throttle plate and shaft for excessive wear. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be loose, replace. the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are not available. Venfy the throttle plate retaining screws are tight, and check alignment of the throttle plate to the throttle body bore. This carburetor has two calibration pockets in the top of the fuel chamber which are covered with soft plugs. Fig. 28 Remove the four screws securing the float bowl Fig. 29 Remove the 2 float bowl drainplugs and discard the gaskets (0-rings) Fig. 30 Remove the 2 high speed jets from the bowl drain plug bores FUEL SYSTEM 3-17 Fig. 33 Remove the 2 idle air bleed Fig. 31 Remove the 2 intermediate fuel orfices from the carburetor throat orfices from the float bowl Fig. 34 If the emulsion tubes are leaking, Fig. 35 Locations of the lead shot and apply a drop of Ultra Lock as shown plug covering the idle and intermediate circuit passages Fig. 36 Install needle valve seat and a new gasket Do not remove these soft plugs unless absolutely necessary for cleaning, or if they are known to be leaking. When it is necessary to remove these plugs, drill a small hole in the center of the plug. Take care not to damage the throttle body. Pry the plug out with a small punch. After cleaning, install a new soft plug with the convex side up. Seat the soft plug using the flat end of a drift punch. Apply a fuel resistant sealer such as Evinrude/Johnson Gasoila sealant to the edges of the soft plug. The side of the carburetor main body contains a lead shot covering drilled passages. If the carburetor is extremely gummed and varnished, the lead shot may be removed for cleaning these passages. Pry up on the lead shot with a knife or other sharp instrument. Clean the passage free of all debris and gum. Place a new lead shot over the opening and flatten it using a hammer and blunt end punch. Invert the carburetor main body. Fill the idle circuit with isopropyl alcohol. Check for leaks around the emulsion tube where it joins the carburetor body. If a leak is discovered, drain the isopropyl alcohol and blow dry with compressed air. Apply a drop of Evinrude/Johnson Ultra Lock or equivalent high-strength threadlocking compound at the points indicated in the illustration. Assembly + See Figures 27, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44 and 45 Install a new float bowl gasket making sure all holes in the gasket are aligned with carb body passages 1. Place a new gasket on the needle valve seat and install the seat in the carburetor body. If the carburetor being serviced is a late model unit, a cover plate and gasket covering the idle circuit passages is located on top of the carburetor. Place a new gasket and cover in position. Secure the cover with four screws. 2. Place a new needle valve onto the float tab. Lower the float and needle valve onto the carburetor, and at the same time, guide the needle valve into the seat. Align the float hinge between the float supports and insert the hinge pin. 3. Invert the carburetor and hold it level. Check the float closed height, with the needle valve fully closed. The leading edge of the float should be approximately level with the gasket. Carefully bend the float arm to adjust for the proper height. Fig. 37 Install a new needle valve along Fig. 38 Check the float closed height Fig. 39 Hold the carburetor upright and with the float assembly (the float leading edge should be about level to measure the float drop height level with the gasket) 3-18 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 45 Install the float bowl onto the Fig. 43 Install the 2 float bowl drain Fig. 44 Install a new float bowl gasket carburetor plugs using new gaskets making sure all holes in the gasket are aligned with carb body passages 4. Hold the carburetor upright and level. Measure the float drop height with a scale or ruler. The float drop height should be I in. (25.4mm) give or take I /8 an inch (3. I 8mm) or stated another way, float drop height should be 7/8-I 7/8 in. (22.3-28.6mm). Carefully bend the tab on the float to set the drop height. 5. Install the 2 idle air bleed orifices into the carburetor throat. Tighten the orifices using Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent. 6. Insert one of the intermediate fuel orifices into the bore on the float bowl. Using Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 31 7002, or equivalent, tighten the orifice securely. Repeat this step for the opposite intermediate fuel orifice. 7. Start one of the high speed jet orifices into the bore. Screw the jet down into the bore until it is seated and then tighten it using Evinrude/Johnson Orifice Plug Screwdriver P/N 317002, or equivalent. Repeat this step on the opposite side of the float bowl for the other high speed jet orifice. 8. Place a new gasket onto the float bowl fuel drain plugs. Install one drain plug on each side of the float bowl and tighten. 9. Slide a new float bowl gasket over the emulsion tubes and against the carburetor body. Check to be sure all holes in the gasket are aligned with the passages in the carburetor body. I 0. Place the float bowl onto the carburetor. Apply Evinrude/Johnson Screw Lock or equivalent threadlocking compound to the screw threads. Install the 4 screws and tighten in a crossing pattern to 24-36 inch lbs. (3-4 Nm). Carburetor-SO Jet-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) 60LV4/V6 Motors • See Figures 46 and 47 This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal and installation and overhaul (disassembly/cleaning & inspection/assembly) and mixture adjustment, for the carburetors normally found on 80 Jet-I 75 Hp (1 726/2589cc) 60°, loop charged V4N6 motors. Fig. 46 Clear view of the triple throat carburetor assembly used by 80 Jet-175hp 60° V6 powerheads. This arrangement consists of 3 single throat carburetors mounted on a single throttle plate DESCRIPTION The 60° loop charged V4 and V6 motors, 80 Jet-175 Hp (1726/2589cc) powerheads utilize a unique modular carburetor assembly in which 2 (V4) or 3 (V6) single throat carburetor bodies are mounted on a single throttle plate. In this fashion, each individual carburetor provides the air/fuel mixture for just I cylinder (making carburetor tuning/troubleshooting a relatively straightforward matter on these motors). FUEL SYSTEM 3-1 9 I 28 1ntake manifold assy. port "" 29 Intake manifold assy. starboard 13 Float pin 30 Check valve 1 Throttle body/carb. assy. 14 Manifold to throttle body clip 31 Screen 2 Calibration pocket cover 15 High speed orfice 32 Primer nipple 3 Cover gasket 16 Float bowl gasket 33 Port to starboard carb. link 4 Bowl to body screw 17 Carb body seal 34 Cam follower roller 5 Float chamber assy. 18 Throttle body screen 35 Linkage adjustment lever 6 Intermediate or airbleed orfice 19 Fuel manifold port & starboard 36 Air silencer assy. 7 Float valve assy. 20 Screw plug o-ring 37 Port manifold to carb seal 8 Spring clip 21 Carb body assy. 38 Starboard manifold to carb seal 9 Nozzle well gasket 22 Air silencer seal 39 Balance tube drain seal 10 Manifold to throttle body clip 23 Cover plate 40 Roller and sleeve o-ring 11 High speed orfice 24 Cover plate gasket 41 Air silencer seal 12 Float bowl gasket 25 Needle valve 42 Port balance tube to air silencer drain Fig. 47 Exploded view of the triple throat carburetor assembly used by 80 Jet-175hp 60° V6 powerheads (V4 powerheads very similar, but with only 2 single throat carburetors mounted to the throttle plate) 3-20 FUEL SYSTEM This mounting arrangement is referred to as a duel or triple throat carburetor assembly. Two carburetor assemblies, one on the port and one on the starboard side of the intake manifold account for the term "Dual." Some refer to these motors are containing dual 2-barrel (2 throat) or 3-barrel (triple throat) carburetors-when actually you could consider it to be 4 (V4) or 6 (V6) carburetors total mounted to the powerhead. Each individual carburetor body contains either an adjustable idle mixture screw or a fixed orifice, depending on the year and serial number of the powerhead. A fixed air bleed orifice, found immediately abo·Je the idle mixture screw or orifice, controls the intermediate mixture. A fixed orifice in the fuel float chamber controls the high-speed mixture. The single float fuel chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor bowl for all power settings. TE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figures 47, 48, 49 and 50 Carburetor mixture adjustments (via screw adjustment or orifice replacement) can normally occur without removing the carburetor body or entire carburetor assembly from the motor. Also, if necessary, an individual carburetor body can be removed without disturbing the entire throttle body assembly. • The carburetor metering bodies and the throttle plate are separate units. The metering body is made of a plastic nylon material and the throttle plate is cast aluminum. If only one or two carburetors are to be serviced, each carburetor metering body may be removed from the throttle plate. If all carburetors are to be serviced then it is advisable to remove the throttle plate from the intake manifold with the carburetors still attached. If removal of the throttle plate with the carburetors attached is preferred, follow the instructions given in Step 4, otherwise, when it comes time, skip it and move on to Step 5 for individual carburetor removal. • The fuel hose fittings are delicate on these models. To protect the fittings, gently push the hoses from them instead of grasping and pulling on the hose itself. If pushing won't free the hose, use a utility knife to carefully slit the hose from the end to a point at or near the fitting flange, then peel the hose from the fitting and replace it upon reinstallation. 1. Remove the spark plug leads and/or disconnect the negative battery cable (if equipped) to prevent accidental starting of the engine. • Remember, half of the point of disconnecting the negative battery cable is to prevent the possibility of sparks that could ignite fuel vapors. The other half of the point is to prevent someone from cranking the motor while fuel lines or fittings are open. 2. Remove the engine cover for access. If necessary, disconnect both the fuel and, if applicable, the oil supply hoses from the fittings on the lower cowling. Cap the hoses and fittings to minimize fuel and oil leaks. Unlatch and remove the cowling from the powerhead and set it aside. 3. Disconnect the fuel vapor hose from the air silencer box. Disconnect the rubber strap retainers for the air silencer cover and lift off the cover. 4. If you are removing the entire carburetor/throttle body assembly, proceed as follows: a. Cut the wire tie securing the main fuel supply hose to the carburetor fuel manifold, then carefully push the hose from the manifold. b. Carefully push the valance tube hose off the tube manifold. c. Remove the primer hose from the intake manifold. d. On the port carburetor assembly, remove the screw securing the linkage arm to the top carburetor. e. On the starboard carburetor assembly, pull the linkage arm from the nylon insert on the top carburetor assembly. f. Remove the short bolts (usually 8) securing the throttle plate assembly to the intake manifold. Lift off the throttle plate-with carburetors still attached-from the intake manifold. Discard the preformed seal between the throttle plate and the intake manifold. 5. To remove a carburetor body from the carburetor/throttle plate assembly, remove the bolts, and 2 Phillips head screws securing the carburetor metering body to the throttle plate. Lift the carburetor free of the throttle plate. Remove and discard the preformed gasket from the carburetor main body. • If all carburetors are to be serviced, but the throttle plate is to remain on the intake manifold, after each carburetor is removed, insert the two short carburetor bolts through the throttle plate and tighten. This will prevent the throttle plate from moving and disturbing the preformed gasket seal underneath. 6. Remove and check the condition of the throttle plate base seal. Although the manufacturer advises that it can be reused, it is usually a good idea to discard the carburetor base seal if it has been in service for some length of time. To install: 7. Install the carburetors to the throttle plate, as follows: a. If the throttle plate was left attached to the powerhead, remove the 2 bolts securing the throttle plate to the intake manifold. • If the throttle plate was left attached to the powerhead and more than 1 carburetor body was removed, install one carburetor at a time. Meaning, don't remove ALL of the bolts securing the throttle plate, remove only the 2 which are in the way of the carburetor body about to be installed). In this way the throttle body will remain secure as each carburetor is installed. b. Carefully place the carburetor onto the throttle plate using a new preformed seal. Take care not to disturb the preformed seal. Secure the carburetor to the throttle plate with four bolts and two Phillips head screws. c. Tighten the bolts in a crossing pattern until snug. 8. If the throttle body assembly was removed from the intake manifold, install the preformed seal (we really do recommend using a new one), then position the throttle plate and carburetor assembly. Install the bolts. 9. Using a crossing pattern, tighten the carburetor body and !hro!!le plate bolts to 45-55 inch lbs. (5-6 Nm). 10. Reconnect any hoses that were removed. When applicable, secure using new wire ties. Fig. 48 If the entire throttle Fig. 49 To remove a carburetor from Fig. 50 When installing carb bodies body/carburetor assembly is being the throttle body, loosen the bolts and onto the throttle plate, take care not to removed, disconnect all of the hoses Phillips screws disturb the preformed seal FUEL SYSTEM 3-21 11. Connect the throttle link rod into the top of the starboard carburetor throttle shaft. Connect the throttle link on top of the port carburetor and secure it with the link screw. 12. Pressurize the fuel system using the primer bulb and check the fuel system for leaks. For more details, please refer to Fuel System Pressurization for details. 13. Install the spark plugs and/or connect the battery cables. 14. Perform the Timing and Synchronization adjustments detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. On models with adjustable low speed screws, perform the Carburetor Mixture Adjustment procedure detailed in this section. TE OVERHAUL , + See Figure 47 • Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts after they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent foreign matter from entering passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled fuel, as some fuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the float bowl. Take this opportunity to closely inspect the fuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always matchmark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a complete rebuild and the initial bench settings, perform the complete Timing and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. Also, be sure to perform a Carburetor Mixture Adjustment procedure on carburetor bodies that are overhauled or replaced (when equipped with adjustable low-speed screws). • To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. Disassembly + See Figures 47, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59 The following procedures pickup the work after the carburetor body or carburetor/throttle plate assembly has been removed from the powerhead. If more than one carburetor is to be serviced, repeat all given steps for the other carburetor(s). It is recommended to perform all the steps on one carburetor before beginning work on another. Such a procedure will prevent possible mix-up of internal components. • Only one carburetor will be serviced in the following procedures. Servicing each of the remaining units is to be performed in the same manner. 1. If not done already, remove the carburetor from the throttle plate. Discard the 0-ring seal between the carburetor body and the throttle body. 2. Using a small screwdriver, lift out the fuel bowl screen from the throttle plate. Clean the screen with a choke and carburetor spray cleaner and blow dry with compressed air. Insert the screen back into the cavity in the throttle plate. 3. Remove the 4 Phillips head screws securing the float bowl to the carburetor body. Lift off the float bowl and rubber gasket. Discard the gasket. 4. Remove the Phillips head screw securing the float assembly and hinge pin. Lift off the float, hinge pin and needle valve. Slide the retaining spring and needle valve free of the float assembly. 5. Using a large blade screwdriver. Remove the needle valve seat from the carburetor base. 6. Slide the nozzle well rubber gasket off the tube in the carburetor base. Discard the gasket. 7. Remove the 4 Phillips head screws securing the side cover plate to the carburetor base. Lift off the cover and rubber gasket. Discard the rubber gasket under the plate. · •The intermediate and (on some early-models) idle bleed air orifices have identical physical appearances. These orifices have a number stamped on the slotted end of the orifice. This number identifies the size of the orifice. Note the location-Intermediate or Idle position-and the size of the orifice prior to removing it. Installation of the wrong size orifice will cause rough idle, poor performance and possible damage to the powerhead. 8. Note the size number and location of the idle and intermediate bleed air orifices. Remove the orifices from the carburetor base. 9. If equipped with an idle speed screw instead of an idle orifice, loosen and remove the low speed (idle mixture) needle and spring. Visually inspect the needle for damage or nicks. 10. Remove the plug and 0-ring from the float bowl to gain access to the high-speed orifice. Discard the 0-ring. 11. Using a narrow blade screwdriver, slide the blade of the screwdriver through the float bowl plug opening and up into the slots of the high-speed orifice. Use caution when removing this orifice as the narrow blade of the screwdriver could damage the orifice slots. Remove the high-speed orifice from the float bowl. Note the size of the orifice and its location to ensure correct assembling. • There are no more serviceable components to remove from the carburetor assembly. All passages, vent tubes and orifice openings should be exposed to facilitate proper cleaning and inspection of the carburetor. Follow the instructions listed in the next section for Cleaning and Inspecting. Fig. 53 Remove the Phillips screw securing the float and hinge pin Fig. 51 Remove the fuel bowl screen Fig. 52 Remove the Phillips screws from the throttle plate securing the float bowl to the carburetor body 3-22 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 54 Remove the needle valve seat Fig. 55 Slide the nozzle well rubber from the carburetor base gasket off the tube in the carburetor base Fig. 57 Remove the orifices from the Fig. 58 Remove the plug and 0-ring Fig. 59 Remove the high speed orifice carburetor base from the float bowl for access to the from the float bowl high speed orifice Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 47, 60, 61 , 62, 63 and 64 Never submerge the carburetor or any of its components into a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Use Evinrude/Johnson Carburetor and Choke cleaner or an equivalent product in a spray can. Flush all passages, tubes and orifices with the spray carburetor cleaner or a syringe filled with isopropyl alcohol. Use a clean bristle brush to remove any gum or varnish deposits. Blow out all passages with low-pressure compressed air at approximately 25 psi (172 kPa). Never use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in the carburetor. Inspect the carburetor body and float bowl gasket sealing surfaces for nicks, gouges or irregularities, which could cause a leak. Check all nozzle and pickup tubes for security and cleanliness. Inspect the nylon tip of the needle valve for wear, distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve and seat if damaged or worn. Good shop practice dictates to always replace the needle valve and needle seat when the carburetor is fully disassembled. Check the throttle plate and shaft for excessive wear. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be loose, replace the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are not available. Verify the throttle plate retaining screws are tight, and check alignment of the throttle plate to the throttle body bore. Maximum throttle plate clearance is 0.002 in. (0.05 mm). Early model throttle bodies (1 992-93) have two soft plugs on the side for the calibration pockets. Do not remove these soft plugs unless absolutely necessary for cleaning, or if they are known to be leaking. When it is necessary to remove these plugs, drill a small hole in the center of the plug. Take care not to damage the throttle body. Pry the plug out with a small punch. After cleaning, install a new soft plug with the convex side up. Seat the soft plug using the flat end of a drift punch. Apply a fuel resistant sealer such as Evinrude/Johnson Gasoila sealant to the edges of the soft plug. Late model throttle bodies (1 994 & later) have a cover plate and gasket over the calibration pockets, secured with 2 screws. Remove the two screws, cover plate, and gasket. Discard the gasket. After cleaning, install a new gasket, cover plate and secure it with the screws. ** WARNING Tightening a needle valve against the valve seat will result in damage to the valve or seat and require replacement of damaged components. Use great care when threading and seating the idle speed mixture screw prior to backing it out for initial adjustment. If the unit being serviced has an adjustable idle speed needle valve, remove the needle valve and spring from the throttle plate. Inspect the needle valve tip for distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve if damaged. Clean the idle speed passages with spray carburetor cleaner and blow dry with compressed air. Install the spring and needle into the throttle body orifice. Screw the needle in until it just makes light contact with the seat. Now, back the needle out the appropriate number of turns for the Initial Low Speed Setting (as detailed in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications chart in this section). FUEL SYSTEM 3-23 Good Worn Fig. 60 Clean the carburetor body Fig. 61 Inspect the float needle (and, Fig. 62 ... most needle wear or damage using spray Carburetor and Choke idle speed screw, if equipped) ... occurs at the tip cleaner Fig. 63 Remove the soft plugs only if passages in the throttle plate are plugged or if the plugs show evidence of fuel leakage Assembly + See Figures 47, 65,thru 75 ** WARNING During the assembly procedures several components are secured with self-tapping screws. These screws have cut their own threads into the components during factory assembly. When installing these screws in pre-tapped holes, turn the screw 1 ·1 1/2 turns counterclockwise before turning them in the clockwise-tightening direction. This action will cause the screw to drop into the existing thread and ensure that it starts into the existing threads, thereby keeping it from cross-threading or attempting to cut new threads. If the screw is hard to turn on the first attempt, back the screw out and attempt to locate the existing thread pattern again. Cross-threaded screws will distort the housing and cannot be tightened securely, contributing to possible fuel or air leaks. They will also be weaker than properly threaded screws so they are more likely to fail (pull out) or loosen (back out) during service. 1. Place the proper size high-speed orifice onto the end of a flat blade screwdriver. Insert the screwdriver tip with the orifice through the float bowl opening. Thread the orifice into the float bowl and tighten. 2. Place a new 0-ring on the float bowl plug. Thread the plug into the float bowl and tighten it to a torque value of 30-35 inch lbs. (3-4 Nm). 3. Select the correct size Idle and Intermediate air bleed orifices. Install the orifices into their respective locations on the carburetor main body and tighten them. installation of the wrong size orifice in the wrong location could cause rough idle, poor petiormance and possible damage to the powerhead. Fig. 64 Check the throttle shaft for excessive wear 4. Place a new side cover gasket into position on the cover plate. Align the cover plate and gasket with the carburetor and secure with four self apping Phillips head screws. Tighten the screws in a crossing pattern to 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm) for 1992-94 models or to 24-30 inch lbs. (3-4 Nm) for 1995 and later models. 5. Thread the needle valve seat into the carburetor main body and tighten the seat securely. 6. Slide a new rubber nozzle gasket down the nozzle well on the carburetor main body. 7. Slip the needle valve with spring onto the float assembly metal plate. Slide the float hinge pin onto the float arm. Lower the float, pin and needle valve into the carburetor main body. Align the needle valve with the seat and the hinge pin with the groove in the carburetor main body. Install the retaining screw for the float hinge pin and tighten it. 8. Invert the carburetor and place a new float bowl gasket onto the carburetor main body. With the carburetor inverted, check the float closed height. The top of the float must be level with the bowl gasket give or take 1/32 in. (0.08 mm). Do not exert pressure on the needle valve when making adjustments. Bend the float arm to make closed height adjustments. 9. Turn the carburetor upright and check the float drop. Measure from the bowl gasket to the bottom of the float assembly with a machinist scale or ruler; the float drop should be between 11/16-1 1/8 in. (17-28 mm). Bend the tab on the float next to the needle seat for drop height adjustment. 10. Lower the float bowl over the float and onto the carburetor main body. Note the float bowl does not fit flush on the carburetor main body at this time. The rubber gasket on the nozzle well has to be slightly compressed by squeezing the float bowl and carburetor base together. Install the 4 self-tapping Phillips head screws. Tighten the 4 screws in a crossing pattern to 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm). 11. Rub a very small amount of petroleum jelly onto a new preformed seal. Place the seal on the carburetor mounting flange and press the seal into the grooves. The petroleum jelly will help hold the seal in place during installation. 3-24 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 67 Install the Intermediate, and if applicable, idle air bleed orifices Fig. 69 Thread the needle valve seat into the carburetor main body Fig. 71 Install the float and needle valve Fig. 73 Measure the float drop with the Fig. 72 Check the float closed height assembly carburetor upright with the carburetor inverted Fig. 74 Install the float bowl over the float and onto the carburetor Fig. 75 Install a new preformed seal on the back of the carb body main body CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT + See Figure 47 Each individual carburetor body contains either an adjustable idle mixture screw or a fixed orifice, depending on the year and serial number of the powerhead. A fixed air bleed orifice, found immediately above the idle mixture screw or orifice, controls the intermediate mixture. A fixed orifice in the fuel float chamber controls the high-speed mixture. The single float fuel chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor bowl for all power settings. • For models not equipped with any mixture screws, see a knowledgeable Evinrude/Johnson parts counterperson for information on alternate orifices to compensate for high-altitude operation. On models equipped with an idle (low speed) mixture screw, the carburetor idle mixture can be adjusted to compensate for changes in the fuel system due to carburetor rebuild or replacement or changes in operating conditions such as moving from sea-level to high-altitude. In order for the adjustments to occur properly the motor must mounted on a launched boat that is operating and unrestrained. You'll need an assistant to safely navigate the craft while the adjustment is being made. • If the engine is not operating under normal exhaust back-pressure (which occurs from the gearcase operating under normal conditions, submerged below the transom), mounted at a normal trim angle, with the correct propeller installed and the boat unrestrained, proper mixture adjustment will not occur. This adjustment is NOT a periodic maintenance item and should not be touched unless all other attempts to resolve an idle speed operation problem have failed. The ignition and fuel system components must all be in good condition and operating properly. The carburetor linkage must be properly adjusted before attempting this procedure, for details please refer to Timing and Synchronization in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. 1. With the engine top cover removed for access (and, on most models, the air intake silencer as well), make a match mark between the carburetor body and idle mixture screw. 2. Start the engine and allow it to idle until normal operating temperature is reached. 3. Once warmed, shift the engine in forward and run at idle speed for 3 minutes. 4. If the adjustment is too lean, the engine will sneeze and backfire; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn counterclockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 5. If the adjustment is too rich, the engine will be rough an unsteady; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn clockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 6. Allow the engine to run at idle in gear for 3 minutes, then move to the next mixture screw. Repeat until all carburetor body screws have been adjusted. 7. Run the engine at or near Wide Open Throttle (WOT) for 3 minutes and then reduce speed to idle, leaving the motor in gear. The motor should not stumble, spit or backfire. If any of these problems are found, repeat the adjustment procedure, making small adjustments only, until the engine operates normally. Carburetor-1 20-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) 90LV4N6N8 Motors + See Figures 76 and 77 This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal and installation and overhaul (disassembly/cleaning & inspection/assembly) and mixture adjustment, for the carburetors normally found on 120-300 Hp (2000t3000/4000cc) goo, loop charged V4N6NB motors. FUEL SYSTEM 3-25 Because of the similarities between the carburetors found on different Evinrude/Johnson motors, common Carburetor Cleaning and Inspection procedures are found later in this section. DESCRIPTION + See Figure 76 The modular carburetor assembly used on 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) goo, loop charged V4N6NB motors consists of two individual carburetors mounted on a double buttetily throttle plate. The throttle plate is then bolted to the intake manifold. Two of these carburetor assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used on V4 models. Four of these assemblies (2 port and 2 starboard are used on VB models). Two of these assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used along with 2 smaller single carburetor/throttle plate assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used on V6 models. • Although the actual carburetor bodies and throttle plates differ, the concept behind the modular carburetor used on the 90° looper engines is very similar to the concept behind the carburetors used on 60° looper engines. In both cases, the same basic carburetor body is used throughout a line of multi-cylinder engines with one carburetor body feeding each cylinder. One carburetor supplies and controls the fuel/air mixture to one cylinder. Each carburetor is identical, therefore the procedures are to be repeated for each carburetor. Early versions of this carburetor-1 gg2.g3-contain only an air bleed orifice for the idle circuit. Later versions, 1gg4 and on, contain both an adjustable needle valve and an air bleed orifice for the idle circuit. A fixed air bleed orifice controls the intermediate mixture for all units. Similarly, a fixed jet located in the fuel float bowl controls the high-speed mixture for each carburetor body. A single float chamber on each carburetor body maintains the proper fuel lev _ el in the carburetor bowl for all power ranges. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figure 76 Carburetor mixture adjustments (via screw adjustment or orifice replacement) can normally occur without removing the carburetor body or entire carburetor assembly from the motor. Also, if necessary, an individual carburetor body can be removed without disturbing the entire throttle body assembly. • The carburetor metering bodies and the throttle plate are separate units. The metering body is made of a plastic nylon material and the throttle plate is cast aluminum. If only one carburetor is to be serviced, a single carburetor metering body may be removed from the throttle plate. If all carburetors are to be serviced then it is advisable to remove the throttle plate from the intake manifold with the carburetors still attached. If removal of the throttle plate with the carburetors attached is preferred, follow the instructions to disconnect all fuel lines. If only one carburetor is being removed, only disconnect the fuel line for that carburetor body. • The fuel hose fittings are delicate on these models. To protect the fittings, gently push the hoses from them instead of grasping and pulling on the hose itself. If pushing won't free the hose, use a utility knife to carefully slit the hose from the end to a point at or near the fitting flange, then peel the hose from the fitting and replace it upon reinstallation. 1. Remove the spark plug leads and/or disconnect the negative battery cable (if equipped) to prevent accidental starting of the engine. • Remember, half the point of disconnecting the negative battery cable is to prevent the possibility of sparks that could ignite fuel vapors. The other half of the point is to prevent someone from cranking the motor while fuel lines or fittings are open. CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT + See Figure 47 Each individual carburetor body contains either an adjustable idle mixture screw or a fixed orifice, depending on the year and serial number of the powerhead. A fixed air bleed orifice, found immediately above the idle mixture screw or orifice, controls the intermediate mixture. A fixed orifice in the fuel float chamber controls the high-speed mixture. The single float fuel chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor bowl for all power settings. • For models not equipped with any mixture screws, see a knowledgeable Evinrude/Johnson parts counterperson for information on alternate orifices to compensate for high-altitude operation. On models equipped with an idle (low speed) mixture screw, the carburetor idle mixture can be adjusted to compensate for changes in the fuel system due to carburetor rebuild or replacement or changes in operating conditions such as moving from sea-level to high-altitude. In order for the adjustments to occur properly the motor must mounted on a launched boat that is operating and unrestrained. You'll need an assistant to safely navigate the craft while the adjustment is being made. • If the engine is not operating under normal exhaust back-pressure (which occurs from the gearcase operating under normal conditions, submerged below the transom), mounted at a normal trim angle, with the correct propeller installed and the boat unrestrained, proper mixture adjustment will not occur. This adjustment is NOT a periodic maintenance item and should not be touched unless all other attempts to resolve an idle speed operation problem have failed. The ignition and fuel system components must all be in good condition and operating properly. The carburetor linkage must be properly adjusted before attempting this procedure, for details please refer to Timing and Synchronization in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. 1. With the engine top cover removed for access (and, on most models, the air intake silencer as well), make a match mark between the carburetor body and idle mixture screw. 2. Start the engine and allow it to idle until normal operating temperature is reached. 3. Once warmed, shift the engine in forward and run at idle speed for 3 minutes. 4. If the adjustment is too lean, the engine will sneeze and backfire; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn counterclockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 5. If the adjustment is too rich, the engine will be rough an unsteady; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn clockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 6. Allow the engine to run at idle in gear for 3 minutes, then move to the next mixture screw. Repeat until all carburetor body screws have been adjusted. 7. Run the engine at or near Wide Open Throttle (WOT) for 3 minutes and then reduce speed to idle, leaving the motor in gear. The motor should not stumble, spit or backfire. If any of these problems are found, repeat the adjustment procedure, making small adjustments only, until the engine operates normally. Carburetor-1 20-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) 90LV4N6N8 Motors + See Figures 76 and 77 This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal and installation and overhaul (disassembly/cleaning & inspection/assembly) and mixture adjustment, for the carburetors normally found on 120-300 Hp (2000t3000/4000cc) goo, loop charged V4N6NB motors. FUEL SYSTEM 3-25 Because of the similarities between the carburetors found on different Evinrude/Johnson motors, common Carburetor Cleaning and Inspection procedures are found later in this section. DESCRIPTION + See Figure 76 The modular carburetor assembly used on 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) goo, loop charged V4N6NB motors consists of two individual carburetors mounted on a double buttetily throttle plate. The throttle plate is then bolted to the intake manifold. Two of these carburetor assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used on V4 models. Four of these assemblies (2 port and 2 starboard are used on VB models). Two of these assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used along with 2 smaller single carburetor/throttle plate assemblies (1 port and 1 starboard) are used on V6 models. • Although the actual carburetor bodies and throttle plates differ, the concept behind the modular carburetor used on the 90° looper engines is very similar to the concept behind the carburetors used on 60° looper engines. In both cases, the same basic carburetor body is used throughout a line of multi-cylinder engines with one carburetor body feeding each cylinder. One carburetor supplies and controls the fuel/air mixture to one cylinder. Each carburetor is identical, therefore the procedures are to be repeated for each carburetor. Early versions of this carburetor-1 gg2.g3-contain only an air bleed orifice for the idle circuit. Later versions, 1gg4 and on, contain both an adjustable needle valve and an air bleed orifice for the idle circuit. A fixed air bleed orifice controls the intermediate mixture for all units. Similarly, a fixed jet located in the fuel float bowl controls the high-speed mixture for each carburetor body. A single float chamber on each carburetor body maintains the proper fuel lev _ el in the carburetor bowl for all power ranges. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figure 76 Carburetor mixture adjustments (via screw adjustment or orifice replacement) can normally occur without removing the carburetor body or entire carburetor assembly from the motor. Also, if necessary, an individual carburetor body can be removed without disturbing the entire throttle body assembly. • The carburetor metering bodies and the throttle plate are separate units. The metering body is made of a plastic nylon material and the throttle plate is cast aluminum. If only one carburetor is to be serviced, a single carburetor metering body may be removed from the throttle plate. If all carburetors are to be serviced then it is advisable to remove the throttle plate from the intake manifold with the carburetors still attached. If removal of the throttle plate with the carburetors attached is preferred, follow the instructions to disconnect all fuel lines. If only one carburetor is being removed, only disconnect the fuel line for that carburetor body. • The fuel hose fittings are delicate on these models. To protect the fittings, gently push the hoses from them instead of grasping and pulling on the hose itself. If pushing won't free the hose, use a utility knife to carefully slit the hose from the end to a point at or near the fitting flange, then peel the hose from the fitting and replace it upon reinstallation. 1. Remove the spark plug leads and/or disconnect the negative battery cable (if equipped) to prevent accidental starting of the engine. • Remember, half the point of disconnecting the negative battery cable is to prevent the possibility of sparks that could ignite fuel vapors. The other half of the point is to prevent someone from cranking the motor while fuel lines or fittings are open. 3-26 FUEL SYSTEM 3 2 I 1 Throttle body assembly 2 Cal ocket cover 3 Cal pocket gasket 4 Needle valve 5 Float valve assembly 6 Spring clip 7 Hinge pin screw 8 High speed orfice 9 Float bowl gasket 10 Float pin 11 Float assembly 12 Intermediate orfice 13 Plug screw 14 Carburetor body 15 Cover plate 16 Cover plate gasket 17 Cover plate screw 18 Carburetor body seal 19 0-ring 20 Air silencer sleeve 14 21 Float chamber assembly ((f)/20 22 Carburetor mounting gasket Fig. 76 Exploded view of the modular carburetor assembly used on 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) 90°, loop charged V4N6NB motors (note V6 motors use an additional carburetor assembly on each side that contains a single carburetor body) 2. If equipped, remove the power steering hose support bracket. 3. Remove the engine covers access. Please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in the Maintenance and Tune-Up Section for details. 4. Remove the air intake silencer assembly. • Depending on the year and model fuel lines may be secured using a wire tie or using a plastic ratcheting fuel line clamp. When equipped with ratcheting clamps, the same type/style clamps should be used during assembly. Although these ratcheting clamps may be reused if removed properly, it is usually a good idea to replace them in order to prevent the possibility of fuel leaks. 5. Disconnect the fuel line(s) from the individual carburetor body being removed, or from the entire carburetor assembly as applicable. Most fuel lines are secured using wire ties that must be cut before removal, be sure to use new wire ties during installation. • If more than one fuel line is being disconnected ALWAYS tag them lines and the fittings to ensure proper installation. 6. If just a single carburetor is being removed, loosen and remove the bolts (usually 2 long on the bottom of the body and 2 short on top of the body) securing the carburetor body to the throttle plate assembly. Remove and discard the preformed seal located between the carburetor and throttle plate. 7. If you are removing a carburetor body, loosen the throttle shaft links at one or both ends. 8. To remove the throttle body or the carburetor/throttle body assembly, remove the 2 bolts and 2 nuts securing the assembly to the manifold. Remove and discard the carburetor assembly to intake manifold gasket. Remove all traces of gasket from the mating surfaces. To install: 9. Install a new preformed seal to the back of the carburetor body. Position the carburetor body to the throttle plate, making sure the seal remains in position during installation, then install and tighten the carburetor body mounting screw using a crossing pattern to 45-55 inch lbs. (5-6 Nm). • If both carburetors were removed from the throttle plate assembly, repeat the previous step for the remaining carburetor body. 3-26 FUEL SYSTEM 3 2 I 1 Throttle body assembly 2 Cal ocket cover 3 Cal pocket gasket 4 Needle valve 5 Float valve assembly 6 Spring clip 7 Hinge pin screw 8 High speed orfice 9 Float bowl gasket 10 Float pin 11 Float assembly 12 Intermediate orfice 13 Plug screw 14 Carburetor body 15 Cover plate 16 Cover plate gasket 17 Cover plate screw 18 Carburetor body seal 19 0-ring 20 Air silencer sleeve 14 21 Float chamber assembly ((f)/20 22 Carburetor mounting gasket Fig. 76 Exploded view of the modular carburetor assembly used on 120-300 Hp (2000/3000/4000cc) 90°, loop charged V4N6NB motors (note V6 motors use an additional carburetor assembly on each side that contains a single carburetor body) 2. If equipped, remove the power steering hose support bracket. 3. Remove the engine covers access. Please refer to Engine Cover (Top and Lower Cases) in the Maintenance and Tune-Up Section for details. 4. Remove the air intake silencer assembly. • Depending on the year and model fuel lines may be secured using a wire tie or using a plastic ratcheting fuel line clamp. When equipped with ratcheting clamps, the same type/style clamps should be used during assembly. Although these ratcheting clamps may be reused if removed properly, it is usually a good idea to replace them in order to prevent the possibility of fuel leaks. 5. Disconnect the fuel line(s) from the individual carburetor body being removed, or from the entire carburetor assembly as applicable. Most fuel lines are secured using wire ties that must be cut before removal, be sure to use new wire ties during installation. • If more than one fuel line is being disconnected ALWAYS tag them lines and the fittings to ensure proper installation. 6. If just a single carburetor is being removed, loosen and remove the bolts (usually 2 long on the bottom of the body and 2 short on top of the body) securing the carburetor body to the throttle plate assembly. Remove and discard the preformed seal located between the carburetor and throttle plate. 7. If you are removing a carburetor body, loosen the throttle shaft links at one or both ends. 8. To remove the throttle body or the carburetor/throttle body assembly, remove the 2 bolts and 2 nuts securing the assembly to the manifold. Remove and discard the carburetor assembly to intake manifold gasket. Remove all traces of gasket from the mating surfaces. To install: 9. Install a new preformed seal to the back of the carburetor body. Position the carburetor body to the throttle plate, making sure the seal remains in position during installation, then install and tighten the carburetor body mounting screw using a crossing pattern to 45-55 inch lbs. (5-6 Nm). • If both carburetors were removed from the throttle plate assembly, repeat the previous step for the remaining carburetor body. Fig. 77 View of the double throat Carburetor used on V4N6N8 90° loop charged powerheads 10. It removed, position the throttle body on the intake manifold using a new gasket, and at the same time engage the throttle shatt connector. Secure the throttle body/carburetor assembly to the intake manifold using the two bolts and two nuts. Tighten the bolts and nuts in a crossing pattern to 120-144 inch lbs. (14-16 Nm). Tighten the throttle shatt connectors. • Install the carburetor gasket dry. Do not use sealer. 11. Attach the tuel supply and primer hoses and secure using new wire ties or using plastic ratcheting clamps, as applicable. 12. Pressurize the tuel system using the primer bulb and check the tuel system tor leaks. For more details, please reter to Fuel System Pressurization tor details. 13. Install the spark plugs and/or connect the battery cables. 14. Perform the Timing and Synchronization adjustments detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. On models with adjustable low speed screws, perform the Carburetor Mixture Adjustment procedure detailed in this section. • When access is no longer necessary during the Timing and Synchronization procedures, install the lower engine covers and the air intake silencer. OVERHAUL + See Figures 76 • Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts atter they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent to reign matter tram entering passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled tuel, as some tuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the tloat bowl. Take this opportunity to closely inspect the tuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always match mark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a rebuild a complete and the initial bench settings, perform the complete Timing and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. • To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. FUEL SYSTEM 3-27 Disassembly + See Figures 76, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84 and 85 The following procedures pickup the work atter the carburetor body or carburetor/throttle plate assembly has been removed tram the powerhead. It more than one carburetor is to be serviced, repeat all given steps tor the other carburetors. It is recommended to perform all the steps on one carburetor before beginning work on another. Such a procedure will prevent possible mix-up ot internal components. • Only one carburetor will be serviced in the following procedures. Servicing each of the remaining units is to be performed in the same manner. • The bleed air orifices and jets are made of a soft brass material. A slot on the end of the orifice is provided to insert a common flat blade screwdriver. However, the manufacturer has a specially designed tool Evinrude/Johnson P/N 317002 driver, which fits the slotted opening nicely and will not slip. If multiple carburetors are to be serviced, the cost of this tool justifies the modest expenditure compared with the price of a couple air bleed orifices. 1. It the entire carburetor/throttle body assembly was removed tram the powerhead, loosen and remove the two long and two short bolts securing the carburetor to the throttle body, then carefully lit! the carburetor tram the throttle body and discard the preformed seal. 2. Remove Phillips head screws (usually 5) securing the tloat bowl assembly to the carburetor body. Lit! off the tloat bowl and gasket. Discard the gasket. ** WARNING Use extreme caution when a common screwdriver is used. If the end of the orifice is damaged, it must be replaced with a new orifice. 3. Note the size number and location ot the orifices. Remove the intermediate and, it equipped, idle orifices tram the carburetor main body. ** WARNING The air bleed orifices appear identical in size, but have different drill size openings and thread sizes. A number is stamped on the end of each orifice and jet for size. Note the size number and location prior to removal. Installation of the wrong size orifice could cause poor performance and severe powerhead damage. 4. Remove the Phillips head screws (usually 4 or 5) securing the side cover plate to the carburetor main body. Lit! the plate off and discard the gasket. 5. Remove the Phillips head screw securing the tloat hinge pin to the float bowl. Lit! out the tloat, hinge pin, and needle valve. 6. Using a large tlat blade screwdriver, carefully remove the needle seat tram the tloat bowl. Discard the gasket under the seat. 7. Remove the tloat bowl drain plug and discard the 0-ring. Insert the special tool or a screwdriver up through the drain plug opening and remove the high-speed orifice jet. Note the size number ot the orifice jet. 8. It equipped with an idle speed screw instead ot an idle orifice, loosen and remove the low speed (idle mixture) needle and spring. Visually inspect the needle tor damage or nicks. Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 and 76 Never submerge the carburetor or any ot its components in a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Use Evinrude/Johnson Carburetor and Choke cleaner or an equivalent product in a spray can. Flush all passages, tubes and orifices with the spray carburetor cleaner or a syringe tilled with isopropyl alcohol. Blow out all passages with low-pressure compressed air at approximately 25 psi (172 kPa). Never use a piece ot wire or any type ot pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in the carburetor. Fig. 77 View of the double throat Carburetor used on V4N6N8 90° loop charged powerheads 10. It removed, position the throttle body on the intake manifold using a new gasket, and at the same time engage the throttle shatt connector. Secure the throttle body/carburetor assembly to the intake manifold using the two bolts and two nuts. Tighten the bolts and nuts in a crossing pattern to 120-144 inch lbs. (14-16 Nm). Tighten the throttle shatt connectors. • Install the carburetor gasket dry. Do not use sealer. 11. Attach the tuel supply and primer hoses and secure using new wire ties or using plastic ratcheting clamps, as applicable. 12. Pressurize the tuel system using the primer bulb and check the tuel system tor leaks. For more details, please reter to Fuel System Pressurization tor details. 13. Install the spark plugs and/or connect the battery cables. 14. Perform the Timing and Synchronization adjustments detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. On models with adjustable low speed screws, perform the Carburetor Mixture Adjustment procedure detailed in this section. • When access is no longer necessary during the Timing and Synchronization procedures, install the lower engine covers and the air intake silencer. OVERHAUL + See Figures 76 • Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts atter they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent to reign matter tram entering passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled tuel, as some tuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the tloat bowl. Take this opportunity to closely inspect the tuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always match mark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a rebuild a complete and the initial bench settings, perform the complete Timing and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-Up section. • To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, 0-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. FUEL SYSTEM 3-27 Disassembly + See Figures 76, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84 and 85 The following procedures pickup the work atter the carburetor body or carburetor/throttle plate assembly has been removed tram the powerhead. It more than one carburetor is to be serviced, repeat all given steps tor the other carburetors. It is recommended to perform all the steps on one carburetor before beginning work on another. Such a procedure will prevent possible mix-up ot internal components. • Only one carburetor will be serviced in the following procedures. Servicing each of the remaining units is to be performed in the same manner. • The bleed air orifices and jets are made of a soft brass material. A slot on the end of the orifice is provided to insert a common flat blade screwdriver. However, the manufacturer has a specially designed tool Evinrude/Johnson P/N 317002 driver, which fits the slotted opening nicely and will not slip. If multiple carburetors are to be serviced, the cost of this tool justifies the modest expenditure compared with the price of a couple air bleed orifices. 1. It the entire carburetor/throttle body assembly was removed tram the powerhead, loosen and remove the two long and two short bolts securing the carburetor to the throttle body, then carefully lit! the carburetor tram the throttle body and discard the preformed seal. 2. Remove Phillips head screws (usually 5) securing the tloat bowl assembly to the carburetor body. Lit! off the tloat bowl and gasket. Discard the gasket. ** WARNING Use extreme caution when a common screwdriver is used. If the end of the orifice is damaged, it must be replaced with a new orifice. 3. Note the size number and location ot the orifices. Remove the intermediate and, it equipped, idle orifices tram the carburetor main body. ** WARNING The air bleed orifices appear identical in size, but have different drill size openings and thread sizes. A number is stamped on the end of each orifice and jet for size. Note the size number and location prior to removal. Installation of the wrong size orifice could cause poor performance and severe powerhead damage. 4. Remove the Phillips head screws (usually 4 or 5) securing the side cover plate to the carburetor main body. Lit! the plate off and discard the gasket. 5. Remove the Phillips head screw securing the tloat hinge pin to the float bowl. Lit! out the tloat, hinge pin, and needle valve. 6. Using a large tlat blade screwdriver, carefully remove the needle seat tram the tloat bowl. Discard the gasket under the seat. 7. Remove the tloat bowl drain plug and discard the 0-ring. Insert the special tool or a screwdriver up through the drain plug opening and remove the high-speed orifice jet. Note the size number ot the orifice jet. 8. It equipped with an idle speed screw instead ot an idle orifice, loosen and remove the low speed (idle mixture) needle and spring. Visually inspect the needle tor damage or nicks. Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 and 76 Never submerge the carburetor or any ot its components in a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Use Evinrude/Johnson Carburetor and Choke cleaner or an equivalent product in a spray can. Flush all passages, tubes and orifices with the spray carburetor cleaner or a syringe tilled with isopropyl alcohol. Blow out all passages with low-pressure compressed air at approximately 25 psi (172 kPa). Never use a piece ot wire or any type ot pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in the carburetor. 3-28 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 83 Remove the Phillips screw and Fig. 84 Remove the needle seat from Fig. 85 Remove the float bowl drain plug the float assembly the float bowl and discard the 0-ring Inspect the carburetor body and float bowl gasket sealing surfaces for nicks, gouges or irregularities, which could cause a leak. Check all nozzle and pickup tubes for security and cleanliness. Inspect the nylon tip of the needle valve for wear, distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve and seat if damaged or worn. Good shop practice dictates to always replace the needle valve and needle seat when the carburetor is fully disassembled. Check the throttle plate and shaft for excessive wear. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be loose, replace the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are not available. Verify that the throttle plate retaining screws are tight and properly aligned with the throttle plate to the throttle body bore. Maximum throttle plate clearance is 0.002 in. (0.05mm). The throttle body has a single soft plug on the side for the calibration pockets. Do not remove the soft plug unless absolutely necessary for cleaning, or if it is known to be leaking. When it is necessary to remove the plug, drill a small hole in the center of the plug. Take care not to damage the throttle body. Pry the plug out with a small punch. After cleaning, install a new soft plug with the convex side up. Seat the soft plug using the flat end of a drift punch. Apply a fuel resistant sealer such as Evinrude/Johnson Gasoila sealant to the edges of the soft plug. ** WARNING Tightening a needle valve against the valve seat will result in damage ..· to the valve or seat and require replacement of damaged components. Use great care when threading and seating the idle speed mixture screw prior to backing it out for initial adjustment. If the unit being serviced has an adjustable idle speed needle valve, remove the needle valve and spring from the throttle plate. Inspect the needle valve tip for distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve if damaged. Clean the idle speed passages with spray carburetor cleaner and blow dry with compressed air. Install the spring and needle into the throttle body orifice. Screw the needle in until it just makes light contact with the seat. Now, back the needle out the appropriate number of turns for the Initial Low Speed Setting (as detailed in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications chart in this section). Assembly + See Figures 76, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93 and 94 ** WARNING During the assembly procedures several components are secured with self-tapping screws. These screws have cut their own threads into the components during factory assembly. When installing these screws in pre-tapped holes, turn the screw 1-1 1/2 turns counterclockwise before turning them in the clockwise-tightening direction. This action will cause the screw to drop into the existing thread and ensure that it starts into the existing threads, thereby keeping it from cross-threading or attempting to cut new threads. If the screw is hard to turn on the first attempt, back the screw out and attempt to locate the existing thread pattern again. Cross-threaded screws will distort the housing and cannot be tightened securely, contributing to possible fuel or air leaks. They will also be weaker than properly threaded screws so they are more likely to fail (pull out) or loosen (back out) during service. 1. Insert the correct size high-speed jet through the drain plug opening on the float bowl. Screw the jet into the bore and tighten it just snug. 2. Slip a new 0-ring on the float bowl drain plug. Install the drain plug and tighten it to a torque value of 30-35 inch lbs. (3-4 Nm). FUEL SYSTEM 3-29 3. Place a new gasket on the needle seat. Install the needle seat into the float bowl and tighten it securely. • When attaching the clip to the needle valve on these models, the clip must face the port side of the chamber. 4. Clip the needle valve retaining spring over the end of a new needle valve. Slip the needle valve spring over the tab on the float assembly. Insert the float hinge pin through the float hinges. Lower the float and needle valve into the float bowl. Guide the needle valve into the needle seat, and hinge pin into the pocket in the float bowl. Secure the float assembly with a Phillips head screw and tighten it securely. 5. Place a new gasket on the side cover plate. Position the cover on the side of the carburetor and secure it with the Phillips head screws. Tighten the screws to a torque value of 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm) for 1992-94 models or to 24-30 inch lbs. (2.7-3.4 Nm) for 1995 and later models. 6. Invert the carburetor and place a new float bowl gasket onto the carburetor main body. With the carburetor inverted, check the float closed height. The top of the float must be level with the bowl gasket give or take 1/32 in. (0.08 mm). Adjust the float closed height by carefully bending the tab over the needle valve. Do not pry the float tab against the needle valve, because such action will damage the needle tip. 7. Place a new gasket on the float bowl. Position the float bowl against the carburetor body and align the screw holes. Install the Phillips head screws, backing them counterclockwise slightly before threading to make sure they find the original threads, then tighten them in a crossing pattern to a torque value of 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm). 8. Install the correct size intermediate (and idle, if applicable) bleed air orifices into the main body. Note the size of each orifice and the location identified during removal. Tighten the orifices securely. 9. Place a new preformed seal on the main body of the carburetor. The use of a light grease will aid in holding the seal in position. 10. Lower the carburetor into position on the throttle body. Take care not to dislodge the preformed seal. Secure the carburetor to the throttle body with the two long and two short bolts. Tighten the bolts in a cross pattern to a torque value of 45-55 inch lbs. (5-6 Nm). Fig. 89 Install the float assembly and secure using the screw Fig. 90 Install the cover plate using a new gasket Fig. 91 Invert the float bowl and check the float closed height If the unit being serviced has an adjustable idle speed needle valve, remove the needle valve and spring from the throttle plate. Inspect the needle valve tip for distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve if damaged. Clean the idle speed passages with spray carburetor cleaner and blow dry with compressed air. Install the spring and needle into the throttle body orifice. Screw the needle in until it just makes light contact with the seat. Now, back the needle out the appropriate number of turns for the Initial Low Speed Setting (as detailed in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications chart in this section). Assembly + See Figures 76, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93 and 94 ** WARNING During the assembly procedures several components are secured with self-tapping screws. These screws have cut their own threads into the components during factory assembly. When installing these screws in pre-tapped holes, turn the screw 1-1 1/2 turns counterclockwise before turning them in the clockwise-tightening direction. This action will cause the screw to drop into the existing thread and ensure that it starts into the existing threads, thereby keeping it from cross-threading or attempting to cut new threads. If the screw is hard to turn on the first attempt, back the screw out and attempt to locate the existing thread pattern again. Cross-threaded screws will distort the housing and cannot be tightened securely, contributing to possible fuel or air leaks. They will also be weaker than properly threaded screws so they are more likely to fail (pull out) or loosen (back out) during service. 1. Insert the correct size high-speed jet through the drain plug opening on the float bowl. Screw the jet into the bore and tighten it just snug. 2. Slip a new 0-ring on the float bowl drain plug. Install the drain plug and tighten it to a torque value of 30-35 inch lbs. (3-4 Nm). FUEL SYSTEM 3-29 3. Place a new gasket on the needle seat. Install the needle seat into the float bowl and tighten it securely. • When attaching the clip to the needle valve on these models, the clip must face the port side of the chamber. 4. Clip the needle valve retaining spring over the end of a new needle valve. Slip the needle valve spring over the tab on the float assembly. Insert the float hinge pin through the float hinges. Lower the float and needle valve into the float bowl. Guide the needle valve into the needle seat, and hinge pin into the pocket in the float bowl. Secure the float assembly with a Phillips head screw and tighten it securely. 5. Place a new gasket on the side cover plate. Position the cover on the side of the carburetor and secure it with the Phillips head screws. Tighten the screws to a torque value of 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm) for 1992-94 models or to 24-30 inch lbs. (2.7-3.4 Nm) for 1995 and later models. 6. Invert the carburetor and place a new float bowl gasket onto the carburetor main body. With the carburetor inverted, check the float closed height. The top of the float must be level with the bowl gasket give or take 1/32 in. (0.08 mm). Adjust the float closed height by carefully bending the tab over the needle valve. Do not pry the float tab against the needle valve, because such action will damage the needle tip. 7. Place a new gasket on the float bowl. Position the float bowl against the carburetor body and align the screw holes. Install the Phillips head screws, backing them counterclockwise slightly before threading to make sure they find the original threads, then tighten them in a crossing pattern to a torque value of 18-24 inch lbs. (2-3 Nm). 8. Install the correct size intermediate (and idle, if applicable) bleed air orifices into the main body. Note the size of each orifice and the location identified during removal. Tighten the orifices securely. 9. Place a new preformed seal on the main body of the carburetor. The use of a light grease will aid in holding the seal in position. 10. Lower the carburetor into position on the throttle body. Take care not to dislodge the preformed seal. Secure the carburetor to the throttle body with the two long and two short bolts. Tighten the bolts in a cross pattern to a torque value of 45-55 inch lbs. (5-6 Nm). Fig. 89 Install the float assembly and secure using the screw Fig. 90 Install the cover plate using a new gasket Fig. 91 Invert the float bowl and check the float closed height 3-30 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 92 Install the intermediate, and if applicable, idle orifices Fig. 93 Install a new preformed seal in the groove on the carb body Fig. 94 Install the carb to the throttle body, taking care not to disturb the seal CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT + See Figure 76 Each individual carburetor body contains either an adjustable idle mixture screw or a fixed orifice, depending on the year and serial number of the powerhead. A fixed air bleed orifice, found immediately above the idle mixture screw or orifice, controls the intermediate mixture. A fixed orifice in the fuel float chamber controls the high-speed mixture. The single float fuel chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor bowl for all power settings. • For models not equipped with any mixture screws, see a knowledgeable Evinrude/Johnson parts ..ounte..person for !nformation on alternate orifices to compensate for h1gh-alt1tude operat1on. On models equipped with an idle (low speed) mixture screw, the. carburetor idle mixture can be adjusted to compensate for changes 1n the fuel system due to carburetor rebuild or replacement or ..hang..s in operating conditions such as moving from sea-level to high-altitude. In order for the adjustments to occur properly the motor must mounted on a . launched boat that is operating and unrestrained. You'll need an assistant to safely navigate the craft while the adjustment is being made. • If the engine is not operating under normal exhaust back-pressure (which occurs from the gearcase operating under normal conditions, submerged below the transom), mounted at a normal trim angle, with the correct propeller installed and the boat unrestrained, proper mixture adjustment will not occur. This adjustment is NOT a periodic maintenance item and should not be touched unless all other attempts to resolve an idle speed operation problem have failed. The ignition and fuel system components must all be in good condition and operating properly. The carburetor linkage must be prop..rly adjusted before attempting this procedure, for details please refer to T1mmg and Synchronization in the Maintenance and Tune-Up sect1on. 1. With the engine top cover removed for access (and, on most models, the air intake silencer as well), make a matchmark between the carburetor body and idle mixture screw. .2. Start the engine and allow it to idle until normal operatmg temperature is reached. . 3. Once warmed, shift the engine in forward and run at 1dle speed for 3 minutes. 4. If the adjustment is too lean, the engine will sneeze and backfire; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn counterclockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the . engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw agam. Turn the screw unt1l you reach the highest steady engine speed. 5. If the adjustment is too rich, the engine will be rough an unsteady; to correct this note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed ' screw) 1/8 turn clockwise.Wait 15 seconds for the engi..e speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 6. Allow the engine to run at idle in gear for 3 minutes, then move to the next mixture screw. Repeat until all carburetor body screws have been ..... . 7. Run the engine at or near Wide Open Throttle (WOT) for 3 mmutes and then reduce speed to idle, leaving the motor in gear. The motor should not stumble, spit or backfire. If any of these problems are found, repeat the adjustment procedure, making small adjustments only, unt1l the eng1ne operates normally. Fuel Pump + Figure 95 Most Evinrude/Johnson V configuration outboards are equipped with the Variable Oil Ratio (VR02) oil injection system. The VR02 system uses a combination fuel and oil pump assembly that is covered m the Lubncat1on and Cooling section. For details information on the fuel pump for these . models, please refer to the VR02 System Verification and Troubleshooting or to the VR02 System Component Servicing procedures 1n that section. However some Evinrude/Johnson V configuration outboards (mostly commercial ' but some recreational models as well) may be rigged for pre-mix op..ration. The outboards are equipped with a simple diaphragmdisplacement type fuel pump. The pump is normally mounted somewhere on the side or end of the powerhead (usually on or near an intake manifold). The diaphragm is actuated by the cycle of crankcase pressure alternately receiving pressure and vacuum. • Have a shop towel and a suitable container handy wh..n testing or servicing a fuel pump as fuel will likely spill from hoses disconnected during these procedures. To ensure correct assembly and hose routing, mark the orientation of the fuel pump and hoses before removal. Fig. 95 Typical diaphragm-displacement fuel pumps used on Evinrude/Johnson outboards 3-30 FUEL SYSTEM Fig. 92 Install the intermediate, and if applicable, idle orifices Fig. 93 Install a new preformed seal in the groove on the carb body Fig. 94 Install the carb to the throttle body, taking care not to disturb the seal CARBURETOR MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT + See Figure 76 Each individual carburetor body contains either an adjustable idle mixture screw or a fixed orifice, depending on the year and serial number of the powerhead. A fixed air bleed orifice, found immediately above the idle mixture screw or orifice, controls the intermediate mixture. A fixed orifice in the fuel float chamber controls the high-speed mixture. The single float fuel chamber maintains the proper fuel level in the carburetor bowl for all power settings. • For models not equipped with any mixture screws, see a knowledgeable Evinrude/Johnson parts ..ounte..person for !nformation on alternate orifices to compensate for h1gh-alt1tude operat1on. On models equipped with an idle (low speed) mixture screw, the. carburetor idle mixture can be adjusted to compensate for changes 1n the fuel system due to carburetor rebuild or replacement or ..hang..s in operating conditions such as moving from sea-level to high-altitude. In order for the adjustments to occur properly the motor must mounted on a . launched boat that is operating and unrestrained. You'll need an assistant to safely navigate the craft while the adjustment is being made. • If the engine is not operating under normal exhaust back-pressure (which occurs from the gearcase operating under normal conditions, submerged below the transom), mounted at a normal trim angle, with the correct propeller installed and the boat unrestrained, proper mixture adjustment will not occur. This adjustment is NOT a periodic maintenance item and should not be touched unless all other attempts to resolve an idle speed operation problem have failed. The ignition and fuel system components must all be in good condition and operating properly. The carburetor linkage must be prop..rly adjusted before attempting this procedure, for details please refer to T1mmg and Synchronization in the Maintenance and Tune-Up sect1on. 1. With the engine top cover removed for access (and, on most models, the air intake silencer as well), make a matchmark between the carburetor body and idle mixture screw. .2. Start the engine and allow it to idle until normal operatmg temperature is reached. . 3. Once warmed, shift the engine in forward and run at 1dle speed for 3 minutes. 4. If the adjustment is too lean, the engine will sneeze and backfire; to correct this, note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed screw) 1/8 turn counterclockwise. Wait 15 seconds for the . engine speed to stabilize before turning the screw agam. Turn the screw unt1l you reach the highest steady engine speed. 5. If the adjustment is too rich, the engine will be rough an unsteady; to correct this note the reference mark, then rotate the idle mixture needle (low speed ' screw) 1/8 turn clockwise.Wait 15 seconds for the engi..e speed to stabilize before turning the screw again. Turn the screw until you reach the highest steady engine speed. 6. Allow the engine to run at idle in gear for 3 minutes, then move to the next mixture screw. Repeat until all carburetor body screws have been ..... . 7. Run the engine at or near Wide Open Throttle (WOT) for 3 mmutes and then reduce speed to idle, leaving the motor in gear. The motor should not stumble, spit or backfire. If any of these problems are found, repeat the adjustment procedure, making small adjustments only, unt1l the eng1ne operates normally. Fuel Pump + Figure 95 Most Evinrude/Johnson V configuration outboards are equipped with the Variable Oil Ratio (VR02) oil injection system. The VR02 system uses a combination fuel and oil pump assembly that is covered m the Lubncat1on and Cooling section. For details information on the fuel pump for these . models, please refer to the VR02 System Verification and Troubleshooting or to the VR02 System Component Servicing procedures 1n that section. However some Evinrude/Johnson V configuration outboards (mostly commercial ' but some recreational models as well) may be rigged for pre-mix op..ration. The outboards are equipped with a simple diaphragmdisplacement type fuel pump. The pump is normally mounted somewhere on the side or end of the powerhead (usually on or near an intake manifold). The diaphragm is actuated by the cycle of crankcase pressure alternately receiving pressure and vacuum. • Have a shop towel and a suitable container handy wh..n testing or servicing a fuel pump as fuel will likely spill from hoses disconnected during these procedures. To ensure correct assembly and hose routing, mark the orientation of the fuel pump and hoses before removal. Fig. 95 Typical diaphragm-displacement fuel pumps used on Evinrude/Johnson outboards TESTING + See Figure 96 The problem most often seen with diaphragm-displacement fuel pumps is fuel starvation, hesitation or missing due to inadequate fuel ..pressure/delivery. In extreme cases, this m1ght lead to a n.. start condition as all but total failure of the pump prevents fuel from reachmg the carburetor(s). More likely, pump failures are not total, and the motor will start and run fine at idle, only to miss, hesitate or stall at speed when pump performance falls short of the greater demand for fuel at high rpm. Before replacing a suspect fuel pump, be absolutely certam the problem is the pump and NOT with fuel tank, lines or filter. A plugged tank vent could create vacuum in the tank that will overpower the pump's ability to create vacuum and draw fuel through the lines. An obstructed line or fuel filter could also keep fuel from reaching the pump. Any of these conditions could partially restrict fuel flow, allowing the pump to deliver fuel, bu! at a lower pressure/rate. A pump delivery or pressure test under these Circumstances would give a low reading that might be mistaken for a faulty pump. Before testing the fuel pump, refer to the testing procedures found under Fuel Lmes and Fitting to ensure there are no problems w1th the tank, lines or filler . .If inadequate fuel delivery is suspected and no problems are found w1th the tank, lines or filters, a conduct a quick-check to see how the pump affects performance. Use the primer bulb to supplement fuel pump. This is done by operating the motor under load and otherwise under normal operating conditions to recreate the problem. Once the motor begms to .hesitate stumble or stall, pump the primer bulb quickly and repeatedly wh1le listening for motor response. Pumping the bulb by hand like this will, fore...fuel through the lines to the carburetor, regardless of the fuel pumps ab11ity to deliver fuel. If the engine performance problem goes away while pumpmg the bulb, and returns when you stop, there is a good chance yo..'ve isolated the fuel pump as the culprit. Perform a pressure test to be certain, then repair or replace the pump assembly. • Keep in mind that low vacuum supply from the crankcase or insufficient vacuum at the pump itself due to bad seals can also be the culprit for poor fuel delivery. ** WARNING Never run a motor without cooling water. Use a test tank, a flush/test device or launch the craft. Also, never run a motor at speed without load, so for tests running over idle speed, make sure the mot..r is either in a test tank with a test wheel or on a launched craft wrth the normal propeller installed. Pump Pressure Test + See Figure 96 By far the most accurate way to test the fuel pump is using a low-pressure fuel gauge while running the engine at various speeds, under load. To prevent the possibility of severe engine damage from over-speed, the test FUEL SYSTEM 3-31 must be conducted under load, either in a test tank (with a proper test propeller) or mounted on the boat with a suitab.le prope!ler. .1. Test the Fuel Lines and Fittings as detailed 1n th1s sect1on to be sure there are no vacuum/fuel leaks and no restrictions that could give a false low reading. .2. Make sure the fuel filter(s) is( are) clean and serviceable. 3. Start and run the engine in forward gear, at idle, until normal operating temperature is reached. Then shut the motor down to prepare for the test. 4. Remove the fuel tank cap to make sure there is no pressure in the tank (the fuel tank vent must also be clear to ensure there is no vacuum). Check the tank location, for best results, make sure the tank IS not mounted any more than 30 in. (76mm) below the fuel pump mounting point. On .portable tanks, reposition them, as necessary to ensure accurate readmgs. • The fuel outlet line from the fuel pump may be disconnected at either the pump or the carburetor whichever provides easier access. If you disconnect it from the pump itself you might have to provide. a length of fuel line (depending on whether or not the gauge contams a length of line to connect to the pump fitting). 5. Disconnect the fuel output hose from the carburetor or fuel pump, as desired. 6. Connect a fuel pressure gauge inline between the pump and the carburetor(s). .7. Run the engine at or around each of the followmg speeds and observe the pressure on the gauge: a. For 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors: • At 600 rpm the gauge should read about 1 psi (7 kPa) . • At 2500-3000 rpm, the gauge should read about 1.5 psi (10 kPa). • At 4500 rpm, the gauge should read about 2.5 psi (17 kPa). b. Except 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors: • At 1000 rpm, the gauge should read about 4 psi (27 kPa). • At 5000 rpm, the gauge should read about 5 psi (34 kPa). .8. If readings are below specification and other causes such as fuel Ime or filter restrictions have been eliminated, repair or replace the pump. Pump Leak Test Pressurize the fuel system using the primer bulb. Squeeze repeatedly, but slowly until the bulb is firm, then check the pump body and connections for leaks. Remove the pump from the powerhead, leaving the fuel lines connected. Observe the vacuum port at the rear of the pump (where is connects to the port on the powerhead). The leakage of any fuel at this point indicates a damaged diaphragm. Repair or replace any pump that shows signs of leakage. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figures 97 and 98 1. For safety, either disconnect the negative battery cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug lead(s) and ground them to the powerhead. (j) FUEL PUMP BODY @ 0-RING or GASKET@ FILTER ELEMENT @ INLET COVER ®SCREW Fig. 96 Use a fuel pressure gauge connected in the pump outlet line to check operating pressure-typical Evinrude/Johnson pump shown Fig. 97 Diaphragm-displacement fuel pump used on some V outboards Fig. 98 Typical Evinrude/Johnson fuel pump screw identification TESTING + See Figure 96 The problem most often seen with diaphragm-displacement fuel pumps is fuel starvation, hesitation or missing due to inadequate fuel ..pressure/delivery. In extreme cases, this m1ght lead to a n.. start condition as all but total failure of the pump prevents fuel from reachmg the carburetor(s). More likely, pump failures are not total, and the motor will start and run fine at idle, only to miss, hesitate or stall at speed when pump performance falls short of the greater demand for fuel at high rpm. Before replacing a suspect fuel pump, be absolutely certam the problem is the pump and NOT with fuel tank, lines or filter. A plugged tank vent could create vacuum in the tank that will overpower the pump's ability to create vacuum and draw fuel through the lines. An obstructed line or fuel filter could also keep fuel from reaching the pump. Any of these conditions could partially restrict fuel flow, allowing the pump to deliver fuel, bu! at a lower pressure/rate. A pump delivery or pressure test under these Circumstances would give a low reading that might be mistaken for a faulty pump. Before testing the fuel pump, refer to the testing procedures found under Fuel Lmes and Fitting to ensure there are no problems w1th the tank, lines or filler . .If inadequate fuel delivery is suspected and no problems are found w1th the tank, lines or filters, a conduct a quick-check to see how the pump affects performance. Use the primer bulb to supplement fuel pump. This is done by operating the motor under load and otherwise under normal operating conditions to recreate the problem. Once the motor begms to .hesitate stumble or stall, pump the primer bulb quickly and repeatedly wh1le listening for motor response. Pumping the bulb by hand like this will, fore...fuel through the lines to the carburetor, regardless of the fuel pumps ab11ity to deliver fuel. If the engine performance problem goes away while pumpmg the bulb, and returns when you stop, there is a good chance yo..'ve isolated the fuel pump as the culprit. Perform a pressure test to be certain, then repair or replace the pump assembly. • Keep in mind that low vacuum supply from the crankcase or insufficient vacuum at the pump itself due to bad seals can also be the culprit for poor fuel delivery. ** WARNING Never run a motor without cooling water. Use a test tank, a flush/test device or launch the craft. Also, never run a motor at speed without load, so for tests running over idle speed, make sure the mot..r is either in a test tank with a test wheel or on a launched craft wrth the normal propeller installed. Pump Pressure Test + See Figure 96 By far the most accurate way to test the fuel pump is using a low-pressure fuel gauge while running the engine at various speeds, under load. To prevent the possibility of severe engine damage from over-speed, the test FUEL SYSTEM 3-31 must be conducted under load, either in a test tank (with a proper test propeller) or mounted on the boat with a suitab.le prope!ler. .1. Test the Fuel Lines and Fittings as detailed 1n th1s sect1on to be sure there are no vacuum/fuel leaks and no restrictions that could give a false low reading. .2. Make sure the fuel filter(s) is( are) clean and serviceable. 3. Start and run the engine in forward gear, at idle, until normal operating temperature is reached. Then shut the motor down to prepare for the test. 4. Remove the fuel tank cap to make sure there is no pressure in the tank (the fuel tank vent must also be clear to ensure there is no vacuum). Check the tank location, for best results, make sure the tank IS not mounted any more than 30 in. (76mm) below the fuel pump mounting point. On .portable tanks, reposition them, as necessary to ensure accurate readmgs. • The fuel outlet line from the fuel pump may be disconnected at either the pump or the carburetor whichever provides easier access. If you disconnect it from the pump itself you might have to provide. a length of fuel line (depending on whether or not the gauge contams a length of line to connect to the pump fitting). 5. Disconnect the fuel output hose from the carburetor or fuel pump, as desired. 6. Connect a fuel pressure gauge inline between the pump and the carburetor(s). .7. Run the engine at or around each of the followmg speeds and observe the pressure on the gauge: a. For 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors: • At 600 rpm the gauge should read about 1 psi (7 kPa) . • At 2500-3000 rpm, the gauge should read about 1.5 psi (10 kPa). • At 4500 rpm, the gauge should read about 2.5 psi (17 kPa). b. Except 65 Jet-115 Hp (1 632cc) 90CV4 motors: • At 1000 rpm, the gauge should read about 4 psi (27 kPa). • At 5000 rpm, the gauge should read about 5 psi (34 kPa). .8. If readings are below specification and other causes such as fuel Ime or filter restrictions have been eliminated, repair or replace the pump. Pump Leak Test Pressurize the fuel system using the primer bulb. Squeeze repeatedly, but slowly until the bulb is firm, then check the pump body and connections for leaks. Remove the pump from the powerhead, leaving the fuel lines connected. Observe the vacuum port at the rear of the pump (where is connects to the port on the powerhead). The leakage of any fuel at this point indicates a damaged diaphragm. Repair or replace any pump that shows signs of leakage. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION + See Figures 97 and 98 1. For safety, either disconnect the negative battery cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug lead(s) and ground them to the powerhead. (j) FUEL PUMP BODY @ 0-RING or GASKET@ FILTER ELEMENT @ INLET COVER ®SCREW Fig. 96 Use a fuel pressure gauge connected in the pump outlet line to check operating pressure-typical Evinrude/Johnson pump shown Fig. 97 Diaphragm-displacement fuel pump used on some V outboards Fig. 98 Typical Evinrude/Johnson fuel pump screw identification 3-32 FUEL SYSTEM 2. Locate the fuel pump on the powerhead and determine if it will be easier to remove the lower engine covers. On some models equipped with split (2-piece) lower covers, it is easier to access the pump if the lower engine covers are removed. For details, refer to the Engine Cover procedure under the Engine Maintenance section. • On most models, fuel hoses are retained by a plastic wire tie (which must be cut to remove the hose). Use a pair or dikes or cutters to carefully remove the wire tie. Be sure not to cut, nick or otherwise damage the fuel hose or it will have to be replaced. 3. Place a small drain basin or a shop rag under the fuel line fittings (to catch escaping fuel), then tag and disconnect the fuel hoses from the pump. • The fuel pumps used on these motors are equipped with 2 or 3 sets of bolts visible on the surface of the pump. On most models, a round inlet cover is mounted to the center of the pump with a single bolt. Then, of the remaining bolts, 2 are usually used to secure the pump to the powerhead and the balance of the bolts are used to secure the halves of the body together around the diaphragm. 4. Loosen the pump mounting bolts (the bolts that thread not just through the inlet cover, but all the way through the body of the pump and into the powerhead). If in doubt as to which bolts secure the pump, look at the back of the pump (as can be seen at the pump-to-powerhead seam line) to see which bolts continue through the pump assembly and into the powerhead. These are the only bolts that should be loosened for pump removal. • On the 5 sided pumps used by most Evinrude/Johnson 2-stroke models, there are 2 mounting bolts at the bottom of the pump assembly. 5. If necessary, remove the cover screw or screws and disassemble the fuel pump for inspection or overhaul, as applicable. For details, refer to the Fuel Pump, Overhaul procedure in this section. 6. Clean the mating surface of the pump and powerhead of any remaining gasket material, dirt, or debris. Be careful not to damage the surface as that could lead to vacuum leaks. To install: 7. Apply a coating of Evinrude/Johnson nut lock to the fuel pump retaining screws. 8. Position a new gasket and install the pump to the powerhead using the retaining screws. Tighten the screws to 24-36 inch lbs. (2.8-4.0 Nm). 9. Connect the fuel lines as noted during removal and secure using the clamp or new wire ties, as applicable. 1 0. Gently squeeze the primer bulb while checking for fuel leakage. Correct any fuel leaks before returning the engine to service. 11. Connect the negative battery cable and/or spark plug lead(s). TE OVERHAUL • See Figures 97 and 99 Most of the displacement-diaphragm fuel pumps used on Evinrude/Johnson outboards may be disassembled for overhaul. These pumps are of a fairly simple design with relatively few moving parts. Check with your local parts supplier to make sure that an overhaul kit containing the necessary parts are available for your model. In most cases, the parts are limited to the diaphragm(s), gasket(s) and a fuel inlet screen (if equipped). If overhaul is required due to damage from contamination or debris (as opposed lo simple deterioration) disassemble and clean the rest of the fuel supply system prior to the fuel pump. Failure to replace filters and clean or replace the lines and fuel tank could result in damage to the overhauled pump after it is placed back into service. All diaphragms and seals should be replaced during assembly, regardless of their condition. Check for fuel leakage after completing the repair and verify proper operating pressures before returning the motor to service. ** WARNING Fig. 99 Many of the pumps used on these motors are equipped with a filter screen under the cover No sealant should be used on fuel pump components unless otherwise specifically directed. If small amounts of a dried sealant were to break free and travel through the fuel supply system it could easily clog passages (especially the small, metered orifices and needle valves of the carburetor). 1. Remove the fuel pump from the powerhead as detailed in this section. 2. Matchmark the fuel pump cover, housing and base to ensure proper assembly. • To ease inspection and assembly, lay out each piece of the fuel pump as it is removed. In this way, keep track of each component's orientation in relation to the entire assembly. 3. Remove the center cover screw, then remove the fuel inlet cover, filter element (screen) and gasket or 0-rings (as applicable). 4. Remove the pump housing-to-base screws (usually 4 flat-head screws) and carefully separate the housing from the base, removing the diaphragm(s) from the center. 5. Clean the metallic components thoroughly using solvent and carefully remove all traces of gasket material. 6. Inspect the diaphragm closely for cracks or tears. • It is advisable to replace the diaphragm ANYTIME the fuel pump is disassembled to ensure reliability and proper performance. 7. Inspect the fuel pump body for cracks. Check gasket surfaces for nicks, scratches, or irregularities. Inspect the mating surfaces of the fuel cover, body and base using a straight edge to ensure that they are not warped from heat or other damage Replace warped or damaged components. To assemble: 8. Assemble the components of the fuel pump housing, base and diaphragm noting the following: a. Use new gaskets. Make sure each gasket and the components it seals are aligned properly. b. Align the matchmarks made during disassembly to ensure proper component mounting. 9. Apply a coating of Evinrude/Johnson Nut Lock, or an equivalent threadlocking compound to the pump housing and base screws, then install and tighten them to 24-36 inch lbs. (2.8-4.0 Nm). 10. If equipped, install the fuel pump cover and filter screen using a new gasket or 0-ring(s), then tighten the center screw securely. 11. Install the fuel pump and then check for leaks and for proper operation. FUEL SYSTEM 3-33 Manual Fuel Primer + See Figure 100 A few Evinrude/Johnson V configuration motors (such as some 105 hp commercial models) are equipped with a manual fuel primer system to aid with cold starts. The basic design ol the manual primer is that ol a small, hand-operated plunger-type pump. The primer works by drawing fuel into the pump housing through a fuel line with a one-way check valve when the shaft is withdrawn. The fuel is then forced out, toward the motor, through a second one-way check valve when the shaft is pushed back inward. The primer performs the same function of a choke (aiding cold starting by making sure the engine receives a richer fuel mixture), but by opposite means. Whereas a choke reduces the amount of air provided to the combustion chamber (thus increasing the fuel portion of the air/fuel ratio), a primer works on the fuel side of the ratio by manually increasing the amount of fuel. The extra fuel provided by the manual primer enriches the air/fuel mixture tor cold start purposes only. Use of the primer on an engine that is at or near operating temperature can flood the motor preventing starting. TE TESTING + See Figure 100 An inoperable manual primer will cause hard start or possibly even a no start condition during attempts to start a cold motor. The colder the ambient temperature, the more trouble an inoperable primer will cause. A primer with internal leakage (allowing fuel to bypass the air/fuel metering system) will cause rich running conditions that could include hesitation, stumbling, rough running, especially at idle and lead to spark plug fouling. Function Test It the motor is operable, but trouble is suspected with the primer system, perform a function test with the engine running. Although this test can be conducted on a flush-fitting, engine speed will reach 2000 rpm and it is much safer to conduct the test in a test tank or with the boat launched. 1. Start and run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature. 2. Once the engine warms, set the throttle so it runs at 2000 rpm. 3. Pump the manual primer knob and observe engine operation. It the primer is operating correctly, the engine should run rich and speed should drop to about 1000 rpm. 4. It the primer seems ineffective, stop the engine, then remove the 6. Be sure to check the primer hose T-titting tor clogs as well. 7. It no clogs are found, perform the Primer Check procedure to see it the problem lies within the primer assembly itself. Primer Check It you suspect the manual primer system is not functioning correctly (and no clogs were found in the lines or fittings), check the primer as follows: 1. Remove the fuel line from the primer fitting at the carburetor. 2. Place the end of the fuel line just removed into a suitable container. Squeeze the fuel tank primer bulb to make sure the carburetor bowls are full of fuel. 3. Operate the primer choke lever twice. It fuel squirts from the disconnected fuel line into the container, the manual primer system is lunctioning correctly. II not, a kinked or restricted fuel line may be the problem, or it no kinks/clogs are found, the primer is at fault. Check the primer nipple to ensure the nipple is tree of obstructions. • The most probable cause of a malfunctioning primer system is internal leakage past the 0-rings. Therefore if the primer itself is still suspected, proceed to Servicing the Manual Primer. SERVICING THE TE MANUAL PRIMER Removal/Disassembly + See Figures 100, 101 and 102 1. Disconnect and plug the inlet and outlet fuel lines to prevent loss of luel and contamination. Remove the primer assembly from the engine. 2. Carefully pull or pry the retaining clip from the primer body housing. Pull out the end cap, plunger, and spool valve assembly. Slide the end cap from the plunger. Remove and discard the 0-ring around the end cap. • Observe the small 0-rings, there are usually 2 on the spool valve and 1 around the plunger shaft. These 0-rings are made from a special material and must be replaced with a genuine Evinrude/Johnson replacement part. Just matching 0-ring sizes will not work! 3. Remove and discard the 0-rings. 4. Remove the large washer and spring from the plunger shaft. Cleaning and Inspection + See Figures 100, 101 and 102 primer hose from its titting(s). Check each fitting tor clogs using a syringe tilled with isopropyl and a clear vinyl 1/8 in. inner diameter hose. Attach the hose to the fitting being checked and press lightly on the syringe. Fluid will move through the fitting unless it is clogged. 5. II any clogs are lound, use a thin pick to carelully clean the lilting. Evinrude/Johnson makes a cleaning tool lor this purpose, No. 326623. PRIMERBODY PLUNGER0-RINGS & SPOOLVALVE SPRING FUEL ''CLIP ..lIN LET r-..__LINE I ..__ I .. I, 'J SETWASHER__:@oo. SCREW 0-RINk I JEND.. N......?