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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL BOATING SAFETY BOATING EQUIPMENT (NOT REQUIRED BUT RECOMMENDED) SAFETY IN SERVICE TROUBLESHOOTING SHOP EQUIPMENT TOOLS FASTENERS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONVERSIONS SPECIFICATIONS UBLESHOOTING POWERHEAD POWERHEAD BREAK-IN SPECIFICATIONS GEARCASE JET DRIVE GEARCASE TRIMRILT SYSTEMS MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC TILT ASSIST TILLER HANDLE MECHANICAL REMOTE CONTROLS ELECTRONIC REMOTE CONTROLS CONTROL CABLES HAND REWIND STARTER MASTER INDEX P ures are vital to the safe, re1 s, as well as the personal safety of those performing repairs. This manual outlines procedures for servicing and repairing engines and drive systems using safe, effective methods. The procedures contain many NOTES, CAUTIONS and WARNINGS which should be followed, along with standard procedures, to minimize the possibility of personal injury or improper service which could damage the vehicle or compromise its safety. It is important to note that repair procedures and techniques, tools and parts for servicing these engines, as well as the skill and experience of the individual performing the work, vary widely. It is not possible to anticipate all of the conceivable ways or conditions under which the engine may be serviced, or to provide cautions as to all possible hazards that may result. Standard and accepted safety precautions and equipment should be used during cutting, grinding, chiseling, prying, or any other process that can cause material removal or projectiles. Some procedures require the use of tools specially designed for a specific task. Before substituting another tool or procedure, you must be completely satisfied that neither your personal safety, nor the performance of the vessel, will be endangered. All procedures covered in this manual requiring the use of special tools will be noted at the beginning of the procedure by means of an Additionally, any procedure requiring the use of an electronic tester or scan tool will be noted at the beginning of the procedure by means of a Although information in this manual is based on industry sources and is complete as possible at the time of publication, the possibility exists that some manufacturers made later changes which could not be included here. While striving for total accuracy, Seloc Publishing cannot assume responsibility for any errors, changes or omissions that may occur in the compilation of this data. We must therefore warn you to follow instructions carefully, using common sense. If you are uncertain of a procedure, seek help by inquiring with someone in your area who is familiar with these motors before proceeding. Part numbers listed in this reference are not recommendations by Seloc Publishing for any particular product brand name, simply iterations of the manufacturer's suggestions. They are also references that can be used with interchange manuals and aftermarket supplier catalogs to locate each brand supplier's discrete part number. Special tools are recommended by the manufacturers to perform a specific job. Use has been kept to a minimum, but, where absolutely necessary, they are referred to in the text by the part number of the manufacturer if at all possible; and also noted at the beginning of each procedure with one of the following symbols: OEM or DVOM. The OEM symbol usually denotes the need for a unique tool purposely designed to accomplish a specific task, it will also be used, less frequently, to notify the reader of the need for a tool that is not commonly found in the average tool box. symbol is used to denote the need for an electronic test tool like an ohmmeter, multi-meter or, on certain later engines, a scan tool. These tools can be purchased, under the appropriate part number, from your local dealer or regional distributor, or an equivalent tool can be purchased locally from a tool supplier or parts outlet. Before substituting any tool for the one recommended, read the SAFETY NOTICE at the top of this page. Providing the correct mix of service and repair procedures is an endless battle for any publisher of "HOW-TO" information. Users range from first time do-it yourselfers to professionally trained marine technicians, and information important to one is frequently irrelevant to the other. The editors at Seloc Publishing strive to provide accurate and articulate information on all facets of marine engine repair, from the simplest procedure to the most complex. In doing this, we understand that certain procedures may be outside the capabilities of the average DIYer. Conversely we are aware that many procedures are unnecessary for a trained technician. In order to provide all oi our users, particularly the DIYers, with a feeling for the scope of a given procedure or task before tackling it we have included a rating system denoting the suggested skill level needed when performing a particular procedure. One of the following icons will be included at the beginning of most procedures: SY These procedures are aimed primarily at the DIYer and can be classified, for the most part, as basic maintenance procedures; battery, fluids, filters, plugs, etc. Although certainly valuable to any experience level, they will generally be of little importance to a technician. DERATE .These procedures are suited for a DIYer with experience and a working knowledge of mechanical procedures. Even an advanced DIYer or professional technician will occasionally refer to these procedures. They will generally consist of component repair and service procedures, adjustments and minor rebuilds. CULT These procedures are aimed at the advanced DIYer and professional technician. They will deal with diagnostics, rebuilds and internal engineldrive components and will frequently require special tools. LED .These procedures are aimed at highly skilled technicians and should not be attempted without previous experience. They will usually consist of machine work, internal engine work and gear case rebuilds. Please remember one thing when considering the above ratings-they are a guide for judging the complexity of a given procedure and are subjective in nature. Only you will know what your experience level is, and only you will know when a procedure may be outside the realm of your capability. First time DIYer, or life-long marine technician, we all approach repair and service differently so an easy procedure for one person may be a difficult procedure for another. regardless of experience level. All skill level ratings are meant to be used as a guide only! Use them to help make a judgement before undertaking a particular procedure, but by all means read through the procedure first and make your own decision-after all, our mission at Seloc is to make boat maintenance and repair easier for everyone whether you are changing the oil or rebuilding an engine. Enjoy beating! No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted or stored in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or by information storage or retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher. Seloc Publishing expresses appreciation to the following companies who supported the production of this book: Marine Mechanics Institute-Orlando, FL Seloc Publishing would like to express thanks to the fine companies who participate in the production of all our books: Hand tools supplied by Craftsman are used during all phases of our vehicle teardown and photography. * Many of the fine specialty tools used in our procedures were provided courtesy of Lisle Corporation. Much of our shop's electronic testing equipment was supplied by Universal Enterprises Inc. (UEI). BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES .........1.13 2-STROKE MOTORS ..................1-13 4-STROKE MOTORS ..................1-15 COMBUSTION .......................1.1 6 BOATING EQUIPMENT (NOT REQUIRED BUT RECOMMENDED) .................1.10 ANCHORS ..........................1-10 BAILING DEVICES ....................1-10 COMPASS ..........................1.10 FIRST AID KIT .......................1.10 OARIPADDLE........................1.10 TOOLS AND SPARE PARTS ............1.12 VHF-FM RADIO ......................140 BOATING SAFETY ......................1.4 COURTESY MARINE EXAMINATIONS ....1-10 REGULATIONS FOR YOUR BOAT ........1.4 REQUIRED SAFETY EQUIPMENT ........1.5 CHEMICALS ..........................1.17 CLEANERS ..........................1.18 LUBRICANTS& PENETRANTS..........1.17 SEALANTS ..........................1.17 COMPASS............................1.10 COMPASS PRECAUTIONS ............. 1.1 1 INSTALLATION.......................1-1 1 SELECTION .........................1.10 ELECTRONIC TOOLS ...................1-23 BATTERY CHARGERS .................1.23 BATTERY TESTERS ...................1.23 GAUGES ............................1.24 MULTI-METERS (DVOMS) .............. 1.23 FASTENERS. MEASUREMENTS AND CONVERSIONS ...................1.26 BOLTS. NUTS & OTHER THREADED RETAINERS .........................1-26 STANDARD & METRIC MEASUREMENTS 1-27 TORQUE ...........................1.27 HAND TOOLS .........................1.19 BREAKER BARS ......................1.20 HAMMERS ..........................1.22 PLIERS .............................1.21 SCREWDRIVERS..................... 1.21 SOCKET SETS .......................1.19 WRENCHES .........................1.21 HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL .............1.2 AVOIDING COMMON MISTAKES .........1.3 AVOIDING TROUBLE ...................1.2 CAN YOU DO IT? .....................1.2 DIRECTIONS & LOCATIONS ............1-2 MAINTENANCE OR REPAIR? ............1-2 PROFESSIONAL HELP ................. 1.3 PURCHASING PARTS ..................1.3 WHERE TO BEGIN .................... 1.2 MEASURING TOOLS ...................1.24 DEPTH GAUGES .....................1.26 DIAL INDICATORS .................... 1-25 MICROMETERS & CALIPERS ........... 1.24 TELESCOPING GAUGES ............... 1-26 REGULATIONS FOR YOUR BOAT ..........1.4 CAPACITY INFORMATION ...............1.4 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE .........1.5 DOCUMENTING OF VESSELS ...........1.4 HULL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER .........1.4 LENGTH OF BOATS .................... 1.4 NUMBERING OF VESSELS .............. 1.4 REGISTRATION OF BOATS ..............1.4 SALES AND TRANSFERS ............... 1.4 VENTILATION......................... 1.5 VENTILATION SYSTEMS ................ 1-5 REQUIRED SAFETY EQUIPMENT ..........1.5 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ................. 1-6 PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES ........1.7 SOUND PRODUCING DEVICES ..........1-8 TYPES OF FIRES ......................1.5 VISUAL DISTRESS SIGNALS ............ 1-8 WARNING SYSTEM .................... 1.7 SAFETY IN SERVICE ...................1.12 DO'S ...............................1.12 DON'TS ............................1.12 SAFETY TOOLS ....................... 1.1 6 EYE AND EAR PROTECTION ........... 1.16 WORK CLOTHES ..................... 1.17 WORK GLOVES ......................1.16 SHOP EQUIPMENT ....................1.16 SAFETY TOOLS ......................1.16 SPECIFICATIONS......................1.27 CONVERSION FACTORS ..............1-27 METRIC BOLTS . TYPICAL TORQUE VALUES ............1.28 U.S. STANDARD BOLTS . TYPICAL TORQUE VALUES ............1.28 TOOLS...............................1-18 ELECTRONIC TOOLS .................1.23 HAND TOOLS ....................... 1.1 9 MEASURING TOOLS ..................1.24 OTHER COMMON TOOLS ............. 1.22 SPECIAL TOOLS ..................... 1.23 TROUBLESHOOTING ..................1.13 BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES ....... 1.1 3 This service is designed to be a handy reference guide to maintaining and repairing your Suzuki Outboard. We strongly believe that regardless of how many or how few year's experience you may have, there is something new waiting here for you. This service covers the topics that a factory service manual (designed for factory trained mechanics) and a manufacturer owner's manual (designed more by lawyers than boat owners these days) covers. It will take you through the basics of maintaining and repairing your outboard, step-by-step, to help you understand what the factory trained mechanics already know by heart. By using the information in this service, any boat owner should be able to make better informed decisions about what they need to do to maintain and enjoy their outboard. Even if you never plan on touching a wrench (and if so, we hope that we can change your mind), this service will still help you understand what a mechanic needs to do in order to maintain your engine. If you are not the type who is prone to taking a wrench to something, NEVER FEAR. The procedures provided here cover topics at a level virtually anyone will be able to handle. And just the fact that you purchased this service shows your interest in better understanding your outboard. You may even find that maintaining your outboard yourself is preferable in most cases. From a monetary standpoint, it could also be beneficial. The money spent on hauling your boat to a marina and paying a tech to service the engine could buy you fuel for a whole weekend of boating. And, if you are really that unsure of your own mechanical abilities, at the very least you should fully understand what a marine mechanic does to your boat. You may decide that anything other than maintenance and adjustments should be performed by a mechanic (and that's your call), but if so you should know that every time you board your boat, you are placing faith in the mechanic's work and trusting him or her with your well-being, and maybe your life. It should also be noted that in most areas a factory-trained mechanic will command a hefty hourly rate for off site service. If the tech comes to you this hourly rate is often charged from the time they leave their shop to the time that they return home. When service is performed at a boat yard, the clock usually starts when they go out to get the boat and bring it into the shop and doesn't end until it is tested and put back in the yard. The cost savings in doing the job yourself might be readily apparent at this point. Of course, if even you're already a seasoned Do-It-Yourselfer or a Professional Technician, you'll find the procedures, specifications, special tips as well as the schematics and illustrations helpful when tackling a new job on a motor. To help you decide if a task is within your skill level, procedures will often be rated using a wrench symbol in the text. When present, the number of wrenches designates how difficult we feel the procedure to be on a 1-4 scale. For more details on the wrench icon rating system, please refer to the information under Skill Levels at the beginning of this service. Before spending any money on parts, and before removing any nuts or bolts, read through the entire procedure or topic. This will give you the overall view or wnai tools and supplies will be required to perform the procedure or what questions need to be answered before purchasing parts. So read ahead and plan ahead. Each operation should be approached logically and all procedures thoroughly understood before attempting any work. Some procedures in this service may require you to "label and disconnect a . ' a group of lines, hoses or wires. Don't be lulled into thinking you can remember where everything goes -you won't. If you reconnect or install a part incorrectly, the motor may operate poorly, if at all. If you hook up electrical wiring incorrectly, you may instantly learn a very expensive lesson. A piece of masking tape, for example, placed on a hose and another on its fitting will allow you to assign your own label such as the letter "A", or a short name. As long as you remember your own code, you can reconnect the lines by matching letters or names. Do remember that tape will dissolve when saturated in some fluids (especially cleaning solvents). If a component is to be washed or cleaned, use another method of identification. A permanent felt-tipped marker can be very handy for marking metal parts; but remember that some solvents will remove permanent marker. A scribe can be used to carefully etch a small mark in some metal parts, but be sure NOT to do that on a gasket-making surface. SAFETY is the most important thing to remember when performing maintenance or repairs. Be sure to read the information on safety in this service. Proper maintenance is the key to long and trouble-free engine life, and the work can yield its own rewards. A properly maintained engine performs better than one that is neglected. As a conscientious boat owner, set aside a Saturday morning, at least once a month, to perform a thorough check of items that could cause problems. Keep your own personal log to jot down which services you performed, how much the parts cost you, the date, and the amount of hours on the engine at the time. Keep all receipts for parts purchased, so that they may be referred to in case of related problems or to determine operating expenses. As a do-it-yourselfer, these receipts are the only proof you have that the required maintenance was performed. In the event of a warranty problem (on new motors), these receipts can be invaluable. It's necessary to mention the difference between maintenance and repair. Maintenance includes routine inspections, adjustments, and replacement of parts that show signs of normal wear. Maintenance compensates for wear or deterioration. Repair implies that something has broken or is not working. A need for repair is often caused by lack of maintenance. For example: draining and refilling the gearcase oil is TCTntenance recommended by all manufacturers at specific intervals. Failure to do this can allow internal corrosion or damage and impair the operation of the motor, requiring expensive repairs. While no maintenance program can prevent items from breaking or wearing out, a general rule can be stated: MAINTENANCE IS CHEAPER THAN REPAIR. See Figure 1 Two basic rules should be mentioned here. First, whenever the Port side of the engine (or boat) is referred to, it is meant to specify the left side of the engine when you are sitting at the helm. Conversely, the Starboard means your right side. The Bow isthe front of the boat and the Stern or Aft is the rear. Fig. 1 Common terminology used for reference designation on boats of all size. These terms are used throuah out the text Most screws and bolts are removed by turning counterclockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise. An easy way to remember this is: righty- tighty; lefty-loosey. Corny, but effective. And if you are really dense (and we have all been so at one time or another), buy a ratchet that is marked ON and OFF (like [email protected] ratchets), or mark your own. This can be especially helpful when you are bent over backwards, upside down or otherwise turned around when working on a boat-mounted component. Occasionally, there are some things when working on an outboard that are bevond the caoabilities or tools of the averaae Do-It-Yourselfer (DIYer). This shouldn't include most of the topics of this service, but you willhave to be the judge. Some engines require special tools or a selection of special parts, even for some basic maintenance tasks. Talk to other boaters who use the same model of engine and speak with a trusted marina to find if there is a particular system or component on your engine that is difficult to maintain. You will have to decide for yourself where basic maintenance ends and where professional service should begin. Take your time and do your research first (starting with the information contained within) and then make your own decision. if you really don't feel comfortable with attempting a procedure, DON'T DO IT. If you've gotten into something that may be over your head, don't panic. Tuck your tail between your legs and call a marine mechanic. Marinas and independent shops will be able to finish a job for you. Your ego may be damaged, but your boat will be properly restored to its full running order. So, as long as you approach jobs slowly and carefully, you really have nothing to lose and everything to gain by doing it yourself. On the other hand, even the most complicated repair is within the ability of a person who takes their time and follows the steps of a procedure. A rock climber doesn't run up the side of a cliff, helshe takes it one step at a time and in the end, what looked difficult or impossible was conquerable. Worry about one step at a time. See Figures 2 and 3 When purchasing parts there are two things to consider. The first is quality and the second is to be sure to get the correct part for your engine. To get quality parts, always deal directly with a reputable retailer. To get the proper parts always refer to the model number from the information tag on your engine prior to calling the parts counter. An incorrect part can adversely affect your engine performance and fuel economy, and will cost you more money and aggravation in the end. Just remember a tow back to shore will cost plenty. That charge is per hour from the time the towboat leaves their home port, to the time they return to their home port. Get the picture. . .$$$? So whom should you call for parts? Well, there are many sources for the parts you will need. Where you shop for parts will be determined by what kind of parts you need, how much you want to pay, and the types of stores in your neighborhood. Your marina can supply you with many of the common parts you require. Using a marina as your parts supplier may be handy because of location (just walk right down the dock) or because the marina specializes in your particular brand of engine. In addition, it is always a good idea to get to know the marina staff (especially the marine mechanic). The marine parts jobber, who is usually listed in the yellow pages or whose name can be obtained from the marina, is another excellent source for parts. In addition to supplying local marinas, they also do a sizeable business in over-the-counter parts sales for the do-it-yourselfer. Almost every boating community has one or more convenient marine chain stores. These stores often offer the best retail prices and the convenience of one-stop shopping for all your needs. Since they cater to the do-it-yourselfer, these stores are almost always open weeknights, Saturdays, and Sundays, when the jobbers are usually closed. The lowest prices for parts are most often found in discount stores or the auto department of mass merchandisers. Parts sold here are name and private brand parts bought in huge quantities, so they can offer a competitive price. Private brand parts are made by major manufacturers and sold to large chains under a store label. And, of course, more and more large automotive parts retailers are stocking basic marine supplies. There are 3 common mistakes in mechanical work: 1. Following the incorrect order of assembly, disassembly or adjustment. When taking something apart or putting it together, performing steps in the wrong order usually just costs you extra time; however, it CAN break something. Read the entire procedure before beginning disassembly. Perform everything in the order in which the instructions say you should, even if you can't immediately see a reason for it. When you're taking apart something that is very intricate, you might want to draw a picture of how it looks when assembled at one point in order to make sure you get everything back in its proper position. When making adjustments, perform them in the proper order; often, one adjustment affects another, and you cannot expect satisfactory results unless each adjustment is made only when it cannot be changed by subsequent adjustments. B Digital cameras are handy. If you've got access to one, take pictures of intricate assemblies during the disassembly process and refer to them during assembly for tips on part orientation. 2. Over-torauina (or under-torauina). While it is more common for over- torquing to cause damage, under-torquing may allow a fastener to vibrate loose causing serious damage. Especially when dealing with plastic and Fig. 3 Parts catalogs, giving application and part number Fig. 2 By far the most important asset in purchasing parts is a information, are provided by manufacturers for most replacement knowledgeable and enthusiastic parts person parts aluminum parts, pay attention to torque specifications and utilize a torque wrench in assembly. If a torque figure is not available, remember that if you are using the right tool to perform the job, you will probably not have to strain yourself to get a fastener tight enough. The pitch of most threads is so slight that the tension you put on the wrench will be multiplied many times in actual force on what you are tightening. 3. Cross-threading, This occurs when a part such as a bolt is screwed into a nut or casting at the wrong angle and forced. Cross-threading is more likely to occur if access is difficult. It helps to clean and lubricate fasteners, then to start threading with the part to be installed positioned straight inward. In 1971 Congress ordered the US. Coast Guard to improve recreational boating safety. In response, the Coast Guard drew up a set of regulations. Aside from these federal regulations, there are state and local laws you must follow. These sometimes exceed the Coast Guard requirements. This section discusses only the federal laws. State and local laws are available from your local Coast Guard. As with other laws, "Ignorance of the boating laws is no excuse." The rules fall into two groups: regulations for your boat and required safety equipment on your boat. Most boats on waters within Federal jurisdiction must be registered or documented. These waters are those that provide a means of transportation between two or more states or to the sea. They also include the territorial waters of the United States. DOCUMENTING OF VESSELS A vessel of five or more net tons may be documented as a yacht. In this process, papers are issued by the US. Coast Guard as they are for large ships. Documentation is a form of national registration. The boat must be used solely for pleasure. Its owner must be a citizen of the U.S., a partnership of U.S. citizens, or a corporation controlled by US. citizens. The captain and other officers must also be US. citizens. The crew need not be. If you document your yacht, you have the legal authority to fly the yacht ensign. You also may record bills of sale, mortgages, and other papers of title with federal authorities. Doing so gives legal notice that such instruments exist. Documentation also permits preferred status for mortgages. This gives you additional security, and it aids in financing and transferoftitle. You must carry the original documentation papers aboard your vessel. Copies will not suffice. REGISTRATION OF BOATS If your boat is not documented, registration in the state of its principal use is probably required. If you use it mainly on an ocean, a gulf, or other similar water, register it in the state where you moor it. If you use your boat solely for racing, it may be exempt from the requirement in your state. Some states may also exclude dinghies, while others require registration of documented vessels and non-power driven boats. All states, except Alaska, register boats. In Alaska, theAJ.S. Coast Guard issues the registration numbers. If you move your vessel to a new state of principal use, a valid registration certificate is good for 60 days. You must have the registration certificate (certificate of number) aboard your vessel when it is in use. A copy will not suffice. You may be cited if you do not have the original on board. NUMBERING OF VESSELS A registration number is on your registration certificate. You must paint or permanently attach this number to both sides of the forward half of your boat. Do not display any other number there. The registration number must be clearly visible. It must not be placed on the obscured underside of a flared bow. If you can't place the number on the bow, place it on the forward half of the hull. If that doesn't work, put it on the superstructure. Put the number for an inflatable boat on a bracket or fixture. Then, firmly attach it to the forward half of the boat. The letters and numbers must be plain block characters and must read from left to right. Use a space Always start a fastener, etc. with your fingers. If you encounter resistance, unscrew the part and start over again at a different angle until it can be inserted and turned several times without much effort. Keep in mind that some parts may have tapered threads, so that gentle turning will automatically bring the part you're threading to the proper angle, but only if you don't force it or resist a change in angle. Don't put a wrench on the part until it has been tightened a couple of turns by hand. If you suddenly encounter resistance, and the part has not seated fully, don't force it. Pull it back out to make sure it's clean and threading properly. or a hyphen to separate the prefix and suffix letters from the numerals. The color of the characters must contrast with that of the background, and they must be at least three inches high. In some states your registration is good for only one year. In others, it is good for as long as three years. Renew your registration before it expires. At that time you will receive a new decal or decals. Place them as required by state law. You should remove old decals before putting on the new ones. Some states require that you show only the current decal or decals. If your vessel is moored, it must have a current decal even if it is not in use. If your vessel is lost, destroyed, abandoned, stolen, or transferred, you must inform the issuing authority. If you lose your certificate of number or your address changes, notify the issuing authority as soon as possible. SALES AND TRANSFERS Your registration number is not transferable to another boat. The number stays with the boat unless its state of principal use is changed. HULL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER A Hull Identification Number (HIN) is like the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) on your car. Boats built between November 1, 1972 and July 31, 1984 have old format HINs. Since August 1,1984 a new format has been used. Your boat's HIN must appear in two places. If it has a transom, the primary number is on its starboard side within two inches of its top. If it does not have a transom or if it was not practical to use the transom, the number is on the starboard side. In this case, it must be within one foot of the stern and within two inches of the top of the hull side. On pontoon boats, it is on the aft crossbeam within one foot of the starboard hull attachment. Your boat also has a duplicate number in an unexposed location. This is on the boat's interior or under a fitting or item of hardware. LENGTH OF BOATS For some purposes, boats are classed by length. Required equipment, for example, differs with boat size. Manufacturers may measure a boat's length in several ways. Officially, though, your boat is measured along a straight line from its bow to its stem. This line is parallel to its keel. The length does not include bowsprits, boomkins, or pulpits. Nor does it include rudders, brackets, outboard motors, outdrives, diving platforms, or other attachments. CAPACITY INFORMATION @ See Figure 4 Manufacturers must put capacity plates on most recreational boats less than 20 feet long. sailboats, canoes; kayaks, and inflatable boats are usually exemot. Outboard boats must disolav the maximum permitted horseuower of their engines. The plates must also show the allowable maximum weights of the people on board. And they must show the allowable maximum combined weights of people, engine(s), and gear. Inboards and stem drives need not show the weight of their engines on their capacity plates. The capacity plate must appear where it is clearly visible to the operator when underway. This information serves to remind you of the capacity of your boat under normal circumstances. You should ask yourself, "Is my boat loaded above its recommended capacity" and, "Is my boat overloaded for the present sea and wind conditions?" If you are stopped by a legal authority, you may be cited if you are overloaded. Fig. 4 A U.S. Coast Guard certification plate indicates the amount of occupants and gear appropriate for safe operation of the vessel CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE See Figure 4 Manufacturers are required to put compliance plates on motorboats greater than 20 feet in length. The plates must say, "This boat," or "This equipment complies with the U. S. Coast Guard Safety Standards in effect on the date of certification." Letters and numbers can be no less than one eighth of an inch high. At the manufacturer's option, the capacity and compliance plates may be combined. VENTILATION A cup of gasoline spilled in the bilge has the potential explosive power of 15 sticks of dynamite. This statement, commonly quoted over 20 years ago, may be an exaggeration; however, it illustrates a fact. Gasoline fumes in the bilge of a boat are highly explosive and a serious danger. They are heavier than air and will stay in the bilge until they are vented out. Because of this danger, Coast Guard regulations require ventilation on many powerboats. There are several ways to supply fresh air to engine and gasoline tank compartments and to remove dangerous vapors. Whatever the choice, it must meet Coast Guard standards. B The following is not intended to be a complete discussion of the regulations. It is limited to the majority of recreational vessels. Contact your local Coast Guard office for further information. General Precautions Ventilation systems will not remove raw gasoline that leaks from tanks or fuel lines. If you smell gasoline fumes, you need immediate repairs. The best device for sensing gasoline fumes is your nose. Use it! If you smell gasoline in a bilge, engine compartment, or elsewhere, don't start your engine. The smaller the compartment, the less gasoline it takes to make an explosive mixture. Ventilation for Open Boats In open boats, gasoline vapors are dispersed by the air that moves through them. So they are exempt from ventilation requirements. To be "open," a boat must meet certain conditions. Engine and fuel tank compartments and long narrow compartments that join them must be open to the atmosphere." This means they must have at least 15 square inches of open area for each cubic foot of net compartment volume. The op- on area must be in direct contact with the atmosphere. There must also be no long, unventilated spaces open to engine and fuel tank compartments into which flames could extend. Ventilation for All Other Boats Powered and natural ventilation are required in an enclosed compartment with a permanently installed gasoline engine that has a cranking motor. A compartment is exempt if its engine is open to the atmosphere. Diesel powered boats are also exempt. VENTILATION SYSTEMS There are two types of ventilation systems. One is "natural ventilation." In it, air circulates through closed spaces due to the boat's motion. The other type is "powered ventilation." In it, air is circulated by a motor-driven fan or fans. Natural Ventilation System Requirements A natural ventilation system has an air supply from outside the boat. The air supply may also be from a ventilated compartment or a compartment open to the atmosphere. Intake openings are required. In addition, intake ducts may be required to direct the air to appropriate compartments. The system must also have an exhaust duct that starts in the lower third of the compartment. The exhaust opening must be into another ventilated compartment or into the atmosphere. Each supply opening and supply duct, if there is one, must be above the usual level of water in the bilge. Exhaust openings and ducts must also be above the bilge water. Openings and ducts must be at least three square inches in area or two inches in diameter. Openings should be placed so exhaust gasses do not enter the fresh air intake. Exhaust fumes must not enter cabins or other enclosed, non- ventilated spaces. The carbon monoxide gas in them is deadly. Intake and exhaust openings must be covered by cowls or similar devices. These registers keep out rain water and water from breaking seas. Most often, intake registers face forward and exhaust openings aft. This aids the flow of air when the boat is moving or at anchor since most boats face into the wind when properly anchored. Power Ventilation System Requirements See Figure 5 Powered ventilation systems must meet the standards of a natural system, but in addition, they must also have one or more exhaust blowers. The blower duct can serve as the exhaust duct for natural ventilation if fan blades do not obstruct the air flow when not powered. Openings in engine compartment, for carburetion are in addition to ventilation system requirements. Coast Guard regulations require that your boat have certain equipment aboard. These requirements are minimums. Exceed them whenever you can. TYPES OF FIRES There are four common classes of fires: * Class A -fires are of ordinary combustible materials such as paper or wood. * Class B -fires involve gasoline, oil and grease. Class C -fires are electrical. * Class D -fires involve ferrous metals One of the greatest risks to boaters is fire. This is why it is so important to carry the correct number and type of extinguishers onboard. ! Fig. 5 Typical blower and duct system to vent fumes from the engine compartment The best fire extinguisher for most boats is a Class B extinguisher. Never use water on Class B or Class C fires, as water spreads these types of fires. Additionally, you should never use water on a Class C fire as it may cause you to be electrocuted. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS e See Figure 6 If your boat meets one or more of the following conditions, you must have at least one fire extinguisher aboard. The conditions are: * Inboard or stern drive engines Closed compartments under seats where portable fuel tanks can be stored Double bottoms not sealed together or not completely filled with flotation materials Closed living spaces * Closed stowage compartments in which combustible or flammable materials are stored * Permanently installed fuel tanks * Boat is 26 feet or more in length. Contents of Extinguishers Fire extinguishers use a variety of materials. Those used on boats usually contain dry chemicals, Halon, or Carbon Dioxide (C02). Dry chemical extinguishers contain chemical powders such as Sodium Bicarbonate - baking soda. Carbon dioxide is a colorless and odorless gas when released from an extinguisher. It is not poisonous but caution must be used in entering comoartments filled with it. It will not su~~ort life and keeos oxvaen from reaching your lungs. A firekilling concentration of carbon ~ioxide can be lethal. If you are in a compartment with a high concentration of C02, you will have no difficulty breathing. But the air does not contain enough oxygen to support life. Unconsciousness or death can result. Halon Extinguishers Some fire extinguishers and "built-in" or "fixed automatic fire extinguishing systems contain a gas called Halon. Like carbon dioxide it is colorless and odorless and will not suooort life. Some Halons may be toxic if . . inhaled. To be accepted by the Coast Guard, a fixed Halon system must have an indicator light at the vessel's helm. A green light shows the system is ready. Red means it is being discharged or has been discharged. Warning horns are available to let you know the system has been activated. If your fixed Halon system discharges, ventilate the space thoroughly before you enter it. There are no residues from Halon but it will not support life. Fig.6 An approved fire extinguisher should be mounted close to the operator for emeraencv use Although Halon has excellent fire fighting properties; it is thought to deplete the earth's ozone layer and has not been manufactured since January 1, 1994. Halon extinguishers can be refilled from existing stocks of the gas until they are used up, but high federal excise taxes are being charged for the service. If you discontinue using your Halon extinguisher, take it to a recovery station rather than releasing the gas into the atmosphere. Compounds such as FE 241, designed to replace Halon, are now available. Fire Extinguisher Approval Fire extinguishers must be Coast Guard approved. Look for the approval number on the nameplate. Approved extinguishers have the following on their labels: "Marine Type USCG Approved, Size. . .,Type. .., 162.2081,'' etc. In addition, to be acceptable by the Coast Guard, an extinguisher must be in serviceable condition and mounted in its bracket. An extinguisher not properly mounted in its bracket will not be considered serviceable during a Coast Guard inspection. Care and Treatment Make certain your extinguishers are in their stowage brackets and are not damaged. Replace cracked or broken hoses. Nozzles should be free of obstructions. Sometimes, wasps and other insects nest inside nozzles and make them inoperable. Check your extinguishers frequently. If they have pressure gauges, is the pressure within acceptable limits? Do the locking pins and sealing wires show they have not been used since recharging? Don't try an extinguisher to test it. Its valves will not reseat properly and the remaining gas will leak out. When this happens, the extinguisher is useless. Weigh and tag carbon dioxide and Halon extinguishers twice a year. If their weight loss exceeds 10 percent of the weight of the charge, recharge them. Check to see that they have not been used. They should have been inspected by a qualified person within the past six months, and they should have tags showing all inspection and service dates. The problem is that they can be partially discharged while appearing to be fully charged. Some Halon extinguishers have pressure gauges the same as dry chemical extinguishers. Don't rely too heavily on the gauge. The extinguisher can be partially discharged and still show a good gauge reading. Weighing a Halon extinguisher is the only accurate way to assess its contents. If your dry chemical extinguisher has a pressure indicator, check it frequently. Check the nozzle to see if there is powder in it. If there is, recharge it. Occasionally invert your dry chemical extinguisher and hit the base with the palm of your hand. The chemical in these extinguishers packs and cakes due to the boat's vibration and pounding. There is a difference of opinion about whether hitting the base helps, but it can't hurt. It is known that caking of the chemical powder is a major cause of failure of dry chemical extinguishers. Carry spares in excess of the minimum requirement. If you have guests aboard, make certain they know where the extinguishers are and how to use them. Using a Fire Extinguisher A fire extinguisher usually has a device to keep it from being discharged accidentally. This is a metal or plastic pin or loop. If you need to use your extinguisher, take it from its bracket. Remove the pin or the loop and point the nozzle at the base of the flames. Now, squeeze the handle, and discharge the extinguisher's contents while sweeping from side to side. Recharge a used extinguisher as soon as possible. If you are using a Halon or carbon dioxide extinguisher, keep your hands away from the discharge. The rapidly expanding gas will freeze them. If your fire extinguisher has a horn, hold it by its handle. Legal Requirements for Extinguishers You must carry fire extinguishers as defined by Coast Guard regulations. They must be firmly mounted in their brackets and immediately accessible. A motorboat less than 26 feet long must have at least one approved hand-portable, Type B-1 extinguisher. If the boat has an approved fixed fire extinguishing system, you are not required to have the Type B-1 extinguisher. Also, if your boat is less than 26 feet long, is propelled by an outboard motor, or motors, and does not have any of the first six conditions described at the beginning of this section, it is not required to have an extinguisher. Even so, it's a good idea to have one, especially if a nearby boat catches fire. or if a fire occurs at a fuel dock. A motorboat 26 feet to less than 40 feet long, must have at least two Type B-1 aooroved hand-oortable extinauishers. It can, instead, have at least one coast Guard approved Type B-2. If you have an approved fire extinguishing system, only one Type B-1 is required. A motorboat 40 to 65 feet long must have at least three Type B-1 aooroved oortable extinauishers. It mav have. instead, at least one Tvoe B-1 a ~~~e B-2. If thereis an approved fixedfire extinguishing system, two Type B-1 or one Type B-2 is required. WARNING SYSTEM Various devices are available to alert you to danger. These include fire, smoke, gasoline fumes, and carbon monoxide detectors. If your boat has a galley, it should have a smoke detector. Where possible, use wired detectors. Household batteries often corrode rapidly on a boat. There are many ways in which carbon monoxide (a by-product of the combustion that occurs in an engine) can enter your boat. You can't see, smell, or taste carbon monoxide gas, but it is lethal. As little as one part in 10,000 parts of air can bring on a headache. The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning -headaches, dizziness, and nausea -are like seasickness. By the time you realize what is happening to you, it may be too late to take action. If you have enclosed living spaces on your boat, protect yourself with a detector. PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs) are commonly called life preservers or life jackets. You can get them in a variety of types and sizes. They vary with their intended uses. To be acceptable, PFDs must be Coast Guard approved. Type IPFDs A Type Ilife jacket is also called an offshore life jacket. Type I life jackets will turn most unconscious people from facedown to a vertical or slightly backward position. The adult size gives a minimum of 22 pounds of buoyancy. The child size has at least 11 pounds. Type Ijackets provide more protection to their wearers than any other type of life jacket. Type Ilife jackets are bulkier and less comfortable than other types. Furthermore, there are only two sizes, one for children and one for adults. Type Ilife jackets will keep their wearers afloat for extended periods in rough water. They are recommended for offshore cruising where a delayed rescue is probable. Type 11 PFDs + See Figure 7 AType IIlife jacket is also called a near-shore buoyant vest. It is an approved, wearable device. Type IIlife jackets will turn some unconscious people from facedown to vertical or slightly backward positions. The adult size gives at least 15.5 pounds of buoyancy. The medium child size has a minimum of 11 pounds. And the small child and infant sizes give seven pounds. AType II life jacket is more comfortable than a Type I but it does not have as much buoyancy. It is not recommended for long hours in rough water. Because of this, Type 11s are recommended for inshore and inland cruising on calm water. Use them only where there is a good chance of fast rescue. Type IllPFDs Type Illlife jackets or marine buoyant devices are also known as flotation aids. Like Type \Is, they are designed for calm inland or close offshore water where there is a good chance of fast rescue. Their minimum buoyancy is 15.5 pounds. They will not turn their wearers face up. Type Ill devices are usually worn where freedom of movement is necessary. Thus, they are used for water skiing, small boat sailing, and fishing among other activities. They are available as vests and flotation coats. Flotation coats are useful in cold weather. Type Ills come in many sizes from small child through large adult. Life jackets come in a variety of colors and patterns -red, blue, green, camouflage, and cartoon characters. From purely a safety standpoint, the best color is bright orange. It is easier to see in the water, especially if the water is rough. Type IV PFDs + See Figure 8 and 9 Type IV ring life buoys, buoyant cushions and horseshoe buoys are Coast Guard approved devices called throwables. They are made to be thrown to people in the water, and should not be worn. Type IV cushions are often used as seat cushions. But, keep in mind that cushions are hard to hold onto in the water, thus, they do not afford as much protection as wearable life jackets. The straps on buoyant cushions are for you to hold onto either in the water or when throwing them, they are NOT for your arms. A cushion should never be worn on your back, as it will turn you face down in the water. Type IV throwables are not designed as personal flotation devices for unconscious people, non-swimmers, or children. Use them only in emergencies. They should not be used for, long periods in rough water. Ring life buoys come in 18, 20, 24, and 30 in. diameter sizes. They usually have grab lines, but you will need to attach about 60 feet of polypropylene line to the grab rope to aid in retrieving someone in the water. If you throw a ring, be careful not to hit the person. Ring buoys can knock people unconscious Type V PFDs Type V PFDs are of two kinds, special use devices and hybrids. Special use devices include boardsailing vests, deck suits, work vests, and others. They are approved only for the special uses or conditions indicated on their labels. Each is designed and intended for the particular application shown on its label. They do not meet legal requirements for general use aboard recreational boats. Hybrid life jackets are inflatable devices with some built-in buoyancy provided by plastic foam or kapok. They can be inflated orally or by cylinders of compressed gas to give additional buoyancy. In some hybrids the gas is released manually. In others it is released automatically when the life jacket is immersed in water. The inherent buoyancy of a hybrid may be insufficient to float a person unless it is inflated. The only way to find this out is for the user So try it in the water. Because of its limited buoyancy when deflated, a hybrid is recommended for use by a non-swimmer only if it is worn with enough inflation to float the wearer. If they are to count against the legal requirement for the number of life jackets you must carry, hybrids manufactured before February 8, 1995 must be worn whenever a boat is underway and the wearer must not go below decks or in an enclosed space. To find out if your Type V hybrid must be worn to satisfy the legal requirement, read its label. If its use is restricted it will say, "REQUIRED TO BE WORN in capital letters. Hybrids cost more than other life jackets, but this factor must be weighed against the fact that they are more comfortable than Types I, IIor Illlife jackets. Because of their greater comfort, their owners are more likely to wear them than are the owners of Type I, IIor Illlife jackets. The Coast Guard has determined that improved, less costly hybrids can save lives since they will be bought and used more frequently. For these reasons, a new federal regulation was adopted effective February 8, 1995. The regulation increases both the deflated and inflated buoyancys of hybrids, makes them available in a greater variety of sizes and types, and reduces their costs by reducing production costs. Even though it may not be required, the wearing of a hybrid or a life jacket is encouraaed whenever a vessel is underway. Like life jackets, hybrids are now available in three types. To meet legal requirements, a Type ihybrid can be substituted for a Tvoe I life Jacket. Similariv Tvoe 11 and Illhvbrids can be substituted for Type liand ~~pe Ihybrid,when inflated, Illlife jackets. ~'t~~e will turn most unconscious people from facedown to vertical or slightly backward positions just like a Type Ilife jacket. Type IIand Illhybrids function like Type IIand Ill life jackets. If you purchase a new hybrid, it should have an owner's manual attached that describes its life jacket type and its deflated and inflated buoyancys. It warns you that it may have to be inflated to float you. The manual also tells you how to don the life jacket and how to inflate it. It also tells you how to change its inflation mechanism, recommended testing exercises, and inspection or maintenance procedures. The manual also tells you why you need a life jacket and why you should wear it. A new hybrid must be packaged with at least three gas cartridges. One of these may already be loaded into the inflation mechanism. Likewise, if it has an automatic inflation mechanism, it must be packaged with at least three of these water sensitive elements. One of these elements may be installed. Legal Requirements A Coast Guard approved life jacket must show the manufacturer's name and approval number. Most are marked as Type I,11, Ill,IV or V. All of the newer hybrids are marked for type. You are required to carry at least one wearable life jacket or hybrid for each person on board your recreational vessel. If your vessel is 16 feet or more in length and is not a canoe or a kayak, you must also have at least one Type IV on board. These requirements apply to all recreational vessels that are propelled or controlled by machinery, sails, oars, paddles, poles, or another vessel. Sailboards are not required to carry life jackets. You can substitute an older Type V hybrid for any required Type I,IIor Ill life jacket provided: 1. Its approval label shows it is approved for the activity the vessel is engaged in 2. It's approved as a substitute for a life jacket of the type required on the vessel 3. It's used as required on the labels and 4. It's used in accordance with any requirements in its owner's manual (if the approval label makes reference to such a manual.) A water skier being towed is considered to be on board the vessel when judging compliance with legal requirements. You are required to keep your Type I, II or Illlife jackets or equivalent hybrids readily accessible, which means you must be able to reach out and get them when needed. All life jackets must be in good, serviceable condition. General Considerations The proper use of a life jacket requires the wearer to know how it will perform. You can gain this knowledge only through experience. Each person on your boat should be assigned a life jacket. Next, it should be fitted to the person who will wear it. Only then can you be sure that it will be ready for use in an emergency. This advice is good even if the water is calm, and you intend to boat near shore. Boats can sink fast. There may be no time to look around for a life jacket. Fitting one on you in the water is almost impossible. Most drownings occur in inland waters within a few feet of safety. Most victims had life jackets, but they weren't wearing them. Keeping life jackets in the plastic covers they came wrapped in, and in a cabin, assure that they will stay clean and unfaded. But this is no way to keep them when you are on the water. When you need a life jacket it must be readily accessible and adjusted to fit you. You can't spend time hunting for it or learning how to fit it. There is no substitute for the experience of entering the water while wearing a life jacket. Children, especially, need practice. If possible, give your guests this experience. Tell them they should keep their arms to their sides when jumping in to keep the life jacket from riding up. Let them jump in and see how the life jacket responds. Is it adjusted so it does not ride up? Is it the proper size? Are all straps snug? Are children's life jackets the right sizes for them? Are they adjusted properly? If a child's life jacket fits correctly, you can lift the child by the jacket's shoulder straps and the child's chin and ears will not slip through. Non-swimmers, children, handicapped persons, elderly persons and even pets should always wear life jackets when they are aboard. Many states require that everyone aboard wear them in hazardous waters. Inspect your lifesaving equipment from time to time. Leave any questionable or unsatisfactory equipment on shore. An emergency is no time for you to conduct an inspection. Indelibly mark your life jackets with your vessel's name, number, and calling port. This can be important in a search and rescue effort. It could help concentrate effort where it will do the most good. Care of Life Jackets Given reasonable care, life jackets last many years. Thoroughly dry them before putting them away. Stow them in dry, well-ventilated places. Avoid the bottoms of lockers and deck storage boxes where moisture may collect. Air and dry them frequently. Life jackets should not be tossed about or used as fenders or cushions. Many contain kapok or fibrous glass material enclosed in plastic bags. The bags can rupture and are then unserviceable. Squeeze your life jacket gently. Does air leak out? If so, water can leak in and it will no longer be safe to use. Cut it up so no one will use it, and throw it away. The covers of some life jackets are made of nylon or polyester. These materials are plastics. Like many plastics, they break down after extended exposure to the ultraviolet light in sunlight. This process may be more rapid when the materials are dyed with bright dyes such as "neon" shades. Ripped and badly faded fabrics are clues that the covering of your life jacket is deteriorating. A simple test is to pinch the fabric between your thumbs and forefingers. Now try to tear the fabric. If it can be torn, it should definitely be destroyed and discarded. Compare the colors in protected places to those exposed to the sun. If the colors have faded, the materials have been weakened. A life jacket covered in fabric should ordinarily last several boating seasons with normal use. A life jacket used every day in direct sunlight should probably be replaced more often. SOUND PRODUCING DEVICES All boats are required to carry some means of making an efficient sound signal. Devices for making the whistle or horn noises required by the Navigation Rules must be capable of a four-second blast. The blast should be audible for at least one-half mile. Athletic whistles are not acceptable on boats 12 meters or longer. Use caution with athletic whistles. When wet, some of them come apart and loose their "pea." When this happens, they are useless. If your vessel is 12 meters long and less than 20 meters, you must have a power whistle (or power horn) and a bell on board. The bell must be in operating condition and have a minimum diameter of at least 200mm (7.9 in.) at its mouth. VISUAL DISTRESS SIGNALS See Figure 10 Visual Distress Signals (VDS) attract attention to your vessel if you need help. They also help to guide searchers in search and rescue situations. Be sure you have the right types, and learn how to use them properly. It is illegal to fire flares improperly. In addition, they cost the Coast Guard and its Auxiliary many wasted hours in fruitless searches. If you signal a distress with flares and then someone helps you, please let the Coast Guard or the appropriate Search And Rescue (SAR) Agency know so the distress report will be canceled. Recreational boats less than 16 feet long must carry visual distress signals on coastal waters at night. Coastal waters are: e The ocean (territorial sea) * The Great Lakes @ Bays or sounds that empty into oceans Rivers over two miles across at their mouths upstream to where they narrow to two miles. Recreational boats 16 feet or longer must carry VDS at all times on coastal waters. The same requirement applies to boats carrying six or fewer passengers for hire. Open sailboats less than 26 feet long without engines are exempt in the daytime as are manually propelled boats. Also exempt are boats in organized races, regattas, parades, etc. Boats owned in the United States and operating on the high seas must be equipped with VDS. A wide variety of signaling devices meet Coast Guard regulations. For pyrotechnic devices, a minimum of three must be carried. Any combination can be carried as long as it adds up to at least three signals for day use and at least three signals for night use. Three daylnight signals meet both requirements. if possible, carry more than the legal requirement. The American flag flying upside down is a commonly recognized distress signal. It is not recognized In the Coast Guard regulations, though. In an emergency, your efforts would probably be better used In more effective signaling methods. Types of VDS VDS are divided into two groups; daytime and nighttime use. Each of these groups is subdivided into pyrotechnic and non-pyrotechnic devices. Daytime Non-Pyrotechnic Signals A bright orange flag with a black square over a black circle is the simplest VDS. It is usable, of course, only in daylight. It has the advantage of being a continuous signal. A mirror can be used to good advantage on sunny days. It can attract the attention of other boaters and of aircraft from great distances. Mirrors are available with holes in their centers to aid in "aiming." In the absence of a mirror, any shiny object can be used. When another boat is in sight, an effective VDS is to extend your arms from your sides and move them up and down. Do it slowly. If you do it too fast the other people may think you are just being friendly. This simple gesture is seldom misunderstood, and requires no equipment. Daytime Pyrotechnic Devices Orange smoke is a useful daytime signal. Hand-held or floating smoke flares are very effective in attracting attention from aircraft. Smoke flares don't last long, and are not very effective in high wind or poor visibility. As with other pyrotechnic devices, use them only when you know there is a possibility that someone will see the display. To be usable, smoke flares must be kept dry. Keep them in airtight containers and store them in dry places. If the "striker" is damp, dry it out before trying to ignite the device. Some pyrotechnic devices require a forceful "strike" to ignite them. All hand-held pyrotechnic devices may produce hot ashes or slag when burning. Hold them over the side of your boat in such a way that they do not burn your hand or drip into your boat. Nighttime Non-Pyrotechnic Signals An electric distress light is available. This light automatically flashes the international morse code SOS distress signal (¥--***). Flashed four to six times a minute, it is an unmistakable distress signal. It must show that it is approved by the Coast Guard. Be sure the batteries are fresh. Dated batteries give assurance that they are current. Under the Inland Navigation Rules, a high intensity white light flashing 50- 70 times per minute is a distress signal. Therefore, use strobe lights on inland waters only for distress signals. Nighttime Pyrotechnic Devices See Figure 11 Aerial and hand-held flares can be used at night or in the daytime. Obviously, they are more effective at night. Currently, the serviceable life of a pyrotechnic device is rated at 42 months from its date of manufacture. Pyrotechnic devices are expensive. Look at their dates before you buy them. Buy them with as much time remaining as possible. Like smoke flares, aerial and hand-held flares may fail to work if they have been damaged or abused. They will not function if they are or have been wet. Store them in dry, airtight containers in dry places. But store them where they are readily accessible. Aerial VDSs, depending on their type and the conditions they are used in, may not go very high. Again, use them only when there is a good chance they will be seen. A serious disadvantage of aerial flares is that they burn for only a short time; most burn for less than 10 seconds. Most parachute flares burn for less than 45 seconds. If you use a VDS in an emergency, do so carefully. Hold hand-held flares over the side of the boat when in use. Never use a road hazard flare on a boat; it can easily start a fire. Marine type flares are specifically designed to lessen risk, but they still must be used carefully. Aerial flares should be given the same respect as firearms since they are firearms! Never point them at another person. Don't allow children to play with them or around them. When you fire one, face away from the wind. Aim it downwind and upward at an angle of about 60 degrees to the horizon. If there is a strong wind, aim it somewhat more vertically. Never fire it straight up. Before you discharge a flare pistol, check for overhead obstructions that might be damaged by the flare. An obstruction might deflect the flare to where it will cause injury or damage. Fig. 11 Moisture-protected flares should be carried onboard any Fig. 10 Internationally accepted distress signals vessel for use as a distress sianal AL INFORMATION, Disposal of VDS Keep outdated flares when you get new ones. They do not meet legal requirements, but you might need them sometime, and they may work. It is illegal to fire a VDS on federal navigable waters unless an emergency exists. Many states have similar laws. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) There is no requirement for recreational boats to have EPIRBs. Some commercial and fishing vessels, though, must have them if they operate beyond the three-mile limit. Vessels carrying six or fewer passengers for hire must have EPIRBs under some circumstances when operating beyond the three-mile limit. If you boat in a remote area or offshore, you should have an EPIRB. An EPIRB is a small (about 6 to 20 in. high), battery-powered, radio transmitting buoy-like device. It is a radio transmitter and requires a license or an endorsement on your radio station license by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). EPIRBs are either automatically activated by being immersed in water or manually by a switch. Although not required by law, there are other pieces of equipment that are good to have onboard. All boats less than 16 feet long should carry a second means of propulsion. A paddle or oar can come in handy at times. For most small boats, a spare trolling or outboard motor is an excellent idea. If you carry a spare motor, it should have its own fuel tank and starting power. If you use an electric trolling motor, it should have its own battery. All boats should carry at least one effective manual bailing device in addition to any installed electric bilge pump. This can be a bucket, can, scoop, hand-operated pump, etc. Ifyour battery "goes dead" it will not operate your electric pump. See Figure 12 All boats should carry a first aid kit. It should contain adhesive bandages, gauze, adhesive tape, antiseptic, aspirin, etc. Check your first aid kit from time to time. Replace anything that is outdated. It is to your advantage to know how to use your first aid kit. Another good idea would be to take a Red Cross first aid course. See Figure 13 All boats should have anchors. Choose one of suitable size for your boat. Better still, have two anchors of different sizes. Use the smaller one in calm water or when anchoring for a short time to fish or eat. Use the larger one when the water is rougher or for overnight anchoring. One of the roles of the Coast Guard Auxiliary is to promote recreational boating safety. This is why they conduct thousands of Courtesy Marine Examinations each year. The auxiliarists who do these examinations are well-trained and knowledgeable in the field. These examinations are free and done only at the consent of ooat owners. To pass the examination, a vessel must satisfy federal equipment requirements and certain additional requirements of the coast guard auxiliary. If your vessel does not pass the Courtesy Marine Examination, no report of the failure is made. Instead, you will be told what you need to correct the deficiencies. The examiner will return at your convenience to redo the examination. If your vessel qualifies, you will be awarded a safety decal. The decal does not carry any special privileges, it simply attests to your interest in safe boating. Carry enough anchor line, of suitable size, for your boat and the waters in which you will operate. If your engine fails you, the first thing you usually should do is lower your anchor. This is good advice in shallow water where you may be driven aground by the wind or water. It is also good advice in windy weather or rough water, as the anchor, when properly affixed, will usually hold your bow into the waves. Your best means of summoning help in an emergency or in case of a breakdown is a VHF-FM radio. You can use it to get advice or assistance from the Coast Guard. In the event of a serious illness or injury aboard your boat, the Coast Guard can have emergency medical equipment meet you ashore. Although the VHF radio is the best way to get help, in this day and age, cell phones are a good backup source, especially for boaters on inland waters. You probably already know where you get a signal when boating, keep the phone charged, handy and off (so it doesn't bother you when boating right?). Keep phone numbers for a local dockmaster, coast guard, tow service or maritime police unit handy on board or stored in your phone directory. SELECTION See Figure 14 The safety of the boat and her crew may depend on her compass. In many areas, weather conditions can change so rapidly that, within minutes, a skipper may find himself socked in by a fog bank, rain squall or just poor visibility. Under these conditions, he may have no other means of keeping to his desired course except with the compass. When crossing an open body of water, his compass may be the only means of making an accurate landfall. fry an adequately stocked rd for the safety of the Fig. 13 Choose an anchor of sufficient Fig. 14 Don't hesitate to spend a few extra weight to secure the boat without dragging dollars for a reliable compass may be partially determined by the location of the wheel, shift lever and throttle handle. Fig. 15 The compass is a delicate instrument which should be mounted securely in a position where it can be easily observed by the helmsman Durina thick weather when vou can neither see nor hear the exoected aids to navigation, attempting to run out the time on a given course can disrupt the pleasure of the cruise. The skipper gains little comfort in a chain of soundings that does not match those given on the chart for the expected area. Any stranding, even for a short time, can be an unnerving experience. A pilot will not knowingly accept a cheap parachute. By the same token, a good boater should not accept a bargain in lifejackets, fire extinguishers, or compass. Take the time and spend the few extra dollars to purchase a compass to fit your expected needs. Regardless of what the salesman may tell you, postpone buying until you have had the chance to check more than one make and model. Lift each compass, tilt and turn it, simulating expected motions of the boat. The compass card should have a smooth and stable reaction. The card of a aood aualitv comoass will come to rest without oscillations about the lubber's line. Reasonable movement in your hand, comparable to the rolling and pitching of the boat, should not materially affect the reading. INSTALLATION 4 See Figure 15 Proper installation of the compass does not happen by accident. Make a critical check of the proposed location to be sure compass placement will permit the helmsman to use it with comfort and accuracy. First, the compass should be placed directly in front of the helmsman, and in such a position that it can be viewed without body stress as he sits or stands in a posture of relaxed alertness. The compass should be in the helmsman's zone of comfort. If the compass is too far away, he may have to bend forward to watch it; too close and he must rear backward for relief. Second, give some thought to comfort in heavy weather and poor visibility conditions during the day and night. In some cases, the compass position Third, inspect the compass site to be sure the instrument will be at least two feet from any engine indicators, bilge vapor detectors, magnetic instruments, or any steel or iron objects. If the compass cannot be placed at least two feet (six feet would be better but on a small craft, let's get real two feet is usually pushing it) from one of these influences, then either the compass or the other object must be moved, if first order accuracy is to be expected. Once the compass location appears to be satisfactory, give the compass a test before installation. Hidden influences may be concealed under the cabin top, forward of the cabin aft bulkhead, within the cockpit ceiling, or in a wood-covered stanchion. Move the compass around in the area of the proposed location. Keep an eye on the card. A magnetic influence is the only thing that will make the card turn. You can quickly find any such influence with the compass. if the influence cannot be moved away or replaced by one of nonmagnetic material, test to determine whether it is merely magnetic, a small piece of iron or steel, or some magnetized steel. Bring the north pole of the compass near the object, then shift and bring the south pole near it. Both the north and south poles will be attracted if the compass is demagnetized. if the object attracts one pole and repels the other, then the compass is magnetized. If your compass needs to be demagnetized, take it to a shop equipped to do the job PROPERLY. After you have moved the compass around in the proposed mounting area, hold it down or tape it in position. Test everything you feel might affect the compass and cause a deviation from a true reading. Rotate the wheel from hard over-to-hard over. Switch on and off all the lights, radios, radio direction finder, radio telephone, depth finder and, if installed, the shipboard intercom. Sound the electric whistle, turn on the windshield wipers, start the engine (with water circulating through the engine), work !he throttle, and move the gear shift lever. if the boat has an auxiliary generator, start it. If the card moves during any one of these tests, the compass should be relocated. Naturally, if something like the windshield wipers causes a slight deviation, it may be necessary for you to make a different deviation table to use only when certain pieces of equipment are operating. Bear in mind, following a course that is off only a degree or two for several hours can make considerable difference at the end, putting you on a reef, rock or shoal. Check to be sure the intended compass site is solid. Vibration will increase pivot wear. Now, you are ready to mount the compass. To prevent an error on all courses, the line through the lubber line and the compass card pivot must be exactly parallel to the keel of the boat. You can establish the fore-and-aft line of the boat with a stout cord or string. Use care to transfer this line to the compass site. If necessary, shim the base of the compass until the stile-type lubber line (the one affixed to the case and not aimbaledl is vertical when the boat is on an even keel. Drill the holes and mount the compass. COMPASS PRECAUTIONS See Figures 16,17 and 18 Many times an owner will install an expensive stereo system in the cabin of his boat. It is not uncommon for the speakers to be mounted on the aft bulkhead up against the overhead (ceiling). In almost every case, this position places one of the speakers in very close proximity to the compass, mounted above the ceiling. . .well think again, as seemingly Fig. 16 This compass is giving an accurate objects may cause serious Fig. 18 . ..a compass reading off by just a reading, right? few degrees could lead to disaster You probably already know that a magnet is used in the operation of the speaker. Therefore, it is very likely that the speaker, mounted almost under the compass in the cabin will have a very pronounced effect on the compass accuracy. Consider the following test and the accompanying photographs as proof: First, the compass was read as 190 degrees while the boat was secure in her slip, Next. a full can of soda in an aluminum can was placed on we side and the compass read as 204 degrees, a good 14 degrees oft. Next. the full can was moved to the opposite side of the compass and again a reading was observed, this time as 189 degrees, 11 degrees off from the original reading. Finally, the contents of the can were consumed, the can placed on both sides of the compass with NO effect on the compass reading. Two very important conclusions can be drawn from these tests. Something must have been in the contents of the can to affect the compass so drastically. Keep even innocent things clear of the compass to avoid any possible error in the boat's heading. B Remember, a boat moving through the water at 10 knots on a compass error of just 5 degrees will be almost 1.5 miles oft course in only ONE hour. At night, or in thick weather, this could very possibly put the boat on a reef, rock or shoal with disastrous results. It is virtually impossible to anticipate all of the hazards involved with maintenance and service, but care and common sense will prevent most accidents. The rules of safety for mechanics range from "don't smoke around gasoline," to "use the proper tool(s) for the job." The trick to avoiding injuries is to develop safe work habits and to take every possible precaution. Whenever you are working on your boat, pay attention to what you are doing. The more you pay attention to details and what is going on around you, the less likely you will be to hurt yourself or damage your boat. Do keep a fire extinguisher and first aid kit handy. Do wear safety glasses or goggles when cutting, drilling, grinding or prying, even if you have 20-20 vision. If you wear glasses for the sake of vision, wear safety goggles over your regular glasses. Do shield your eyes whenever you work around the battery. Batteries contain sulfuric acid. In case of contact with the eyes or skin, flush the area with water or a mixture of water and baking soda; then seek immediate medical attention. 0 Do use adequate ventilation when working with any chemicals or hazardous materials. 5 Do disconnect the negative battery cable when working on the electrical system. The secondary ignition system contains EXTREMELY HIGH VOLTAGE. In some cases it can even exceed 50,000 volts. Furthermore, an accidental attempt to start the engine could cause the propeller or other components to rotate suddenly causing a potentially dangerous situation, 5 Do follow manufacturer's directions whenever working with potentially hazardous materials. Most chemicals and fluids are poisonous if taken internally. See Figures 19 and 20 Carry a few tools and some spare parts, and learn how to make minor repairs. Many search and rescue cases are caused by minor breakdowns that boat operators could have repaired. Carry spare parts such as propellers, fuses or basic ignition components (like spark plugs, wires or even ignition coils) and the tools necessary to install them. Fig. 20 A few wrenches, a screwdriver and maybe a pair of pliers can be very helpful to make emergency repairs Do properly maintain your tools. Loose hammerheads, mushroomed punches and chisels, frayed or poorly grounded electrical cords, excessively worn screwdrivers, spread wrenches (open end), cracked sockets, or slipping ratchets can cause accidents. * Likewise, keep your tools clean; a greasy wrench can slip off a bolt head, ruining the bolt and often harming your knuckles in the process. Do use the proper size and type of tool for the job at hand. Do select a wrench or socket that fits the nut or bolt. The wrench or socket should sit straight, not cocked. Do, when possible, pull on a wrench handle rather than push on it, and adjust your stance to prevent a fall. Do be sure that adjustable wrenches are tightly closed on the nut or bolt and pulled so that the force is on the side of the fixed jaw. Better yet, avoid the use of an adjustable if you have a fixed wrench that will fit. 0 Do strike squarely with a hammer; avoid glancing blows. Do use common sense whenever you work on your boat or motor. If a situation arises that doesn't seem right, sit back and have a second look. It may save an embarrassing moment or potential damage to your beloved boat. * Don't run the engine in an enclosed area or anywhere else without proper ventilation -EVER! Carbon monoxide is poisonous; it takes a long time to leave the human body and you can build up a deadly supply of it in your system by simply breathing in a little every day. You may not realize you are slowly poisoning yourself. Don't work around moving parts while wearing loose clothing. Short sleeves are much safer than long, loose sleeves. Hard-toed shoes with neoprene soles protect your toes and give a better grip on slippery surfaces. Jewelry, watches, large belt buckles, or body adornment of any kind is not safe working around any craft or vehicle. Long hair should be tied back under a hat. * Don't use pockets for toolboxes. A fall or bump can drive a screwdriver deep into your body. Even a rag hanging from your back pocket can wrap around a spinning shaft. * Don't smoke when working around gasoline, cleaning solvent or other flammable material. @ Don't smoke when working around the battery. When the battery is being charged, it gives off explosive hydrogen gas. Actually, you shouldn't Troubleshooting can be defined as a methodical process during which one discovers what is causing a problem with engine operation. Although it is often a feared process to the uninitiated, there is no reason to believe that you cannot figure out what is wrong with a motor, as long as you follow a few basic rules. To begin with, troubleshooting must be systematic. Haphazardly testing one component, then another, might uncover the problem, but it will more likely waste a lot of time. True troubleshooting starts by defining the problem and performing systematic tests to eliminate the largest and most likely causes first. Start all troubleshooting by eliminating the most basic possible causes. Begin with a visual inspection of the boat and motor. If the engine won't crank, make sure that the kill switch or safety lanyard is in the proper position. Make sure there is fuel in the tank and the fuel system is primed before condemning the carburetor or fuel injection system. On electric start motors, make sure there are no blown fuses, the battery is fully charged, and the cable connections (at both ends) are clean and tight before suspecting a bad starter, solenoid or switch. The majority of problems that occur suddenly can be fixed by simply identifying the one small item that brought them on. A loose wire, a clogged passage or a broken component can cause a lot of trouble and are often the cause of a sudden performance problem. The next most basic step in troubleshooting is to test systems before components. For example, if the engine doesn't crank on an electric start motor, determine if the battery is in good condition (fully charged and properly connected) before testing the starting system. If the engine cranks, but doesn't start, you know already know the starting system and battery (if it cranks fast enough) are in good condition, now it is time to look at the ignition or fuel systems. Once you've isolated the problem to a particular system, follow the troubleshooting/testing procedures in the section for that system to test either subsystems (if applicable, for example: the starter circuit) or components (starter solenoid). Deflector Piston1 Exhaust \ A smoke anyway, it's bad for you. Instead, save the cigarette money and put it into your boat! Don't use gasoline to wash your hands; there are excellent soaps available. Gasoline contains dangerous additives that can enter the body through a cut or through your pores. Gasoline also removes all the natural oils from the skin so that bone dry hands will suck up oil and grease. * Don't use screwdrivers for anything other than driving screws! A screwdriver used as a prying tool can snap when you least expect it, causing injuries. At the very least, you'll ruin a good screwdriver. See Figures 21 and 22 Before attempting to troubleshoot a problem with your motor, it is important that you understand how it operates. Once normal engine or system operation is understood, it will be easier to determine what might be causing the trouble or irregular operation in the first place. System descriptions are found throughout this service, but the basic mechanical operating principles for both 2-stroke engines (like most of the outboards covered here) and 4-stroke engines (like some outboards and like your car) are given here. A basic understanding of both types of engines is useful not only in understanding and troubleshooting your outboard, but also for dealing with other motors in your life. All motors covered by this service (and probably MOST of the motors you own) operate according to the Otto cycle principle of engine operation. This means that all motors follow the stages of intake, compression, power and exhaust. But, the difference between a 2- and 4-stroke motor is in how many times the piston moves up and down within the cylinder to accomplish this. On 2-stroke motors (as the name suggests) the four cycles take place in 2 movements (one up and one down) of the piston. Again, as the name suggests, the cycles take place in 4 movements of the piston for 4-stroke motors. 2-STROKE MOTORS The 2-stroke engine differs in several ways from a conventional four- stroke (automobile or marine) engine. 1. The intakelexhaust method by which the fuel-air mixture is delivered to the combustion chamber. 2. The complete lubrication system. 3. The frequency of the power stroke. Let's discuss these differences briefly (and compare 2-stroke engine operation with 4-stroke engine operation.) I0v^/) Connecting Intake rod port Intake Compression Ignition power stroke Exhaust Fig. 21 The complete piston cycle of a 2-stroke motor (intake, compression, power and exhaust) Compression 1 4.Exhaust I 1 Fig. 22 The complete piston cycle of a 4-stroke motor (intake, compression, power and exhaust) @ See Figures 23 thru 26 Two-stroke engines utilize an arrangement of port openings to admit fuel to the combustion chamber and to purge the exhaust gases after burning has been completed. The ports are located in a precise pattern in order for them to be open and closed off at an exact moment by the piston as it moves up and down in the cylinder. The exhaust port is located slightly higher than the fuel intake port. This arrangement opens the exhaust port first as the piston starts downward and therefore, the exhaust phase begins a fraction of a second before the intake phase. Actually, the intake and exhaust ports are spaced so closely together that both open almost simultaneously. For this reason, some 2-stroke engines utilize deflector-type pistons. This design of the piston top serves two purposes very effectively. First, it creates turbulence when the incoming charge of fuel enters the combustion chamber. This turbulence results in a more complete burning of the fuel than if the piston top were flat. The second effect of the deflector- type piston crown is to force the exhaust gases from the cylinder more rapidly. Loop charged motors, or as they are commonly called "loopers", differ in how the airlfuel charge is introduced to the combustion chamber. Instead of the charge flowing across the top of the piston from one side of the cylinder to the other (CV) the use a looping action on top of the piston as the charge is forced through irregular shaped openings cut in the piston's skirt. In an LV motor, the charge is forced out from the crankcase by the downward motion of the piston, through the irregular shaped openings and transferred upward by long, deep grooves in the cylinder wall. The charge completes its looping action by entering the combustion chamber, just above the piston, where the upward motion of the piston traps it in the chamber and compresses it for optimum ignition power. Unlike the knife-edged deflector top pistons used in CV motors, the piston domes on Loop motors are relatively flat. Over the years various outboard manufacturers used both LV and CV configurations in many popular lines of 2-stroke motors. These systems of intake and exhaust are in marked contrast to individual intake and exhaust valve arrangement employed on four-stroke engines (and the mechanical methods of opening and closing these valves). It should be noted here that there are some 2-stroke engines that utilize a mechanical valve train, though it is very different from the valve train employed by most 4-stroke motors. Rotary 2-stroke engines use a circular valve or rotating disc that contains a port opening around part of one edge of the disc. As the engine (and disc) turns, the opening aligns with the intake port at and for a predetermined amount of time, closing off the port again as the opening passes by and the solid portion of the disc covers the port. Lubrication A 2-stroke engine is lubricated by mixing oil with the fuel. Therefore, various parts are lubricated as the fuel mixture passes through the Deflector Exhaust I port n Exhaust "Intake port Intake Exhaust ig. 23 The intake and exhaust cycles of a two-stroke engine - toss flow (CV) design shown crankcase and the cylinder. In contrast, four-stroke engines have a crankcase containing oil. This oil is pumped through a circulating system and returned to the crankcase to begin the routing again. Power Stroke The combustion cycle of a 2-stroke engine has four distinct phases. 1. Intake 2. Compression 3. Power 4. Exhaust The four phases of the cycle are accomplished with each up and down stroke of the piston, and the power stroke occurs with each complete revolution of the crankshaft. Compare this system with a four-stroke engine. A separate stroke of the piston is required to accomplish each phase of the cycle and the power stroke occurs only every other revolution of the crankshaft. Stated another way, two revolutions of the four-stroke engine crankshaft are required to complete one full cycle, the four phases. Fig. 25 Cutaway view of a typical loop- Fig. 26 The combustion chamber of a Fig. 24 Cross-sectional view of a typical loop-charged cylinder, showing charge flow while piston is moving downward charged cylinder, depicting exhaust leaving the cylinder as the charge enters through 3 ports in the piston typical looper, notice the piston is far enough down the cylinder bore to reveal intake and exhaust ports Physical Laws + See Figure 27 The 2-stroke engine is able to function because of two very simple physical laws. One: Gases will flow from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure. A tire blowout is an example of this principle. The high-pressure air escapes rapidly if the tube is punctured. Two: if a gas is compressed into a smaller area, the pressure increases, and if a gas expands into a larger area, the pressure is decreased. If these two laws are kept in mind, the operation of the 2-stroke engine will be easier understood. Actual Operation + See Figure 21 The engine described here is of a carbureted type. EFI or DFI (DIIFICHT or E -Tec) motors operate similarly for intake of the air charge and for exhaust of the unburned gasses. Obviously though, the very nature of fuel injection changes the actual delivery of the fueiloil charge. Beginning with the piston approaching top dead center on the compression stroke: the intake and exhaust ports are ~hvsicallv closed (blocked) by the piston. During this stroke, the reed valve is open (because as the piston moves upward, the crankcase volume increases, which reduces the crankcase pressure to less than the outside atmosphere (creates a vacuum under the piston). The spark plug fires; the compressed fuel-air mixture is ignited; and the power stroke begins. As the piston moves downward on the power stroke, the combustion chamber is filled with burnina aases. As the exhaust port is uncovered, the gases, which are under great pressure, escape rapidly through the exhaust ports. The piston continues its downward movement. Pressure within the crankcase (again, under the piston) increases, closing the reed valves against their seats. The crankcase then becomes a sealed chamber so the air-fuel mixture becomes compressed (pressurized) and ready for delivery to the combustion chamber. As the piston continues to move downward, the intake port is uncovered. The fresh fuel mixture rushes through the intake port into the combustion chamber striking the top of the piston where it is deflected along the cylinder wail. The reed valve remains closed until the piston moves upward again. When the piston begins to move upward on the compression stroke, the reed valve opens because the crankcase volume has been increased, reducing crankcase pressure to less than the outside atmosphere. The intake and exhaust ports are closed and the fresh fuel charge is compressed inside the combustion chamber. Pressure in the crankcase (beneath the piston) decreases as the piston moves upward and a fresh charge of air flows through the carburetor picking up fuel. As the piston approaches top dead center, the spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture, the power stroke begins and one complete Otto cycle has been completed. Induced low air pressure \ \ Atmospheric air pressure Fig. 27 Air flow principal for a modern carburetor 4-STROKE MOTORS See Figure 22 The 4-stroke motor may be easier to understand for some people either because of its prevalence in automobile and street motorcycle motors today or perhaps because each of the four strokes corresponds to one distinct phase of the Otto cycle. Essentially, a 4-stroke engine completes one Otto cycle of intake, compression, ignitionlpower and exhaust using two full revolutions of the crankshaft and four distinct movements of the piston (down, up, down and up). Intake The intake stroke begins with the piston near the top of its travel. As crankshaft rotation begins to pull thepiston downward,' the exhaust valve closes and the intake opens. As volume of the combustion chamber increases, a vacuum iscreated that draws in the airlfuel mixture from the intake manifold. Compression Once the piston reaches the bottom of its travel, crankshaft rotation will begin to force it upward. At this point the intake valve closes. As the piston rises in the bore, the volume of the sealed combustion chamber (both intake and exhaust valves are closed) decreases and the airlfuel mixture is compressed. This raises the temperature and pressure of the mixture and increases the amount of force generated by the expanding gases during the IgnitionIPower stroke. As the piston approaches top dead center (the highest point of travel in the bore), the spark plug will fire, igniting the airlfuel mixture. The resulting combustion of the airlfuel mixture forces the piston downward, rotating the crankshaft (causing other pistons to move in other phaseslstrokes of the Otto cycle on multi-cylinder motors). xhaust As the piston approaches the bottom of the IgnitionIPower stroke, the exhaust valve opens. When the piston begins its upward path of travel once again, any remaining unburned gasses are forced out through the exhaust valve. This completes one Otto cycle, which begins again as the piston passes top dead center, the intake valve opens and the Intake stroke starts. COMBUSTION Whether we are talking about a 2-or 4-stroke engine, all Otto cycle, internal combustion engines require three basic conditions to operate properly, 1. Compression 2. Ignition (Spark) 3. Fuel A lack of any one of these conditions will prevent the engine from operating. A problem with any one of these will manifest itself in hard-starting or poor performance. Compression An engine that has insufficient compression will not draw an adequate supply of airlfuel mixture into the combustion chamber and, subsequently, will not make sufficient power on the power stroke. A lack of compression in just one cylinder of a multi-cylinder motor will cause the motor to stumble or run irregularly. But, keep in mind that a sudden change in compression is unlikely in 2- stroke motors (unless something major breaks inside the crankcase, but that would usually be accompanied by other symptoms such as a loud noise when it occurred or noises during operation). On 4-stroke motors, a sudden change in compression is also unlikely, but could occur if the timing belt or chain was to suddenly break. Remember that the timing belUchain is used to synchronize the valve train with the crankshaft. If the valve train suddenly ceases to turn, some intake and some exhaust valves will remain open, relieving compression in that cylinder. Ignition (Spark) Traditionally, the ignition system is the weakest link in the chain of conditions necessary for engine operation. Spark plugs may become worn or WORK GLOVES See Figure 28 Unless you think scars on your hands are cool, enjoy pain and like wearing bandages, get a good pair of work gloves. Canvas or leather gloves are the best. And yes, we realize that there are some jobs involving small parts that can't be done while wearing work gloves. These jobs are not the ones usually associated with hand injuries. A good pair of rubber gloves (such as those usually associated with dish washing) or vinyl gloves is also a great idea. There are some liquids such as solvents and penetrants that don't belong on your skin. Avoid burns and rashes. Wear these gloves. fouled, wires will deteriorate allowing arcing or misfiring, and poor connections can place an undue load on coils leading to weak spark or even a failed coil. The most common question asked by a technician under a no- start condition is: "do Ihave spark and fuel" (as they've already determined that they have compression). A quick visual inspection of the spark plug(s) will answer the question as to whether or not the plug(s) islare worn or fouled. While the engine is shut OFF a physical check of the connections could show a loose primary or secondary ignition circuit wire. An obviously physically damaged wire may also be an indication of system problems and certainly encourages one to inspect the related system more closely. If nothing is turned up by the visual inspection, perform the Spark Test provided in the Ignition System section to determine if the problem is a lack of or a weak spark. If the problem is not compression or spark, it's time to look at the fuel system. Fuel If compression and spark is present (and within spec), but the engine won't start or won't run properly, the only remaining condition to fulfill is fuel. As usual, start with the basics. Is the fuel tank full? Is the fuel stale? If the engine has not been run in some time (a matter of months, not weeks) there is a good chance that the fuel is stale and should be properly disposed of and replaced, Depending on how stale or contaminated (with moisture) the fuel is, it may be burned in an automobile or in yard equipment, though it would be wise to mix it well with a much larger supply of fresh gasoline to prevent moving your driveability problems to that motor. better to get the lawn tractor stuck on stale gasoline than it would be to have your boat motor quit in the middle of the bay or lake. For hard starting motors, is the choke or primer system operating properly. Remember that the chokelprime should only be used for cold starts. A true cold start is really only the first start of the day, but it may be applicable to subsequent starts on cooler days, if the engine sat for more than a few hours and completely cooled off since the last use. Applying the primer to the motor for a hot start may flood the engine, preventing it from starting properly. One method to clear a flood is to crank the motor while the engine is at wide-open throttle (allowing the maximum amount of air into the motor to compensate for the excess fuel). But, keep in mind that the throttle should be returned to idle immediately upon engine start-up to prevent damage from over-rewing. Fuel delivery and pressure should be checked before delving into the carburetor(s) or fuel injection system. Make sure there are no clogs in the fuel line or vacuum leaks that would starve the motor of fuel. Make sure that all other possible problems have been eliminated before touching the carburetor. It is rare that a carburetor will suddenly require an adjustment in order for the motor to run properly. It is much more likely that an improperly stored motor (one stored with untreated fuel in the carburetor) would suffer from one or more clogged carburetor passages sometime after shortly returning to service. Fuel will evaporate over time, leaving behind gummy deposits. If untreated fuel is left in the carburetor for some time (again typically months more than weeks), the varnish left behind by evaporating fuel will likely clog the small passages of the carburetor and cause problems with engine performance. If you suspect this, remove and disassemble the carburetor following procedures under Fuel System. And lastly, an option. If you're tired of being greasy and dirty all the time, ao to the drua store and buv a box of disoosable latex aloves like medical professionals"wear. You can handle greasy parts, small tasks, wash parts, etc. all without getting dirty! These gloves take a surprising amount of abuse without tearing and aren't expensive. Note however, that some people are allergic to the latex or the powder used inside some gloves, so pay attention to what you buy. EYE AND EAR PROTECTION See Figures 29 and 30 Don't begin any job without a good pair of work goggles or impact resistant glasses! When doing any kind of work, it's all too easy to avoid eye injury through this simple precaution. And don't just buy eye protection and leave it on the shelf. Wear it all the timel Things have a habit of breaking, Fig. 29 Don't begin major repairs without a Fig, 30 Things have a habit of, splashing, spraying, splintering and flying around during repairs chipping, splashing, spraying, splintering and flying around. And, for some reason, your eye is always in the way! If you wear vision-correcting glasses as a matter of routine, get a pair made with polycarbonate lenses. These lenses are impact resistant and are available at any optometrist. Often overlooked is hearing protection. Engines and power tools are noisy! Loud noises damage your ears. It's as simple as that! The simplest and cheapest form of ear protection is a pair of noise-reducing ear plugs. Cheap insurance for your ears! And, they may even come with their own, cute little carrying case. More substantial, more protection and more money is a good pair of noise reducing earmuffs. They protect from all but the loudest sounds. Hopefully those are sounds that you'll never encounter since they're usually associated with disasters. WORK CLOTHES Everyone has "work clothes." Usually these consist of old jeans and a shirt that has seen better days. That's fine. In addition, a denim work apron is a nice accessory. It's rugged, can hold some spare bolts, and you don't feel bad wiping your hands or tools on it. That's what it's for. When working in cold weather, a one-piece, thermal work outfit is invaluable. Most are rated to below freezing temperatures and are ruggedly constructed. Just look at what local marine mechanics are wearing and that should give you a clue as to what type of clothing is good. There is a whole range of chemicals that you'll find handy for maintenance and repair work. The most common types are: lubricants, penetrants and sealers. Keep these handy. There are also many chemicals that are used for detailing or cleaning. When a particular chemical is not being used, keep it capped, upright and in a safe place. These substances may be flammable, may be irritants or might even be caustic and should always be stored properly, used properly and handled with care. Always read and follow all label directions and be sure to wear hand and eye protection! LUBRICANTS & PENETRANTS See Figure 31 Anti-seize is used to coat certain fasteners prior to installation. This can be especially helpful when two dissimilar metals are in contact (to help prevent corrosion that might lock the fastener in place). This is a good practice on a lot of different fasteners, BUT, NOT on any fastener that might vibrate loose causing a problem. If anti-seize is used on a fastener, it should be checked periodically for proper tightness. Lithium grease, chassis lube, silicone grease or a synthetic brake caliper grease can all be used pretty much interchangeably. All can be used for coating rust-prone fasteners and for facilitating the assembly of parts that are a tight fit. Silicone and synthetic greases are the most versatile. Silicone dielectric grease is a non-conductor that is often used to coat the terminals of wiring connectors before fastening them. It may sound odd to coat metal portions of a terminal with something that won't conduct electricity, but here is it how it works. When the connector is fastened the metal-to-metal contact between the terminals will displace the grease (allowing the circuit to be completed). The grease that is displaced will then coat the non-contacted surface and the cavity around the terminals, SEALING them from atmospheric moisture that could cause corrosion. Silicone spray is a good lubricant for hard-to-reach places and parts that shouldn't be gooped up with grease. Penetrating oil may turn out to be one of your best friends when taking something apart that has corroded fasteners. Not only can they make a job easier, they can really help to avoid broken and stripped fasteners. The most familiar penetrating oils are Liquid [email protected] and [email protected] A newer penetrant, PB [email protected] works very well (and has become a mainstay in our shops). These products have hundreds of uses. For your purposes, they are vital! Before disassembling any part, check the fasteners. If any appear rusted, soak them thoroughly with the penetrant and let them stand while you do something else (for particularly rusted or frozen parts you may need to soak them a few days in advance). This simple act can save you hours of tedious work trying to extract a broken bolt or stud. SEALANTS 9 See Figures 32 and 33 Sealants are an indispensable part for certain tasks, especially if you are trying to avoid leaks. The purpose of sealants is to establish a leak-proof bond between or around assembled parts. Most sealers are used in conjunction with gaskets, but some are used instead of conventional gasket material. The most common sealers are the non-hardening types such as [email protected] No.2 or its equivalents. These sealers are applied to the mating surfaces of each part to be joined, then a gasket is put in place and the parts are assembled. A sometimes overlooked use for sealants like RTV is on the threads of vibration prone fasteners. One very helpful type of non-hardening sealer is the "high tack" type. This type is a very sticky material that holds the gasket in place while the parts are being assembled. This stuff is really a good idea when you don't have enough hands or fingers to keep everything where it should be. The stand-alone sealers are the Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) silicone gasket makers. On some engines, this material is used instead of a gasket. In those instances, a gasket may not be available or, because of the shape of the mating surfaces, a gasket shouldn't be used. This stuff, when used in conjunction with a conventional gasket, produces the surest bonds. RTV does have its limitations though. When using this material, you will have a time limit. It starts to set-up within 15 minutes or so, so you have to assemble the parts without delay. In addition, when squeezing the material out of the tube, don't drop any glops into the engine. The stuff will form and set and travel around a cooling passage, possibly blocking it. Also, most types are not fuel-proof. Check the tube for all cautions. Fig. 31 Keep a supply of anti-seize, penetrating oil, lithium grease, electronic Fig. 32 Sealants are essential for preventing leaks CLEANERS + See Figures 34 and 35 There are two basic types of cleaners on the market today: parts cleaners and hand cleaners. The parts cleaners are for the parts; the hand cleaners are for you. They are not interchangeable, There are many good, non-flammable, biodegradable parts cleaners on the market. These cleaning agents are safe for you, the parts and the environment. Therefore, there is no reason to use flammable, caustic or toxic substances to clean your parts or tools. Fig. 34 Citrus hand cleaners not only work well, but they smell pretty good too. Choose one with pumice for added cleaning power + See Figure 36 Tools; this subject could fill a completely separate service. The first thing you will need to ask yourself, is just how involved do you plan to get. If you are serious about maintenance and repair you will want to gather a quality set of tools to make the job easier, and more enjoyable. BESIDES, TOOLS ARE FUN!!! Almost every do-it-yourselfer loves to accumulate tools. Though most find a way to perform jobs with only a few common tools, they tend to buy more over time, as money allows. So gathering the tools necessary for maintenance or repair does not have to be an expensive, overnight proposition. When buying tools, the saying "You get what you pay for . . ." is absolutely true! Don't go cheap! Any hand tool that you buy should be drop forged and/or chrome vanadium. These two qualities tell you that the tool is strong enough for :r,s job. With any tool, go with a name that you've heard of As far as hand cleaners go; the waterless types are the best. They have always been efficient at cleaning, but they used to all leave a pretty smelly odor. Recently though, most of them have eliminated the odor and added stuff that actually smells good. Make sure that you pick one that contains lanolin or some other moisture-replenishing additive. Cleaners not only remove grease and oil but also skin oil. M Most women already know to use a hand lotion when you're all cleaned up. It's okay. Real men DO use hand lotion too! Believe it or not, using hand lotion before your hands are dirty will actually make them easier to clean when you're finished with a dirty job. Lotion seals your hands, and keeps dirt and grease from sticking to your skin. Fig. 35 The use of hand lotion seals your hands and keeps dirt and grease from sticking to your skin before, or, that is recommended buy your local professional retailer. Let's go over a list of tools that you'll need. Most of the world uses the metric system. However, some American-built engines and aftermarket accessories use standard fasteners. So, accumulate your tools accordingly. Any good DIYer should have a decent set of both U.S. and metric measure tools. M Don't be confused by terminology. Most advertising refers to "SAE and metric", or "standard and metric." Both are misnomers. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) did not invent the English system of measurement; the English did. The SAE likes metrics just fine. Both English (US.) and metric measurements are SAE approved. Also, the current "standard" measurement IS metric. So, if it's not metric, it's US. measurement. ATION SAF TY & TOOL SOCKET SETS + See Figures 37 thru 43 Socket sets are the most basic hand tools necessary for repair and maintenance work. For our purposes, socket sets come in three drive sizes: 114 inch, 318 inch and 112 inch. Drive size refers to the size of the drive lug on the ratchet, breaker bar or speed handle. A 318 inch set is probably the most versatile set in any mechanic's toolbox. It allows you to get into tight places that the larger drive ratchets can't and gives you a range of larger sockets that are still strong enough for heavy-duty work. The socket set that you'll need should range in sizes from 114 in. through 1 in. for standard fasteners, and a 6mm through 19mmfor metric fasteners. Fig. 36 Socket holders, especially the magnetic type, are handy items to keep tools in order You'll need a good 112 in. set since this size drive lug assures that you won't break a ratchet or socket on large or heavy fasteners. Also, torque wrenches with a torque scale high enough for larger fasteners are usually 112 in. drive. Plus, 114 in. drive sets can be very handy in tight places. Though they usually duplicate functions of the 318 in. set, 114 in. drive sets are easier to use for smaller bolts and nuts. As for the sockets themselves, they come in shallow (standard) and deep lengths as well as 6 or 12 point. The 6 and 12 points designation refers to how many sides are in the socket itself. Each has advantages. The 6 point socket is stronaer and less Drone to slipping which would strip a bolt head or nut. 12 point sockets are more commo'n; usually less expensive and can operate better in tight places where the ratchet handle can't swing far. Standard length sockets are good for just about all jobs, however, some stud-head bolts, hard-to-reach bolts, nuts on long studs, etc., require the deep sockets. I Fig. 37 A 318 in. socket set is probably the most versatile tool in any mechanic's tool box Fig. 38 A swivel (U-joint) adapter (left), a Fig. 40 Shallow sockets (top) are good for wobble-head adapter (center) and a 112 in.- Fig. 39 Ratchets come in all sizes and most lobs. But, some bolts require deep to-318 in. adapter (right) configurations from rigid to swivel-headed sockets (bottom) Fig. 41 Hex-head fasteners require a socket Fig. 43 . . . and tamper resistant drivers are with a hex shaped driver Fig. 42 [email protected] drivers . . . required to remove special fasteners L INFORMATI Most marine manufacturers use recessed hex-head fasteners to retain many of the engine parts. These fasteners require a socket with a hex shaped driver or a large sturdy hex key. To help prevent torn knuckles, we would recommend that you stick to the sockets on any tight fastener and leave the hex keys for lighter applications. Hex driver sockets are available individuallv or in sets iust like conventional sockets. More and more, manufacturers are using [email protected] head fasteners, which were once known as tamoer resistant fasteners (because manv weowle did not have tools with the necessary odd driver shape). Since TO&J fasteners have become commonplace in many DIYer tool boxes, manufacturers designed newer tamper resistant fasteners that are essentially [email protected] head bolts that contain a small protrusion in the center (requiring the driver to contain a small hole to slide over the protrusion. Tamper resistant fasteners are often used where the manufacturer would prefer only knowledgeable mechanics or advanced Do-It-Yourselfers (DIYers) work. Torque Wrenches See Figure 44 In most applications, a torque wrench can be used to ensure proper installation of a fastener. Toraue wrenches come in various desians and most stores will carry a variety to suit your needs. A torque wrench should be used any time you have a specific torque value for a fastener. Keep in mind that because there is no worldwide standardization of fasteners, so charts or figure found in each repair section refer to the manufacturer's fasteners. Any general guideline charts that you might come across based on fastener size (they are sometimes included in a repair manual or with torque wrench packaging) should be used with caution. Just keep in mind that if you are using the right tool for the job, you should not have to strain to tighten a fastener. Head SWare Fig. 44 Three types of torque wrenches. Top to bottom: a 318 in. drive beam type that reads in inch Ibs., a 112 in. drive clicker type Beam Type + See Figures 45 and 46 The beam type torque wrench is one of the most popular styles in use. If used properly, it can be the most accurate also. It consists of a pointer attached to the head that runs the length of the flexible beam (shaft) to a scale located near the handle. As the wrench is pulled, the beam bends and the pointer indicates the torque using the scale. Click (Breakaway) Type + See Figures 47 and 48 Another popular torque wrench design is the click type. The clicking mechanism makes achieving the proper torque easy and most use a ratcheting head for ease of bolt installation. To use the click type wrench you pre-adjust it to a torque setting. Once the torque is reached, the wrench has a reflex signaling feature that causes a momentary breakaway of the torque wrench body, sending an impulse to the operator's hand. But be careful, as continuing the turn the wrench after the momentary release will increase torque on the fastener beyond the specified setting. BREAKER BARS See Figure 49 Breaker bars are long handles with a drive lug. Their main purpose is to provide extra turning force when breaking loose tight bolts or nuts. They come in all drive sizes and lengths. Always take extra precautions and use the proper technique when using a breaker bar (pull on the bar, don't push, to prevent skinned knuckles). Scale Pivoted Beam or Measuring Element Fig. 46 A beam type torque wrench consists of a pointer attached to the head that runs the length of the flexible beam (shaft) to a scale located near the handle Fig. 48 Setting the torque on a click type Fig. 47 A click type or breakaway torque wrench involves turning the handle until the Fig. 49 Breaker bars are great for loosening wrench -note this one has a pivoting head specification appears on the dial larae or stuck fasteners WRENCHES See Figures 50 thru 54 Basically, there are 3 kinds of fixed wrenches: open end, box end, and combination. Open-end wrenches have 2-jawed openings at each end of the wrench. These wrenches are able to fit onto just about any nut or bolt. They are extremely versatile but have one major drawback. They can slip on a worn or rounded bolt head or nut, causing bleeding knuckles and a useless fastener. H Line wrenches are a special type of open-end wrench designed to fit onto more of the fastener than standard open-end wrenches, thus reducing the chance of rounding the corners of the fastener. Box-end wrenches have a 360' circular jaw at each end of the wrench. They come in both 6 and 12 point versions just like sockets and each type has some of the same advantages and disadvantages as sockets. Combination wrenches have the best of both. They have a 2-jawed open end and a box end. These wrenches are probably the most versatile. As for sizes, you'll probably need a range similar to that of the sockets, about 114 in. through 1 in. for standard fasteners, or 6mm through 19mm for metric fasteners. As for numbers, you'll need 2 of each size, since, in many instances, one wrench holds the nut while the other turns the bolt. On most fasteners, the nut and bolt are the same size so having two wrenches of the same size comes in handy. @ Although you will typically just need the sizes we specified, there are some exceptions. Occasionally you will find a nut that is larger. For these, you will need to buy ONE expensive wrench or a very large adjustable. Or you can always just convince the spouse that we are talking about safety here and buy a whole (read expensive) large wrench set. One extremely valuable type of wrench is the adjustable wrench. An adjustable wrench has a fixed upper jaw and a moveable lower jaw. The lower jaw is moved by turning a threaded drum. The advantage of an adjustable wrench is its ability to be adjusted to just about any size fastener. The main drawback of an adjustable wrench is the lower jaw's tendency to move slightly under heavy pressure. This can cause the wrench to slip if it is not facing the right way. Pulling on an adjustable wrench in the proper direction will cause the jaws to lock in place. Adjustable wrenches come in a large range of sizes, measured by the wrench length. PLIERS See Figure 55 Pliers are simply mechanical fingers. They are, more than anything, an extension of your hand. At least 3 pairs of pliers are an absolute necessity - standard, needle nose and slip joint. In addition to standard pliers there are the slip-joint, multi-position pliers such as ChannelLockO3 pliers and locking pliers, such as Vise [email protected] Slip joint pliers are extremely valuable in grasping oddly sized parts and fasteners. Just make sure that you don't use them instead of a wrench too often since they can easily round off a bolt head or nut. Locking pliers are usually used for gripping bolts or studs that can't be removed conventionally. You can get locking pliers in square jawed, needle- nosed and pipe-jawed. Locking pliers can rank right up behind duct tape as the handy-man's best friend. SCREWDRIVERS You can't have too many screwdrivers. They come in 2 basic flavors, either standard or Phillips. Standard blades come in various sizes and thickness for all types of slotted fasteners. Phillips screwdrivers come in Fig; 50 Comparison of U.S. measure and metric wrench sizes sizes with number designations from 1 on up, with the lower number Hacksaws have just one use -cutting things off. You may wonder why designating the smaller size. Screwdrivers can be purchased separately or in you'd need one for something as simple as maintenance or repair, but you sets. never know. Among other things, guide studs to ease parts installation can be made from old bolts with their heads cut off. HAMMERS + See Figure 56 You need a hammer for just about any kind of work. You need a ball-peen hammer for most metal work when using drivers and other like tools. A plastic hammer comes in handy for hitting things safely. A soft-faced dead- blow hammer is used for hitting things safely and hard. Hammers are also VERY useful with non air-powered impact drivers. There are a lot of other tools that every DIYer will eventually need (though not all for basic maintenance). They include: 9 Funnels * Chisels 9 Punches * Files 9 Hacksaw * Portable Bench Vise 9 Tap and Die Set Flashlight Magnetic Bolt Retriever Gasket scraper 9 Putty Knife ScrewIBolt Extractors 9 Prybars A tap and die set might be something you've never needed, but you will eventually. It's a good rule, when everything is apart, to clean-up all threads, on bolts, screws or threaded holes. Also, you'll likely run across a situation in which you will encounter stripped threads. The tap and die set will handle that for you. Gasket scrapers are just what you'd think, tools made for scraping old gasket material off of parts. You don't absolutely need one. Old gasket material can be removed with a putty knife or single edge razor blade. However, putty knives may not be sharp enough for some really stubborn gaskets and razor blades have a knack of breaking just when you don't want them to, inevitably slicing the nearest body part! As the old saying goes, ''always use the proper tool for the job". If you're going to use a razor to scrape a gasket, be sure to always use a blade holder. Putty knives really do have a use in a repair shop. Just because you remove all the bolts from a component sealed with a gasket doesn't mean it's going to come off. Most of the time, the gasket and sealer will hold it tightly. Lightly inserting a putty knife at various points between the two parts will break the seal without damage to the parts. A small -8-10 in. (20-25cm) long -prybar is extremely useful for removing stuck parts. Never use a screwdriver as a prybar! Screwdrivers are not meant for prying. Screwdrivers, used for prying, can break, sending the broken shaft flying! Screwlbolt extractors are used for removing broken bolts or studs that have broken off flush with the surface of the part. Fig. 52 Note how the flare wrench jaws are Fig. 51 Always use a backup wrench to extended to grip the fitting tighter and Fig. 53 Several types and sizes of prevent rounding flare nut fittings prevent rounding adjustable wrenches I I I I Fig. 54 You may find a nut that requires a 5 Pliers come in many shapes and Fig. 56 Three types of hammers. Top to particularly large or small wrench (that is .You should have an assortment on bottom: ball peen, rubber dead-blow, and plastic + See Figure 57 Almost every marine engine around today requires at least one special tool to perform a certain task. In most cases, these tools are specially designed to overcome some unique problem or to fit on some oddly sized component. When manufacturers go through the trouble of making a special tool, it is usually necessary to use it to ensure that the job will be done right. A special tool might be designed to make a job easier, or it might be used to keep you from damaging or breaking a part. Don't worry, MOST maintenance procedures can either be performed without any special tools OR, because the tools must be used for such basic things, they are commonly available for a reasonable price. It is usually just the low production, highly specialized tools (like a super thin 7-point star- shaped socket capable of 150 ft. Ibs. (203 Nm) of torque that is used only on the crankshaft nut of the limited production what-dya-callit engine) that tend to be outrageously expensive and hard to find. Hopefully, you will probably never need such a tool. Special tools can be as inexpensive and simple as an adjustable strap wrench or as complicated as an ignition tester. A few common specialty tools are listed here, but check with your dealer or with other boaters for help in determining if there are any special tools for YOUR particular engine. There is an added advantage in seeking advice from others, chances are they may have already found the special tool you will need, and know how to get it cheaper (or even let you borrow it). BATTERY TESTERS The best way to test a non-sealed battery is using a hydrometer to check the specific gravity of the acid. Luckily, these are usually inexpensive and are available at most parts stores. Just be careful because the larger testers are usually designed for larger batteries and may require more acid than you will be able to draw from the battery cell. Smaller testers (usually a short, squeeze bulb type) will require less acid and should work on most batteries. Electronic testers are available and are often necessary to tell if a sealed battery is usable. Luckily, many parts stores have them on hand and are willing to test your battery for you. BATTERY CHARGERS + See Figure 58 If you are a weekend boater and take your boat out every week, then you will most likely want to buy a battery charger to keep your battery fresh. There are many types available, from low amperage trickle chargers to electronically controlled battery maintenance tools that monitor the battery voltage to prevent over or undercharging. This last type is especially useful if you store your boat for any length of time (such as during the severe winter months found in many Northern climates). Even if you use your boat on a regular basis, you will eventually need a battery charger. The charger should be used anytime the boat is going to be in storage for more than a few weeks or so. Never leave the dock or loading ramp without a battery that is fully charged. Also, some smaller batteries are shipped dry and in a partial charged state. Before placing a new battery of this type into service it must be filled and properly charged. Failure to properly charge a battery (which was shipped dry) before it is put into service will prevent it from ever reaching a fully charged state. MULTI-METERS (DVOMS) See Figure 59 Multi-meters or Digital Volt Ohmmeter (DVOMs) are an extremely useful tool for troubleshootina electrical ~roblems. Thev can be ourchased in either analog or digital form and have aoprice range tosuit any budget. A multi- meter is a voltmeter, ammeter and ohmmeter (along with other features) combined into one instrument. It is often used when testing solid state circuits because of its high input impedance (usually 10 mega-ohms or more). A brief description of the multi-meter main test functions follows: * Voltmeter -the voltmeter is used to measure voltage at any point in a circuit or to measure the voltage drop across any part of a circuit. Voltmeters usually have various scales and a selector switch to allow the reading of different voltage ranges. The voltmeter has a positive and a negative lead. To avoid the possibility of damage to the meter, whenever possible, connect the negative lead to the negative (-) side of the circuit (to ground or nearest the ground side of the circuit) and connect the positive lead to the positive (t)side of the circuit (to the power source or the nearest power source). Luckily, most quality DVOMs can adjust their own polarity internally and will indicate (without damage) if the leads are reversed. Note that the negative voltmeter lead will always be black and that the positive voltmeter will always be some color other than black (usually red). Ohmmeter -the ohmmeter is designed to read resistance (measured in ohms) in a circuit or component. Most ohmmeters will have a selector switch which permits the measurement of different ranges of resistance (usually the selector switch allows the multiplication of the meter reading by 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000). Some ohmmeters are "auto-ranging" which means the meter itself will determine which scale to use. Since the meters are powered by an internal battery, the ohmmeter can be used like a self-powered test light. When the ohmmeter is connected, current from the ohmmeter flows through the circuit or component being tested. Since the ohmmeter's internal resistance and voltage are known values, the amount of current flow through the meter depends on the resistance of the circuit or component being tested. The ohmmeter can also be used to perform a continuity test for suspected open circuits. In using the meterfor making continuity checks, do not be concerned with the actual resistance readinas. Zero resistance. or any ohm reading, indicates continuity in the circuit."lnfinite resistance ' indicates an opening in the circuit. A high resistance reading where there Fig. 57 Almost every marine engine around today requires at least Fig. 58 The Battery Tendem is more than just a battery charger, one special tool to perform a certain task when left connected, it keeps your battery fully charged should be little or none indicates a problem in the circuit. Checks for short circuits are made in the same manner as checks for open circuits, except that the circuit must be isolated from both power and normal ground. Infinite resistance indicates no continuity, while zero resistance indicates a dead short. Never use an ohmmeter to check the resistance of a component or wire while there is voltage applied to the circuit. Ammeter -an ammeter measures the amount of current flowing through a circuit in units called amperes or amps. At normal operating voltage, most circuits have a characteristic amount of amperes, called 'current draw" which can be measured using an ammeter. By referring to a specified current draw rating, then measuring the amperes and comparing the two values; one can determine what is happening within the circuit to aid in diagnosis. An open circuit, for example, will not allow any current to flow, so the ammeter reading will be zero. A damaged component or circuit will have an increased current draw, so the reading will be high. The ammeter is always connected in series with the circuit being tested. All of the current that normally flows through the circuit must also flow through the ammeter; if there is any other path for the current to follow, the ammeter reading will not be accurate. The ammeter itself has very little resistance to current flow and, therefore, will not affect the circuit, but, it will measure current draw only when the circuit is closed and electricity is flowing. Excessive current draw can blow fuses and drain the battery, while a reduced current draw can cause motors to run slowly, lights to dim and other components to not operate properly. Fig. 59 Multi-meters, such as this one from UEI, are an extremely useful tool for troubleshooting electrical problems GAUGES Compression Gauge + See Figure 60 An important element in checking the overall condition of your engine is to check compression. This becomes increasingly more important on outboards with high hours. Compression gauges are available as screw-in types and hold-in types. The screw-in type is slower to use, but eliminates the possibility of a faulty reading due to pressure escaping by the seal. A compression reading will uncover many problems that can cause rough running. Normally, these are not the sort of problems that can be cured by a tune-up. Vacuum Gauge + See Figures 61 thru 63 Vacuum gauges are handy for discovering air leaks, late ignition or valve timing, and a number of other problems. Eventually, you are going to have to measure something. To do this, you will need at least a few precision tools. MICROMETERS & CALIPERS Micrometers and calipers are devices used to make extremely precise measurements. The simple truth is that you really won't have the need for many of these items just for routine maintenance. But, measuring tools, such as an outside caliper can be handy during repairs. And, if you decide to tackle a major overhaul, a micrometer will absolutely be necessary. Fig. 60 Cylinder compression test results are extremely valuable indicators of internal engine condition Fig. 61 Vacuum gauges are useful for 1 1 troubleshooting including testing some fuel Fig. 62 You can also use the gauge on a Fig. 63 Hand-held vacuum/pressure pumps Pumps hand-operated vacuum pump for tests are available at most parts stores Should you decide on becoming more involved in boat engine mechanics, such as repair or rebuilding, then these tools will become very important. The success of any rebuild is dependent, to a great extent on the ability to check the size and fit of components as specified by the manufacturer. These measurements are often made in thousandths and ten-thousandths of an inch. Micrometers + See Figures 64 and 65 A micrometer is an instrument made up of a precisely machined spindle that is rotated in a fixed nut, opening and closing the distance between the end of the spindle and a fixed anvil. When measuring using a micrometer, don't over-tighten the tool on the part as either the component or tool may be damaged, and either way, an incorrect reading will result. Most micrometers are equipped with some form of thumbwheel on the spindle that is designed to freewheel over a certain light touch (automatically adjusting the spindle and preventing it from over-tightening). Outside micrometers can be used to check the thickness of parts such shims or the outside diameter of components like the crankshaft journals. They are also used during many rebuild and repair procedures to measure the diameter of components such as the pistons. The most common type of micrometer reads in 1/1000 of an inch. Micrometers that use a vernier scale can estimate to 1/10 of an inch. Inside micrometers are used to measure the distance between two parallel surfaces. For example, in powerhead rebuilding work, the "inside mike" measures cylinder bore wear and taper. Inside mikes are graduated the same way as outside mikes and are read the same way as well. Remember that an inside mike must be absolutely perpendicular to the work bein0 measured. When you measure with an inside mike, rock the mike gently from side to side and tip it back and forth slightly so that you span the Fig. 64 Outside micrometers measure thickness, like shims or a shaft diameter widest part of the bore. Just to be on the safe side, take several readings. It takes a certain amount of experience to work any mike with confidence. Metric micrometers are read in the same way as inch micrometers, except that the measurements are in millimeters. Each line on the main scale equals Imm. Each fifth line is stamped 5, 10, 15 and so on. Each line on the thimble scale equals 0.01 mm. It will take a little practice, but if you can read an inch mike, you can read a metric mike. Calipers See Figures 66,67 and 68 Inside and outside calipers are useful devices to have if you need to measure something quickly and absolute precise measurement is not necessary. Simply take the reading and then hold the calipers on an accurate steel rule. Calipers, like micrometers, will often contain a thumbwheel to help ensure accurate measurement. DIAL INDICATORS See Figure 69 A dial indicator is a uauoe that utilizes a dial face and a needle to register measurements. There is ahovable contact arm on the dial indicator. when the arm moves, the needle rotates on the dial. Dial indicators are calibrated to show readings in thousandths of an inch and typically, are used to measure end-play and runout on various shafts and other components. Dial indicators are quite easy to use, although they are relatively expensive. A variety of mounting devices are available so that the indicator can be used in a number of situations. Make certain that the contact arm is always parallel to the movement of the work being measured, Fig. 65 Be careful not to over-tighten the micrometers always use the thumbwheel Fig. 66 Calipers are the fast and easy way s can also be used to to make precise measurements TELESCOPING GAUGES + See Figure 70 A telescope gauge is really only used during rebuilding procedures (NOT during basic maintenance or routine repairs) to measure the inside of bores. It can take the piace of an inside mike for some of these jobs. Simply insert the gauge in the hole to be measured and lock the plungers after they have contacted the walls. Remove the tool and measure across the plungers with an outside micrometer. + See Figures 72 and 73 Although there are a great variety of fasteners found in the modern boat engine, the most commonly used retainer is the threaded fastener (nuts, bolts, screws, studs, etc). Most threaded retainers may be reused, provided that they are not damaged in use or during the repair. @ Some retainers (such as stretch bolts or torque prevailing nuts) are designed to deform when tightened or in use and should not be reused. Whenever possible, we will note any special retainers which should be replaced during a procedure. But you should always inspect the condition of a retainer when it is removed and you should replace any that show signs of damage. Check all threads for rust or corrosion that can increase the torque necessary to achieve the desired clamp load for which that fastener was originally selected. Additionally, be sure that the driver surface itself (on the fastener) is not compromised from rounding or other damage. In some cases a driver surface may become only partially rounded, allowing the driver to catch in only one direction, in many of these occurrences, a fastener may be installed and tightened, but the driver would not be able to grip and loosen the fastener again. (This could lead to frustration down the line should that component ever need to be disassembled again). If you must replace a fastener, whether due to design or damage, you must always be sure to use the proper replacement. In all cases, a retainer of the same design, material and strength should be used. Markings on the heads of most bolts will help determine the proper strength of the fastener. The same material, thread and pitch must be selected to assure proper hstaliation and safe operation of the motor afterwards. Thread gauges are available to help measure a bolt or stud's thread. Most part or hardware stores keep gauges available to help you select the proper size. In a pinch, you can use another nut or bolt for a thread gauge. If the bolt you are replacing is not too badly damaged, you can select a match by finding another bolt that will thread in its place. If you find a nut that will thread properly onto the damaged bolt, then use that nut as a gauge to help se!ec?!k reolaceme~tbolt, If however, the bolt you are replacing is so badly damaged (broken or drilled out) trial its threads cannot be used as a gauge, you might start by looking for another bolt (from the same assembly or a similar location) which will thread into the damaged bolt's mounting. If so, the other bolt can be used to select a nut; the nut can then be used to select the replacement bolt. DEPTH GAUGES @ See Figure 71 A depth gauge can be inserted into a bore or other small hole to determine exactly how deep it is. One common use for a depth gauge is measuring the distance the piston sits below the deck of the block at top dead center. Some outside calipers contain a built-in depth gauge so you can save money and buy just one tool. Fig. 71 Depth gauges are used to measure A -Length B -Diameter (major diameter) C -Threads per inch or mm D -Thread length E -Size of the wrench required F -Root diameter (minor diameter) Fig. 72 Threaded retainer sizes are determined using these measurements In all cases, be absolutely sure you have selected the proper replacement. Don't be shy, you can always ask the store clerk for help. Be aware that when you find a bolt with damaged threads, you may also find the nut or tapped bore into which it was threaded has also been damaged. If this is the case, you may have to drill and tap the hole, replace the nut or otherwise repair the threads. Never try to force a replacement bolt to fit into the damaged threads. Torque is defined as the measurement of resistance to turning or rotating. It tends to twist a body about an axis of rotation. A common example of this would be tightening a threaded retainer such as a nut, bolt or screw. Measuring torque is one of the most common ways to help assure that a threaded retainer has been properly fastened. When tightening a threaded fastener, torque is applied in three distinct areas, the head, the bearing surface and the clamp load. About 50 percent of Fig. 73 Thread gauges measure the threads-per-inch and the pitch of a bolt or stud's threads the measured torque is used in overcoming bearing friction. This is the friction between the bearing surface of the bolt head, screw head or nut face and the base material or washer (the surface on which the fastener is rotating). Approximately 40 percent of the applied torque is used in overcoming thread friction. This leaves only about 10 percent of the applied torque to develop a useful clamp load (the force that holds a joint together). This means that friction can account for as much as 90 percent of the applied torque on a fastener. Specifications are often used to help you determine the condition of various components, or to assist you in their installation. Some of the most common measurements include length (in. or cmlmm), torque (ft. Ibs., inch Ibs. or Nm) and pressure (psi, in. Ha, kPa or mm Hq). In some cases, that value may not be convenienily measured with what is available in vour toolbox. Luckilv, manv of the measurina devices that are available today will have two scales so US. or Metric &asurements may easily be taken. If any of the various measuring tools that are available to you do not contain the same scale as listed in your specifications, use the conversion factors that are provided in the Specifications section to determine the proper value. The conversion factor chart is used by taking the given specification and multiplying it by the necessary conversion factor. For instance, looking at the first line, if you have a measurement in inches such as "free-play should be 2 in." but your ruler reads only in millimeters, multiply 2 in. by the conversion factor of 25.4 to get the metric equivalent of 50.8mm. Likewise, if a specification was given only in a Metric measurement, for example in Newton Meters (Nm), then look at the center column first. If the measurement is 100 Nm, multiply it by the conversion factor of 0.738 to get 73.8 ft. Ibs. SAE Bolts SAE Grade Number 1 or2 5 6 or 7 BoH Markings Manufacturers' marks may varydumber of lines always two less than the wade number. ., I Usage Frequent Frequent Infrequent Bolt Size Maximum Maximum Maximum (inches)Ñ(Thread Torque Torque Torque Ft-Lb kgm Mm Ft-Lb kgm Nm Ft-Lb kgm Nm '14-20 5 0.7 6.8 8 1.1 10.8 10 1.4 13.5 -28 6 0.8 8.1 10 1.4 13.6 ¥'lie-1 11 1.5 14.9 17 2.3 23.0 19 2.6 25.8 -24 13 1.8 17.6 19 2.6 25.7 31a--16 18 2.5 24.4 31 4.3 42.0 34 4.7 46.0 -24 20 2.75 27.1 35 4.8 47.5 '116-14 28 3.8 37.0 49 6.8 66.4 55 7.6 74.5 -20 30 4.2 40.7 55 7.6 74.5 11z-13 39 5.4 52.8 75 10.4 101.7 85 11.75 115.2 -20 41 5.7 55.6 85 11.7 115.2 9/16-12 51 7.0 69.2 110 15.2 149.1 120 16.6 162.7 -18 55 7.6 74.5 120 16.6 182.7 'la-9 160 22.1 216.9 395 54.6 535.5 440 60.9 596.5 -14 175 24.2 237.2 435 60.1 589.7 1-8 236 32.5 318.6 590 81.6 799.9 660 91.3 894.8 -14 250 34.6 338.9 660 91.3 849.8 Metric Bolts Relative Strength Marking 4.6,4.8 8.8 olt r^ Usage Frequent Infrequent Bolt Size Maximum Torque Maximum Torque Thread Size x Pitch R-Lb Km Nm Ft-Lb KQ~ Nm 24 x 1.5 190-240 26.2-46.9 260-320 310-410 42.7-56.5 420-550 ANODES (ZINCS) ......................2.31 INSPECTION.........................2.33 LOCATION...........................2.31 SERVICING..........................2.33 BATTERIES...........................2.35 MAINTENANCE.......................2.35 STORAGE ...........................2.36 TESTING............................2.36 BOAT MAINTENANCE ..................2-35 BATTERIES .........................2.35 FIBERGLASS HULL ...................2.37 CLEARING A SUBMERGED MOTOR ......2-83 COMPRESSION TESTS .................2.39 COMPRESSION CHECK ...............2.39 OVERHAUL LEAKAGE CHECK ..........2.40 COOLING SYSTEM .....................2.14 FLUSHING...........................2.14 ENGINE COVER LATCHES ..............'2-5 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT & LUBRICATION.........................2.5 ENGINE COVERS ......................2.11 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............2.11 ENGINE IDENTIFICATION ................2.2 ENGINE MAINTENANCE ................2-11 ANODES (ZINCS) .....................2.31 COOLING SYSTEM ...................2.14 ENGINE COVERS ....................2.11 ENGINE OIL AND FILTER ..............2.16 FUEL& BREATHER LINES .............2.27 FUEL FILTER ........................2.23 GEARCASE (LOWER UNIT) OIL ........'2-21 JET DRIVE IMPELLER .................2.30 PROPELLER ........................2.27 TIMING BELT ........................2.34 ENGINE MOUNT CLAMP SCREWS .........2.5 LUBRICATION.........................2.5 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ...........2.5 ENGINE OIL AND FILTER ................2.16 CHANGE & FILTER SERVICE ...........2.19 CHECKING LEVEL ....................2.17 RECOMMENDATIONS.................2.16 FUEL& BREATHER LINES ...............2.27 FUEL FILTER ..........................2.23 HIGH.PRESSURE .....................2.25 LOW-PRESSURE.....................2.23 GEARCASE OIL .......................2.21 DRAINING& FILLING..................2.22 LEVEL& CONDITION..................2.22 OIL RECOMMENDATIONS ..............2.21 GENERAL INFORMATION ...............'2-2 BEFOREIAFTER EACH USE .............2.3 ENGINE IDENTIFICATION ...............2.2 MAINTENANCE COVERAGE ............2.2 MAINTENANCE EQUALS SAFETY ........2.2 OUTBOARDS ON SAIL BOATS ...........2.2 JET DRIVE BEARING ...................2.10 GREASE REPLACEMENT ..............2.10 LUBRICATION........................2.10 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ..........2.10 JET DRIVE IMPELLER ..................2.30 CLEARANCE.........................2.30 GENERAL INFORMATION ..............2.30 INSPECTION.........................2.30 LINKAGE, CABLES AND SHAFTS ..........2.5 LUBRICATION.........................2.5 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ...........2.5 LOWER UNIT OIL ......................2.21 DRAINING & FILLING..................2.22 LEVEL& CONDITION..................2.22 OIL RECOMMENDATIONS ..............2.21 LUBRICATION SERVICE .................2-5 ENGINE COVER LATCHES ..............2.5 ENGINE MOUNT CLAMP SCREWS .......2.5 JET DRIVE BEARING .................2.10 LINKAGE. CABLES AND SHAFTS ........2.5 POWER TRIMITILT RESERVOIR .........2.5 PROPELLER SHAFT ..................2.10 STEERINGISWIVEL BRACKET ...........2.9 TILT BRACKET ........................2.9 OIL AND FILTER .......................2.16 CHANGE & FILTER SERVICE ...........2.19 CHECKING LEVEL ....................2.17 RECOMMENDATIONS.................2.16 POWER TRIMILT RESERVOIR ...........2.5 FLUID LEVEL .........................2.5 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ...........2.5 PROPELLER .........................'2-27 INSPECTION.........................2.27 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............2.27 PROPELLER SHAFT ....................2.10 LUBRICATION.......................$2-10 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ..........2.10 RE.COMMISSIONING ...................2.82 REMOVAL FROM STORAGE ............2.82 SPARK PLUG WIRES ...................2.44 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............2.45 TESTING............................2.45 SPARK PLUGS ........................2.40 HEAT RANGE ........................2.41 INSPECTION& GAPPING ..............2.43 READING PLUGS .....................2.43 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............2.41 SPECIFICATIONS......................2.84 CAPACITIES .........................2.87 GENERAL ENGINE ....................2.84 GENERAL ENGINE SYSTEM ............2.85 MAINTENANCE INTERVALS ............2.86 TUNE.UP ............................2.88 VALVE CLEARANCE ...................2.90 STEERINGISWIVEL BRACKET ............2.9 LUBRICATION.........................2.9 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ...........2.9 STORAGE (WHAT TO DO BEFORE AND AFTER) ..................2.79 RE-COMMISSIONING.................2.82 WINTERIZATION .....................2.79 TILT BRACKET .........................2.9 LUBRICATION.........................2.9 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT ...........2.9 TIMING AND SYNCHRONIZATION .........2.46 2.5 HP MOTORS .....................2.47 41516 HP (1 38CC) MOTORS ............2.48 9.9115 HP MOTORS ...................2.49 25 HP V2 MOTORS ...................2.52 25/30 HP (3-CYL) MOTORS ............2.53 40150 HP MOTORS ...................2.57 60170 HP MOTORS ...................2.58 9011 15/140 HP MOTORS ...............2.59 150/140 HP MOTORS .................2.61 200/225/250 HP MOTORS ..............2.62 300 HP MOTORS .....................2.63 TIMING BELT ..........................2.34 INSPECTON .........................2.34 TUNE.UP .............................2.38 COMPRESSION TESTS ...............2.39 ELECTRONIC IGNITION SYSTEMS ......2.46 INTRODUCTION TO TUNE.UPS .........2.38 SPARK PLUG WIRES .................2.44 SPARK PLUGS .......................2.40 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE .................2.38 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE ..................2.38 VALVE CLEARANCE ....................2.64 VALVE LASH ........................2.64 VALVE LASH ADJUSTMENT ..............2.64 2.5.6 HP.............................2.64 9.9115 HP ............................2.65 25 HPV2 ............................2.66 25/30 HP (3-CYL) .....................2.67 40150 HP ............................2.67 60170 HP ............................2.70 9011151140 HP ........................2.71 1 501175 HP ..........................2.73 200-300 HP V6 .......................2.76 WINTERIZATION.......................2.79 PREPPING FOR STORAGE .............2.80 In the past, we at Seloc have estimated that some 75% of engine repair work can be directly or indirectly attributed to lack of proper care for the engine. This is especially true of care during the off-season period. There is no way on this green earth for a mechanical engine, particularly an outboard motor, to be left sitting idle for an extended period of time, say for four to six months, and then be ready for instant satisfactory service. Imagine, if you will, leaving your car or truck for six months, and then expecting to turn the key, having it roar to life, and being able to drive off in the same manner as a daily occurrence. Therefore it is critical for an outboard engine to either be run (at least once a month), preferably, in the water and properly maintained between uses OR for it to be specifically prepared for storage and serviced again immediately before the start of the season. Only through a regular maintenance program can the owner expect to receive long life and satisfactory performance at minimum cost. Many times, if an outboard is not performing properly, the owner will "nurse" it throuah the season with aood intentions of workino on the unit once it is no longer being used. ~swith many New Year's r&olutions, the good intentions are not completed and the outboard may lie for many months before the work is begun or the unit is taken to the marine shop for repair. Imagine, if you will, the cause of the problem being a blown head gasket. And let us assume water has found its way into a cylinder. This water, allowed to remain over a long period of time, will do considerably more damage than it would have if the unit had been disassembled and the repair work performed immediately. Therefore, if an outboard is not functioning properly, do not stow it away with promises to get at it when you get time, because the work and expense will only get worse, the longer corrective action is postponed. In the example of the blown head gasket, a relatively simple and inexpensive repair job could very well develop into major overhaul and rebuild work. OK, perhaps no one thing that we do as boaters will protect us from risks involved with enjoying the wind and the water on a powerboat. But, each time we perform maintenance on our boat or motor, we increase the likelihood that we will find a potential hazard before it becomes a problem. Each time we inspect our boat and motor, we decrease the possibility that it could leave us stranded on the water. In this way, performing boat and engine service is one of the most important ways that we, as boaters, can help protect ourselves, our boats, and the friends and family that we bring aboard. Owners of sailboats pride themselves in their ability to use the wind to clear a harbor or for movement from Port A to Port B, or maybe just for a day sail on a lake. For some, the outboard is carried only as a last resort -in case the wind fails completely, or in an emergency situation or for ease of docking. Therefore, in some cases, the outboard is stowed below, usually in a very poorly ventilated area, and subjected to moisture and stale air -in short, an excellent environment for "sweating" and corrosion. If the owner could just take the time at least once every month, to pull out the outboard, clean it up, and give it a short run, not only would helshe have peace of mind" knowing it will start in an emergency, but also maintenance costs will be drastically reduced. At Seloc, we strongly feel that every boat owner should pay close attention to this section. We also know that it is one of the most frequently used portions of our manuals. The material in this section is divided into sections to help simplify the process of maintenance. Be sure to read and thoroughly understand the various tasks that are necessary to keep your outboard in tip-top shape. Topics covered in this section include: 1. General Information (What Everyone Should Know About Maintenance) -an introduction to the benefits and need for proper maintenance. A guide to tasks that should be performed before and after each use. 2. Lubrication Service -after the basic inspections that you should perform each time the motor is used, the most frequent form of periodic maintenance you will conduct will be the Lubrication Service. This section takes you through each of the various steps you must take to keep corrosion from slowly destroying your motor before your very eyes. 3. Engine Maintenance -the various procedures that must be performed on a regular basis in order to keep the motor and all of its various systems operating properly. 4. Boat Maintenance -the various procedures that must be performed on a regular basis in order to keep the boat hull and its accessories looking and working like new. 5. Tune-up -also known as the pre-season tune-up, but don't let the name fool you. A complete tune-up is the best way to determine the condition of your outboard while also preparing it for hours and hours of hopefully trouble-free enjoyment. 6. Winter Storage and Spring Commissioning Checklists -use these sections to guide you through the various parts of boat and motor maintenance that protect your valued boat through periods of storage and return it to operating condition when it is time to use it again. 7. Specification Charts -located at the end of the section are quick- reference, easy to read charts that provide you with critical information such as General Engine Specifications, Maintenance Intervals, Lubrication Service (intervals and lubricant types) and Capacities. EXPLODED VIEWS There are so many potential exploded views for any given engine family that it can be difficult to make sure they are all included. Many times a given factory source of information does not even contain all of them. But here is a hint. For nearly a decade Johnson has been selling REBADGED Suzuki 4-stroke motors. And as of the authoring of this information JohnsonIBombardier has links to their parts catalogs on the www.johnson.com and www.evinrude.com websites (under service literaturelengine diagrams in the accessory section) so on any motor that was also sold as a Johnson 4-stroke, you can reference additional exploded views for free anytime on their website. See Figures 1thru 4 Throughout this guide we will make reference to motors the easiest way possible. Unlike some other manufacturers who like to make multiple powerhead configurations in overlapping hp ranges, Suzuki has thankfully approached their model line with much more logic. For that reason we will probably MOST often reference motors simply by the HP, though we'll usually list all hp models of a given family at the same time, so for example, not just the 4 hp single-cylinder motor, but the 41516 hp motors (as they are all built on the same platform and will likely share MOST procedures). Or for another example toward the other end of the hp spectrum the 20012251250 hp motors. In other cases we may make reference to all motors with a given feature, like all Carbureted motors (meaning all 30 hp or smaller) or all EFI motors (meaning 40 hp or larger). Or we may say all remote control models, all tiller control models, all models with Power Trimnilt (PTT) etc. To help with proper engine identification, all of the engines covered by this manual are listed in the General Engine and General Engine System Specifications charts at the end of this section. In these charts, the engines are listed with their respective engine families, by horsepower rating, number of cylinders, engine type (No. of cylinder, inline or V), years of production and displacement (cubic inches and cubic centimeters or CCs). Basically they are listed by all of the different ways we might sort or identify them throughout this repair guide. Suzuki tends to limit year-to-year changes on their models (we're not saying they don't make changes, because they do, but they don't TEND to make a LOT of changes). Still, when it comes time to order replacement parts (or to follow a given procedure that is divided by model years) it is critical that you know the correct MODEL YEAR for the motor on which you are working. Or in a few cases, the mid-year model break (but these are pretty few and far between). Either way, don't just trust the paperwork for the motor or boat and when it was sold, since it is not uncommon for motors to be manufactured a year before they are sold, or even to sit around in crates a couple of years before finding their way onto a boat. Start the identification of an outboard with the MODEL CODE found on the Serial NumberIModel Number tag on the transom bracket. A code is usually found on the top right of the ID tag (to the right of the model name) which is translated as follows: * 1995: S * 1995:T 5 1995: V * 1995:W * 1995: X * 2000: Y 5 2001: K1 2002: K2 2003: K3 2004: K4 2005: K5 2006: K6 8 2007: K7 But not all model code tags may be equipped with the model year ID so you need other ways of identifying the motor as well. A second method would be to copy down the Model Identification Number (the first set of numbers and letters on the Model ID tag, which are BELOW the SUZUKI badge and the Model ID. This identification number is separated from the individual motor serial number by a hyphen ("-,I). Bring this ID number to your parts supplier or a Suzuki dealer and they may be able to help confirm your model year. Lastly, most models sold in the US are also equipped with an Emissions Control Information label as well. When eaui~~ed this label dives basic tune- UD or calibration information including , ., 5 Model Family Name Fig. 1 A model ID tag is normally found on the side of the transom bracket (usually starboard side) * Displacement (cc's) * Advertised Power Output (kW) Recommended fuel * Tune-up Conditions (Normal Operating Temperature, Shifter in Neutral, etc.) * Ignition Timing (degrees ATDC or BTDC) Idle Speed (rpm) But perhaps the most useful feature on the Emission Control Information label is a confirmation of what year emissions standards the motor was produced to meet, meaning what MODEL YEAR for which was the motor designed. You should ALWAYS check for an emission control label and go with the specifications on it before you believe anything in print or on the web. This label may contain running changes which never made it to published information from Suzuki or any other company. The emissions control information label may reflect changes that are made during production runs and are often not later reflected in a company's service literature. For this reason, specifications on the label always supersede those of a print manual. As stated earlier, the best means of extending engine life and helping to protect yourself while on the water is to pay close attention to boaffengine maintenance. This starts with an inspection of systems and components before and after each time you use your boat. A list of checks, inspections or required maintenance can be found in the Maintenance Intervals Chart at the end of this section. Some of these inspections or tasks are performed before the boat is launched, some only after it is retrieved and the rest, both times. VISUALLY INSPECTING THE BOAT AND MOTOR @ See Figures 5 and 6 Both before each launch and immediately after each retrieval, visually inspect the boat and motor as follows: 1. Check the fuel and oil levels according to the procedures in this manual. Do NOT launch a boat without properly topped off fuel tank and proper crankcase oil level. It is not worth the risk of getting stranded or of damage to the motor. Likewise, upon retrieval, check the oil and fuel levels while it is still fresh in your mind. This is a good way to track fuel consumption (one indication of engine performance). Oil consumption should be minimal, but all 4-stroke engines allow a small portion of oil to burn. Watch for sudden increases in the amount of oil burned and investigate further if found. Fig. 2 The model ID tag normally contains Fig. 3 For US motors, the Emissions Fig. 4 The Emissions Control Information information such as the model name, year, model indicator number and individual Control Information label can also be used to identify year (as well as confirm specific label is normally found on the manual starter or flywheel cover (as applicable) on Fig. 5 Rope and fishing line entangled behind the propeller can cut through the seal, allowing water to enter and lubricant to escape 2. Check for sians of fuel or oil leakaae. Probabiv as imoortant as making sure enoughfuel and oil is onboard, the need to make sure that no dangerous conditions might arise due to leaks. Thoroughly check all hoses, fittings and tanks for signs of leakage. Oil leaks may cause the boat to become stranded, or worse, could destroy the motor if undetected for a significant amount of time. Fuel leaks can cause a fire hazard, or worse, an explosive condition. This check is not only about properly maintaining your boat and motor, but about helping to protect your life. 3. Inspect the boat hull and engine cases for signs of corrosion or damage. Don't launch a damaged boat or motor. And don't surprise yourself dockside or at the launch ramp by discovering damage that went unnoticed last time the boat was retrieved. Repair any hull or case damage now. 4. Check the battery connections to make sure they are clean and tight. A loose or corroded connection will cause charging problems (damaging the system or preventing charging). There's only one thing worse than a dead battery dockside/launch ramp and that's a dead battery in the middle of a bay, river or worse, the ocean. Whenever possible, make a quick visual check of battery electrolyte levels (keeping an eye on the level will give some warning of overcharging problems). This is especially true if the engine is operated at high speeds for extended periods of time. 5. Check the propeller and gearcase. Make sure the propeller shows no signs of damage. A broken or bent propeller may allow the engine to over-rev and it will certainly waste fuel. The gearcase should be checked before and after each use for signs of leakage. Check the gearcase oil for signs of contamination if any leakage is noted. Also, visually check behind the propeller for signs of entangled rope or fishing lines that could cut through the lower gearcase propeller shaft seal. This is a common cause of gearcase lubricantleakage, and eventually, water contamination that can lead to aearcase failure. Even if no aearcase leakaae is noted when the boat is first retrieved, check again next time before launching. A nicked seal might c:seep fluid right away when still swollen from heat immediately after use, but might begin seeping over the next day, week or month as it sat, cooled and dried out. 6. Check all accessible fasteners for tightness. Make sure all easily accessible fasteners appear to be tiaht. This is especially true for the propeiler nut, any anode retaining bolts, all steering or throttle linkage fasteners and the engine clamps or mounting bolts. Don't risk loosing control or becoming stranded due to loose fasteners. Perform these checks before heading out, and immediately after you return (so you'll know if anything needs to be sewiced before you want to launch again.) 7. Check operation of all controls including the throttlelshifter, steering and emergency stoplstart switch andlor safety lanyard. Before launching, make sure that all linkage and steering components operate properly and move smoothly through their range of motion. All electrical Fig. 6 Always make sure the transom plug is installed and tightened securely before a launch switches (such as power trimltiit) and especially the emergency stop system(s) must be in proper working order. While underway, watch for signs that a system is not working or has become damaged. With the steering, shifter or throttle, keep a watchful eye out for a change in resistance or the start of jerkylnotchy movement. 8. Check the water pump intake grate and water indicator. The water pump intake grate should be clean and undamaged before setting out. Remember that a damaged grate could allow debris into the system that could destroy the impeller or clog cooling passages. Once underway, make sure the cooling indicator stream is visible at all times. Make periodic checks, including one final check before the motor is shut down each time. If a cooling indicator stream is not present at any point, troubleshoot the problem before further engine operation. 9. If used in salt, brackish or polluted waters thoroughly rinse the engine (and hull) after use, then flush the cooling system according to the procedure in this section. 10. Visually inspect all anodes after each use for signs of wear, damage or to make sure they just plain didn't fail oft (especially if you weren't careful about checking all the accessible fasteners the last time you launched). 11. On EFI models, be sure to shut the battery switch off if the engine is not going to be run for a couple of weeks or more. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) on fuel-injected motors covered by this manual will continue to draw a small amount of current from the battery, even when the motor is shut off. In order to prevent a slow drain of the entire battery, either periodically recharge the battery, or isolate it by disconnecting the cables or shutting off the battery switch when the boat is dockside or on the trailer. If the boat is not equipped with a battery switch, you can always locate and remove the ECU fuse (usually found in a separate fuse holder) found on the side of the engine. Of course, if this is done, tape the fuse to an obvious point so it will be installed before the next attempt to start the motor. This could save some embarrassing and frustrating troubleshooting time if the fact that it was removed becomes lost in your memory. 12. For Pete's sake, make sure the plug is in! We shouldn't have to say it, but unfortunately we do. If you've been boating for any length of time, you've seen or heard of someone whose backed a trailer down a launch ramp, forgetting to check the transom drain plug before submerging (literally) the boat. Always make sure the transom plug is installed and tight before a launch. An outboard motor's greatest enemy is corrosion. Face it, oil and water just don't mix (well, you CAN mix them with some heat but you tend to get a grey waste water-like substance) and, as anyone who has visited a junkyard knows, metal and water aren't the greatest of friends either. To expose an engine to a harsh marine environment of water and wind is to expect that these elements will take their toll over time. But, there is a way to fight back and help prevent the natural process of corrosion that will destroy your beloved boat motor. Various marine grade lubricants are available that serve two important functions in preserving your motor. Lubricants reduce friction on metal-to- metal contact surfaces and, they also displace air and moisture, therefore slowing or preventing corrosion damage. Periodic lubrication services are your best method of preserving an outboard motor. Lubrication takes place through various forms. For all engines, internal moving parts are lubricated by engine oil contained in the engine crankcase and pumped through oil passages. The gear oil and crankcase oil should be periodically checked and replaced following the appropriate Engine Maintenance procedures. Perform these services based on time or engine use, as outlined in the Maintenance Intervals chart at the end of this section. For motors equipped with power trimltilt, the fluid level and condition in the reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure proper operation. Also, on these motors, correct fluid level is necessary to ensure operation of the motor impact protection system. When equipped with power trimltilt, proper fluid level is necessary for the built-in impact protection system. Incorrect fluid level could lead to significant gearcase damage in the event of an impact. Most other forms of lubrication occur through the application of grease (such as Suzuki's Water Resistant Grease, an Anti-Corrosion Spray or their equivalents) to various points on the motor. These lubricants are either applied by hand (an old toothbrush can be helpful in preventing a mess) or using a grease gun to pump the lubricant into grease fittings (also known as zerk fittings). When using a grease gun, do not pump excessive amounts of grease into the fitting. Unless otherwise directed, pump until either the rubber seal (if used) begins to expand or until the grease just begins to seep from the joints of the component being lubricated (if no seal is used). To ensure your motor is getting the protection it needs, perform a visual inspection of the various lubrication points at least once a week during regular seasonal operation (this assumes that the motor is being used at least once a week). Follow the recommendations given in the Maintenance Intervals Chart at the end of this section and perform the various lubricating services at least every 3 months or 50 hours. We said at least meaning you should perform these services more often, as discovered by your weekly inspections. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT & LUBRICATION Though Suzuki factory literature does not mention the periodic lubrication of the engine cover latches we still think this is a wise thing to do. Use either Suzuki Water Resistant Grease for easily accessed areas, or a spray lubelcorrosion protectant on hard to access areas. Depending on the latch type, either apply a small amount of grease to the metal surfaces using an applicator brush andlor spray lube, then work the latch back and forth a couple of times to make sure it evenly spread. 6 See Figure 7 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Suzuki Water Resistant Grease, or an equivalent marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION + See Figure 7 Many of the models covered by this manual are designed to be portable or permanently installed. Although installation and rigging will vary, the threads of the engine mount clamp screws should be lubricated periodically to prevent them from corroding in place. Apply a light coating of a suitable marine grease to the threads of both clamp screws. If necessary, apply the grease and loosen the clamp to ensure the grease is drawn through the threaded portion of the bracket, then retighten the clamp and repeat for the remaining clamp. When you are finished, be certain that the clamps are properly tightened. Also, pay extra attention to the clamps before and after the next use, to make sure they remain tightened. See Figure 8 When equipped with power trimltilt, proper fluid level is necessary for the built-in impact protection system. Incorrect fluid level could lead to significant gearcase damage in the event of an impact. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT The power tridtilt reservoir must be kept full of Suzuki Power Trim and Tilt Fluid OR Dexron illAutomatic Transmission Fluid. CHECKING FLUID LEVEUCONDITION See Figure 8 The fluid in the power tridtilt reservoir should be checked periodically to ensure it is full and is not contaminated. To check the fluid, tilt the motor upward to the full tilt position, then manually engage the tilt support for safety and to prevent damage. Remove the filler cap (they are usually threaded in position) and make a visual inspection of the fluid. It should seem clear and not milky. The level is proper if, with the motor at full tilt, the level is even with the bottom of the filler cap hole. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Suzuki Water Resistant Grease, or an equivalent marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION @ See Figures 9 thru 35 Every Suzuki outboard uses some combination of cables andlor linkage in order to actuate the throttle plate (of the carburetor, carburetors or throttle body), the gearcase shifter and, on some smaller carbureted motors, the choke plate. Because linkage and cables contain moving parts that work in contact with other moving parts, the contact points can become worn and loose if proper lubrication is not maintained. These small parts are also susceptible to corrosion and breakage if they are not protected from moisture by light coatings of grease. Periodically apply a light coating of suitable water resistant marine grease on each of these surfaces where either two moving parts meet or where a cable end enters a housing. Make sure all sliding, rotating or contact surfaces of the linkage are coated. For more details on grease points refer to the accompanying illustrations. 2-6 MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP Fig. 7 Apply lubricant to the threads on the engine mount clamps Fig. 8 Trimltilt fluid level is important to protecting the engine in case of an impact Fig. 9 Rotating and sliding parts on the underside of the tiller arm (on tiller control models) should be greased Fig. 11 ..springs and/or linkage for the Fig. 10 Be sure to grease any cables. . . Neutral Start Interlock cables on manual Fig. 12 The shift cablesllinkage should be Fig. 13 Don't forget all carburetor, choke Fig. 14 Throttle cable lubrication -2.5 hp Fig. 15 Be sure to grease the shift lever at andlor throttle body linkages motors the rotation point- 41516 hp motors Carburetor linkage w Fig. 16 Throttle linkage lubrication -41516 hp Fig. 17 Shift lever lubrication -41516 hp Fig. 18 Carburetor linkage -9.9115 hp motors motors motors thru 2002 Carburetor linkage Fig. 19 Carburetor linkage -2003-04 9.9115 Fig. 20 Carburetor linkage -2005 and later Fig. 21 Throttle cable -Tiller control 9.9115 hp motors 9.9115 hp motors hp motors Fig. 22 Neutral Starter Interlock (NSI) cable -tarter Interlock (NSI) cable -Fig. 24 Throttle cable at powerhead linkage 9.9115 hp motors -25 hp V2 motors Fig. 25 Throttle cable at tiller bracket -25 hp Fig. 26 Throttle linkage -25/30hp (3-cyl) Fig. 27 Throttle linkage (additional points V2 motors motors (Remote shown, Tiller similar) 1 1 1 1 Throffle1 shiftlinkage Fig. 28 Shift and throttle linkage -40150 hp Fig. 29 Shift and throttle linkage -60170hp motors motors Fig. 31 Throttle body cable -150/175hp Fig. 32 Shift and throttle linkage -1501175 Fig. 33 Throttle cable and drum - motors hp motors 20012251250hp motors Fig. 34 Throttle cable and throttlelshift linkage -20012251250 hp motors RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Suzuki Water Resistant Grease, or an equivalent marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION - + See Figures 36 thru 40 Most motors covered by this manual are equipped with at least one grease fitting on the gearcase swivel bracket, though some may equipped with 2 or more. Fittings are usually on the port or starboard side (except for some of the smaller motors like the 41516 hp models, where they are mounted facing straight back from the bracket). On all models equipped with a fitting, use a grease gun to apply fresh water resistant marine grease until a small amount of lubricant begins to seep from the swivel bracket. It is important to keep this system corrosion free in order to prevent corrosion that would lead to excessive resistance or even binding that might cause dangerous operational conditions. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Suzuki Water Resistant Grease, or an equivalent marine grease for lubrication. LUBRICATION See Figure 41 Every Suzuki outboard, 4 hp and larger, uses 2 zerk fittings on the forward side of the tilt bracket in order to provide grease to the tilt assembly. Be sure to apply a water resistant marine grade grease to the fitting(s) until a small amount of grease seeps from the joints. Also, on manual tilt modeis, apply grease to the tilt lever and/or pin and any other metal-to-metal friction surfaces. All models will usually have some form of tilfftrailering bracket assembly which should also be greased at pivot and contact points. Applying grease will prevent corrosion while also ensuring smooth operation. To make sure all surfaces are covered, apply grease with the motor in both the full tilt and full downward positions. Fig. 38 Some of the smallest models (like Fig. 36 Most models contain at least one the 41516 hp) may have a fitting at the rear center of the housing. . . Fig. 39 . ..or they may have one of more Fig. 40 View of the grease fitting on a 9.9115 Fig. 41 Every model, 4 hp and above, has 2 fittings up near the steering friction knob hp outboard zerk fittings on the tilt bracket assembly RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT Use Suzuki Water Resistant Grease, or an equivalent marine grease for lubrication. PROP SHAFT LUBRICATION + See Figure 42 One of the most common preventable problems in boating is when the propeller hub becomes corroded (frozen) to the propeller shaft. When this occurs the propeller and/or the gearcase is often damaged in the process of trying to separate them. For this reason AT LEAST seasonally, but MUCH MORE OFTEN (at least every 50 hours13 months) if the boat is used often in salt water or stored in salt water, the propeller should be removed so a light coating of water resistant grease can be added to the shaft splines. This coating will help prevent the propeller from becoming corroded onto the shaft. For more details on propeller service, please refer to Propeller, later in this section. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT See Figure 43 Jet drive models covered here require special attention to ensure that the driveshaft bearing remains properly lubricated. After each day of use, the jet drive bearing should be properly lubricated using a grease gun. Also, after every 30 hours of fresh water operation or every 15 hours of salt/brackish/polluted water operation, the drive bearing grease must be replaced. Follow the appropriate procedure: Use Suzuki Water Resistant grease or equivalent water resistant NLGI No. 1 lubricant. DAILY BEARING LUBRICATION + See Figures 44 and 45 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. Disconnect the nose from the fitting, then use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting to just fill the vent hose. Pump grease into the Fig. 42 A light coating of marine grade grease should prevent the nrooeller hub from seizina on the shaft fitting until any moisture is displaced and the old grease just starts to come out from the passages through the hose coupling and then reconnect the hose to the fitting. @ Do not attempt to just grasp the vent hose and pull, as it is a tight fit and when it does come off, you'll probably go flying if you didn't prepare for it. The easier method of removing the vent hose from the fitting is to deflect the hose to one side and snap it free from the fitting. GREASE REPLACEMENT + See Figures 44,45 and 46 A grease fitting is located under a vent hose on the lower port side of the jet drive. This grease fitting is utilized at the end of each day's use to add fresh grease to the jet drive bearing. But, every 30 or 15 days (depending if use is in fresh or salUbrackish1polluted waters), the grease should be completely replaced. This is very similar to the daily greasing, except that a lot more grease it used. Disconnect the hose from the fitting (by deflecting it to the side until it snaps free from the fitting), and use a grease gun to apply enough grease to the fitting until grease exiting the assembly fills the vent NANCE AND TUNE-U 1 Fig. 43 Jet drive models reauire lubrication ofthe bearing after each day of use, a label Fig. 44 The jet drive lubrication fitting is Fig. 45 Attach a grease gun to the fitting for on the housing usually reminds the owner found under the vent hose lubrication hose. Then, continue to pump grease into the fitting to force out all of the old grease (you can tell this has been accomplished when fresh grease starts to come out of the vent instead of old grease, which will be slightly darker due to minor contamination from normal use). When nothing but fresh grease comes out of the vent the fresh grease has completely displaced the old grease and you are finished. Be sure to securely connect the vent hose to the fitting. Each time this is performed, inspect the grease for signs of excessive moisture contamination or discoloration. A gradual increase in moisture content over a few services is a sign of seal wear that is beginning to allow some seepage. Very dark or dirty grease may indicate a worn seal (inspect andlor replace the seal, as necessary to prevent severe engine damage should the seal fail completely). H Keep in mind that some discoloration of the grease is expected when a new seal is broken-in. The discoloration should go away gradually after one or two additional grease replacement services. Whenever the jet drive bearing grease is replaced, take a few minutes to apply some of that same water-resistant marine grease to the pivot points of the jet linkage. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION See Figures 47 thru 57 Removal of the top cover is necessary for the most basic of maintenance and inspection procedures. The cover should come oft before and after each use in order to perform these basic safety checks. The lower covers do not need to be removed nearly as often, but on models where they are easily removed, they should be removed at least seasonally for service and inspection procedures. Don't let a small leak or damaged cablethose hide behind the safety of a cover. On all models, the engine top cover is attached by some type of lever or latch. No tools are necessary to remove the cover itself. The exact shape and design of the levers vary somewhat from model-to-model, though they are usually located on the forwardtaft parts of the motor, at the split line between the top cover and the lower cases. Many of the smaller motors use a single over-center latch that is pulled outward on the bottom of the latch to give it enough room for the top of the latch to release from the cover. While most of the larger motors use rotating latches that hook onto tabs on the top cover, these are normally released pivoting the lever downward. No matter what design is used, be certain that the cover is fully seated and mounted tightly to the lower cases in order to prevent the possibility of it coming loose in service, Fig. 46 Coat the pivot points of the jet linkage with grease periodically H On models with a rope starter, the rope handle fits through a grommet in the top cover so that the cover must be pulled slightly forward before it is lifted too far upward to remove it as the handle is gently fed through the grommet. The lower covers of most motors are screwed or bolted together by fasteners found around the perimeter of one or both sides of the cover. In a few cases, and we'll note them whenever possible, one or more of the fasteners may be hidden. Cover screws on Suzuki outboards are usually of the Phillips or Slotted head types. A few of the smallest motors however, are equipped with 1-piece covers that are not designed for easy or convenient removal. On the 2.5 hp and 41516 hp, this cover is a low-rise component that should not interfere with service procedures. For this reason, the cover is normally designed not to be removed except during a complete overhaul where the powerhead is removed from the midsection. In a few cases, remote or tiller control cables (and choke mechanisms, if equipped) must be disconnected andlor removed from the case in order to completely remove the lower cases. But, for most procedures, the multi- piece lower cases can be supported out of the way (using a length of mechanic's wire or a bent wire coat hanger) with the cables still attached to the cover. You'll have to decide for yourself how much trouble it is worth to remove the covers for various maintenance procedures, but obviously they must be completely removed for major overhauls. To separate the lower covers on multi-piece models, proceed as follows: 1. On most models the top cover seal is mounted in the groove on the -12 MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP top cover, though for a few it may instead be placed on the top sealing surface of the lower covers. On models where the seal is attached to the lower covers, carefully lift it from the covers and place it aside where it will not be damaged. 2. Locate and remove the cover retaining screws as follows: a. On 2.5 hp motors, the lower cover is a low-rise, one-piece component that should not interfere with service procedures. The cover is normally not removed except during a complete overhaul where the powerhead is removed from the gearcase. b. On 41516 hp (1 38cc), the lower cover is a low-rise, one-piece component that should not interfere with service procedures. The cover is normally not removed except during a complete overhaul where the powerhead is removed from the gearcase. Fig. 47 Outboards are protected by a top and either 1 or 2 (or more) lower engine Fig. 48 Most Suzuki top covers use either covers an over-center latch like this. . . Fig. 51 When removing the top cover on Fig. 50 . . .which are simply rotated manual start models, carefully feed the downward to open handle through the cover grommet c. On 2002 or earlier 9.9115 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. Loosen the screw securing the shiner lever to the front side of the case, then remove the lever. Next, remove the two screws threaded downward at the front corners of the lower covers. At the front latch (at the seam), remove the snap pin, washer, pin and fastener for the latch, then remove the screw underneath the latch. Moving to the starboard side of the cover, remove the 4 remaining cover screws threaded from the starboard side. One at the lower rear (accessed through a hole in the cover), one at the lower front, one at the upper front, where the cover turns about 90 from vertical to horizontal and finally one at the top rear (inside the cover, also usually accessed through a hole). Carefully remove the starboard side cover, then remove the port side cover, Fig. 49 .. . or they use a number of latches like this. . . I Fig. 52 The 2.5-6 hp motors use a 1-piece, low-profile cover that rarely interferes with service Fig. 53 Multi-piece engine covers are secured with screws. . . Fig. 55 . ..and at the rear of the outboard d. On 2003-04 9,9115 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. Now, at the latch, remove the snap pin, washer, pin and fastener for the latch, then remove the screw underneath the latch. Moving to the starboard side of the cover, remove the 3 screwed threaded from that side. One at the lower rear (accessed through a hole in the cover), one at the lower front and one at the upper front, where the cover turns about 90 from vertical to horizontal. At this point, remove the bolt from the shifter lever and disconnect the lever (at the front corner of the cover). Next, remove the two screws threaded downward at the front corners of the lower covers. Disconnect the water hose, and carefully remove the starboard side cover, then remove the port side cover. e. On 2005 or later 9.9115 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. Next, remove the two screws threaded downward at the front corners of the lower covers. Now, at the front latch, remove the snap pin, washer, pin and fastener for the latch, then remove the screw underneath the latch. Moving the starboard side of the cover, remove the 3 screwed threaded from that side. One at the lower rear (accessed through a hole in the cover), one at the lower front and one at the upper front, where the cover turns about 90' from vertical to horizontal. Disconnect the water hose, and carefully remove the starboard side cover, then remove the port side cover. f. On 25 hp V2, motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Most, but not all, of the boltslscrews for this cover should be threaded from the outside of the covers. There are 5 located on the starboard side (3 at front, one of which is on the inside, and two at rear of the cover) and 2 on the port side of the cover (both at the front). To separate the covers start by pulling out the rear hook, then removing the screws from the starboard cover and pulling the cover far enough back to disconnect the cooling stream indicator hose. With the starboard cover removed, all you need to do to remove the port side cover is to loosen the 2 remaining screws and carefully pull it free. g. On 25/30 hp 3-cylinder motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. The bolts/screws for this cover should all the threaded from the outside of the covers. There are 4 located on the port side (two at front and two at rear of the cover), and 2 on the starboard side of the cover (both at the front). Remove the fasteners, then carefully separate the covers. h. On 40150 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. At the latch, remove the snap pin, washer, pin and fastener securing the latch. Next, remove the five screws along the outer perimeter of the port side cover (3 toward the front and 2 along the rear of the cover). Pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, then remove the port side cover comoletelv. Move to the other side of the outboard and remove the 3 screws (all toward the front of the cover perimeter), and remove the starboard side cover. i On 60170 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. At the latch, remove the snap pin, washer, pin and fastener securing the latch. Next, remove the 4 bolts along the outer perimeter of the starboard side cover (2 toward the front and 2 toward the rear of the cover). Pull the starboard side cover away from the powerhead and remove it from the outboard. Move to the other side of the outboard and remove the 2 screws/bolts (both toward the front of the cover perimeter), then carefully pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, and remove the port side cover completely. j. On 90111 5 hp and 140 hp motors, there is a port and starboard cover half. Because the too cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves. start by carefully removing the rubber seal. Next, remove the 7 screws along the outer perimeter of the starboard side cover (4 toward the front and 3 along the rear of the cover) and the 2 screws from the port side cover (both toward the front of the cover). Pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, then remove the port and starboard side covers completely. k. On 150/1 75 hp motors, there are port and starboard covers, as well as port and starboard oil pan covers. Start by removing the 6 screws (4 toward the front and 2 toward the back, including one inside the top of the cover at both the front and back) which secure the starboard cover, then remove the cover. Next remove the 2 screws from the port side cover (both toward the front of the cover) and pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, then remove the port cover completely. If the port and starboard oil pan covers must be removed as well, loosen the 5 screws (all located on the starboard side, 2 along the rear of the cover and 3 along the front) and separate the pan covers from the outboard. I.On 20012251250 hp motors, there are port and starboard covers, as well as port and starboard oil pan covers. Start by removing the 5 screws (3 toward the front and 2 toward the back) which secure the starboard cover, then remove the cover. Next remove the 3 screws from the port side cover (all toward the front of the cover) and pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, then remove the port cover completely. If the port and starboard oil pan covers must be removed as well, loosen the 8 screws (some are located on either side) and separate the pan covers from the outboard. m. On 300 hp motors, there are port and starboard covers, as well as port and starboard oil pan covers. Because the top cover seal is mounted on the lower cover halves, start by carefully removing the rubber seal. Next, remove the 6 screws (4 toward the front and 2 toward the back, including one inside the top of the cover at both the front and back) which secure the starboard cover, then remove the cover. Next remove the 4 screws from the port side cover (all toward the front of the cover) and pull the port side cover far enough away from the powerhead to disconnect the PTT switch lead, Fig. 56 Exploded view of a typical 2-piece lower cover assembly 14 MAINTENANC then remove the port cover completely. If the port and starboard oil pan covers must be removed as well, loosen the 8 screws (all of which are threaded from the starboard side, 3 along the rear of the cover and 5 along the front) and separate the pan covers from the outboard. Be careful to make sure that all fasteners are removed before trying to separate the covers. Absolutely never force them. If it appears that they are stuck, go back and recheck for any fasteners or screws that were missed. 3. Once the screws are removed, pull the covers back for access. Some covers will come off ~o~~ip~'eiei'~ a: this time, but others will still be attached to the engine due to wires, cables or hoses that are also attached to the cover. Either support the cover halves aside with these component still attached, or free any remaining components from the cover halves and remove thorn frnm the engine. On many motors, especially the larger models, the covers mount to one or more interference fit rubber mounts. It may take a gentle tug to free the cover from these mounts. 4. Installation is the reverse of the removal procedure, making sure to reattach any components that were freed from the cover or removed for access. Be careful not to pinch or damage and hoses, cables or wiring when seating the lower covers. 5. Tighten the cover screws securely, but do not over-tighten and crack the covers or strip the screw threads. 6. Make sure the top cover seal is in proper position before installing the top cover and securing the latch(es). The top cover must be a tight fit to protect the motor from excessive spraylmoisture and to ensure the top cover remains properly seated in use. Fig. 58 A water source must be used ANYTIME the engine is started FLUSHING THE COOLING SYSTEM SY See Figures 58 thru 65 The most important service that you can perform on your motor's cooling system is to flush it periodically using fresh, clean water. This should be done immediately following any use in salt, brackish or polluted waters in order to prevent mineral deposits or corrosion from clogging cooling passages. Even if you do not always boat in salt or polluted waters, get used to the flushing procedure and perform it often to ensure no silt or debris clogs your cooling system over time. E Flush the cooling system after any use in which the motor was operated through suspendedlchurned-up silt, debris or sand. Although the flushing procedure should take place right away (dockside or on the trailer), be sure to protect the motor from damage due to possible thermal shock. If the engine has just been run under high load or at continued high speeds, allow time for it to cool to the point where the powerhead can be touched. Do not pump very cold water through a very hot engine, or you are just asking for trouble. If you trailer your boat short distances, the flushing procedure can probably wait until you arrive home or wherever the boat is stored, but ideally it should occur within an hour of use in salt water. Remember that the corrosion process begins as soon as the motor is removed from the water and exposed to air. The flushing procedure is not used only for cooling system maintenance, but it can also be a tool with which a technician can provide a source of cooling water to protect the engine (and water pump impeller) from damage anytime the motor needs to be run out of the water. Never start or run the Fig. 60 Any model with water intakes on the side of the gearcase, can be flushed or run using a muff (clamp) type adaptor Fig, 61 Most 9.9-50 hp models are equipped with a gearcase flushing port (9.9115 hp Fig. 62 . . .the port requires the use of an Fig. 63 Flushing port location on a 40150 hp shown). . . adapter (25130 hp 3-cyl shown) motor - engine out of the water, even for a few seconds, for any reason. Water pump impeller damage can occur almost instantly and damage to the engine from overheating can follow shortly thereafter. If the engine must be run out of the water for tuning or testing, always connect an appropriate flushing device before the engine is started and leave it turned on until after the engine is shut off. ANYTIME the engine is run, the first thing you should do is check the cooling stream or water indicator. All of these models are equipped with some form of a cooling stream indicator towards the aft portion of the lower engine cover. Anytime the engine is operating, a steady stream of water should come from the indicator, showing that the pump is supplying water to the engine for cooling. If the stream is ever absent, stop the motor and determine the cause before restarting. As we stated earlier, flushing the cooling system consists of supplying fresh, clean water to the system in order to clean deposits from the internal passages. If the engine is running, the water does not normally have to be pressurized, as it is delivered through the normal water intake passages and the water pump (the system can self flush if supplied with clean water). Smaller, portable engines can be flushed by mounted them in a test tank (a sturdy, metallic 30 gallon drum or garbage pail tilled with clean water). Most Suzuki engines will also accept flush fittings or adapters. Most adapters are of the generic type and are designed to fit over the engine water intakes on the gearcase (and resemble a pair of strange earmuffs with a hose fitting on one side). When used, all motors can be run using this style of adaptor. The water intake point on a few of the smallestmotors, such as the 41516 hp, do not allow the use of "muff" type adapters. On the 41516 hp motors the water intake point is directly under the anti-cavitation plate instead of on the sides of the gearcase housing. Other adapters (available from the manufacturer) are designed for special flushing fittings on specific motors. These special adapters attach to a cooling passage on the gearcase, powerhead or exhaust housing. When using the later type adapter, follow the manufacturer's instructions closely regarding flushing conditions. In some cases (as in with some of the motors), flushing with this type of adapter should occur only with the motor turned off, so as to prevent damage to the water pump impeller or other engine components. This varies with each motor, so be sure to check with your dealer regarding these direct to the powerhead adapters when you purchase one. Check the model on which you are working to see if there are any special flush fittings or procedures as follows: 2.5 hp motors -use a water intake grates that are on either side of the gearcase so they MAY accept a suitably sized earmuff style generic adapter or there may be a specific adapter available from Suzuki. Regardless the tiny size of this motor make is generally easiest to flush or run in a test tank or pail. * 41516 hp motors -use a water intake that is right above the propeller and are generally flushed in a test tank or pail. In addition, they are normally equipped with a flushing port on the underside of the powerhead. It is a large, flat-head screw located right next to one of the powerhead mounting bolts). A flush fitting which can attach to a garden hose should be threaded into the hole after the screw is removed. ALSO, duct-tape should be used to cover the water intake hole Oust above the propeller on the underside of the anti-cavitation plate) to ensure proper pressure. These motors are normally flushed with the engine running HOWEVER, DO NOT run them higher than idle. Their small size also makes them ideal to be flushed in a test tank or pail (that can be much easier). 9.9115 hp motors -normally have a flushing port on the starboard side of gearcase, toward the top, rear side of the gearcase, just a little below the split line. Aflush fitting which can attach to a garden hose should be threaded into the hole after the screw plugging it is removed. ALSO, duct- tape should be used to cover the water intake hole (just above the propeller on the underside of the anti-cavitation plate) to ensure proper pressure. These motors are normally flushed with the engine running HOWEVER, DO NOT run them higher than idle. These motors are generally still small enough to flush in a test tank or sturdy pail. * 25 hp V2 motors -are not normally equipped with a flushing port. Unless one is identified in your owner's manual, you will need to use muff type adaptors over the water intakes on the side of the gearcase. * 25130 hp (3-cyl) and 40150 hp motors -are equipped with a flushing port on the starboard side of gearcase, toward the top, middle side of the gearcase, just a little above the anti-cavitation plate and a little behind the gearcase oil level plug. Aflush fitting which can attach to a garden hose can be threaded into the hole after the screw plugging it is removed HOWEVER this fitting SHOULD NOT BE USED to flush the powerhead with the motor running. IF you need to flush the powerhead while running (or provide a source of cooling water out of a test tank), then you will need to use muff type adaptors over the water intakes on the side of the gearcase. As with many some other Suzuki models, you must use duct-tape to cover the water intake hole (just above the propeller on the underside of the anti-cavitation plate) in order to ensure proper pressure. 60170 hp and 9011151140 hp motors -are equipped with a flushing port on the lower port side of the exhaust housing, toward the rear of the housing, usually JUST above the lower engine cover split line. Once the plug is removed from the port you can either directly install a suitable garden hose or use an adaptor to connect the hose to the thread in the motor. Even if the thread is the same on the motor as the garden hose, a short adaptor can make this job much easier. On most motors the thread should be 0.75 -11.5 NHR (ANSI) and readily available. HOWEVER this port is only for flushing the motor with it NOT running. In order to flush these outboards with the motor running, or provide a suitable source of cooling water away from a test tank you will need to use standard muff type adaptors over the gearcase water intake. * 1501175 hp motors -are equipped with a flushing port, either on the lower port side or rear of the exhaust housing. Once the plug is removed from the port you can either directly install a suitable garden hose or use an Fig. 64 Most 60 hp and larger outboards are equipped with a flush port somewhere on the exhaust housing (70 hp motor shown) Fig. 65 Flushing port location on a 140 hp motor adaptor to connect the hose to the thread in the motor. Even if the thread is the same on the motor as the garden hose, a short adaptor can make this job much easier. On most motors the thread should be 0.75 -11.5 NHR (ANSI) and readily available. HOWEVER this port is only for flushing the motor with it NOT running. In order to flush these outboards with the motor running, or provide a suitable source of cooling water away from a test tank you will need to use standard muff type adaptors over the gearcase water intake. 20012251250 hp and 300 hp V6 motors -are equipped with a flush plug at the rear center of the lower engine cowling. Once the plug is removed from the port you can either directly install a suitable garden hose or use an adaptor to connect the hose to the thread in the motor. Even if the thread is the same on the motor as the garden hose, a short adaptor can make this job much easier. The thread should be 0.75 -11.5 NHR (ANSI) and readily available. HOWEVER this port is only for flushing the motor with it NOT running. In order to flush these outboards with the motor running, or provide a suitable source of cooling water away from a test tank you will need to use standard muff type adaptors over the gearcase water intake. When running the engine on a flushing adapter using a garden hose, make sure the hose delivers 20-40 psi (140-300 kPa) of pressure. Some of the smaller, portable motors covered by this manual utilize a water intake that is directly above the propeller. On these models the propeller must usually be removed before a clamp style flush adapter can be connected to the motor (unless the adapter is very thin and mounted so close to the anti-ventilation plate that it will not be hit by the propeller). For safety, the propeller should be removed ANYTIME the motor is run on the trailer or on an engine stand. We realize that this is not always practical when flushing the engine on the trailer, but cannot emphasize enough how much caution must be exercised to prevent injury to you or someone else. Either take the time to remove the propeller or take the time to make sure no-one or nothing comes close enough to it to become injured. Serious personal injury or death could result from contact with the spinning propeller. When using a flushing device and a pressurized water source, most motors can be flushed tilted or in a vertical position, BUT, the manufacturer warns against flushing most motors in the tilted position with the engine running. Many 4-strokes can be seriously damaged by attempting to flush them with the engine running in the full tilt position. If the motor must be flushed tilted (dockside) then your best bet is to do so with the engine shut off. 1. Check the engine top case and, if necessary remove it to check the powerhead, to ensure it is cooled enough to flush without causing thermal shock. 2. Prepare the engine for flushing depending on the method you are using as follows: a. If using a test tank, make sure the tank is made of sturdy material, then securely mount the motor to the tank. If necessary, position a wooden plank between the tank and engine clamp bracket for thickness. Fill the tank so the water level is at least 4 in. (10cm) above the anti-ventilation plate (above the water inlet). b. If using a flushing adapter of either the generic clamp-type or specific port-type for your model attach the water hose to the flush test adapter and connect the adapter to the motor following the instructions that came with the adapter. If the motor is to be run (for flushing or testing), position the outboard vertically and remove the propeller, for safety. Also, be sure to position the water hose so it will not contact with moving parts (tie the hose out of the way with mechanic's wire or wire ties, as necessary). Check the list earlier in this section for the model on which you are working. Many of the flush ports CANNOT be used with the engine runnina. When using a clamp-type adapter, position i.ic-W.AJ ,ip(s) over water intake grate(s) in such a way that they form tight seals. A little pressure seepage should not be a problem, but look to the water stream indicator once the motor is running to be sure that sufficient water is reaching the powerhead. 3. If !lsi!lg a damp-type flush test adapter, follow any special iiistruciions foi YOLK model, as noted earlier. 4. Unless using a lest tank, turn the water on, making sure that pressure does not exceed 40 psi (300 IkPa). 5. It !.!sin:i a lest tank or if the motor must be run for testingltuning procedures, 5kii the engine and run in neutral until the motor reaches operating temperature. For most motors, the motor will continue to run at fast idle until warmed, on fuel injected motors, speed will be automatically nsgulaied by the Engine Control Unit (ECU). As soon as the engine starts, check the cooling system indicator m.it must be present and strong as long as the motor is operated. stop the motor and rectify the problem before proceeding. Common problems could include insufficient water pressure or 6,Flush the motor for about 5-10 minutes or untii the water exiting the engine is clear. When flushing while running the motor, check the engine temperature (using a gauge or carefully by touch) and stop the engine immediately if steam or overheating starts to occur. Make sure that carbureted motors slow to low idle for the last few minutes of the flushing procedure. 7. Stop the engine (if running), then shut the water off. 8. Remove the adapter from the engine or the engine from the test tank, as applicable. 9. If flushing did not occur with the motor running (so the motor would already by vertical), be sure to place it in the full vertical position allowing the cooling system to drain. This is especially important if the engine is going to be placed into storage and could be exposed to freezing temperatures. Water left in the motor could freeze and crack the powerhead or gearcase. OIL RECOMMENDATIONS For all motors covered here Suzuki recommends the use of Suzuki brand 4-Stroke 10W-40 oil or an equivalent. When this oil is used, the oil can be changed after every 200 hours of operation (or at the end of each season. whichever comes first). If this oil is not available, Suzuki advises that a high quality oil of the correct viscosity can be substituted. For all motors this means using an SAE 10W-40 API SE, SF, SG, SH or SJ (or latest superseding oil type) or NMMA (National Marine Manufacturer's Association) FCW 10W-40 motor oil. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) grade number indicates the viscosity of the engine oil; its resistance to flow at a given temperature. The lower the SAE grade number, the lighter the oil. For example, the mono- grade oils begin with SAE 5 weight, which is a thin light oil, and continue in viscosity up to SAE 80 or 90 weight, which are heavy gear lubricants. These oils are also known as "straight weight", meaning they are of a single viscosity, and do not vary with engine temperature. Multi-viscosity oils offer the important advantage of being adaptable to temperature extremes. These oils have designations such as 10W-40, 20W- 50, etc. The 10W-40 means that in winter (the "W in the designation) the oil acts like a thin 10 weight oil, allowing the engine to spin easily when cold and offering rapid lubrication. Once the engine has warmed up, however, the oil acts like a straight 40 weight, maintaining good lubrication and protection for the engine's internal components. A 20W-50 oil would therefore be slightly heavier than and not as ideal in cold weather as the 10W-40, but would offer better protection at higher rpm and temperatures because when warm it acts like a 50 weight oil. Whichever oil viscosity you choose when changing the oil, make sure you are anticipating the temperatures your engine will be operating in until the oil is changed again. The American Petroleum Institute (API) designation indicates the classification of engine oil used under certain given operating conditions. Only oils designated for use "Service SG, SH, SJ" or greater should be used. Oils of the SG, SH, SJ or its superseding oil type perform a variety of functions inside the engine in addition to the basic function as a lubricant. Through a balanced system of metallic detergents and polymeric dispersmt:, ...,w c:.! pievents the formation of high and low temperature deposits and also keeps sludge and particles of dirt in suspension. Acids, particularly sulfuric acid, as well as other by-products of combustion, hie neutralized. Both the SAE grade number and the API designation can be found on top of the oil can. Although 10W-40 (or 10W-50) is the preferred oil weight for these motors for all ambient temperatures, the following weights may be substituted depending on the lowest or highest anticipated ambient temperature. 10W-30 can be used for temps from -4OF (-20%) to 86'F (30¡C) but not any higher a temp. Similarly, 15W-40 or 15W-50 can be used at any ambient temps of 3'F (-15%) or higher. Also, 20W-50 can be used at any ambient temps of 14'F (-10%) or higher. CHECKING OIL LEVEL - See Figures 66 thru 76 One of the most important service items for a 4-stroke engine is maintaining the proper level of fresh, clean engine oil in the crankcase. Be certain to check the oil level both before and after each time the boat is used. In order to check the oil level the motor must be placed in the full vertical position. Because it takes some time for the oil to settle (and at least partially cool), the engine must be shut off for at least 30 minutes before an accurate reading can be attained. If the boat is trailered, use the time for loading the boat onto the trailer and prepping the trailer for towing to allow the motor to cool. If the boat is kept in the water, take some time around the dock to secure lines, stow away items kept onboard and clean up the deck while waiting for the oil to settlelcool. Running an engine with an improper oil level can cause significant engine damage. Although it is typically worse to run an engine with abnormally low oil, it can be just as harmful to run an engine that is overfilled. Don't take that risk, make checking the engine oil a regular part of your launch and recoveryldocking routine. Most motors covered by this manual are equipped with an automotive- style dipstick and oil filler cap located on the powerhead. The engine cover must be removed for access, but once removed it should be easy to locate the dipstick and filler cap if you look in the right spot (as they vary with the engine size): * On 2.5 hp motors (like the 41516 hp models) are unique in that they have a sight glass on the port side of the powerhead, visible through the lower engine cowling. There is a small circle, within the circle of the sight glass and the oil should always AT LEAST be up to the bottom of that inner circle (that's the lower limit), or when properly filled it should be just up to the too of that inner circle. Under the too enaine cover, on the same side and just a little forward of the sight glass is & oil filler cap threaded into the side of the powerhead. * On 41516 hp motors there is a sight glass on the port side of the powerhead, visible through the lower engine cowling. This glass is the quick way to check oil level at just a glance. The oil should be up to the top of the glass (that's the lower limit). In addition, a little forward of the site glass is a filler cap that is screwed into the crankcase. The filler cap contains a dipstick with upper and lower fill limit markings on it. When checking the oil level with this dipstick DO NOT rethread it into the crankcase, just insert it, sitting on the end of the threads, then remove it again and check the level. * On 9.9115 motors, the oil dipstick location varies slightly by year. For models through 2002 the dipstick is on the top, rear, starboard side of the motor just a little in front of the oil filler cap (there is a photo of it included here). However, on 2003 or later models it is on the port side of the powerhead, just outboard of the ignition coil (a little more than halfway toward the back of the motor). For all years, the oil filler cap is on the aft, starboard side, near the top of the powerhead, behind the hand rewind starter cover. The color and shape of the dipsticks and oil caps varied through the years on these models. * On 25 hp V2 motors, the combination oil dipstick/filler cap is on the port side of the powerhead, about halfway back from the front of the powerhead (right behind the ignition modulelCD! unit and just in front of the engine lifting bracket. Fig. 67 .. .they also have a filler cap (with a Fig. 68 Most dipsticks are found on the port Fig. 66 The 2.5-6 hp motors have a sight built-in dipstick on 41516 hp models) on that side of the motor and though this one from glass on the port side. . . side too a 15 hp motors is black. . . Fig. 70 Some are partially shrouded by the Fig. 71 Of course there are exceptions, like Fig. 69 ...most are colored yellow (such as lower engine cover (such as this from a this early-model 9.9 hp motors with the this from a 60R0 hp motor) 40150 hp motor) dipstick toward the starboard side 1 Fig. 72 Although the markings vary, dipsticks will contain a full and a low or add Fig. 73 The oil fill cap is sometimes found Fig. 74 . . . or midway up the cover (6010 mark on top of the rocker cover (40150 hp). .. hp) Fig. 75 Other times the fill cap is simply on top of the motor (140 hp shown) * On 25130 hp 3-cyl motors, the oil dipstick is on the port side of the powerhead, about halfway back from the front of the powerhead (a bit behind the electric starter, if equipped, and a bit in front of the 3 ignition coils). The oil filler cap is on the opposite (starboard) side, at the top of the powerhead, toward the rear of the powerhead. On 40150 hp motors, the oil dipstick is on the lower port side of the powerhead (toward the rear of the intake manifold), while the oil filler cap is found on top of the rocker arm cover (at the top rear of the motor.) On 60170 hp motors, the oil dipstick is on the lower rearlport side of the powerhead (toward the rear of the intake manifold), while the oil filler cap is found toward the bottom of the rocker arm cover (at the rear of the motor.) On 90/115/140 hp motors, the oil dipstick is on the lower mid-port side of the powerhead (at the base of the powerhead, below and a tad behind the electric starter), while the oil filler cap is found on top of the rocker arm cover (at the top rear of the motor.) a On I501175 hp motors, the oil dipstick is on the lower mid-starboard side of the powerhead (just in front of the oil filter about centered under the intake manifold) at the base of the powerhead, while the oil filler cap is found at the top rear of the powerhead, just behind the flywheel cover. On 20012251250 hp motors, the oil dipstick is on the lower mid- starboard side of the powerhead (at the base of the powerhead, below and behind the electric starter and the oil filter), while the oil filler cap is found at the top, opposite side of the powerhead, at the top of the port side cylinder banklvalve cover. On 300 hp rnoiors, ihe oil dipstick is on the lower mid-starboard side of the powerhead (at the base of the powerhead, about halfway back), while Fig. 76 Regardless, it is usually labeled clearly or is pretty obvious (9.9115 hp shown) the oil filler cap is found at the top, opposite side of the powerhead, at the top of the port side cylinder bank of the powerhead. 1. Make sure the engine is in the full vertical position and has been shut off for at least 30 minutes. If possible, get in the habit of checking the oil with the engine cold from sitting overnight. 2. On 2.5 hp motors there is no need to even remove the engine cover (unless you find a need to top off the motor) simply peer through the sight glass and make sure the oil is somewhere inside the smaller circle inside the sight glass. The bottom of that inner circle is the lower limit and the top is the upper. 3. Remove the engine cover. 4. On 41516 hp motors you've got a choice, you can simply use the sight glass (the upper end of the glass is the LOWER limit for the oil level, so if you see air instead of oil, it is low) OR you can use the dipstick attached to the filler cap. Remember when using the dipstick on this motor that you SHOULD NOT rethread it when reading the level, but instead sit the stick carefully on the end of the threads. Otherwise instructions are the same as follows for using a dipstick. 5. Carefully pull the engine crankcase oil dipstick from the side of the engine (port for all except the 150 hp and larger motors or the 9.9115 hp motors through 2002 which are starboard). 6. Wipe all traces of oil off the dipstick using a clean, lint free rag or cloth, then re-insert dipstick back into its opening until it is fully seated. Then, pull the dipstick out from the crankcase again and hold it vertically with the bottom end facing down in order to prevent a false oil reading. Forget how your dad or buddy first taught you to read the level on a dipstick. It may be more convenient to hold it horizontally, but laying it down like that could allow oil to flow UPWARD giving a false high, or worse, false acceptable reading when in fact your engine needs oil. Last time we checked, oil won't flow UP a dipstick held vertically (but the high point of the oil will remain wet in contrast to the dry portion of the stick immediately above the wet line). So hold the dipstick vertically and you'll never run your engine with insufficient oil when you thought it was full. 7. If the oil level is at or slightly below the top or FULL mark on the dipstick, the oil level is fine. If not. add small amounts of oil through the filler cap until the level is correct. Add oil slowly, giving it time to settle into the crankcase before rechecking and again, don't overfill it either. Dipstick markings will vary slightly from model-to-model. Some are equipped with an "L" (low) and "F" (full), while some other dipsticks spell out the words "low" and "full"; and still others like the 25 hp V2 models simply have a full level LINE and a low level LINE. Many of the mid-range-to-larger motors are equipped with add and full marks that contain a crosshatched area between them. The crosshatched area is the "acceptable" operating range, but try to maintain the level towards the top of the markings. And some of the larger motors may use a dipstick that contains just two dots, the bottom one for add and the top for full. 8. Visually check the oil on the dipstick for water (a milky appearance will result from contamination with moisture) or a significant fuel odor. Both can be signs that the powerhead likely needs overhaul to prevent damage, Fig. 77 Oil drain plug on 41516 hp (138cc) motors though a milky oil can also be a sign of a motor that has not had the oil changed and been exposed to FAR too many heating and cooling cycles without full warming causing condensation. 9. Insert and properly seat the oil dipstick into the powerhead when you are finished. If removed, install the oil fill cap and rotate it until it gently locks into position. OIL CHANGE & FILTER SERVICE @ See Figures 77 thru 83 2001 and later EFI motors are equipped with an oil change reminder system which will activate the buzzer and, on remote control models, the oil lamp to indicate sufficient operating hours have passed to require an oil change. For more details on this system please refer to Oil Change Reminder System in the EFI section. Next to regular fluid level checks, the most important way to maintain a 4- stroke outboard motor is to change the engine crankcase oil (and change or clean the filter, as applicable) on a regular basis. Generally Suzuki recommends this service be performed every 200 hours or at the end of each season, immediately before the motor is placed into storage. That is, as long as you use an equivalent high-quality, high-detergent oil of the proper viscosity (SAE 10W-40) For more information regarding engine oil, refer to OIL RECOMMENDATIONS earlier in this section. Research from experts who deal with these motors every day tells us that some of the early mid-range and larger hp models were especially subject to camshaft lobe wear if the engine oil was not changed regularly. During each pre-season tune-up, watch for excessive changes in valve clearance as possible signs of wear. If found, change the oil more freauentlv or. if oil other than the manufacturer's recommended brand is being used, try changing the type of oil too. Whenever the engine oil is drained, the oil filter should also be serviced. Most of the models covered by this manual utilize one of two categories of oil filters, the first being reusable elements and the second being disposable elements. We say MOST, because the smallest motor, 2.5 hp, does not use a filter. The 41516 hp motors utilize a reusable element which is nothing more than a filter screen mounted in a holder on the bottom of the crankcase, under the oil pump assembly. All 9.9 hp and larger motors are equipped with a disposable element. For the 9.9115 hp motors this is a cylindrical paper element with metal or composite end-caps that is installed in a bore in the crankcase and sealed with a cover and O-rings. The rest of the motors (25 hp and larger), utilize a disposable, automotive style, spin-on filter mounted to the side of the powerhead. The best method to remove the spin-on filter (resulting in fewest skinned knuckles) is a filter wrench, and our preference is the cap style that fits over the end of the filter (but a compressing band clamp style can work well too if it's the right size). When purchasing a replacement oil filter check Fig. 80 . ..but on 9.9115 hp, 25/30 hp (3-cyl) Fig. 78 The oil drain plug is usually located Fig. 79 For 25 hp V2,40-70 hp and 200-300 hp and 90-140 hp motors, the plug is on the near the bottom of the engine cover motors the drain plug is on the port side. .. starboard side Fig. 82 All 25-300 hp motors use a Fig. 83 The oil filter on most of the EFI Fig. 81 On 9.9115 hp motors the filter is disposable spin-on oil filter which is OFTEN motors is mounted directly under the intake mounted under a bolted cap assembly hidden behind an engine cover manifold your local marine dealer or automotive parts dealer for a cap or band wrench that fits the filter. Most people who have worked on their own machines, whether that is tractors, motorcycles, carsltrucks or boat motors, will tell you that oil should be changed hot. This seems to have always been the popular method, and it works well since hot oil flows betterlfaster and may remove more deposits that are still held in suspension. Of course, hot oil can be messy or even a little bit dangerous to work with. Coupled with the sometimes difficult method of draining oil from amoutboard, this might make it better in some instances to drain the oil cold. Of course, if this is desired, you'll have to leave more time for the oil to drain completely, thereby removing as much contaminants as possible from the crankcase. The choice is really yours, but be sure to take the appropriate steps to protect yourself either way. @ If the engine is not being placed in storage after the oil change, it should be run to normal operating temperature (in a test tank or with a flushing device) and inspected for leaks before returning it to service. If the engine is being placed into storage it should also be run using a flush device, just start and run the engine for a few minutes to thoroughly circulate the fresh oil, then prepare it for storage by fogging the motor. If you decide to change oil with the engine hot, a source of cooling such as a test tank or flushing hose must be attached to the engine to prevent impeller or powerhead damage when running the engine to normal operating temperature. If you are lucky enough to store the boat (or live) close to waters in which to use the boat, you can simply enjoy a morning, evening or whole day on the water before changing the oil. The amount of time necessary to haul the boat and tow it to your work area should allow the oil to cool enough so that it won't be scalding hot, but still warm enough to flow well. @ Although it is not recommended for normal service, the oil CAN be drained without removing the engine cases (on most models) or servicing the filter. This might be desired if too much oil was added during a routine level check or if a small sample of oil is to be removed for inspection. 1. Prepare the engine and work area for the oil change by placing the motor in a fullv vertical oosition over a larae, flattened cardboard box (which can be used tb catch any dripping oil missed by the drain pan). Have a drain pan, a few quarts larger than the capacity (refer to the Capacities -Four Stroke Engines chart) for the motor and a lot of clean rags or disposable shop towels handy. A lower engine cover must be removed to service all oil filters EXCEPT the 25 hp V2 and the 300 hp V6. For all other models you must remove either the port or starboard cover for access, depending upon where the filter is located. On 25-70 hp inline motors, as well as 200-250 hp V6 models this means you need to remove the PORT side engine cover. On 90-175 hp inline models you need to remove the Starboard engine cover. On 39/15 hp Suzuki mentions removing both covers, probably because it's easier than just trying to remove the one, but you can decide for yourself once you locate the cover for the filter. It really just depends on the stability of the other cover, if the other cover is secure, then removing just the one is probably fine. For details, refer to the Engine Cover procedure in this section. 2. Remove the upper engine cover and locate the oil filter. Determine if it is necessary to remove the lower side engine cover(s) based on access to the filter. If necessary or desired, refer to the Engine Cover procedure for more details. M Before removing the powerhead on a 41516 hp (138cc) motor for access to the oil filterlpump assembly, at least double-check under the cowling to make sure no access panel has been added to the design. a. On 41516 hp motors we've got bad news for you. The filter "element" is a small screen that is secured in a holder underneath the crankcase. The only way to access it is to Remove the Powerhead (yes, you read that correctly, you need to remove the powerhead and separate the lower engine cowlina. then remove the filter screen holder from the bottom of the crankcase). It looks like the holder probably pulls straight out of the bottom of the gearcase, but no details are given in the Suzuki service information to confirm this. The filter screen can be washed in solvent, dried with compressed air and then reinstalled. Although it is not critical which you do first on these models, it is probably easier to drain the engine oil before attempting to access the filter. b. On 9.9115 hp motors, the disposable replacement element is housed in bore on the port side of the crankcase block, right before the cylinder head split line. Three bolts secure a rounded cover over the housing. A spring which rests against the center of the cover holds the filter securely in the bore when the cover is in place, while a small O-ring seals the inner end (block end) of the filter and a large O-ring seals the cover. The lower engine on that side really much be removed for access. When servicing the filter ALWAYS use new O-rings and make sure remove both of the old O-rings (don't leave that little one in the bore if it separates from the filter). Also, during assembly, be sure the spring is seated between the filter and cover. c. On 25 hp V2 motors, the disposable spin-on (automotive style) filter is located on the STARBOARD side of the powerhead, right in front of the powerhead lift bracket. There is no need to remove the lower engine covers for access on this model. d. On 25/30 hp (3-cyl), 40-70 hp and 200-250 hp motors, the disposable spin-on (automotive style) filter is located on the PORT side of the powerhead. For access you should remove at least the port side cover. Service is fairly straight forward from that point. e. On 90-175 hp motors, the disposable spin-on (automotive style) filter is located on the STARBOARD side of ihe ~owerhead. For access YOU should remove at least the starboard side cover. Service is fairly straight forward from that point. f. On 300 hp motors, the disposable spin-on (automotive style) filter is located on the STARBOARD side of the powerhead, a little below and behind the starter motors. There is no need to remove the lower engine covers for access on this model. The drain plug on MOST motors requires a suitably sized Allen wrench. 3. Locate and remove the oil drain plug and gasket as follows: a On 2.5 hp models a drain plug is located somewhere on the underside of the powerheadllower engine cover assembly. It's close to the swivel bracket, just a little outboard of a few of the powerheadlcover mounting bolts. On 41516 hp models the drain plug (usually a large, flat-heat screw, but we believe a 6mm Allen head bolt has been used on some models) is located on the underside of the powerhead (a little behind the choke knob and just far back ertough to put it in the vicinity of the sight glass). On 9.9115 hp, 25/30 hp (3-cyi) and 90-140 hp motors, the plug is on the starboard lower side of the outboard, towards the front of the motor, just above or at the base of the lower cover split line. On 25 hp V2,40-70 hp and 200-300 hp motors the plug is on the port, lower side of the outboard, towards the front of the motor. B In order to improve oil flow while draining, remove the oil fill cap. 4. Either hold the drain pan tightly against the side of the motor, or allow the oil to run down the side of the motor and drip into the pan. The later method is preferred if draining the engine cold as the oil will require more time to drain than you will want to stand there with the pan in your hand. In some cases you may be able to tilt the motor slightly and turn it toward the drain pan in order to help the oil to drain out and downward into the pan as opposed to out and all over the motor. 5. Inspect the drain plug and gasket for signs of damage. Replace the plug or gasket if any damage is found. Also, watch the draining oil for signs of contamination by moisture (a milky appearance will result), by fuel (a strong odor and thinner running oil would be present) or signs of metallic flakeslparticles. A small amount of tiny metallic particles is a sign of normal wear, but large amounts or large pieces indicate internal engine damage and the need for an overhaul to determine and rectify the cause. 6. When it appears that the oil has drained, tilt the engine slightly and pivot it toward the drain plug side to ensure complete oil drainage. Clean the drain plug, the engine and the gearcase. Place a new gasket onto the drain plug then carefully thread the plug into the opening. Tighten the plug securely. On models with Allen head drain plugs tighten the plug to 7 ft. Ibs. (1 0 Nm) for 2.5-6 hp motors or to 9.5 ft. lbs.1115 inch Ibs. (1 3 Nm) for 9.9- 250 hp motors, Although it is not absolutely necessary to replace the gasket each time, it is a cheap way to help protect against possible leaks. We think it is a good idea. 7. On 41516 hp models, service the filter screen as follows: a. Remove the powerhead from the lower cover. For details, refer to the Removal & Installation procedure in the Powerhead section. b. Free the rounded filter holder from the underside of the crankcase, right below the oil pump. c. Inspect the screen for signs of contamination, clogging or damage, then clean it with solvent or replace it, as applicable. Reinstall the filter, filter holder and finally the powerhead. 8. For models equipped with a disposable, element mounted inside the crankcaselblock (9.9115 hp motors) remove and service the filter as follows: d, Make sure the lower engine cover($ were removed earlier. e. Place a couple of stout shop rags under the oil filter housing, then loosen and remove the 3 bolts securing the filter cover to the crankcase. f. Slowly pull back on the top of the cover to break the seal, then pull the cover off while keeping track of the spring. g. Remove and discard the filter and the old O-rings (both the large cover O-ring and the smaller filter O-ring which goes between the filter and the inner portion of the filter chamber. Although not specified by Suzuki, it is usually a good idea to coat the new housing O-ring lightly with some fresh engine oil before installation. h. Position the NEW O-rings, followed by the filter. Make sure the filter seats in the chamber, then position the spring and finally the cover. Install the cover screws and tighten securely. B Although the procedure for spin-on filters talks about placing a shop rag under the filter while it is removed, there is an alternate method to prevent a mess. If desired, loosen the filter slightly with a cap wrench, then slide a disposable Zip-Lock(r) or similar food storage bag completely over the filter and unthread it into the bag. Position the shop rag anyway, just to be sure to catch any stray oil that escapes. With a little practice, you'll find this method can be one of the best ways to remove oil filters. Another method to help prevent a mess it to pre-drain the filter before removal by making a couple of small holes in it with a small punch (one toward the top for ventilation and one or more on the bottom for draining). 9. For models equipped with a disposable, spin-on filter element (25- 300 hp motors) remove and service the filter as follows: a. Except for 25 hp V2 and 300 hp V6 motors, make sure the lower engine coverts) were removed earlier. We say except, but it is a lot easier to position a small drain pan or rage if you also remove the cover on these motors. b. Position a small drain pain andlor a shop rag underneath the filter, then place the oil filter wrench onto filter element. c. Loosen the spin-on element by turning the filter wrench counterclockwise, then remove the wrench and finish unthreading the element by hand. Remove the filter from the powerhead and clean up any spilled oil. d. Make sure the rubber gasket is not stuck to the oil filter mounting surface, then use a lint free shop rag to clean all dirt and oil from mounting surface. e. Apply a thin coating of engine oil to the sealing ring of the new oil filter, then thread the filter onto the adapter until the sealing washer touches the mounting surface. Tighten the filter using a cap wrench and a torque wrench to 10 ft. Ibs. (14 Nm) and then tighten it an additional 314 turn. 10. Clean up any spilled oil, and then install the lower engine [email protected]) by carefully aligning the screw holes in the two covers, while also aligning the lower cover mating surfaces. Be sure to install and tighten the screws securely. Also, don't forget to install any additional removed components such as the aft cover latch andlor the cover seal. 11. Refill the engine through the oil filler cap as described under Checking Engine Oil in this section. Add the oil gradually, checking the oil level frequently. Add oil until the level reaches the upper dipstick or Full mark. 12. Provide a temporary cooling system to the engine as detailed under Flushing The Cooling System, then start the engine and run it to normal operating temperature while visually checking for leakage. If the engine is being placed into storage, don't run the motor too long, just long enough to use a can of fogging spray. Between the fresh oil circulated through the motor and the fogging spray coating the inside of the intake and combustion chambers you motor should sleep like a baby until next season. 13. Stop the motor and allow it to cool, then properly re-check the oil level after it has settled again into the crankcase. 14. If removed for access, install the lower engine cover(s). 15. On 2001 or later EFI motors, if the system has been activated refer to the Oil Change Reminder System in the EFI section to reset the oil change reminder. See Figures 84 and 85 Regular maintenance and inspection of the lower unit is critical for proper operation and reliability. A lower unit can quickly fail if it becomes heavily contaminated with water or excessively low on oil. The most common cause of a lower unit failure is water contamination. Water in the lower unit is usually caused by fishing line or other foreign material, becoming entangled around the propeller shaft and damaging the seal. If the line is not removed, it will eventually cut the propeller shaft seal and allow water to enter the lower unit. Fishing line has also been known to cut a groove in the propeller shaft if left neglected over time. This area should be checked frequently, OIL RECOMMENDATIONS Use Suzuki Outboard Motor Gear Oil, or an equivalent high quality, SAE #90 gearcase hypoid lube. These oils are designed to ensure optimal performance and to minimize corrosion in the lower unit. Remember, it is this lower unit lubricant that prevents corrosion and lubricates the internal parts of the drive gears. Lack of lubrication due to water contamination or the improper type of oil can cause catastrophic lower unit failure. Fig. 84 This lower unit was destroyed Fia. 86 The ventllevel olua is alwavs near 1 because the bearing carrier froze due to Fig. 85 Fishing line entangled behind the the top, while the fill and drain plug is near lack of lubrication prop can actually cut through the seal the bottom of the gearcase I CHECKING GEARCASE OIL LEVEL & CONDITION + See Figure 86 Visually inspect the gearcase before and after each use for signs of leakage. At least monthly, or as needed, remove the gearcase level plug in order to check the lubricant level and condition as follows: 1. Position the engine in the upright position with the motor shut off for at least 1 hour. Whenever possible, checking the level overnight cold will give a true indication of the level without having to account for heat expansion. 2. Disconnect the negative battery cable or remove the propeller for safety. Always observe extreme care when working anywhere near the propeller. Take steps to ensure that no accidental attempt to start the engine occurs while work is being performed or remove the propeller completely to be safe. 3. Position a small drain pan under the gearcase, then unthread the drainlfiller plug at the bottom of the housing just enough to allow a small smote (a teaspoon or less) to drain from the gearcase. Quickly install the drainifiller plug and tighten securely. 4. Examine the gear oil as follows: a. Visually check the oil for obvious signs of water. A small amount of moisture may be present from condensation, especially if a motor has been stored tor some time, but a milky appearance indicates that either the fluid has not been changed in ages or the gearcase allowing some water to intrude. If significant water contamination is present, the first suspect is the propeller shaft seal. b. Dip an otherwise clean finger into the oil, then rub a small amount of the fluid between your finger and your thumb to check for the presence of debris. The lubricant should feel smooth. A very small amount of metallic shavings may be present, but should not really be felt. Large amounts of grit or metallic particles indicate the need to overhaul the gearcase looking for damaged/worn gears, shafts, bearings or thrust surfaces. M If a large amount of lubricant escapes when the levellvent plug is removed, either the gearcase was seriously overfilled on the last service, the crankcase is still too hot from the last use (and the fluid is expanded) or a large amount of water has entered the gearcase. If the later is true, some water should escape before the oil and/or the oil will be a milky white in appearance (showing the moisture contamination). 5. Next, remove the levellvent plug from the top of the gearcase and ensure the lubricant level is up to the bottom of the levellvent plug opening. A very small amount of fluid may be added through the level plug, but larger amounts of fluid should be added through the drainlfiller plug opening to make certain that the case is properly filled. If necessary, add gear oil until fluid flows from the levellvent opening. If much more than 1 oz. (29 ml) is required to fill the gearcase, check the case carefully for leaks. Install the drainlfiller plugs and/or the levellvent plug, then tighten both securely. M One trick that makes adding gearcase oil less messy is to install the levellvent plug BEFORE removing the pump from the drainlfiller opening and threading the drainlfiller plug back into position. 6. Once fluid is pumped into the gearcase, let the unit sit in a shaded area for at least 1 hour for the fluid to settle. Recheck the fluid level and, if necessary, add more lubricant. 7. Install the propeller andlor connect the negative battery cable, as applicable. DRAINING AND FILLING See Figures 87,88 and 88a The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soao and water or waterless hand cleaner should be used. 1. Place a suitable container under the lower unit. 2. Loosen the oil levellvent plug on the lower unit. This step is important! If the oil levellvent plug cannot be loosened or removed, you cannot complete lower unit lubricant service. B Don't remove the vent or filler plugs when the lower unit is hot. Expanded lubricant will be released through the hole. 3. Remove the drainlfiller plug from the lower end of the gear housing followed by the oil levellvent plug. 4. Allow the lubricant to completely drain from the lower unit. 5. If applicable, check the magnet end of the drain screw for metal particles. Some amount of metal is considered normal wear is to be expected but if there are signs of metal chips or excessive metal particles, the gearcase needs to be disassembled and inspected. 6. Inspect the lubricant for the presence of a milky white substance, water or metallic particles. If any of these conditions are present, the lower unit should be serviced immediately. 7. Place the outboard in the proper position for filling the lower unit. The lower unit should not list to either port or starboard and should be completely vertical. 8. Insert the lubricant tube into the oil drain hole at the bottom of the lower unit and inject lubricant until the excess begins to come out the oil level hole. W The lubricant must be filled from the bottom to prevent air from being trapped in the lower unit. Air displaces lubricant and can cause a tack of lubrication or a false lubricant level in the lower unit. 9. Oil should be squeezed in using a tube or with the larger quantities, by using a pump kit to fill the gearcase through the drain plug. Fig. 87 On most 50 hp and smaller Fig. 88 Gearcase oil is pumped into the Fig. 88a The best method of refilling a gearcases, DO NOT confuse the FLUSH plug lower unit through the filler, while the vent is gearcase is to use some form of a hand with the VENT plug used to let air escape ilumu 1 1 M One trick that makes adding gearcase oil less messy is to install the levellvent plug BEFORE removing the pump from the drainlfiller opening and threading the drainlfiller plug back into position. 10. Using new gaskets (usually plastic or fiber washers) install the oil levellvent plug first, then install the oil fill plug. 11. Wipe the excess oil from the lower unit and inspect the unit for leaks. 12. Place the used lubricant in a suitable container for transportation to an authorized recycling facility. Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. A fuel filter is designed to keep particles of dirt and debris from entering the carburetor(s) or the fuel injection system and clogging the tiny internal passages of each. A small speck of dirt, rust, gunk from a dirty tank or sand can drastically affect the ability of the fuel system to deliver the proper amount of air and fuel to the engine. If a filter becomes clogged, the flow of gasoline will be impeded. This could cause lean fuel mixtures, hesitation and stumbling and idle problems in carburetors. Although a clogged fuel passage in a fuel injected engine could also cause lean symptoms and idle problems, dirt can also prevent a fuel injector from closing properly. A fuel injector that is stuck partially open by debris will cause the engine to run rich due to the unregulated fuel constantly spraying from the pressurized injector. Regular inspection, cleaning (if serviceable) or replacement (if not serviceable) of the fuel filter will decrease the risk of blocking the flow of fuel to the engine, which could leave you stranded on the water. It will also decrease the risk of damage to the small passages of a carburetor or fuel injector that could require more extensive and expensive replacement. Keep in mind that fuel filters are usually inexpensive and replacement is a simple task. Service your fuel filter on a regular basis to avoid fuel delivery problems. The type of fuel filter used on your engine will vary not only with the year and model, but it can also vary with the accessories and rigging. Because of the number of possible variations it is impossible to say with certainty what filter you MAY find on the boat itself, but we can give you a good idea of the filter that Suzuki put on the powerhead. In addition to the fuel filter mounted on the engine, a filter or sock is often found inside or the fuel tank and some boat manufacturers or dealers will rig a boat with an additional water separating fuel filter inline between a built-in fuel tank and the motor. Because of the large variety of differences in both portable and fixed fuel tanks, it is impossible to give a detailed procedure for removal and installation. Most in-tank filters are simply a screen on the pick- up line inside the fuel tank. Filters of this type usually only need to be cleaned and returned to service (assuming they are not torn or otherwise damaged). Fuel filters on the outside of the tank are typically either of the inline type (which are replaced by simply removing the clamps, disconnecting the hoses and installing a new filter) or look like automotive spin-on oil filters (water separating fuel filters). When installing a new inline filter, make sure the arrow on the filter points in the direction of fuel flow. To determine for certain what filter(s) are utilized by your boat and motor rigging, trace the fuel line from the tank to the fuel pump and then from the pump to the carburetors (or vapor separator tank). SERVICING LOW-PRESSURE FUEL FILTERS Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. In all cases, inspect the filter at least annually, every 50 hours of operation or if problems are suspected with the low-pressure circuit. Regardless, the filter should be cleaned (if serviceable) or replaced by every 400 hours or bi- annually. 2.5 Hp Models See Figure 89 It should be no surprise that the smallest and simplest Suzuki motor also contains the simplest of the fuel filter assemblies. On these motors there is a small, inline, filter element installed between the tank fuel outlet and the fuel petcock valve. Service should be a relatively simple manner of carefully disconnecting the fuel valve from the tank (it's a single bolt) but this is best done with the tank empty and removed. For more details, please refer to Integral Fuel Tanks, under Fuel Tank in the Fuel System section. As whenever you are working around fuel be sure to carefully check for fuel leaks after the service is completed and before the motor is returned to use. 4-15 Hp Models See Figures 90 and 91 These models are normally equipped with a simple, non-serviceable inline filter which can be inspected through the partially translucent filter body and simply replaced if it is suspect. The filter on these models is normally found on the fuel inlet line between the tank and the fuel pump. This puts it at the front starboard side of the powerhead on 41516 hp motors, or on the rear port side of the motor for 9.9115 hp models. On the 9.9115 hp model the filter is behind the port lower engine side cover, and removing the cover usually posable inline filter used on 41516 Fig. 91 Disposable inline filter used on 9.9115 hp motors makes access a lot easier, though we find it is not absolutely necessary. Because of the relative ease and relatively low expense of a filter (when compared with the time and hassle of a carburetor overhaul) we encourage you to service the filter at least bi-annually. When replacing a disposable filter, release the hose clamps (they are usually equipped with spring-type clamps that are released by squeezing the tabs using a pair of pliers, though some might used crimped-type clamps which must be cut away and replaced), then slide them back on the hose, past the raised portion of the filter inleVoutlet nipples. Once a clamp is released, position a small drain pan or a shop towel under the filter and carefully pull the hose from the nipple. Allow any fuel remaining in the filter and fuel line to drain into the drain pan or catch fuel with the shop towel. Repeat on the other side of the filter, noting which fuel line connects to which portion of the filter (for assembly purposes). Inline filters are usually marked with an arrow indicating fuel flow. The arrow should point towards the fuel line that runs to the motor components (not the fuel tank). Before installation of the new filter, make sure the hoses are in good condition and not brittle, cracking and otherwise in need of replacement. During installation, be sure to fully seat the hoses, then place the clamps over the raised portions of the nipples to secure them. Spring clamps will weaken over time, so replace them if they've lost their tension. If wire ties or adjustable clamps were used, be careful not to overtighten the clamp. If the clamp cuts into the hose, it's too tight; loosen the clamp or cut the wire tie (as applicable) and start again. When you are finished, be sure to pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. 25/30 Hp 3-Cyl and 40-70 Hp Models See Figures 92 and 93 MOST of these models are equipped with a non-serviceable, inline canister filter which can be inspected through the partially translucent filter body and replaced if it is suspect. We say MOST however, because even tno~ignsome of the Suzuki factory literature suggests otherwise we've seem some exceptions where a serviceable version of this filter (one with a drain nipple and sealing cap toward the bottom of the canister) has been used on some of these motors, and it is our belief that you COULD find this type of filter on any of these models. If inspection shows that you have a serviceable variant with a drain nipple on these motors, no big deal, just refer to the additional information found under the 25 Hp190-175 Hp procedure later in this section. Like most Suzuki low-pressure fuel filters, the filters on these models is normally found inline, between the fuel inlet fitting and the fuel pump. Exact location may vary slightly, but that generally puts it in a bracket toward the rear starboard side of the motor. For MOST of these models the filter is located at a point above the engine cover to that there is no need to remove the cover for access, but on some the filter may be fully or partially obscured by the cover and removal may make things easier. o--^,..--,. ? 5e relative ease and relatively low expense of a filter (when . . compared with the time and hassle of a carburetor overhaul) we encourage you to service the filter at least bi-annually. These filters may also be labeled with arrows showing fuel flow, but why take the risk, note the hose positions before disconnecting anything. When replacing a disposable filter of this type the fuel line nipples are usually located on the same side of the filter so it is important to note which hose connects to which nipple before proceeding. There may be exceptions, but generally speaking the inlet hose (from the fuel supply fitting) connects to the lower nipple while the fuel outlet hose (which goes to the fuel pump) connects to the upper nipple. Also like the smaller motors covered earlier, the fuel hoses are normally retained on these nipples by spring-type hose clamps. To disconnect the hoses, release the hose clamps by squeezing the tabs using a pair of pliers, then slide them back on the hose, past the raised portion of the filter inletloutlet nipples. Once a clamp is released, position a small drain pan or a shop towel under the filter and carefully pull the hose from the nipple. Allow any fuel remaining in the filter and fuel line to drain into the drain can or catch fuel with the shop towel. Repeat on the other nipple. Before installation of the new filter, make sure the hoses are in good condition and not brittle, cracking and otherwise in need of replacement. During installation, be sure to fully seat the hoses, then place the clamps over the raised portions of the nipples to secure them. Spring clamps will weaken over time, so replace them if they've lost their tension. If wire ties or adjustable clamps are used, be careful not to overtighten the clamp. If the clamp cuts into the hose, it's too tight; loosen the clamp or cut the wire tie (as applicable) and start again. When you are finished, be sure to pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. 25 Hp V2 and 90-175 Hp Models See Figures 94 and 95 Most of these motors are equipped with a partially serviceable, inline, canister filter which is VERY similar to the one found on most 25/30 hp 3-cyl and 40-70 hp models, the one difference being that instead of just two fuel hose nipples (one inlet and one outlet) these filters NORMALLY also have an additional drain nipple toward the bottom of the canister. H We say NORMALLY have because once again the service literature and models we've seen in the field don't always agree, but IF they don't have the serviceable nipple it is no big deal, it just means the whole canister must be replaced the same way as the serviceable ones. To service this type of filter, remove it from the powerhead and remove the cap from the lower nipple. Drain the fuel (and any debris) from the bottom of the filter. If necessary, use a length of hose to pour some fuel back in through the top (fuel OUTLET) nipple to back flush debris from the filter element and out the drain at the bottom. Obviously, upon reinstallation make sure the cap on the bottom of these filters is secure otherwise you risk dangerous fuel leaks. Now like many of the smaller models, access to the filter itself is usually pretty straight forward (i.e. you usually don't have to remove the lower engine covers, but if you find one where you have to, again, no big deal). Keep in mind that on 1501175 hp motors the filter is located under its own protective cover which must be removed for access to the filter. To remove this cover gently grab it and pull the TOP OF THE COVER OUTWARD and then lift upward to free the cover from the powerhead. Also like most of the smaller models the INLET fuel line (from the fuel supply) is usually mounted lower on the filter assembly than the OUTLET fuel line (like to the Vapor Separator Tank). However, just to be sure, always note the fuel line positions before they are disconnected. The lines themselves are secured with spring-type clamps, so to loosen them simply squeeze the tabs with a pair of pliers and slide the clamps back up the hose until it is past the nipple. Have a rag or drain pan handy to catch any escaping fuel and gently disconnect the fuel lines. ALWAYS inspect the fuel lines for brittleness or cracking and replace any that show signs of deterioration. The LAST thing you want out on the water is an unexpected fuel leak! Same goes for the hose clamps, replace any that are weak or have lost their spring. When you are finished, be sure to pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. 200-300 Hp Models See Figure 96 The V6 motors covered here utilize a full-serviceable inline low-pressure fuel filter. The filter element itself is mounted inside a housing that can be opened so the element can be removed, inspected, cleaned in solvent and either returned to service or replaced, as necessary. Though the element should not require very frequent service, it should be visually checked each and every time the top cover comes off the motor. The filter housing contains a RED indicator float which surrounds the filter element and will rise (float) in the presence of water. Whenever the red float is UP the filter cap should be removed so the water can be drained. To drain water or remove the element for cleaning, inspection and/or replacement, proceed as follows: 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. A lockring is used to secure the filter housing (cup) to the filter head (cap). Because of this you SHOULD be able to leave the hoses attached while removing the housing and element, but in some instances the additional playlaccess that comes from disconnecting the hoses can be handy. 2. If necessary in order to reposition the housing, tag and disconnect the 2 hoses attached to the top of the fuel filter assembly (the cap or filter head). The factory usually secures these fuel lines with spring-type hose clamps. Squeeze the clamp tabs and hold while sliding the clamps up the hose, past the raised nipple on the fitting. If other threaded clamps are used, loosen and slide them back. If wire ties were used, they must be cut away carefully, making sure not to damage the hose. Inspect all metallic clamps for corrosion, lack of spring tension and/or other damage. Replace any faulty or questionable hose clamps. 3. Also, if necessary for better access, remove the 2 bolts securing the low-pressure fuel filter to the bracket, then remove the entire fuel filter assembly from the assembly. 4. Position a container or shop rag below the fuel filter. Loosen the ring nut which secures the filter housing to the filter head, then carefully separate the two. 5. Remove the large O-ring which secures the housing to the head, then remove the filter element and the small O-ring which seals the element to the head. 6. Clean the filter using a suitable solvent, then blow it dry with low pressure compressed air (or allow it to air dry). Inspect the element of serviceable filters for clogs or tears and replace if damaged. Take a GOOD look at the O-rings and replace them if they are cut, worn or otherwise damaged. To install: 7. Assemble the filter element into the filter head using a small O-ring, then position the large O-ring and connect the filter housing to the head. Use the ring nut to secure the housing. 8. If removed, reposition the filter to the powerhead and tighten the retaining bolts. 9. If removed, reconnect the fuel lines as noted or tagged during removal. Secure the hoses using the spring clamps. If using wire ties or threaded clamps as replacements, be sure not to over-tighten the clamps, cutting the hoses. 10. Pressurize the fuel system using the fuel primer bulb from the tank line and check for leaks. Observe the fuel hose fittings for fuel leakage and repair any fuel leaks before starting the motor. Clean up any spilled fuel. SERVICING HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL FILTERS (EFI MOTORS ONLY) @ See Figure 97 Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well-ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Do not smoke while working around gasoline. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion. Suzuki fuel injected motors are equipped with two interrelated fuel circuits, the high-pressure and low-pressure systems. The low-pressure system operates essentially the same way as does a 4-stroke carbureted motor's Fig. 92 Typical disposablelnon-serviceable Fig. 93 Another example of a non- Fig. 94 View of a serviceable inline canister inline filter (25130 hp 3-cyl shown) serviceable inline filter (40150 hp shown) filter I I I 1 Element fuel system. A mechanical, engine mounted fuel pump draws fuel from the tank and feeds a mechanical float controlled fuel reservoir. The difference occurs at this point as the reservoir is for the high-pressure circuit and electric high-pressure pump instead of a float bowl attached to a carburetor. These motors usually contain at least 3 fuel filters, two of these filters are inline and are replaced during normal service. One inline filter is used for each fuel circuit (the Low-Pressure one was covered earlier in this section) and the High-pressure on is covered here. The high-pressure circuit is protected by an inline filter canister found between the high-pressure pump (in the vapor separator tank) and the fuel rail assembly. An additional filter screen is mounted on the electric high-pressure fuel wmo inlet. Althouah this screen can be reolaced, it is not normallv Dart of maintenance. ~he"~um~ filter screen can only be replaced once the pump is removed from the vapor separator. Depending on the boat rigging, additional inline filters or tank filter screen may also be present. To avoid the possibility of fire and personal injury, always disconnect the negative battery cable while servicing the fuel system or fuel system components. Always place a shop towel or cloth around the fitting or connection prior to loosening to absorb any excess fuel due to spillage. Ensure that all fuel spillage is removed from engine surfaces. On fuel injected engines, always relieve system pressure prior to disconnecting any high-pressure fuel circuit component, fitting or fuel line. For details, please refer to Fuel System Pressurization under Fuel Injection. Exercise extreme caution whenever relieving fuel system pressure to avoid fuel spray and potential serious bodily injury. Please be advised that fuel under pressure may penetrate the skin or any part of the body it contacts. The canister itself is attached somewhere near the VST (usually right above it or next to it, but on 60170 hp motors, it's right below the VST). To locate the canister, take a look in the following areas, depending upon the model: On 40150 hp motors the canister can be found at the top of the powerhead, on the port side, just above the intake. On 60170 hp motors the canister is also on the port side, but toward the center at the bottom of the powerhead (just below and inboard of the intake manifold. * On 90-140 hp motors the canister is on the starboard side of the powerhead, a little more than halfway back, just inboard and slightly above the intake manifold. On 1501175 hp motors the canister is on the aft end of the powerhead, bolted vertically directly above the VST assembly at the end of the intake manifold. * On 200-300 hp V-motors the canister is toward the top, front port-side of the powerhead. directly above the VST assembly. Pig. 97 Typical High-pressure fuel filter (mounting varies) -40150 hp shown 1. Properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described in Fuel System Pressurization under the Fuel Injection section, then disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. en if you leave the fuel pump wiring harness disconnected (part of e fuel pressure relief procedure on most models) it is still a good idea disconnect the negative battery cable. Remember that sparks are a ngerous source of ignition that could ignite fuel vapors and by removing battery power from the engine components you help minimize the possibility of causing sparks while working on the motor. 2. If necessary on 60170 hp models, remove the lower engine cover for access, as described in this section under Engine Cover. H The filter canister is normally embossed with markings (IN and OUT) indicating where the fuel line comes IN from the pump or the line OUT to the fuel rail attach. With this said, we would still advice tagging the fuel lines prior to removal to help ensure ease of connection during filter installation. Remember, the line from the VST should attach to the IN fitting of the filter, while the line which goes out to the fuel injectors should attach to the OUT fitting, 3, Tag the fuel hoses and note the filter positioning, then remove the clamps and carefully pull the hoses from the fittings on each end of the filter. Drain any residual fuel from the hoses. 4. Remove the filter from the powerhead (on some models it may be necessary to remove the retaining bollfbolts from the bracket first). Drain residual fuel from the filter. To install: 5. Position the filter as noted during removal, carefully seat the hoses over the fittings and secure using the clamps. Make sure any spring-type clamps used have not lost their tension. If threaded clamps or wire ties are used, they should be snug, but not tight enough to cut the hose. M Upon installation, be certain to connect the hoses as tagged during removal. The hose from the fuel pump connects to the IN fitting, while the fuel rail hose connects to the fitting marked OUT. If the hoses were repositioned while servicing the filter, make sure they are routed as they were prior to removal. This will help ensure that there will be no interference with parts of the motor that could damage the hoses through heat or contact. 6. Secure the filter by tightening the mounting bolt(s). 7. Connect the negative battery cable and either reinstall the fuel pump fuse or reconnect the pump wiring harness (as applicable) then pressurize the fuel system and check for leakage before starting the motor. For details, refer to Fuel System Pressurization, under Fuel System. 8. Once you are assured there are no leaks you can reinstall the engine top cover. Of course, on 60170 hp motors, if you've removed the lower engine cowling, you'll have to install that first. motors are equipped with a number of breather and/or fuel supply lines. As stated earlier under BeforeIAfter Each Use all of these hoses should be checked visually each time you go out. However, at least once per year you should perform a more thorough check of these hoses. Get to know how hard or soft they are when new so that you can help spot when they have become dried outlbrittle or softened and ready to perforate. Breather hoses interconnect parts of the crankcase and usually the intake tract. The function of a breather hose is to control the vacuum/~ressure created inside the motor by the Otto cycle. On all motors when equipped these hoses should be carefully checked at least once a year, however on most motors these hoses are listed as a periodic (bi-annual) replacement item to prevent problems. Honestly, we think most people probably wait until they find the hose is brittlelcracking or is collapsing before they replace them, but they are mentioned in the manufacturer maintenance tables and thought we at least had to bring it up here. Use your best judgment when deciding when (or when not) to replace any hoses. If anything we'd replace fuel hoses more often, because a crackleak can be a much bigger deal on a fuel hose than a breather hose. See Figures 98,99 and 100 The propeller is secured to the gearcase propshaft either by a cotter pin on the smallest outboards only (2.5-6 hp motors), or by a castellated hex nut on all other Suzuki motors. For models secured by a hex nut, the propeller is driven by a splined connection to the shaft and the rubber drive hub found inside the propeller. The rubber hub provides a cushioning that allows softer shifts, but more importantly, it provides some measure of protection for the gearcase components in the event of an impact. On motors where the propeller is retained by a cotter pin, the propeller is actually DRIVEN by a shear or drive pin (which the propeller is mounted over top of) and impact protection is normally provided by the drive pin itself. The pin is designed to break or shear when a specific amount of force is applied because the propeller hits something. In both cases (rubber hubs or shear pins) the amount of force necessary to break the hub or shear the pin is supposed to be just less than the amount of force necessary to cause gearcase component damage. In this way, the hope is that the propeller and hub or shear pin will be sacrificed in the event of a collision, but the more expensive gearcase components will survive unharmed. Although these systems do supply a measure of protection, this, unfortunately, is not always the case and gearcase component damage will still occur with the right impact or with a sufficient amount of force. Because the 90-300 hp motors use an offset crankshaft with a separate crankshaft driven gear the MOTORS were designed to rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE (or Left-Hand) in order to drive the driven gear and driveshaft the same standard CLOCKWISE direction that other motors rotate. In this way the gearcases for these Left-Hand turning powerheads can still utilize standard Right-Hand (standard rotation) propellers. INSPECTION See Figures 98,99 and 100 The propeller should be inspected before and after each use to be sure the blades are in good condition. If any of the blades become bent or nicked, this condition will set up vibrations in the motor. Remove and inspect the propeller. Use a file to trim nicks and burrs. Take care not to remove any more material than is absolutely necessary. Never run the engine with serious propeller damage, as it can allow for excessive engine speed and/or vibration that can damage the motor. Also, a damaged propeller will cause a reduction in boat performance and handlina. Also, check the rubber and splines inside the propeller hub for damage. If there is damage to either of these, take the propeller to your local marine dealer or a "prop shop". They can evaluate the damaged propeller and determine if it can be saved by rehubbing. Additionally, the propeller of splined shaft models (though the shear pin models should be greased too, just to be sure) should be removed AT LEAST everv 200 hours of ooeration or at the end of each season. whichever comes first for cleaning, greasing and inspection. whenever the propeller is removed, apply a fresh coating of Suzuki Water Resistant Grease or an equivalent water resistant, marine grease to the propeller shaft and the inner diameter of the propeller hub. This is necessary to prevent possible propeller seizure onto the shaft that could lead to costly or troublesome repairs. Also, whenever the propeller is removed, any material entanoled behind the orooeller should be removed before anv damaae to the shaft and seals can occur. This may seem like a waste of time at firs?, but the small amount of time involved in removing the propeller is returned many times by reduced maintenance and repair, including the replacement of expensive parts. Propeller shaft greasing and debris inspection should occur more often depending upon motor usage. Frequent use in salt, brackish or polluted waters would make it advisable to perform greasing more often. Similarly, frequent use in areas with heavy marine vegetation, debris or potential fishing line would necessitate more frequent removal of the propeller to ensure the gearcase seals are not in danger of becoming cut. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Do not use excessive force when removing the propeller from the hub as excessive force can result in damage to the propeller, shaft and, even other gearcase components. If the propeller cannot be removed by normal means, consider having a reputable marine shop remove it. The use of heat or impacts to free the propeller will likely lead to damage. Fig. 98 This propeller is long overdue for Fig. 99 Although minor damage can be Fig. 100 . . .a propeller specialist should repair or replacement dressed with a file. . . repair large nicks or damage Clean and lubricate the propeller and shaft splines using a high- quality, water resistant, marine grease every time the propeller is removed from the shaft. This will help keep the hub from seizing to the shaft due to corrosion (which would require special tools to remove without damage to the shaft or gearcase.) Many outboards are equipped with aftermarket propellers. Because of this, the attaching hardware may differ slightly from what is shown. Contact a reputable propeller shop or marine dealership for parts and information on other brands of propellers. 2.5-6 Hp Motors + See Figures 101 and 102 The propeller on all 2.5-6 hp motors is secured to the propshaft using a cotter pin, which either mounts directly through the end of the propeller (2.5 ho) or mounts throuah a separate propeller "nut" which fits over the end of . . the propeller. In addition to the cotter pin, the rotational force of the propeller shaft is transmitted to the propeller itself throuah a shear pin (drive pin) which is positioned through the prop shaft underneath the propeller. the propeller is positioned over top of the propeller shaft and drive pin. Be sure to always keep a spare cotter pin and drive pin handy when you are onboard the boat. Remember that a sheared drive pin will leave you stranded on the water. A damaged shear pin can also contribute to motor damage, exposing it to over-rewing while trying to produce thrust. And a damaged or missing cotter pin could allow the propeller shaft to literally fall off the end of the drive pin. Fig. 101 View of the mounted propeller on a 41516 hp gearcase 1. Cotter pin 2. Propeller nu1 3. Propeller 4. Shear pin Fig. 102 Propeller mounting -41516 hp motors (2.5 hp the same, but without a separate propeller nut) ALWAYS replace the cotter pin once it has been removed. Remember that should the cotter pin fail, you could be diving to recover your propeller. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable or, more likely since these motors are rarely equipped with batteries, disconnect the spark plug lead from the plugs for safety. Don't ever take the risk of working around the propeller if the engine could accidentally be started. Always take precautions such as disconnecting the spark plug lead and, if equipped, the negative battery cable. 2. Cut the ends off the cotter pin (as that is easier than trying to straighten them in most cases). Next, free the pin by grabbing the head with a pair of needlenose pliers. Either tap on the pliers gently with a hammer to help free the pin from the propeller cap or carefully use the pliers as a lever by carefully prying back against the propeller cone. Discard the cotter pin once it is removed. 3. On 41516 hp models, remove the propeller nut (end cap) from the end of the propeller and prop shaft. 4. Get a hold of the propeller, then carefully pull it off the shaft and the drive pin. 5. Grasp and remove the drive pin using the needlenose pliers. If the drive pin is difficult to remove, use a small punch or a new drive pin as a driver and gently tap the pin free from the shaft. To install: 6. Clean the propeller hub and shaft splines, then apply a fresh coating of Suzuki Water Resistant Grease or an equivalent water resistant, marine grease. 7. Insert the drive pin into the propeller shaft. 8. Align the propeller, then carefully slide it over the shaft and drive pin. 9. On 41516 hp models install the propeller nut (end cap). 10. Install a new cotter pin, then spread the pin ends in order to form tension and secure them. Do not bend them over too far as the pin will loosen and rattle in the shaft. 9.9 hp and Larger Motors + See Figures 103 thru 107 B Because the 90-300 hp 4-strokes use an offset crankshaft with a separate crankshaft driven gear the motors were designed to rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE in order to drive the driven aear and driveshaft the same standard CLOCKWISE direction that othermotors rotate. in this way the gearcases for these Left Hand turning powerheads can still utilize standard Right Hand (standard rotation) propellers. Most Suzuki motors (meaning everything currently 9.9 hp and larger) use a slotted or castellated nut (so named because, when viewed from the side, it appears similar to the upper walls or tower of a castle) to secure the propeller to the propeller shaft. A cotter pin is placed through the slots in the nut in order to lock it in place and prevent the possibility of it loosening or backing off in service. In addition to the cotter pin, castellated nut and the nut washer, there is normally a spacer mounted between the washer and propeller, and a thrust washer mounted between the propeller and gearcase. The design of most Suzuki propeller spacers and thrust washers incorporate both a flat side and a stepped or shouldered side. Pay attention to this during disassembly, but in every illustration we've seen by Suzuki the stepped shoulders are faced toward the propeller while the flat shoulders are faced outward (toward the gearcase or castellated nut respectively). The only other difference between models is in the torque spec, which varies with the size of the propshaft and nut. The torque specifications for prop nuts are as follows: 9.9115 hp and 25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors: 156 inch lbs.113 ft. Ibs. (18 Nm) 25 hp V2 motors: 217 inch lbs.118 ft. Ibs. (24.5 Nm) 40 hp and larger motors: 40 ft. Ibs. (55 Nm) Again, the nut is locked in place by a cotter pin to ensure that it cannot loosen while the motor is running. The pin passes through a hole in the propeller shaft, as well as through the notches in the sides of the castellated nut. Install a new cotter pin anytime the propeller is removed and, perhaps more importantly, make sure the cotter pin is of the correct size and is made h--.,i. ~. -. . ..-..r-(? - .. ...-. . . ) I<;- -.--:!.<: If': -' IBI H[;y {--. -"" .f"\ @I-:--7 1'' 11'' Fig. 104 Use a block of wood to keep the Fig. 105 Note the orientation of the spacer and thrust washer (the stepped shoulders Fig. 106 Tighten the castellated nut and install a new cotter pin of materials designed for marine use. Make sure that you include the cotter pin in all pre- and post-launch checks. Whenever working around the propeller, check for the presence of black rubber material (not to be confused with traces of black carbon from the exhaust) in the drive hub and spline grease. Presence of this material normally indicates that the hub has turned inside the propeller bore (have the propeller checked by a propeller repair shop). Keep in mind that a spun hub will not allow proper torque transfer from the motor to the propeller and will allow the engine to over-rev in order to produce thrust (or will just over-rev producing little or no thrust). If the propeller has spun on the hub it has been weakened and is more likely to fail completely in use. 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug [email protected]) from the plug(s) and ground the leads to prevent possible ignition damage should ihe motor be cranked at some point before the [email protected]) are reconnected to the spark plug(s). Don't ever take the risk of working around the propeller if the engine could accidentally be cranked or started. Always take precautions such as disconnecting the spark plug leads and, if equipped, the negative battery cable. 2. Cut the ends off the cotter pin (as that is easier than trying to straighten them in most cases). Next, free the pin by grabbing the head with a pair of needlenose pliers. Either tap on the pliers gently with a hammer to help free the pin from the nut or carefully use the pliers as a lever by prying back against the castellated nut. Discard the cotter pin once it is removed. Fig. 107 Notice the cotter pin is gently spread, NOT bent 90' or more 3. Place a block of wood between the propeller and the anti-ventilation housing to lock the propeller and shaft from turning, then loosen and removc the nut. Note the orientation, then remove the washer and the spacer from the propeller shaft. 4. Slide the propeller from the shaft. If the prop is stuck, use a block of wood to prevent damage and carefully drive the propeller from the shaft. If the propeller is completely seized on the shaft, start by soaking it with a good penetrating lubricant like PB Blaster(r) and give it some time to work in. After multiple applications you'll have to decide if you should use a threaded puller, heat or impact to proceed, but keep in mind that you're going to AT LEAST damage the propeller and potentially the gearcase, so proceed with caution. At worst case scenario, cut the rubber hub and remove the propeller, then work on getting the inner hub shaft off the prop shaft. 5. Note the direction in which the thrust washer is facing (the shouldered portion is normally positioned facing the propeller). Remove the thrust washer from the propshaft (if the washer appears stuck, tap lightly to free it from the propeller shaft). Also keep in mind that this washer sometimes comes off with the propeller so if it's not there, check the front of the prop hub before you panic. 6. Clean the thrust washer, propeller and shaft splines of any old grease. Small amounts of corrosion can be removed carefully using steel wool or fine grit sandpaper. 7, Inspect the shaft for signs of damage including twisted splines or excessively worn surfaces. Rotate the shaft while looking for any deflection. Replace the propeller shaft if these conditions are found. Inspect the thrust washer for signs of excessive wear or cracks and replace, if found. To install: 8. Apply a light coat of Suzuki Water Resistant Grease or equivalent high-quality, water resistant, marine grease to all surfaces of the propeller shaft and to the splines inside the propeller hub. 9. Position the thrust washer over the propshaft in the direction noted during removal. 10. Carefully slide the propeller onto the propshaft, rotating the propeller to align the splines. Push the propeller forward until it seats against the thrust washer. 11. Install the spacer onto the propeller shaft, as noted during removal (normally with the shoulder facing the propeller). 12. Position the flat washer over the propeller shaft and against the spacer. 13. Place a block of wood between the propeller and housing to hold the prop from turning, then thread the nut onto the shaft. When threading a castellated nut, make sure the cotter pin grooves facing outward. 14. Tighten the nut to specification, as listed earlier in this section. 15. Install a new cotter pin through the grooves in the nut or the keeper as applicable) that align with the hole in the propshaft. If the cotter pin hole and the grooves do not align, tighten the nut additionally, just enough to align them (do not loosen the nut from specification to achieve alignment.) Once the cotter pin is inserted, spread the ends sufficiently to lock the pin in place. Do not bend the ends over at 90' or greater angles as the pin will loose tension and rattle in the slot. 16. Connect the spark plug lead(s) and/or the negative battery cable, as applicable. GENERAL INFORMATION See Figure 108 A jet drive motor uses an impeller enclosed in a jet drive housing instead of the propeller used by traditional gearcases. Outboard jet drives are designed to permit boating in areas prohibited to a boat equipped with a conventional propeller outboard drive system. The housing of the jet drive barely extends below the hull of the boat allowing passage in ankle deep water, white water rapids, and over sand bars or in shoal water which would foul a propeller drive. The outboard jet drive provides reliable propulsion with a minimum of moving parts. It operates, simply stated, as water is drawn into the unit through an intake grille by an impeller. The impeller is driven by the driveshaft off the powerhead's crankshaft. Thrust is produced by the water that is expelled under pressure through an outlet nozzle that is directed away from the stern of the boat. As the speed of the boat increases and reaches planing speed, only the very bottom of the jet drive where the intake grille is mounted facing downward remains in contact with the water. The jet drive is provided with a reverse-gate arrangement and linkage to permit the boat to be operated in reverse. When the gate is moved downward over the exhaust nozzle, the pressure stream is deflected (reversed) by the gate and the boat moves sternward. Conventional controls are used for powerhead speed, movement of the boat, shifting and power trim and tilt. INSPECTION + See Figure 109 The jet impeller is a precisely machined and dynamically balanced aluminum spiral. Close observation will reveal drilled recesses at exact locations used to achieve this delicate balancing. Excessive vibration of the jet drive may be attributed to an out-of-balance condition caused by the jet impeller being struck excessively by rocks, gravel or from damage caused by cavitation "burn". The term cavitation "burn" is a common expression used throughout the world among people working with pumps, impeller blades, and forceful water movement. These "burns" occur on the jet impeller blades from cavitation air bubbles exploding with considerable force against the impeller blades. The edges of the blades may develop small dime-size areas resembling a porous sponge, as the aluminum is actually "eaten" by the condition just described. Fig. 108 Suzuki 115 hp motor rigged with a jet drive Excessive rounding of the jet impeller edges will reduce efficiency and performance. Therefore, the impeller and intake grate (that protects it from debris) should be inspected at regular intervals. Before and after each use. make a auick visual inspection of the intake grate and impeller, looking for obvious signs of damage. Always clear any debris such as plastic bags, vegetation or other items that sometimes become entangled in thewaterntake grate before starting the motor. If the intake grate is damaged, do not operate the motor, or you will risk destroying the impeller if rocks or other debris are drawn upward by the jet drive. If possible, replace a damaged grate before the next launch. This makes inspection after use all that much more important. Imagine the disappointment if you only learn of a damaged grate while inspecting the motor immediately prior to the next launch. An obviously damaged impeller should be removed and either repaired or replaced depending on the extent of the damage. If rounding is detected, the impeller can be placed on a work bench and the edges restored to as sharp a condition as possible, using a file. Draw the file in only one direction. A back-and-forth motion will not produce a smooth edge. Take care not to nick the smooth surface of the jet impeller. Excessive nicking or pitting will create water turbulence and slow the flow of water through the pump. For more details on impeller replacement or service, please refer to the information on Jet Drives in the Gearcase section of this service. CHECKING IMPELLER CLEARANCE DERATE @ See Figures 110 and 111 Proper operation of the jet drive depends upon the ability to create maximum thrust. In order for this to occur the clearance between the outer edge of the jet drive impeller and the water intake housing cone wall should be maintained at approximately 0.020-0.030 in. (0.5-0.8mm). This distance can be checked visually by shining a flashlight up through the intake grille and estimating the distance between the impeller and the casing cone, as indicated in the accompanying illustrations. But, it is not humanly possible to accurately measure this clearance by eye. Close observation between outings is fine to maintain a general idea of impeller condition, but, at least annually, the clearance must be measured using a set of feeler gauges. Although some gauges may be long enough to make the measurement with the intake grate installed, removal is advised for access and to allow for a more thorough inspection of the impeller itself. Fig. 109 Visually inspect the Intake grate Fig. 110 Jet drive impeller clearance is the gap between the edges of the impeller and Fig. 111 Impeller clearance is adjusted by moving shims from below to above the and impeller with each use its housing impeller Whenever working around the impeller, ALWAYS disconnect the negative battery cable and/or disconnect the spark plug leads to make sure the engine cannot be accidentally started during service. Failure to heed this caution could result in serious personal injury or death in the event that the engine is started. When checking clearance, a feeler gauge larger than the clearance specification should not fit between the tips of the impeller and the housing. A gauge within specification should fit, but with a slight drag. A smaller gauge should fit without any interference whatsoever. Check using the feeler gauge at various points around the housing, while slowly rotating the impeller by hand. After continued normal use, the clearance will eventually increase. In anticioation of this the manufacturer mounts the taoered imoeller deeo in a its housing, and positions spacers beneath the impeller to hold it in position. The spacers are used to position the impeller along the driveshaft with the desired clearance between the jet impeller and the housing wall. When clearance has increased, spacers are removed from underneath the impeller and repositioned behind it, dropping the impeller slightly in the housing and thereby decreasing the clearance again. Moving 1 spacer will decrease clearance approximately 0.004 in. (0.10mm). If adjustment is necessary, refer to the Jet Drive procedures under Gearcase in this service for impeller removal, shimming and installation procedures. LOCATION & GENERAL INFORMATION See Figures 112 thru 124 The idea behind anodes (also known as sacrificial anodes) is simple: When dissimilar metals are dunked in water and a small electrical current is leaked between or amongst them, the less-noble metal (galvanically speaking) is sacrificed (corrodes) while the more-noble metal is preserved. The zinc alloy of which the anodes are made is designed to be less noble than the aluminum alloy of which your outboard is constructed. If there's any electrolysis, and there almost always is, the inexpensive zinc anodes are consumed in lieu of the expensive outboard motor. These zincs require a little attention in order to make sure they are capable of performing their function. Anodes must be solidly attached to a clean mounting site. Also, they must not be covered with any kind of paint, wax or marine growth. The number and location of the anodes used will vary greatly by model and rigging, so greatly it can be prohibitive to try and list them all here (but we'll do our best). For starts, keep in mind that these motors may be equipped with as few as one anode or as many as a DOZENor so and the most common locations include: Gearcase -probably EVERY outboard covered here has at LEAST one anode on the gearcase. a Exhaust Housing -at least some of the motors covered here are equipped with an anode on the exhaust housing, generally right above the aearcase solit-line. " ~ransornBracket -most mid-range and larger motors will have one or two anodes mounted to the bottom of the transom bracket, almost up against the hull of the boat. These anodes may be bolted up from underneath, or from the sides, sandwiched in between two ears at the bottom of the clamping bracket. Some may use one or more additional small rounded anodes as well. Powerhead -some models will also have one or more anodes bolted directly to parts of the powerhead. Generally speaking these anodes are inserted into a bore on the powerhead designed specifically to accept the anode. For more specific anode locations, refer to the following list by motor. HOWEVER, don't assume this list is complete as we've seen anodes on motors that were not listed in the technical literature for that motor, so check yourself. 2.5 hp motors -normally use one round anode on the starboard side of the gearcase, right above the anti-cavitation plate. 41516 hp motors -are normally equipped with a small round anode on the starboard side of the gearcase, right above the propeller and anti- cavitation plate. In addition, they are usually also equipped with another small round anode on the toward the front, port side of the exhaust housing, right at the split line. 9.9115 hp motors -these motors vary slightly by year. For starters most should have a single round anode under the anti-cavitation plate (right above Fig. 113 All motors have at least one anode on the lower unit, some are under the anti- Fig. 114 . . .or on top of it like this (9.9115 hp Fig. 115 On some motors the trim tab IS the ventilation plate.. . shown) anode Fig. 116 Anodes come in different shapes, Fig. 118 . . .but MOST are secured with a some are round.. . Fig. 117 . . .while others are blocks. .. single bolt through the center the propeller) right about where you would normally expect a trim tab. In addition 2003 or later models should have a small, rounded, rectangular anode on too of the anti-cavitation olate. toward the rear oort side of the plate. ~ostly early-models through2002 should be equipped with an anode at the bottom of the transom bracket. Lastly, 2005 or later models should be equipped with one under a cover bolted to the top, starboard side of the powerhead, just a little in front of the oil fill cap and directly underneath a breather hose (as a matter of fact the same bolt that retains the cover also secures a hose clamp). In addition, most of these models will be equipped with one or two bonding wires. * 25 hp V2 motors -are normally equipped with about 8 different anodes. For starters there should be one in the form of a trim tab. There should be 4 small, round anodes on the transom bracket and driveshaft housing. There is one mounted under a cover on the oil panlmidsection. There are two more mounted under covers on the powerhead, one on each cylinder head. Like the one used on late model 9.9115 hp motors the cover bolt is used to secure a clamp, but for the spark plug wires in this case. These motors use at least one bonding wire as well. * 25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors -on these motors expect to find one anode in the form of the trim tab, and at LEAST 2 square anodes mounted to the bottom of the transom clamp bracket. T-models will also have a small round anode on the bottom of the transom bracket, right next to one of the square anodes. Expect to find 2-3 bonding wires on this model as well. * 40150 hp motors -are pretty much equipped with anodes in the same way as the 25/30 hp 3-cyl motors. Expect to find one anode in the form of the trim tab, and at LEAST 2 square anodes mounted to the bottom of the transom clamp bracket. Expect to find 2-3 bonding wires on this model as well. 60170 hp motors -normally use one anode in the form of the trim tab, and a second i~ng ie;:ang~,'ar anode on the bottom of the transom bracket. In addition, some models (definitely 2003 and later, but possibly some earlier versions too) use a small round anode mounted just above and to the port side of the rectangular anode on the transom bracket. Expect to find at least 2 bonding wires on this model, one down at the bottom of the swivel assembly, but also one toward the top of the tilt assembly. * 90/115/140 ho motors -There should be a larae rectanaular and probably small round anode on the bottom of the transom bracket, as well as a block-shaped anode in a bore at the rear of the gearcase (above the anti- cavitation plate). In addition, there should be at least 2 anodes mounted under covers on the side of the powerhead (either on the exhaust cover under 2-bolt retained oval covers, and1 or on the blocK near the exhaust cover under the 1 -bolt retained tear-drop shaped covers that Suzuki seems to favor). Also expect at least 2 bonding wires, one near the lower swivel point and one near the tilt point. * 1501175 hp motors -These motors use a bunch of anodes. Expect to find a rectangular one in a bore in the gearcase, right above the anti- cavitation plate. Also expect a long rectangular one on the bottom of the transom bracket, with a small round one mounted slightly above it and to the port side. There may be at many as 5 on the powerhead under the teardrop shaped covers that Suzuki favors. 20012251250 hp motors -These motors also use a plethora of anodes. Expect the common bar shaped one bolted to the bottom of the transom bracket, as well as a smaller, rectangular one in the bore on the gearcase just above the anti-cavitation plate. In addition, there should be two more rectanaular ones bolted to the port side of the midsection. Plus there should be 6 mounted under 1-bolt teardrop shaped covers on the powerhead, 3 on the starboard cvlinder bank and 3 on the oort cvlinder bank. Exoect at least one or more bonding wires at the swivel bracket as well. * 300 hp motors -It should be no surprise that the largest of the Suzuki outboards probably has the most anodes. Like the 200-250 hp motors, expect the common bar shaped one bolted to the bottom of the transom bracket, as well as a smaller, rectangular one in the bore on the gearcase just above the anti-cavitation plate. In addition, there should be two more rectangular ones bolted to the port side of the midsection. One unique anode is a small round one that is bolted to the face of the gearcase propeller shaft bearing carrier, normally hidden by the propeller and thrust washer (so be Fig. 119 Anodes are also usually found on Fig. 121 Jet drive units should have an the transom bracket like this. . . Fig. 120 ...or like these. . . anode on them as well Fig. 122 Larger motors are offen equipped with powerhead anodes mounted under Fig. 123 Most outboards also use bonding Fig. 124 Bonding wires may be mounted covers (grounding) wires as well alone or along with anodes sure to check it anytime you service the propeller). Like the other V6 motors, there should be 6 mounted under 1-bolt teardrop shaped covers on the powerhead, 3 on the starboard cylinder bank and 3 on the port cylinder bank. Expect about 4 bonding wires, two at the lower portion of the swivel bracket, one at the tilt assembly and one between the power trimltilt assembly and the starboard side bolt for the transom bracket anode. INSPECTION + See Figures 112 thru 124 Visually inspect the anodes, especially gearcase mounted ones, before and after each use. You'll want to know right away if it has become loose or fallen off in service (though the silicone that Suzuki usually recommends you put over their bolt heads should help prevent this. Periodically inspect them closely to make sure they haven't eroded too much. At a certain point in the erosion process, the mounting holes start to enlarge, which is when the zinc might fall off. Obviously, once that happens your engine no longer has any protection. Generally, a zinc anode is considered worn if it has shrunken to 213 of its original size or less. To help judge this, buy a spare and keep it handy (in the boat or tow vehicle for comparison). You can test anode effectiveness using an ohmmeter. In order for the anode to work it must be in good electrical contact with the motor. Connect one lead of an ohmmeter to a good ground on the powerhead and the other to the anode itself. The meter must show little or no properly. They must be left bare and must be installed onto bare metal of the motor. If the zincs are installed properly and not painted or waxed, inspect around them for sings of corrosion. If corrosion is found, strip it off immediately and repaint with a rust inhibiting paint. If in doubt, replace the zincs. Suzuki specifically directs you to apply a small coat of silicone sealant over the bolt/screw head that secures the anode. Apply only enough to seal the bolt head to the anode, but don't over apply and coat the anode, as that would adversely affect the anodes ability to do its job. On the other hand, if your zinc seems to erode in no time at all, this may be a symptom of the zincs themselves. Each manufacturer uses a specific blend of metals in their zincs. If you are using zincs with the wrong blend of metals, they may erode more quickly or leave you with diminished protection. At least annually or whenever an anode has been removed or replaced, check the mounting for proper electrical contact using a multi-meter. Set the multi-meter to check resistance (ohms), then connect one meter lead to the anode and the other to a good, unpainted or corroded ground on the motor. Resistance should be very low or zero. If resistance is high or infinite, the anode is insulated and cannot perform its function properly. SERVICING See Figures 112 thru 125 resistance, otherwise the anode and mounting surface must be cleaned of the corrosion, paint or debris that is causing the resistance. If you use your outboard in salt water or brackish water, and your zincs never seem to wear, inspect them carefully. Paint, wax or marine growth on zincs will insulate them and prevent them from performing their function As noted, depending on your boat, motor and rigging, you may have anywhere from one to nearly a cool DOZEN anodes. Regardless of !he number and the location, there are some fundamental rules to follow that will give your boat and motor's sacrificial anodes the ability to do the best job protecting your boat's underwater hardware that they can. NANCE AND TUN Fig. 125 Suzuki recommends covering the anode retaining bolt head with Silicone Seal after installation Some people replace mosVall zincs annually. This may or may not be necessary, depending on the type of waters in which you boat and depending on whether or not the boat is hauled with each use or left in for the season. Either way, it is a good idea inspect zincs at least annually in order to make sure the mounting surfaces are still clean and free of corrosion. The first thing to remember is that zincs are electrical components and like all electrical components, they require good clean connections. So anytime they are removed, after you've undone the mounting hardware you want to get the zinc mounting sites clean and shiny. Get a piece of coarse emery cloth or some 80-grit sandpaper. Thoroughly rough up the areas where the zincs attach (there's often a bit of corrosion residue in these spots). Make sure to remove every trace of corrosion. Zincs are attached with stainless steel machine screws that thread into the mounting for the zincs. Over the course of a season, this mounting hardware is inclined to loosen. Mount the zincs and tighten the mounting hardware securely. Tap the zincs with a hammer hitting the mounting screws squarely. This process tightens the zincs and allows the mounting hardware to become a bit loose in the process. Now, do the final tightening. This will insure your zincs stay put for the entire season. H Suzuki specifically directs you to apply a small coat of silicone sealant over the bolUscrew head that secures the anode. Apply only enough to sealant the bolt head to the anode, but don't over apply and coat the anode, as that would adversely affect the anodes ability to do its job. Many of the larger Suzuki motors use anodes mounted to the powerhead under small covers. The cover most often used by Suzuki is a tear-drop shaped cover that is secured by one bolt. At LEAST on the covers used for 150 hp and larger motors (but possibly on smaller ones as well) these covers can use a 10mm bolt as a screw-jack to push them off their mounting when stuck. Simply remove the usual mounting bolt and install a 10mm bolt, gently turning it inward to push the cover off the powerhead. When servicing bonding wires, pay close attention to any rusUcorrosion and be sure to remove, clean and replace the wires or bolts if any is found. Also pay close attention to any washers which may b e used. In the case of some models an insulating washer may be placed under the bonding wire terminal (between the terminal and the motor body). If used, this insulating washer must be placed in the same position during installation. INSPECTON See Figure 126 Timing belts are only used on the 9.9115 hp and 60170 hp motors covered here. Of the motors not mentioned, the smallest instead utilize a gear driven camshaft, while the rest of the motors 25 hp (3-cyl) and larger that weren't mentioned utilize a timing chain. One advantage of the gear or chain set-ups is that they are maintenance free and are generally considered lifetime components. Then again, should a gear or chain fail, service is MUCH more involved. The one great advantage of the timing BELT is that it can be inspected or replaced with a relatively simple procedure, compared to the gear or chain assembly (some of which are mounted on the bottom of the powerhead) which requires at least a partial disassembly of the powerhead. Should a timing chain stretch to the point where the automatic tensioner cannot compensate you will usually hear an audible tapping and/or notice timinglperformance problems which would lead you to diagnose the problem further. That said, the timing belt is in fact a long life component that does not require much in the way or service, but we would recommend that you inspect it at least once every year. Also, the manufacturer provides a recommended replacement interval of about every 4 years or 800 hours of operation, whichever comes first. Keep in mind, a timing belt that breaks or even slips a tooth will likely disable the motor, possibly stranding the boat. More importantly, the 60170 hp 4-strokes are INTERFERENCE motors, meaning that a severely slipped or a broken belt could cause SEVERE engine damage. Don't play with fire. The camshaftlflywheel cover must be removed for access to inspect the timing belt. 1. For safety when working around the flywheel, disconnect the negative battery cable and/or disconnect the leads from the spark plugs, then ground the leads on the powerhead. H Although not absolutely necessary for this procedure, it is a good idea to remove the spark plugs at this time. Removing the spark plugs will relieve engine compression, making it easier to manually rotate the motor. Also, it presents a good opportunity to inspect, clean andlor replace the plugs. 2. Remove the manual starter assembly or the flywheel cover, as applicable, for better access to the timing belt. 3. Use low-pressure compressed air to blow debris out from under the camshaft pulley, flywheel and timing belt. 4. Visually check the belt for worn, cracked or oil soaked surfaces. Slowly rotate the flywheel (by hand) while inspecting all of the timing belt cogs. 5. Visually check the camshaft pulley and flywheel teeth for worn, cracked, chipped or otherwise damaged surfaces. 6. If the belt and or pulleys are damaged, replace them as described under Powerhead in this manual. 7. If removed, install the manual starter assembly or flywheel cover to the powerhead. 8. Install the spark plugs, then connect the leads followed by the negative battery cable and the engine cover. Fig. 126 You'll have to remove the camshaft/flywheel cover to inspect the timing belt NANCE AND TUNE-UP + See Figures 127 and 128 Batteries require periodic servicing, so a definite maintenance program will help ensure extended life. Afailure to maintain the battery in good order can prevent it from properly charging or properly performing its job even when fully charged. Low levels of electrolyte in the cells (if a wet cell battery is used), loose or dirty cable connections at the battery terminals or possibly an excessively dirty battery top can all contribute to an improperly functioning battery. So battery maintenance, first and foremost, involves keeping the battery full of electrolyte, properly charged and keeping the casing/connections clean of corrosion or debris. If a battery charges and tests satisfactorily but still fails to perform properly in service, one of three problems could be the cause. 1. An accessory left on overnight or for a long period of time can discharge a battery. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) on fuel-injected motors will continue to draw a small amount of current from the battery, even when the motor is shut off. Although it will takes weeks to discharge a fully charged battery, periodically recharging the battery, or isolating it by disconnecting the cables or shutting off the battery switch when the boat is dockside or on the trailer will prevent this. 2. Using more electrical power than the stator assembly or lighting coil can replace would slowly drain the battery during motor operation, resulting in an undercharged condition. 3. A defect in the charging system. A faulty stator assembly or lighting coil, defective regulator or rectifier or high resistance somewhere in the system could cause the battery to become undercharged. MAINTENANCE See Figures 128 thru 132 Electrolyte Level The most common and important procedure in wet cell battery maintenance is checking the electrolyte level. On serviceable batteries, this is accomplished by removing the cell caps and visually observing the level in the cells. The bottom of each cell has a split vent which will cause the surface of the electrolyte to appear distorted when it makes contact. When the distortion first appears at the bottom of the split vent, the electrolyte level is correct. Smaller marine batteries are sometimes equipped with translucent cases that are printed or embossed with high and low level markings on the side. On some of these, shining a flashlight through the battery case will help make it easier to determine the electrolyte level. During hot weather and periods of heavy use, the electrolyte level should be checked more often than during normal operation. Add distilled water to bring the level of electrolyte in each cell to the proper level. Take care not to overfill, because adding an excessive amount of water will cause loss of electrolyte and any loss will result in poor performance, short battery life and will contribute quickly to corrosion. Never add electrolyte from another battery. Use only distilled water. Even tap water may contain minerals or additives that will promote corrosion on the battery plates, so distilled water is always the best solution. Although less common in marine applications than other uses today (but becoming more popular every year) some sealed maintenance-free batteries may also require electrolyte level checks. When so equipped, you can check Fig. 127 Explosive hydrogen gas is released from the batteries in a discharged state. This one exploded when something ignited the gas. Explosions can also be caused by a spark from the battery terminals or jumper Fig. 128 Ignoring a battery (and corrosion) Fig. 129 The first step in battery maintenance is to make sure the terminals cables to this extent is asking for it to fail are clean and tight Fig. 130 If cleaning is necessary, place a battery terminal tool over posts, then rotate back and forth. .. Fig. 131 ...until the internal brushes expose a fresh, clean surface on the post Fig. 132 Clean the insides of cable ring terminals using the tool's wire brush the level through the window built into the tops of the cases. The problem for marine applications is the tendency for deep cycle use to cause electrolyte evaporation and electrolyte cannot be replenished in a sealed battery. The second most important procedure in battery maintenance (and this is necessary for ALL batteries whether wet cell or drylgel cell) is periodically cleaning the battery terminals and case. Cleaning Dirt and corrosion should be cleaned from the battery as soon as it is discovered. Any accumulation of acid film or dirt will permit a small amount of current to flow between the terminals. Such a current flow will drain the battery over a period of time. Clean the exterior of the battery with a solution of diluted ammonia or a paste made from baking soda and water. This is a base solution to neutralize any acid that may be present. Flush the cleaning solution off with plenty of clean water. Take care to prevent any of the neutralizing solution from entering the cells as it will quickly neutralize the electrolyte (ruining the battery). Poor contact at the terminals will add resistance to the charging circuit. This resistance will cause the voltage regulator to register a fully charged battery and thus cut down on the stator assembly or lighting coil output adding to the low battery charge problem. At least once a season, thebattery terminals and cable clamps should be cleaned. Loosen the clamos and remove the cables, neaative cable first. On batteries with top mounted posts, if the terminals ap'pearstuck, use a puller specially made for this purpose to ensure the battery casing is not damaged. NEVER pry a terminal off a battery post. These are inexpensive and available in most parts stores. Clean the cable clamps and the battery terminal with a wire brush until all corrosion, grease, etc., is removed and the metal is shiny. It is especially important to clean the inside of the clamp thoroughly (a wire brush or brush part of a battery post cleaning tool is useful here), since a small deposit of foreign material or oxidation there will prevent a sound electrical connection and inhibit either starting or charging. It is also a good idea to apply some dielectric grease to the terminal, as this will aid in the prevention of corrosion. Suzuki usually suggests that you can coat the terminals using Water Resistant Grease marine grease to prevent corrosion. After the clamps and terminals are clean, reinstall the cables, negative cable last, do not hammer the clamps onto battery posts. Tighten the clamps securely but do not distort them. To help slow or prevent corrosion, give the clamps and terminals a thin external coating of grease after installation. Check the cables at the same time that the terminals are cleaned. If the insulation is cracked or broken or if its end is frayed, that cable should be replaced with a new one of the same length and gauge. TESTING DERATE A quick check of the battery is to place a voltmeter across the terminals. Although this is by no means a clear indication, it gives you a starting point when trying to troubleshoot an electrical problem that could be battery related. Most marine batteries will be of the 12 volt DC variety. They are constructed of 6 cells, each of which is capable of producing slightly more man two volts, wired in series so that total voltage is 12 volts and a fraction. A fully charged battery will normally show more than 12 and generally slightly less than 13 volts across its terminals. But keep in mind that just because a battery reads 12.6 or 12.7 volts does NOT mean it is fully charged. It is possible for it to have only a surface charge with very little amperage behind it to maintain that voltage rating for long under load. Now conversely, a discharged (or damaged) battery will read some value less than 12 volts, but can (unless damaged) it be brought back to 12 volts through recharging. Of course a battery with one or more shorted or un- chargeable cells will also read less than 12, but it cannot be brought back to 12+ volts after charging. For this reason, the best methoddo check wet cell battery condition on most marine batteries is through a specific gravity check. & Sealed wet cell batteries or dry celllgel cell batteries obviously cannot be tested using the electrolyte. Instead they must be charged and then their output (in voltage and amperage) is measured using a carbon pile load tester and voltmeterlammeter. A hydrometer is a device that measures the density of a liquid when compared to water (specific gravity). Hydrometers are used to test batteries by measuring the percentage of sulfuric acid in the battery electrolyte in terms of specific gravity. When the condition of the battery drops from fully charged to discharged, the acid is converted to water as electrons leave the solution and enter the plates, causing the specific gravity of the electrolyte to drop. It may not be common knowledge but hydrometer floats are calibrated for use at SOT (27%). If the hydrometer is used at any other temperature, hotter or colder, a correction factor must be applied. emember, a liquid will expand if it is heated and will contract if cooled. Such expansion and contraction will cause a definite change in the specific gravity of the liquid, in this case the electrolyte. A quality hydrometer will have a therrnometerltemperaturecorrection table in the lower portion, as illustrated in the accompanying illustration. By measuring the air temperature around the battery and from the table, a correction factor may be applied to the specific gravity reading of the hydrometer float. In this manner, an accurate determination may be made as to the condition of the battery. When using a hydrometer, pay careful attention to the following points: 1. Never attempt to take a reading immediately after adding water to the battery. Allow at least 114 hour (15 min.) of charging at a high rate to thoroughly mix the electrolyte with the new water. This time will also allow for the necessary gases to be created. 2. Always be sure the hydrometer is clean inside and out as a precaution against contaminating the electrolyte. 3. If a thermometer is an integral part of the hydrometer, draw liquid into it several times to ensure the correct temperature before taking a reading. 4 Be sure to hold the hydrometer vertically and suck up liquid only until the float is free and floating. 5. Always hold the hydrometer at eye level and take the reading at the surface of the liquid with the float free and floating. 6. Disregard the slight curvature appearing where the liquid rises against the float stem. This phenomenon is due to surface tension. 7. Do not drop any of the battery fluid on the boat or on your clothing, because it is extremely caustic. Use water and baking soda to neutralize any battery liquid that does accidentally drop. 8. After drawing electrolyte from the battery cell until the float is barely free, note the level of the liquid inside the hydrometer. If the level is within the charged (usually green) band range for all cells, the condition of the battery is satisfactory. If the level is within the discharged (usually white) band for all cells, the battery is in fair condition. 9. If the level is within the green or white band for all cells except one, which registers in the red, the cell is shorted internally. No amount of charging will bring the battery back to satisfactory condition. 10. If the level in all cells is about the same, even if it falls in the red band, the battery may be recharged and returned to service. If the level fails to rise above the red band after charging, the only solution is to replace the battery. STORAGE See Figure 135 If the boat is to be laid up (placed into storage) for the winter or for more than a few weeks, special attention must be given to the battery to prevent complete discharge andlor possible damage to the terminals and wiring. Before putting the boat in storage, disconnect and remove the batteries. Clean them thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion and then charge them to full specific gravity readings. After they are fully charged, store them in a clean cool dry place where they will not be damaged or knocked over, preferably on a couple blocks of wood if it is a non-sealed wet cell battery. Storing a non-sealed wet cell battery up off the deck, will permit air to circulate freely around and under the battery and will help to prevent condensation. Never store the battery with anything on top of it or cover the battery in such a manner as to prevent air from circulating around the filler caps. All non-sealed batteries, both new and old, will discharge during periods of storage, more so if they are hot than if they remain cool. Therefore, the electrolyte level and the specific gravity should be checked at regular intervals. A drop in the specific gravity reading is cause to charge them back to a full reading. In cold climates, care should be exercised in selecting the battery storage area. A fully-charged battery will freeze at about 60¡ below zero. The Fig. 133 On non-sealed batteries you can Fig. 134 . ..to check battery Fig. 135 When in storage, periodically use a hydrometer. .. chargelcondition charge a battery for maximum life I I electrolyte of a discharged battery, almost dead, will begin forming ice at about 1YF above zero. For more information on batteries and the engine electrical systems, please refer to the Ignition and Electrical section of this manual. INSPECTION AND CARE SY + See Figures 136,137 and 138 Fiberglass reinforced plastic hulls are tough, durable and highly resistant to impact. However, like any other material they can be damaged. One of the advantages of this type of construction is the relative ease with which it may be repaired. A fiberglass hull has almost no internal stresses. Therefore, when the hull is broken or stove-in, it retains its true form. It will not dent to take an out-of- shape set. When the hull sustains a severe blow, the impact will be either absorbed by deflection of the laminated panel or the blow will result in a definite, localized break. In addition to hull damage, bulkheads, stringers and other stiffening structures attached to the hull may also be affected and therefore, should be checked. Repairs are usually confined to the general area of the rupture. The best way to care for a fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly, immediately after hauling the boat while the hull is still wet. A foul bottom can seriously affect boat performance. This is one reason why racers, large and small, both powerboat and sail, are constantly giving attention to the condition of the hull below the waterline. In areas where marine growth is prevalent, a coating of vinyl, anti-fouling bottom paint should be applied if the boat is going to be left in the water for extended periods of time such as all or a large part of the season. If growth has developed on the bottom, it can be removed with a diluted solution of muriatic acid applied with a brush or swab and then rinsed with clear water. Always use rubber gloves when working with Muriatic acid and take extra care to keep it away from your face and hands. The fumes are toxic. Therefore, work in a well-ventilated area or if outside, keep your face on the windward side of the work. if marine growth is not too severe you mav avoid the unpleasantness of working with muriatic acid by trying a power washer instead. Most marine vegetation can be removed by pressurized water and a little bit of scrubbing using a rough sponge (don't use anything that will scratch or damage the surface). Barnacles have a nasty habit of making their home on the bottom of boats that have not been treated with anti-fouling paint. Actually they will not harm the fiberglass hull but can develop into a major nuisance. If barnacles or other crustaceans have attached themselves to the hull, extra work will be required to bring the bottom back to a satisfactory condition. First, if practical, put the boat into a body of fresh water and allow it to remain for a few days. A large percentage of the growth can be removed in this manner. If this remedy is not possible, wash the bottom thoroughly with a high-pressure fresh water source and use a scraper. Small particles of hard shell may still hold fast. These can be removed with sandpaper. Fig. 136 The best way to care for a Fig. 137 ...as a clean and shiny hull makes Fig. 138 If marine growth is a problem, fiberglass hull is to wash it thoroughly.. . for a happy boat apply a coating of anti-foul bottom paint A proper tune-up is the key to long and trouble-free outboard life and the work can yield its own rewards. Studies have shown that a properly tuned and maintained outboard can achieve better fuel economy than an out-of- tune engine. As a conscientious boater, set aside a Saturday morning, say once a month, to check or replace items which could cause major problems later. Keep your own personal log to jot down which services you performed, how much the parts cost you, the date and the number of hours on the engine at the time. Keep all receipts for such items as oil and filters, so that they may be referred to in case of related problems or to determine operating expenses. These receipts are the only proof you have that the required maintenance was performed. In the event of a warranty problem on newer engines, these receipts will be invaluable. The efficiency, reliability, fuel economy and enjoyment available from boating are all directly dependent on having your outboard tuned properly. The importance of oerformina service work in the orouer seauence cannot be over emphasized. ~eforehakin~ any adjustments, check the specifications. Never rely on memory when making critical adjustments. Before tuning any outboard, insure it has satisfactory compression. An outboard with worn or broken piston rings, burned pistons or scored cylinder walls, will not perform properly no matter how much time and expense is spent on the tune-up. Poor compression must be corrected or the tune-up will not give the desired results. The extent of the engine tune-up is usually dependent on the time lapse since the last service. In this section, a logical sequence of tune-up steps will be presented in general terms. If additional information or detailed service work is required, refer to the section of this manual containing the appropriate instructions. A tune-up can be defined as pre-determined series of procedures (adjustments, tests and worn component replacements) that are performed to bring the engine operating parameters back to original condition. The series of steps are important, as the later procedures (especially adjustments) are dependant upon the earlier procedures. In other words, a procedure is performed only when subsequent steps would not change the result of that procedure (this is mostly for adjustments or settings that would be incorrect after changing another part or setting). For instance, fouled or excessively worn spark plugs may affect engine idle. If adjustments were made to the idle speed or mixture before these plugs were cleaned or replaced, the idle speed or mixture might be wrong after replacing the plugs. The possibilities of such an effect become much greater when dealing with multiple adjustments such as timing, idle speed and/or idle mixture. Therefore, be sure to follow each of the steps given here. Since many of the steps listed here are full procedures in themselves, refer to the procedures of the same name in this section for details. B Now the truth of the matter is that many of these motors are equipped with sophisticated electronic engine controls, and as a result there are FEW adjustments that are necessary or that affect one another, but it's still a good idea to pay attention to items and handle them in the proper sequence, especially if there are any synchronization steps for linkage. And even many of the carbureted motors have more electronic controls on them (like electronic ignitions) than outboards of days gone by. But still, this does not negate the need for following a proper sequence when making checks or any applicable adjustments. A complete pre-season tune-up should be performed at the beginning of each season or when the motor is removed from storage. Operating conditions, amount of use and the frequency of maintenance required by your motor may make one or more additional tune-ups necessary during the season. Perform additional tune-ups as use dictates. 1. Before starting, inspect the motor thoroughly for signs of obvious leaks, damage and loose or missing components. Make repairs, as necessary. 2. On all models, check and adjust the valve lash clearance (actually recommendations for this are every 200 hours or annually, whichever comes first). On all motors, but especially the 40-70 hp models, we suggest that you pay close attention to the valve clearance checks. Use It as an opportunity to check for premature camshaft wear (some of which was noticed in the field on some early versions of these motors). This wear often occurs from the use of incorrect typeslgrade of oil or from Infrequent oil changes. A sudden or drastic change in valve lash can be an early indicator, giving you time to change types of oil or the frequency of service the engine is receiving before necessitating a costly and troublesome camshaft replacement. 3. Perform a compression check to make sure the motor is mechanically ready for a tune-up. An engine with low compression on one or more cylinders should be overhauled, not tuned. A tune-up will not be successful without sufficient engine compression. Refer to the Compression Test in this section. 4. Since the spark plugs must be removed for the compression check, take the opportunity to inspect them thoroughly for signs of oil fouling, carbon fouling, damage due to detonation, etc. Clean and re-gap the plugs or, better yet, install new plugs as no amount of cleaning will precisely match the performance and life of new plugs. Refer to Spark Plugs, in this section. 5. Visually inspect all ignition system components for signs of obvious defects. Look for signs of burnt, cracked or broken insulation. Replace wires or components with obvious defects. If spark plug condition suggests weak or no spark on one or more cylinders, perform ignition system testing to eliminate possible worn or defective components. Refer to the Ignition System Inspection procedures in this section and the Ignition and Electrical System section. 6. Remove and clean (on serviceable filters) or replace the inline filter and/or fuel pump filter, as equipped. Refer to the Fuel Filter procedures in this section. Perform a thorough inspection of the fuel system, hoses and components. Replace any cracked or deteriorating hoses. 7. Perform engine Timing and Synchronization adjustments as described in this section. E Only some of the motors covered by this manual allow for any ignition timing or carburetor adjustment procedures and even then none of them require the level of tuning attention that was once the norm. All of the motors are equipped with electronic ignition systems that limit or completely eliminate timing adjustments (though you can usually still perform a timing check to see if the system is operating properly). All of the carburetors covered here are U.S. EPA or EU regulated when sold in those respective markets and contain few mixture adiustments. EFI motors are all but comnletelv controlled bv the ~ngine~ontrol Unit (ECU) and normally contain no timing or fuel adjustments. 8. Remove the propeller in order to thoroughly check for leaks at the shaft seal. Inspect the propeller condition, look for nicks, cracks or other signs of damage and repair or replace, as necessary. If available from the manufacturer, install a test wheel'to run the motor in a test tank after com~letion of the tune-UD. If no test wheel is available, lubricate the shafkplines, then install the propeller. Refer to the procedures for Propeller in this section. 9. Change the gearcase oil as directed under the Gearcase Oil procedures in this section. If you are conducting a pre-season tune-up and the oil was changed immediately prior to storage this is not necessary. But, be sure to check the oil level and condition. Drain the oil anyway if significant contamination is present. B Anytime large amounts of water or debris is present in the gearcase oil, be sure to troubleshoot and repair the problem before returning the gearcase to service. The presence of water may indicate problems with the seals, while debris could a sign that overhaul is required. 10. Check all accessible bolts and fasteners and tighten any that are loose. 11. Pressurize the fuel system according to the procedures found in the Fuel System section, then check carefully for leaks. 12. Perform a test run of the engine to verify proper operation of the starting, fuel, oil and cooling systems. Although this can be performed using a flushltest adapter or even on the boat itself (if operating with a normal loadlpassengers), the preferred method is the use of a test tank. If possible, run the engine, in a test tank using the appropriate test wheel. Monitor the cooling system indicator stream to ensure the water pump is working properly. Once the engine is fully warmed, slowly advance the engine to wide-open throttle, then note and record the maximum engine speed. Refer to the Tune-up Specifications chart to compare engine speeds with the test propeller minimum rpm specifications and/or the WOT Max RPM limits. If engine speeds are below minimum test specifications or too far below the MAX RPM limits, yet engine compression was sufficient at the beginning of this procedure, recheck the fuel and ignition system adjustments. The quickest (but not necessarily most accurate) way to gauge the condition of an internal combustion engine is through a compression check. In order for an internal combustion engine to work properly, it must be able to generate sufficient compression in the combustion chamber to take advantage of the explosive force generated by the expanding gases after ignition. This is true on all motors whether they are of the 2- or 4-stroke design. If the combustion chambers, valves or gasket mating surfaces like cylinder heads or compression rings are worn or damaged in some fashion as to allow pressure to escape, the engine cannot develop sufficient horsepower. Under these circumstances, combustion will not occur properly, airlfuel mixtures cannot be set to maximize power and minimize emissions. A engine with poor compression on one or more cylinders cannot given a proper tune-up, it should be overhauled. There are two compression tests provided here, the first (TUNE-UP COMPRESSION TEST) is a quick-test used during a tune-up to determine if you should continue or stop and overhaul the motor. This test is what technicians think of when you say compression check as it measures the ability of a motor to create compression. The second (OVERHAUL LEAKAGE TEST) is a diagnostic check that is used when an engine is suspect (has already failed part of a Tune-up Compression Test) or during assembly after an overhaul (to confirm powerhead condition). The second test is also referred to as a "leak-down" test by some technicians as it measures the ability of an engine to hold pressure provided by another source and keep it from "leaking." A compression check requires a compression gauge and a spark plug port adapter that matches the plug threads of your motor. A leakage test requires a source of pressurized air, a pressure gauge or leak-down test adapter, a spark plug port adapter and an air source (such as a portable air tank filled with pressurized air or best yet, an air compressor). TUNE-UP COMPRESSION CHECK ERATE See Figure 139 When analyzing the results of a compression check, generally the actual amount of pressure measured during a compression check is not as important as the variation from cylinder-to-cylinder or from test-to-test on the same motor. For multi-cylinder powerheads, a variation of 14 psi (100 kPa) or more is usually considered questionable on these motors (though there is one exception, the 60/70 hp motors are allowed a variation as high as 28 psi (200 kPa). On single cylinder powerheads, a drop of about 14 psi (100 kPa) from the normal compression pressure you established when it was new (or at least from the last test) is cause for concern (you did do a compression test on it when it was new, didn't you?). Ok, for the point of arguments sake let's say you bought the engine used or never checked compression the first season or so, assuming it wasn't something you needed to worry about. You're not alone. LUCKILY, unlike many manufacturers, Suzuki publishes a technical specification for the amount of compression MOST of their engines should generate. Whenever a specification was available we've put them as the first entry in the Engine Specifications charts found at the end of the Powerhead section. When working on these outboards, be sure to check the chart for the appropriate powerhead to help interpret the test results. But keep in mind that most of these specifications should be consider guidelines and not absolutes. Motors may run fine when outside these parameters, it is just the further from specification, the less likely this would be. When taking readings during the compression check, repeat the procedure a few times for each cylinder, recording the highest reading for that cylinder. Then, for all multi-cylinder motors covered by this manual, the compression reading on the lowest cylinder should within 14 psi (100 kPa) or 28 psi (200 kPa), depending on the model, of the highest reading. If not, consider performing an OVERHAUL LEAKAGE CHECK to determine if the powerhead is in need of a complete or partial overhaul. 1 Fig. 139 Compression check on a typical multi-cylinder powerhead 1 If the powerhead has been in storage for an extended period, the piston rinas mav have relaxed. This will often lead to initiallv low and misleading readings. Always run an engine to normal operating temperature to ensure that the readings are accurate. 1. If necessary, remove the lower engine cowling for access to the lower spark plug(s). For details, please refer to Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases), earlier in this section. 2. On 300 hp motors, remove the bolts and disconnect the port and starboard air duct guards for access. B If you've never removed the spark plugs from this cylinder head before, break each one loose and retighten them, to make sure they will not seize in the head once it is warmed. Better yet, remove each one and coat the threads very lightly with some fresh anti-seize compound. 3. Using a test tank, flush fitting adapter or other water supply, start and run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature, then shut the engine off. 4. Since compression testing uses a gauge threaded into the spark plug ports you need to remove the spark plugs and disable the ignition system. There are various methods to disable the ignition. On all but direct ignition models, removing the lanyard clip should be sufficient to prevent spark. On direct ignition models (meaning 40150, or 150-300 hp models where the ignition coils are mounted directly on top of the spark plugs), tag and disconnect the wiring, then remove the ignition coils themselves. On these same Dl models, Suzuki also directs you to tag and disconnect all of the fuel injector connectors. Removing all the spark plugs and cranking over the powerhead can lead to an explosion if raw fuelloil sprays out of the plug holes. A plug wire could spark and ignite this mix outside of the combustion chamber if the system isn't disabled. So check and make sure no spark is being produced. IF IT IS, then ground the spark plug [email protected]) to the motor. 5. Remove all the spark pluqs and be sure to keep them in order (as a reference to cylinder condition). Carefully inspect the looking forany inconsistencv in coloration and for anv sian of water or rust near the tin Refer to the procedures on Spark plugs 6this section for more details. 6. Thread the compression gauge into the No. 1 spark-plug hole, taking care to not cross-thread the fitting. Some engines allow only minimal opening if the gearshift is in neutral, to guard against over-revving. 7. Open the throttle to the wide open throttle position and hold it there. With most motors you can just move the throttle linkage by hand, andlor using the remote or tiller controls (hint, when using the remote controls if there is a neutral button on the shifter, use it so that you are not trying to crank the motor in gear, which usually won't work). For all of their mechanically controlled, remote motors Suzuki recommends disconnecting the throttle cable and manually holding the throttle open by hand. We don't think this is always necessary (see previous step about using neutral button when available) HOWEVER, if you don't get sufficient readings using the previous step's methods, then go ahead, disconnect the cable and hold the throttle open by hand. 8. On 300 hp models, the unique throttle-by-wire remote controls require an additional step before cranking the motor. On these models, turn the main switch ON and wait for the LED lights to activate, then depress the "THROTTLE ONLY button and move the remote control lever on the throttle to the wide open (full throttle) position. Then, in the next step of this procedure, use the Start & Stop button to crank the motor. 9. On 2003 or later 60170 hp motors, Suzuki recommends disconnect the high pressure fuel pump lead wire and properly relieving fuel system pressure (as detailed in the Fuel System section) before proceeding. 10. Crank over the engine an equal number of times for each cylinder you test, zeroing the gauge for each cylinder. 11. If you have electric start, count the number of seconds you crank. On manual start, pull the starter rope four to five times for each cylinder you are testing. 12. Record your readings from each cylinder. When all cylinders are tested, compare the readings to specifications listed in the Engine Specification chart for that powerhead and to the comparative criterion, as applicable. 13. If compression readings are lower than normal for any cylinders, try a "wet" compression test, which can temporarily seal piston rings bringing the pressure up and helping to determine if they are the cause of the low reading. Using a can of fogging oil, fog the cylinder with a circular motion to distribute oil spray all around the perimeter of the piston. Retest the cylinder: a. If the compression rises noticeably in a wet test, either the piston rings are sticking (you MAY be able to cure the problem by decarboning the powerhead using an appropriate decarboning engine treatment) or the cylinder is scored/worn but the oil temporarily sealed the rings enough for the test. b. H the dry compression test was really low and no change is evident during the wet test, the cylinder is dead. Then either the piston and/or cylinder are worn beyond specification or there is a problem with the valve train. A valve that is sticking open (due to wear, physical damage, warpage or improper adjustment) will allow pressure to escape, lowering the compression readings. 14. If two adjacent cylinders on a multi-cylinder engine give a similarly low reading then the problem may be a faulty head gasket. This should be suspected if there was evidence of water or rust on the spark plugs from these cylinders. OVERHAUL LEAKAGE CHECK DERATE The 4-stroke engine acts as a pump, drawing airlfuel mixture into the combustion chambers. Vacuum is created in the combustion chamber itself as the piston moves downward on the intake stroke, drawing the airtfuel mixture through the intake manifold and intake valve($. Similarly, the pressure created on the exhaust stroke forces unburned gases out through the exhaust valves. Like 2-strokes, air leaks can wreak havoc for these motors, but in a slightly different way. On carbureted 4-stroke motors, a lean fuel mixture can result from leaks downstream of the carburetorlthrottle body (leaks between the carburetor and intake manifold or between the intake manifold and engine). Air leaks can also occur, as valve trains play an important part in cylinder pressurization (a damaged or improperly adjusted intakelexhaust valve or improper valve timing can cause problems). If the powerhead is running, soapy water can be sprayed onto the suspected sealing areas. If bubbles develop, there is a leak at that point. Oil around sealing points and on ignition parts under the flywheel indicates a crankcase leak. The base of the powerhead and lower crankshaft seal is impossible to check on an installed powerhead. When every test and system have been checked out and the bottom cylinder seems to be effecting performance, then the lower seal should be tested. The key to a leakage (leak down) test is to manually pressurize a cylinder when the piston is at or near TDC and all the valves are already closed. This is done through a source of compressed air, a hose and a fitting that threads into the spark plug adaptor. The idea is to watch and make sure a certain amount of pressure can be built up in the cylinder and that no more than a small amount of leakage will occur under a short amount of time. Should leakage occur, you simply have to listenlfeel for it (at the intake manifold, at exhaust ports or under the exhaust cover, or at the oil pan/crankcase/oil fill, to determine the source of the leak -intake valve, exhaust valve or pistontrings respectively). 1. Prepare a cylinder for testing by turning the engine (in the normal direction of rotation, remember the largest motors covered here, specifically 90-300 hp motors, use counter-rotating powerheads, meaning powerheads that turn COUNTERCLOCKWISE) until that piston is approaching top dead center of the compression stroke. This can be determined by removing the valve cover and observing the intakelexhaust valves. Both valves will close and remain so as the engine approaches the top of the compression stroke. If one valve (the exhaust valve) opens as this occurs, the engine is on the exhaust stroke and crankcase must be rotated one complete revolution to bring that cylinder onto the compression stroke. When this happens you can watch the valves, the intake will open and then close and as it closes the piston is approaching TDC. Top dead center of the compression stroke is the point at which all valves should be closed so the airlfuel mixture will be properly compressed and the power from combustion can be fully utilized. Leakage tests can only be conducted once the valves are fully seated. 2. Using a suitable regulated air source, pressurize the combustion chamber to about 100 psi (690 kPa), or as directed by the instructions that come with the leak-down tester. 3. Watch the gauges on the tester and, if necessary, listen for leakage at the carburetortthrottle bodv andtor exhaust (which would indicate valve sealing problems) or at the engine crankcase oil fill (which would indicate problems with the cylinder wallslcompression rings). Only a very small amount of pressure should leak under normal conditions (again, refer to any directions that come with the leak-down tester), excessive pressure leakage indicates a need for overhaul or repair. Repeat the procedure for each remaining cylinder on the motor. W The manufacturer does not provide specifications for leak-down tests. Industry standards vary greatly from manufacturer-to- manufacturer. Expect a small percentage of leakdown to be normal, anvthina from a few percent to 10 percent should not be cause for alarm. Conversely, twenty percent ieakdown on a 4-stroke motor is generally considered a reason for overhaul when combined with other driveability symptoms. 4. Note the leaking areas and repair or replace components, seals or gaskets, as applicable. The spark plug performs four main functions: 5 First and foremost, it provides spark for the combustion process to occur. 0 It also removes heat from the combustion chamber. Its removal provides access to the combustion chamber (for inspection or testing) through a hole in the cylinder head. It acts as a dielectric insulator for the ignition system. It is important to remember that spark plugs do not create heat, they help remove it. Anything that prevents a spark plug from removing the proper amount of heat can lead to pre-ignition, detonation, premature spark plug failure and even internal engine damage. In the simplest of terms, the spark plug acts as the thermometer of the engine. Much like a doctor examining a patient, this "thermometer" can be used to effectively diagnose the amount of heat present in each combustion chamber. Spark plugs are valuable tuning tools, when interpreted correctly. They will show symptoms of other problems and can reveal a great deal about the engine's overall condition. Evaluating the appearance of the spark plug's firing tip, gives visual cues to determine the engine's overall operating condition, get a feel for airlfuel ratios and even diagnose driveability problems. As spark plugs grow older, they lose their sharp edges and material from the center and ground electrodes slowly erodes away. As the gap between these two points grows, the voltage required to bridge this gap increases proportionately. The ignition system must work harder to compensate for this higher voltage requirement and hence there is a greater rate of misfires or incomplete combustion cycles. Each misfire means lost horsepower, reduced fuel economy and higher emissions. Replacing worn out spark plugs with new ones (with sharp new edges) effectively restores the ignition system's efficiency and reduces the percentage of misfires, restoring power, economy and reducing emissions. Although spark plugs can typically be cleaned and re-gapped if they are not excessively worn, no amount of cleaning or re-gapping will return most spark plugs to original condition and it is usually best to just go ahead and replace them. How long spark plugs last will depend on a variety of factors, including engine compression, fuel used, gap, centerlground electrode material and the conditions in which the outboard is operated. SPARK PLUG HEAT RANGE See Figure 140 Spark plug heat range is a measurement of its ability to dissipate heat from the combustion chamber. The longer the insulator (or the farther the path the heat must travel from the plug tip to the cylinder head), the hotter the plug will operate; the shorter the insulator (the shorter the path from electrode to the cylinder head) the cooler it will operate. Selecting a spark plug with the proper heat range will ensure that the tip maintains a temperature high enough to prevent fouling, yet cool enough to prevent pre-ignition. A plug that absorbs little heat and remains too cool will quickly accumulate deposits of oil and carbon since it won't be able to burn them off. This leads to plug fouling and consequently to misfiring. A plug that absorbs too much heat will have no deposits but, due to the excessive heat, the electrodes will burn away quickly and might also lead to pre-ignition or other ignition problems. Pre-ignition takes place when plug tips get so hot that they glow sufficiently to ignite the airlfuel mixture before the actual spark occurs. This early ignition will usually cause a pinging during heavy loads and if not corrected, can result in severe engine damage. While there are many other things that can cause pre-ignition, selecting the proper heat range spark plug I ensure that the spark plug itself is not a hot-spot source. The manufacturer recommended spark plugs are listed in the Tune- UD S~ecifications chart. This data should be compared to the c missions Control Information label found on the powerhead itself in US. and related markets, as the label could reflect changes made during production that did not make it to the OE print material. THE SHORTER THE LONGER THE PATH. THE THE PATH, THE FASTER THE SLOWER THE HEAT IS DIS-HEAT IS 01s- SIPATED AND SIPATED AND THE COOLER THE HOTTER SHORT YRIPHEAVY LOADS. STOP-AND-GO HIGH SPEEDS SHORT Insulator Tip LONG Insulator Tip Slow Heal Transletfast Heal Translei HIGHER Heal Range LOWER Heat Range HOT PLUGCOLD PLUG REMOVAL & INSTALLATION See Figures 141 thru 149 New technologies in spark plug and ignition system design have greatly extended spark plug life over the years. But, spark plug life can still vary greatly with engine tuning, condition and usage. That said, it is not uncommon for plugs to last up to 200 hours of operation or more. Typically spark plugs will require replacement about once a season. The electrode on a new spark plug has a sharp edge but with use, this edge becomes rounded by wear, causing the plug gap to increase. As the gap increases, the plug's voltage requirement also increases. It requires a greater voltage to jump the wider gap and about two to three times as much voltage to fire a plug at high speeds than at idle, Fouled plugs can cause hard-starting, engine mis-firing or other problems. You don't want that happening on the water. Take time, at least once a month to remove and inspect the spark plugs. Early signs of other tuning or mechanical problems may be found on the plugs that could save you from becoming stranded or even allow you to address a problem before it ruins the motor. Tools needed for spark plug replacement include: a ratchet, short extension, spark plug socket (there are two types; either 13/16 in. or 518 in., depending upon the type of plug), a combination spark plug gauge and gapping tool and a can of anti-seize type compound, plus some dielectric grease. 1. When removing spark plugs from multi-cylinder motors, work on one at a time. Don't start by removing the plug wires all at once, because unless you number them, they may become mixed up. Take a minute before you begin and number the wires with tape. The 40150 hp and 150-300 hp motors are equipped with a direct ignition system on which the ignition coils are bolted directly over the spark plugs. To remove the plugs you'll have to first tag and disconnect the primary wiring, then remove the ignition coils themselves from the motor. For details, refer to the Ignition Coil procedures in the Ignition and Electrical System section. 2. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable or turn the battery switch OFF. 3. On some motors, especially on most mid-range and larger models, the lower engine case may interfere with access to one or more of the lower spark plug wires. If necessary, remove the lower engine cowling. For details, please refer to Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases), earlier in this section. 4 If the engine has been run recently, allow the engine to thoroughly cool (unless performing a compression check). Attempting to remove plugs from a hot cylinder head could cause the plugs to seize and damage the threads in the cylinder head, especially on aluminum heads! @ To ensure an accurate reading during a compression check, the spark plugs must be removed from a hot engine. But, DO NOT force a plug if it feels like it is seized. Instead, wait until the engine has cooled, remove the plug and coat the threads lightly with anti-seize then reinstall and tighten the plug, then back off the tightened position a little less than 114 turn. With the plug(s) installed in this manner, re- warm the engine and conduct the compression check. 5. Carefully twist the spark plug wire boot to loosen it, then pull the boot using a twisting motion to remove it from the plug. Be sure to pull on the boot and not on the wire, otherwise the connector located inside the boot may become separated from the high-tension wire. A spark plug wire removal tool can be used on some models (and is recommended when it will fit) as it can make removal easier and help prevent damage to the boot and wire assembly. Most tools have a wire loom that fits under the plug boot so the force of pulling upward is transmitted directly to the bottom of the boot. However, the boots used on many of the mid-range motors are large and heavy-duty enough that you can get a good grip on them by hand, and probably couldn't get a wire removal tool underneath them anyway. 6. Using compressed air (and safety glasses), blow debris from the spark plug area to assure that no harmful contaminants are allowed to enter the combustion chamber when the spark plug is removed. If compressed air -42 MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP is not available, use a rag or a brush to clean the area. Compressed air is available from both an air comoressor or from com~ressed air in cans available at photography stores. In a pinch, blow up a balloon by hand and use the escaping air to blow debris from the spark plug port(s). Remove the spark plugs when the engine is cold, if possible, to prevent damage to the threads. If plug removal is difficult, apply a few drops of penetrating oil to the area around the base of the plug and allow it a few minutes to work. 7. Using a spark plug socket that is equipped with a rubber insert to properly hold the plug, turn the spark plug counterclockwise to loosen and remove the spark plug from the bore. Avoid the use of a flexible extension on the socket. Use of a flexible extension may allow a shear force to be applied to the plug. A shear force could break the plug off in the cylinder head, leading to costly and/or frustrating repairs. In addition, be sure to support the ratchet with your other hand -this will also help prevent the socket from damaging the plug. 8. Evaluate each cylinder's performance by comparing the spark condition. Check each spark plug to be sure they are from the same plug manufacturer and have the same heat range rating. Inspect the threads in Fia. 142 The lower enaine cases can aet in Fig. 141 Spark plugs are found mounted to the way of lower sparkplugs on some Fig. 143 Once you have access, remove the the cylinder (often through the valve cover) models spark plug cap. .. 1 1 I I Fig. 144 . . .using a twisting motion while Fig. 145 On direct ignition models you must Fig. 146 Loosen the plug using a spark plug pulling remove the ignition coils for access socket. .. Fig. 149 To prevent corrosion, apply a small Fig. 147 . . .and remove the spark plug from Fig. 148 ALWAYS thread spark plugs by amount of grease to the plug and boot the cylinder head hand! during installation I the spark plug opening of the block and clean the threads before installing the plug. 9. When purchasing new spark plugs, always ask the dealer if there has been a spark plug change for the engine being serviced. Sometimes manufacturers will update the type of spark plug used in an engine to offer better efficiency or performance. 10. Inspect the spark plug boot for tears or damage. If a damaged boot is found, the spark plug boot and possibly the entire wire will need replacement. 11. Check the spark plug gap prior to installing the plug. Most spark plugs do not come gapped to the proper specification. 12. Apply a thin coating of anti-seize on the thread of the plug. This is extremely important on aluminum head engines to prevent corrosion and heat from seizing the plug in the threads (which could lead to a damaged cylinder head upon removal). 13. Carefully thread the plug into the bore by hand. If resistance is felt before the plug completely bottoms, back the plug out and begin threading again. Do not use the spark plug socket to thread the plugs. Always carefully thread the plug by hand or using an old plug wirelboot to prevent the possibility of crossthreading and damaging the cylinder head bore. An old plug wirelboot can be used to thread the plug if you turn the wire by hand. Should the plug begin to crossthread the wire will twist before the cylinder head would be damaaed. This trick is useful when accessories or a deep cylinder head design prevents you from easily keeping fingers on the plug while it is threaded by hand. 14. Carefully tighten the spark plug to specification using a torque wrench as follows: 2.5 hp motors: 8 ft. lbs./96 inch Ibs. (11 Nm) 9.9/15 hp motors through 2004: 12.5 ft. lbs.il50 inch Ibs. (17 Nm) 25/30 hp (3-Cyl) and 40150 hp motors: 13 ft. lbsA60 inch Ibs. (18 Nm) All other motors (including 41516 hp, 2005 and later 9.9115 hp, 25 hp V2, and all 60-300 hp motors): 20 ft. lbs./240 inch Ibs. (28 Nm) B Whenever possible, spark plugs should be tightened to the factory torque specification. If a torque wrench is not available, and the plug you are installing is equipped with a crush washer, tighten the plug until the washer seats, then turn it 114 turn to crush the washer, 15. Apply a small amount of Suzuki Water Resistant Grease or a silicone dielectric grease to the ribbed, ceramic portion of the spark plug lead and inside the spark plug boot to prevent sticking, then install the boot to the spark plug and push until it clicks into place. The click may be felt or heard. Gently pull back on the boot to assure proper contact. 16. Connect the negative battery cable or turn the battery switch ON. 17. Test run the outboard (using a test tank or flush fitting) and insure proper operation. READING SPARK PLUGS See Figures 150 thru 155 Reading spark plugs can be a valuable tuning aid. By examining the insulator firing nose color, you can determine much about the engine's overall operating condition. In general, a light tanlgray color tells you that the spark plug is at the optimum temperature and that the engine is in good operating condition. Dark coloring, such as heavy black wet or dry deposits usually indicate a fouling problem. Heavy, dry deposits can indicate an overly rich condition, too cold a heat range spark plug, possible vacuum leak, low compression, overly retarded timing or too large a plug gap. If the deposits are wet, it can be an indication of a breached head gasket, oil control from ring problems or an extremely rich condition, depending on what liquid is present at the firing tip. Also look for signs of detonation, such as silver specs, black specs or melting or breakage at the firing tip. Compare your plugs to the illustrations shown to identify the most common plug conditions. Fouled Spark Plugs A spark plug is "fouled when the insulator nose at the firing tip becomes coated with a foreign substance, such as fuel, oil or carbon. This coating makes it easier for the voltage to follow along the insulator nose and leach back down into the metal shell, grounding out, rather than bridging the gap normally. Fuel, oil and carbon fouling can all be caused by different things but in any case, once a spark plug is fouled, it will not provide voltage to the firing tip and that cylinder will not fire properly. In many cases, the spark plug cannot be cleaned sufficiently to restore normal operation. It is therefore recommended that fouled plugs be replaced. Signs of fouling or excessive heat must be traced quickly to prevent further deterioration of performance and to prevent possible engine damage. Overheated Spark Plugs When a spark plug tip shows signs of melting or is broken, it usually means that excessive heat andlor detonation was present in that particular combustion chamber or that the spark plug was suffering from thermal shock. Since spark plugs do not create heat by themselves, one must use this visual clue to track down the root cause of the problem. in any case, damaged firing tips most often indicate that cylinder pressures or temperatures were too high. Left unresolved, this condition usually results in more serious engine damage. Detonation refers to a type of abnormal combustion that is usually preceded by pre-ignition. It is most often caused by a hot spot formed in the combustion chamber. As air and fuel is drawn into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke, this hot spot will "pre-ignite" the air fuel mixture without any spark from the spark plugs. Detonation Detonation exerts a great deal of downward force on the pistons as they are being forced upward by the mechanical action of the connecting rods. When this occurs, the resulting concussion, shock waves and heat can be severe. Spark plug tips can be broken or melted and other internal engine components such as the pistons or connecting rods themselves can be damaged. Left unresolved, engine damage is almost certain to occur, with the spark plug usually suffering the first signs of damage. When signs of detonation or pre-ignition are observed, they are symptom of another problem. You must determine and correct the situation that caused the hot spot to form in the first place. INSPECTION& GAPPING See Figures 156 and 157 A particular spark plug might fit hundreds of powerheads and although the factory will typically set the gap to a preselected setting, this gap may not be the right one for your particular powerhead. Insufficient spark plug gap can cause pre-ignition, detonation, even engine damage. Too much gap can result in a higher rate of misfires, noticeable loss of power, plug fouling and poor economy. Refer to the Tune-up Specifications chart for spark plug gaps. Check spark plug gap before installation. The ground electrode (the L- shaped one connected to the body of the plug) must be parallel to the center electrode and the specified size wire gauge must pass between the electrodes with a slight drag. Do not use a flat feeler gauge when measuring the gap on a used plug, because the reading may be inaccurate. A round-wire type gapping tool is the best way to check the gap. The correct gauge should pass through the electrode gap with a slight drag. If you're in doubt, try a wire that is one size smaller and one larger. The smaller gauge should go through easily, while the larger one shouldn't go through at all. Wire gapping tools usually have a bending tool attached. USE IT! This tool greatly reduces the chance of breaking off the electrode and is much more accurate. Never attempt to bend or move the center electrode. Also, be careful not to bend the side electrode too far or too often as it may weaken and break off within the engine, requiring removal of the cylinder head to retrieve it. 2-44 MAI NANCE AND TUNE-U @ Most Suzuki motors (probably a little more than half of the various 4-stroke models, except the 40150 hp and 150-300 hp EFI engines that utilize direct ignition coils), are equipped with secondary spark leads or spark plug wires to carry ignition voltage from the coils to the spark plugs. The job of the secondary spark leads (spark plug wires) is to carry the high voltage necessary to fire the plug safely from the ignition coil itself to the spark plug. What is important here is that resistance inside the wire remains within a specified range AND the insulation remains in good conoition so that the voltage does not arc or leak to ground. Either case (arcing voltage or excessive resistance) will allow the ianition svstem to work outside its desian parameters and can cause misfiring,hesitation, stumble etc. Wires will become brittle with age and will become mere prone to cracks or breakages that can raise resistance. This can be made worse with rough handling (during motor top cover installation, or during maintenance and repairs). In addition, the wire insulation will begin to break down from the moment it is exposed to the atmosphere and to the severe conditions found under the motor cover during normal operation. For this reason, periodic inspection and testing of these wires are necessary to make sure the motor continues to run in top condition. Fig. 152 This spark plug has been left in the powerhead too long, as evidenced by the Fig. 150 A normally worn spark plug should have light tan or gray deposits on the firing tip (electrode) Fig. 151 Acarbon-fouled plug, identified by soft, sooty black deposits, may indicate an improperly tuned powerhead extreme gap. Plugs with such an extreme gap can cause misfiring and stumbling accompanied by a noticeable lack of power Fig. 154 A physically damaged spark plug Fig. 153 An oil-fouled spark plug indicates a may be evidence of severe detonation in powerhead with worn piston rings or a that cylinder. Watch the cylinder carefully Fig. 155 A bridged or almost bridged spark malfunctioning oil injection system that between services, as a continued detonation plug, identified by the build-up between the allows excessive oil to enter the combustion will not only damage the plug but will most electrodes caused by excessive carbon or chamber likely damage the powerhead oil build up on the plug TESTING DERATE + See Figures 158,159 and 160 Each time you remove the engine cover, visually inspect the spark plug wires for burns, cuts or breaks in the insulation. Check the boots on the coil and at the spark plug end. Replace any wire that is damaged. Except on Direct Ignition (Dl) models, once a year, usually when you change your spark plugs, check the resistance of the spark plug wires with an ohmmeter. Wires with excessive resistance will cause misfiring and may make the engine difficult to start. In addition worn wires will allow arcing and misfiring in humid conditions. Remove the spark plua wire from the en~ine. Test the wires by connecting one lead of an ohmmeterto the coil end of the wire and the other lead to the spark plug end of the wire. Keep in mind though, that depending upon the model vou mav have to remove a resistor cao from the spark olua end of the wire first. To determine this, along with the proper test ~~ecifications, please refer to the charts found in the Ignition and Electrical System section, specifically the ones entitled Ignition Testing Specifications -Carbureted Motors, andlor Ignition Components and Fuel Injector Sensor Testing, depending on the motor. If a spark plug wire is found to have excessive resistance (much higher resistance than specified), the entire set should be replaced. Fig. 156 Use a wire-type spark plug gapping tool to check the distance between center and ground electrodes Keep in mind that just because a spark plug wire passes a resistance test doesn't mean that it is in good shape. Cracked or deteriorated insulation will allow the circuit to misfire under load, especially when wet. Always visually check wires to cuts, cracks or breaks in the insulation. If found, run the engine in a test tank or on a flush device either at night (looking for a bluish glow from the wires that would indicate arcing) or while spraying water on them while listening for an engine stumble. Regardless of resistance tests and visual checks, it is never a bad idea to replace spark plug leads at least every couple of years, and to keep the old ones around for spares. Think of spark plug wires as a relatively low cost item that whose replacement can also be considered maintenance. REMOVAL& INSTALLATION When installing a new set of spark plug wires, replace the wires one at a time so there will be no confusion. Coat the inside of the boots with Suzuki Water Resistant Grease or dielectric grease to prevent sticking. Install the boot firmly over the spark plug until it clicks into place. The click may be felt or heard. Gently pull back on the boot to assure proper contact. Repeat the process for each wire. It is important to route the new spark plug wire the same as the original and install it in a similar manner on the powerhead. Improper routing of spark plug wires may cause powerhead performance problems. Fig. 157 Most plug gapping tools have an adjusting fitting used to bend the ground electrode Fig. 158 Except for direct ignition motors, Fig. 160 Most models use resistor caps visually inspect the spark plug boot and Fig. 159 ...all the way back to the ignition which must be tested separately from the wire.. . coils for signs of wear or damage wire components for signs of obvious defects. Look for signs of burnt, cracked or INSPECTION Modern electronic ignition systems have become one of the most reliable components on an outboard. There is very little maintenance involved in the operation of these ignition systems and even less to repair if they fail. Most systems are sealed and there is no option other than to replace failed components. See Figures 161,162 and 163 In simple terms, synchronization is timing the fuel system to the ignition. Timing and synchronization ensures that as the throttle is advanced to increase powerhead rpm, the fuel and the ignition systems are both advanced equally and at the same rate (i.e. "in sync"). Various models have unique methods of checking ignition timing. As appropriate, these differences will be explained in detail in the text. Any time the fuel system or the ignition system on a powerhead is serviced to replace a faulty part or any adjustments are made for any reason, powerhead timing and synchronization must be carefully checked and verified. Depending on the engine, adjustment of the timing and synchronization can be extremely important to obtain maximum efficiency. The powerhead cannot perform properly and produce its designed horsepower output if the fuel and ignition systems have not been precisely adjusted. We say, depending on the engine because more than half of the models covered by here are equipped an EFI system, and all but one carbureted powerhead family is equipped with only a single carburetor, and almost everything here requires few, if any adjustments once properly installed. As a matter of fact, because of the US.EPA or EU regulated carburetors used on most of the motors covered here, very few adjustments are possible even on most carburetors. There are no periodic mixture adjustments necessary on ANY of the motors covered here. Most high-speed jets are fixed units and the low speed mixture screws are usually sealed to prevent unnecessary tampering. However, any carburetor will require initial set-up and adjustment after disassembly or rebuilding. Also, on any motor equipped with multiple carburetors (which is only the 25/30 hp 3-cyl motors), the carbs I require synchronization with each other after anytime they have been removed or separated. Though some of the motors covered here have adjustable idle speeds, pretty much all of the motors use electronically controlled ignition and timing systems that allow for timing checks, but are otherwise completely self- adjusting. Still a timing check can tell the operator if the ignition system is doing its job correctly, so all (or nearly all) models will have timing indicators on the manual starter or flywheel cover and timing marks (usually molded) on the broken insulation. Replace wires or components withobvious defects. If spark plug condition suggests weak or no spark on one or more cylinders, perform ignition system testing to eliminate possible worn or defective components. If trouble is suspected, it is very important to narrow down the problem to the ignition system and replace the correct components rather than just replace parts hoping to solve the problem. Electronic components can be very expensive and are usually not returnable. flywheel itself. A timing light is normally used to check the ignition timing with the powerhead operating (dynamically). Before making ANY adjustments to the ignition timing or synchronizing the ignition to the fuel system, both systems should be verified to be in good working order. The following equipment is essential and is called out repeatedly in this section. This equipment must be used as described, unless otherwise instructed by the equipment manufacturer. Naturally, the equipment is removed following completion of the adjustments. For any adjustment under load, the manufacturer either recommends the use of a test wheel (when available) or, more frequently, the use of a standard propeller in order to put a load on the engine and propeller shaft. Both methods are used to prevent the engine from excessive rpm. Timing Light -During many procedures in this section, the appropriate timing marks on the flywheel must be aligned with a stationary timing mark on the engine (usually manual starter or flywheel cover) while the powerhead is running. Only through use of a timing light connected to the No. 1 spark plug lead, can the timing mark on the flywheel be observed while the engine is operating. * Tachometer -A tachometer connected to the powerhead must be used to accurately determine engine speed during idle and high-speed adjustment. Engine speed readings generally range from 0-6,000 rpm in increments of 100 rpm. Choose a tachometer with solid state electronic circuits which eliminates the need for relays or batteries and contribute to their accuracy. For maximum performance, the idle rpm should be checked or adjusted under actual operating conditions. Under such conditions it might be necessary to attach a tachometer closer to the powerhead than the one installed on the control panel. B Because the 90-300 hp 4-strokes use an offset crankshaft with a separate crankshaft driven gear the motors were designed to rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE in order to drive the driven gear and driveshaft the same standard CLOCKWISE direction that other motors rotate. In this way the gearcases for these Left Hand turning powerheads can still utilize standard Right Hand (standard rotation) propellers. Fig. 161 You will normally find a timing Fig. 163 Timing marks themselves are pointer integrated into the manual starter.. . 1 Fig. 162 .. .or flywheel cover, as equipped usually molded into the flywheel Flywheel Rotation -The instructions may call for rotating the flywheel until certain marks are aligned with the timing pointer. When the flywheel must be rotated, always move the flywheel in the indicated direction (Clockwise on most models, EXCEPT the left-hand rotation motors covered here, which are the 90-300 hp motors, which normally rotate Counterclockwise). If the flywheel should be rotated in the opposite direction, the water pump impeller vanes would be twisted. Should the powerhead be started with the pump tangs bent back in the wrong direction, the tangs may not have time to bend in the correct direction before they are damaged or destroyed. Keep in mind that even the smallest amount of damage to the water pump will affect cooling of the powerhead Test Tank -Since the engine must be operated at various times and engine speeds during some procedures, a test tank or moving the boat into a body of water, is necessary. If installing the engine in a test tank, outfit the engine with an appropriate test propeller Water must circulate through the lower unit to the powerhead anytime the powerhead is operating to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump impeller. E Remember that in most applications the powerhead will not start without the emergency tether in place behind the kill switch knob. Never operate the powerhead above a fast idle with a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. Operating the powerhead at a high rpm with no load on the propeller shaft could cause the powerhead to runaway causing extensive damage to the unit. ADJUSTMENTS Very few adjustments are possible on these motors. The following procedures provide instructions how to checklset the idle speed, as well as to check the ignition timing on these motors. These motors are equipped with a digital Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) system that contains a single CDI and coil unit which integrates the ignition coil and pulser core. All timing adjustments are handled internally, though a timing check may be used to insure the system is operating properly. One carburetor was specified for use on these models, the Walbro LMJ- 26, and it is listed as having a pre-set idle mixture adjustment which was sealed at the factory. Still an idle speed procedure is available which uses a spring-loaded idle speed screw found on top of the carburetor to adjust the throttle plate at the idle position. Idle Speed Adjustment + See Figures 164 and 165 Idle speed is adjusted with the gearcase in neutral so this adjustment can occur with the motor mounted on the boat and in the water, in a test tank or even running on a suitable flushing fitting. But the idle speed should later be checked and verified in gear, especially if the motor is to be used for trolling at idle. 1. Remove the motor top cover for access as follows: a. Tie a slipknot in the rope inside the motor cover (between the cover and the manual starter assembly) so the rope cannot retract into the recoil reel once the starter grip is removed. A quick trick besides using a knot is to use a metallic clamp or tool like vise-grips to grab the rope, just make sure the rope doesn't become frayed or damaged if you use such a method. b. Free the knot holder from the starter grip, then remove the knot and carefully pull the starter grip from the end of the rope. c. With the starter grip out of the way you are now free to remove the motor cover. d. Install the starter grip and the holder to the end of the rope and loosen the knot (or clamping tool) which had been holding the rope of the manual starter housing. 2. Start by making sure the link mechanism and the carburetor throttle valve operates smoothly without binding. 3. Attach an inductive tachometer to the spark plug high tension cord. 4. Place the motor in a test tank or supply a suitable source of cooling water, then start the powerhead and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Let the motor run for about 5 minutes or so. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 5. With the outboard at normal operating temperature and operating in NEUTRAL, make sure the throttle is fully closed, then check the idle speed, it should be about 1900 rpm (though a range of 1800-2000 is acceptable). If the motor is operating out of the specified range locate the idle speed screw, on the top of the carburetor, near the ignition coil and spark plug boot, between the throttle control cable and the choke rod. The idle speed screw is a spring-loaded, horizontally mounted screw positioned where it can directly affect the throttle linkage. Turn the idle speed screw CLOCKWISE to increase idle speed or COUNTERCLOCKWISE to decrease speed. Make small adjustments, then open and close the throttle manually, waiting each time for a steady idle speed, before making the next adjustment. 6. Once idle speed is properly set you can move on to checking the Ignition Timing. Ignition Timing + See Figure 166 As stated earlier in this section, timing is controlled by the CDI unit (which integrates the ignition coil and the pulse~coils into one housing). At least annually or every 200 hours of operation you should check ignition timing to verify the system is operating properly. The Idle Speed must be properly adjusted before checking timing. Unfortunately Suzuki only provided one specification and though they claim this spec is for idle timing we're skeptical, but at the time of writing we didn't have access to a test motor to check it. Regardless, IF the specification is correct, you CAN check this setting in a test tank or on a flush fitting, however because there is so much advance listed in this spec, IF the check does not agree with specification then we'd recommend you 1 -Idle Speed Screw Fig. 166 Checking idle ignition timing -2.5 hp motors double-check by testing at WOT. If you need to check at WOT also, the adjustment MUST be performed in a test tank or on a launched vessel so that you can run the motor at WOT under load. DO NOT attempt to check the WOT timing on a flush fitting. 1. Provide a suitable source of cooling water, 2. Attach a timing light cord to the spark plug wire. One with a built-in tach can be handy otherwise you'll want to attach a tachometer too. 3. Start and allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature. 4. There's a timing window and pointer in the manual starterlflywheel cover toward the port side of the motor, just behind where the starter rope enters the housing. Run the motor at idle while pointing the timing light at the housing and watching the marks on the flywheel. Timing should be approximately 30' BTDC at idle. This may be represented by numbered marks, OR it may just be the larger timing mark (slash) surrounded by smaller slashes. A small variance is normally allowable. Htiming is not correct, the Ignition System should be checked for faults and repairedlreplaced as necessary. 5. Shut the powerhead down, then remove the tachometer andlor timing light. ADJUSTMENTS Very few adjustments are possible on these motors. The following procedures provide instructions how to checkset the idle speed, as well as to check the ignition timing on these motors. These motors are equipped with a digital Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) system that contains a single CDI and coil unit which integrates the ignition coil and pulser core. All timing adjustments are handled internally, though a timing check may be used to insure the system is operating properly. It appears that a number of different carburetors may have been used on these models depending on both the year and the intended market. Versions of the Mikuni BV-22-14 (415 hp) or Mikuni BV-22-16 (6 hp) may be found through 2004 and may or may NOT utilize an adjustable low speed (piloUidle mixture) screw on the top of the carburetor (opposite side from the fuel inlet fitting) threaded downward at about a 45' angle (again depending on the particular carburetor ID and whether or not this screw was used and sealed or not used at all, for more details, please refer to the Carburetor Adjustment chart in the Fuel System section). Later models are equipped with various Keihin carburetors and the exploded views generally DO NOT SHOW a low speed mixture screw (though that does not mean for certain none is there, as there is a spec for some versions of the 2004 6 hp motor with a Keihin carburetor). Specs on other Keihin carburetor motors simply say the low speed is "preset" and we cannot determine for sure at this time whether that is to discourage tampering or if truly there is no pilot screw and only a fixed pilot jet on these models. Idle Speed Adjustment See Figure 167 Idle speed is adjusted with the gearcase in neutral so this adjustment can occur with the motor mounted on the boat and in the water, in a test tank or even running on a suitable flushing fitting. However, keep in mind that if you're going to check the WOT timing later, you're going to need a test tank or to launch the boat. 1. Start by making sure the link mechanism and the carburetor throttle valve operates smoothly without binding. 2. Attach an inductive tachometer to the spark plug high tension cord. 3. As mentioned earlier, the manufacturer only gives information on adjusting the idle MIXTURE on certain carburetors, for details on which carburetors contain adjustments (according to year, model and carb ID code) please refer to the Car the carburetor or powe screwlneedle (if equipp that now. Rotate the low speed needle (normally located on the top of the carb, threaded downward at an angle with the head facing toward the manual starter assembly), clockwise SLOWLY and GENTLY until the needle Fig. 167 Idle speed and mixture screws on a 41516 hp motor with a Mikuni carb is lightly seated. Back the needle out exactly the proper number of turns as designated by the chart. 4. Start the powerhead and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 5. With the outboard at normal operating temperature and operating in NEUTRAL, idle speed should be about 1300 rpm (though a range of 1250- 1350 is acceptable). If the motor is operating out of the specified range locate the idle speed screw, on the opposite side of the carburetor from the manual starter (facing the front of the motor). The idle speed screw is a horizontally mounted screw positioned just forward of the throttle linkage. Turn the idle speed screw CLOCKWISE to increase idle speed or COUNTERCLOCKWISE to decrease speed. Make small adjustments, waiting each time for a steady idle speed, before making the next adjustment. 6. On models with an adjustable idle mixture, if necessary tweak the screw positioning with up to 114 turn from standard positioning. Turning the mixture screw CLOCKWISE will lean out the mixture further, while turning it COUNTERCLOCKWISE will enrichen the mixture. Make only a small adjustment, as necessary to stabilize idle. 7. Once idle speed is properly set you can move on to checking the Ignition Timing. Ignition Timing See Figure 168 As stated earlier in this section, timing is controlled by the CDI unit (which integrates the ignition coil and the pulser coils into one housing). At least annually or every 200 hours of operation you should check ignition timing to verify the system is operating properly. The Idle Speed must be properly adjusted before checking timing. Checking the timing at idle speed should be sufficient and can be performed in a test tank or on a flush fitting, but if you want to check that the motor is advancing properly by checking WOT timing, then you'll need to use a test tank or launch the boat. DO NOT attempt to check the WOT timing on a flush fitting. 1. PY k"c-:suitable source of cooling water; a test tank, launch the boat 014 a flush fiiting (unless you want to check WOT timing). 2. Attach a timing light cord to the spark plug wire. One with a built-in tach can be handy otherwise you'll want to attach a tachometer too, especially if you are checking WOT timing and not just idle timing. ADJUSTMENTS on timing using the pointerlwindow in the 3. Start and allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature. 4. There's a timing window and pointer in the manual startertflywheel cover toward the front of the motor, just behind the air intake opening for the carburetor. Point the timing light at the mark. Idle timing should be either 6 BTDC for 415 hp models through 2004 models or 3' BTDC for 2005 or later 415 hp models. On 6 hp models the idle timing should be loBTDC for 2003 models and also 2004 models equipped with a Mikuni carburetor, and should be 3' BTDC for 2004 models equipped with a Keihin carburetor or all 2005 or later models. 5. WOT timing is checked in the same basic fashion, except that you must run the gearcase under a load (in water, with a suitable prop) to prevent a runaway powerhead. Advance the motor to full throttle while watching the timing marks, the timing should advance to 26.5' BTDC for 2002-2004 415 hp models or 28' BTDC for 2005 or later 415 hp models and ALL 6 hp models (including 2003-04). Keep in mind that no maintenance recommendation was provided by the manufacturer to check timing at WOT and this timing spec is the maximum advance listed in the design specs for the ignition system. In other words, we wouldn't worry if a check shows slightly less advance, as long as the motor seems to otherwise be running properly. M If timing is not correct, the Ignition System should be checked for faults and repairedlreplaced as necessary. 6. Shut the powerhead down, then remove the tachometer and/or timing light. Throttle Stop Screw 1 Throttle Lever Through 1996 88 mm (3.46 in.) 1996 112 and Later 86 mrn (3.39 in.) Very few adjustments are possible on these motors. The following procedures provide instructions how to adjust the throttle control cables (tiller) or rod (remote), to checklset the idle speed (and idle mixture if adjustable), as well as to check the ignition timing. These motors are equipped with a digital Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) system which utilizes a CDI unit mounted on the powerhead, as well as both a charge coil (in a stator) and a pulser coil (sensorttrigger coil) which are mounted under the flywheel. The CDI unit controls all ignition timing based on signals from the pulser coil, so no adjustments are necessary or possible. It appears that Suzuki (as well as the EPA) wants to discourage tampering with the idle mixture on most of these motors. The factory service information gives NO specifications or details on initial setting of the pilot (idle mixture) screw on most years/models/carburetor IDS. As a matter of fact many of the exploded views don't even show that the needle exists, however it is shown and mentioned in some of the carburetor "theory of operation" information and in at least one of the Mikuni exploded views for these models. Regardless, idle mixture adjustment isn't a periodic adjustment and should only be performed after major component (powerhead or carburetor) overhaul or replacement. Throttle Control CableIRod InstallationIAdjustment -Mikuni Models See Figures 169,170 and 171 Mikuni carburetors should be found on mosUall of these motors through 2004 models. This installationladjustment procedure ccu/eia bolh tiller and remote models. The throttle control cablestrod should not require any periodic attention, however, should the cables or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure they operate properly. Adjustment will ensure that they allow the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the cables already disconnected due to service. 1. Locate the throttle stop screw (also known as an idle stop, idle speed or idle adjustment screw) on the side of the carburetor throttle body, where it is threaded so it contacts the throttle lever to hold it open slightly at idle. Loosen the screw (turning it counterclockwise) until it no longer contacts the throttle lever. 2. Adjust the throttle rod to a length of 3.46 in. (88mm) for models through 1996 or to 3.39 in. (86mm) for 1996 It2 and later models. This distance is measured between the centers of the two connector holes. 3. Gently press fit the throttle rod onto the ball pivots of the throttle drum and the throttle arm. Stopper 'I\%-/-^'^^""^ Connector Holder Drum nmm Lock Nut mm Fig. 170 After throttle rod adjustment, make sure the throttle lever contacts the WOT stop while the throttle drum still has a Fig. 171 Finally, close the throttle and check smidge of clearance the throttle lever again 4. Rotate the throttle drum CLOCKWISE and make sure that the throttle lever on the carburetor hits the WOT stop while there is still about 0-1mm of clearance between the throttle drum and the drum stopper. If the drum hits the stopper first, adjust the length of the throttle rod until the throttle lever JUST hits the stopper first. 5. On Tiller control models, fully close the throttle control grip. 6. On Remote control models, position the control handle in Neutral. 7. Secure the throttle cable to the holder by fitting the cable groove into a slot on the holder, then install the bracket to secure the cable by the bracket retaining screw. 8. Thread the connector onto the cable, then turn the throttle drum counterclockwise until just a tiny amount of clearance exists at the other end of the throttle lever. 9. While pushing the cable end back towards the holder, adjust the connector until the center of the connector aligns with the center of the ball pivot on bottom of the drum. Once it is aligned, gently press fit the connector on the ball pivot and tighten the locknut on the cable connector to hold this position securely. 10. Finally, double-check to make sure the throttle lever still contacts the WOT stopper with the throttle fully opened, and that some clearance still exists at the throttle lever with the throttle control fully closed. If necessary, loosen the locknut and readjust the connector to achieve both of these conditions. Throttle Control CableIRod InstallationIAdjustment -Keihin CarbKiller See Figure 172 The throttle control cables should not require any periodic attention, however, should the cables or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure they operate properly. Adjustment will ensure that they allow the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the cables already disconnected due to service 1 Route the 2 throttle cables into the throttle drum on the powerhead and position the locknuts loosely into the cable holder. 2. Check the length of the throttle rod (which connects the throttle drum to the carburetor throttle arm) it should be 3.78 in (96mm) as measured from the centers of the ball pivots on the connectors at each end. If necessary, free one or both of the connectors and adjust the rod to the proper length, then secure it back over the drum lever and the carburetor throttle arm. 3. Turn the throttle control to WOT position, then adjust the UPPER cable by turning the locknuts until the throttle drum stopper is in contact with the cylinder block stopper. 4. Turn the throttle control to the closedlidle position, then adjust the LOWER cable by turning the locknuts until the throttle drum mark is aligned with the cylinder block rib. 5. With the throttle control still in the closedhdle position now check to make sure there is clearance between the throttle drum and throttle control lever. Then secure both the throttle cables using the locknuts. 6. Open the throttle again to the WOT position, now make sure there is 0-2mm (0.0-0.08 in.) of clearance between the carburetor full open stopper and the lever at the same time that the throttle drum stopper is in contact with the cylinder block stopper. 7. Fully loosen the throttle tension adjuster, then open the throttle control grip fully and release. Make sure the throttle control grip returns to the closed position via the spring force on the carburetor. If the grip does NOT return, the throttle cable tension is too tight and the cables should be readjusted. Throttle Control Rod Adjustment -Keihin GarbIRemote Models See Figure 173 The throttle control link rod should not require any periodic attention, however, should the rod or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure it operates properly. Adjustment will ensure that it allows the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the throttle rod already disconnected due to service. 1. Check the length of the throttle rod (which connects the throttle drum to the carburetor throttle arm) it should be 3.48 in (88.5mm) as measured from She centers of the ball pivots on the connectors at each end. If necessary, turn one or both of the connectors and adjust the rod to the A -Stopper1 & 2 -Throttle Cable B -Cylinder Block Stopper 3 -Drum C -Mark4 -Cable Holder D -Rib5 -Throttle Rod E -Stopper (Full Open) 6 -Throttle Lever F -Lever7 -Carb. Throttle Arm L -Length of throttle rod 99 mm8 & 9-Lock Nuts I I (3.78 in.) X/Y = Clearance I I Fig. 172 Throttle control cable installation and adjustment -Tiller 9.9115 hp motors with Keihin Garbs 1 -Throttle Rod A -Drum Stopper 2 -Throttle Lever B -Clyllnder Block Stopper 3 -Carb Throttle Arm E -Carb WOT Stopper 4 -Throttle Drum F -Lever I I Fig. 173 Throttle control rod adjustment -Remote 9.9115 hp with Keihin Carb proper length, then secure it back over the drum lever and the carburetor throttle arm. 2. Rotate the throttle drum clockwise until the drum stopper contacts the cylinder block stopper. At this point check that there is 0-2mm (0.0-0.08 in.) of clearance between the carburetor full open stopper and the lever. If there is no clearance at all, or too much clearance, adjust the length of the rod as necessary. Idle Speed Adjustment See Figure 174 Idle speed itself can be generally be adjusted with the gearcase in either neutral or in gear so this adjustment CAN occur with the motor mounted on the boat and in the water, in a test tank or even running on a suitable flushing fitting. However, if you need to adjust the low speed mixture (on models where that is possible) andlor check the idle speed in gear, you'll need a test tank or to at least launch the boat. Also, keep in mind that for models through 1996 Suzuki only provided specifications for IN-GEAR idle speed, so at least on those models you'll have to use a test tank or launched craft. 1. Start by making sure the link mechanism and the carburetor throttle valve operates smoothly without binding. 2. Attach an inductive tachometer to the No 1. cyl. spark plug high tension cord. 3. As mentioned earlier, the manufacturer does not give much information on adjusting the idle MIXTURE for these carburetors, but specs do exist for enough models that we think there is a good chance that there is an idle mixture screw under the cover of most sealed units. Remember that regardless of whether or not the screw is accessible this is NOT a periodic adjustment and should only be performed after rebuilds, repairs or other modification. Since some early versions of the Mikunis and all of the Keihins have specifications for initial low speed screw settings we suggest that if you didn't think to seat the old screw before removal and count the number of turns, you can probably use those older specs as a starting point (for details, please refer to the Initial Low Speed Setting given in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications Chart under the Fuel System section). If the carburetor or powerhead was rebuiltheplaced and the low speed screwlneedle (if equipped) was not given a preliminary adjustment yet, do that now. Rotate the low speed needle (normally located on the top of the carb, threaded downward at an angle with the head facing toward the manual starter assembly), clockwise SLOWLY and GENTLY until the needle is lightly seated. Back the needle out exactly the proper number of turns as determined before it was removed or using the specifications mentioned earlier. 4. Start the powerhead and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 5. With the outboard at normal operating temperature and operating in NEUTRAL, idle speed should be about 1050-11 50 rpm for 1996 112 to 2004 models (all with Mikuni carbs), or 850-950 rpm for 2005 or later models (with Keihin carbs). For early models through 1996, Suzuki only provided a spec of 950-1050 for idle speed IN GEAR, which would probably result in about 1050-1150 rpm in Neutral, but just to be sure, check in gear first on these motors. If the motor is operating out of the specified range locate the idle speed screw, on the side of the carburetor body. The idle speed screw is threaded downward at an angle through a spring and bracket on the side of the carburetor, so the tip can protrude and contact the carburetor throttle lever. Turn the idle speed screw CLOCKWISE to increase idle speed or COUNTERCLOCKWISE to decrease speed. Make small adjustments, waiting each time for a steady idle speed, before making the next adjustment. 6. If you are running it in a test tank or on a launched craft, you may want to check the idle speed in gear as well for 1996 112 and later models. If so, shift into forward and increase engine speed above idle, then allow it to drop back down to idle. The motor should idle in gear at about 950-1050 rpm for models through 2004 or 820-920 rpm for 2005 or later models. If the motor is operating out of the specified range adjust further using the idle speed screw. JNDER COVER JET IDLE STOP (SPEED) SCREW 7. On models with an adjustable idle mixture, if it was necessary to adjust it earlier, it may also be necessary to tweak the screw positioning now, with up to 114 turn from standard positioning. Turning the mixture screw CLOCKWISE will lean out the mixture further, while turning it COUNTERCLOCKWISE will enrichen the mixture. Make only a small adjustment, as necessary to stabilize idle. If this adjustment is made, run the engine at or near full throttle for a minute, then quickly drop it to idle. If the motor coughs, pops or doesn't want to drop back down to idle, the mixture is likely still a little too lean. Make a small adjustment, waiting 15 seconds or more for it to stabilize, then try again. The mixture should be considered good once a STABLE idle is achieved. 8. Once idle speed is properly set you can move on to checking the Ignition Timing. Ignition Timing + See Figure 175 As stated earlier in this section, timing is controlled by the CDI unit based on signals from a pulser coil. At least annually or every 200 hours of operation you should check ignition timing to verify the system is operating properly. The Idle Speed must be properly adjusted before checking timing. Checking the timing at idle speed should be sufficient and can be performed in a test tank or on a flush fitting, but if you want to check that the motor is advancina ~ro~erlv bv checkina WOT timina. then vou'll need to use a test tank or launch the boat.'^^ ~0~attem~t to check the WOT timing on a flush fitting. 1. Provide a suitable source of cooling water; a test tank, launch the boat OR a flush fitting (unless you want to check WOT timing). 2. Attach a timing light cord to the No. 1 spark plug wire. One with a built-in tach can be handy otherwise you'll want to attach a tachometer too, especially if you are checking WOT timing and not just idle timing. 3. Start and allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature. 4. There's a timing window and pointer in the manual starterlflywheel cover on the port side of the motor. Point the timing light at the mark. Idle timing should be either 5BTDC at 1100 rpm for models through 2004 or 5 ATDC at 1000 rpm for 2005 and later models. 5. WOT timing is checked in the same basic fashion, except that you must run the gearcase under a load (in water, with a suitable prop) to prevent a runaway powerhead. Advance the motor to full throttle while watching the timing marks, the timing should advance to 30' or 35" BTDC, depending on the year and model. For more details, please refer to the Tune-up Specifications chart in this section, but keep in mind that no maintenance recommendation was provided by the manufacturer to check timing at WOT and this timing spec is the maximum advance listed in the design specs for the ignition system. In other words, we wouldn't worry if a check shows slightly less advance, as long as the motor seems to otherwise be running properly. Fig. 174 Carburetor adjustment points -Mikuni shown, Keihin Fig. 175 Use the pointer and window on the manual starterlflywheel similar cover to check timing B If timing is not correct, the Ignition System should be checked for faults and repairedlreplaced as necessary. 6. Shut the powerhead down, then remove the tachometer and/or timing light, ADJUSTMENTS DERATE Very few adjustments are possible on these motors. The following procedures provide instructions how to installladjust the throttle control cables on both tiller or remote motors, to checkket the idle speed, as well as to check the ignition timing. These motors are equipped with a digital Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) system which utilizes a CDI unit mounted on the powerhead, as well as both a charge coil (in a stator) and a triggerlpulser coil (crankshaft position sensor) which are mounted under the flywheel. The CDI unit controls all ignition timing based on signals from the pulser coil, so no adjustments are necessary or possible. It appears that Suzuki (as well as the EPA) wants to discourage tampering with the idle mixture on these motors. Though the factory service information lists an initial low-speed screw setting (of 2 114 -3 114 turns out from a lightly seated position) it also notes that it is "pre-set" and "sealed." The factory service information then gives NO further information or details on setting the pilot (idle mixture) screw. As a matter of fact the exploded view doesn't even show that the needle exists, however it is shown and mentioned in some of the carburetor "theory of operation'' information for these models (as being located horizontally in the carburetor cover). Regardless, idle mixture adjustment isn't a periodic adjustment and should only be performed after major component (powerhead or carburetor) overhaul or replacement. Throttle Control Cable Installation/Adjustment -Tiller Models + See Figure 176 The throttle control cables should not require any periodic attention, other than to double-check that the adjustment is correct before checking adjusting idle speed or checking ignition timing. However, should the cables or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure they operate properly. Adjustment will ensure that they allow the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the cables already disconnected due to service. 1. Rotate the throttle grip to the fully closed throttle position. 2. Align the matchmark on the throttle cam (the linkage which is attached to the cable drum the powerhead) with the center of the carburetor throttle lever roller. 3. Connect the throttle cable ends to the drum and to the cable holder bracket. Turn each cable locknut set just enough to secure the inner cable (length of cable between the locknut and drum) with no sag. Repeat for the other cable. 4. Once the inner portions of the cables are in position without sag, tighten each cable's set of locknuts against the bracket. 5. Now using the throttle control grip on the tiller handle, open and close the throttle a few times. Check that when the grip is turned to the fully closed position the throttle cam matchmark still aligns with the center of the throttle roller. Readjust as necessary. Throttle Control Cable InstallationIAdjustment -Remote Models + See Figure 177 The throttle control cables should not require any periodic attention, other than to double-check that the adjustment is correct before checking adjusting idle speed or checking ignition timing. However, should the cables or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure they operate properly. Adjustment will ensure that they allow the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the cables already disconnected due to service. 1. Connect the throttle cable ends to the drum and to the cable holder bracket up near the carburetor AND to the interlink throttle lever and cable bracket down near the oil filter. 2. Align the matchmark on the interlink throttle lever with the cylinder block rib (the block rib is located on the powerhead, just below the right edge of the cable bracket, when aligned the matchmark on the interlink throttle lever will be at about the 12 o'clock position). 3. Holdina the interlink throttle lever in this oasXon alian the matchmark on the throttlecam (on the other end of the cables) with the center of the carburetor throttle lever roller. 4. Holding both levers in these positions (another set of hands can be helpful here) adjust the cable locknuts to remove the play from the cables. Once the cables are both set with minimal play (but not set so tight as to preload them), tighten the locknuts securely. 5. Using the remote throttle lever move the throttle from idle to WOT and back again a few times. Make sure the linkage moves smoothly and without binding. Once finished, recheck the alignment of the levers and matchmarks. 6. Readjust as necessary. ThrottleCam Throttl Drum Fig. 176 Throttle control cable installation and adjustment -Tiller 25 hp V2 motors A -Throttle Cable B -Throttle Drum C -Interlink Throttle Lever D -Cable Brackets E -Throttle Cam F -Throttle Lever Roller G -Match Mark H -Clyllnder Block Rib I -Cable Lock Nuts Fig. 177 Throttle control cable installation and adjustment -Remote 25 hp V2 motors Idle Speed Adjustment Idle speed itself can be adjusted with the gearcase in neutral so this adjustment CAN occur with the motor mounted on the boat and in the water, in a test tank or even running on a suitable flushing fitting. However, if you need to adjust the low speed mixture (on models where that is possible) and/or check the idle speed in gear (such as to verify speed for trolling) or if you plan on checking ignition timing next at Wide Open Throttle (WOT), you'll need a test tank or to at least launch the boat. Similarly, we always think it is a good idea to adjust the idle speed IN GEAR (in the water), so we'd recommend that, but you can get away without it. 1. Start by making sure the link mechanism and the carburetor throttle valve operates smoothly without binding. 2. Attach an inductive tachometer to the No 1. cyl. (Starboard side) spark plug high tension cord. EMBER the idle mixture screw (when equipped and not sealed) is NOT a periodic adjustment. If you haven't overhauled the carb or a related component, LEAVE IT ALONE. 3. As mentioned earlier, the manufacturer does not give any information on adjusting the idle MIXTURE for these carburetors, except that to note in one place that a pilot screw mounted in the carburetor cover can be used to adjust the mixture. If the carburetor or powerhead was rebuilt/replaced and the low speed screw/needle (if equipped) was not given a preliminary adjustment yet, do that now. (For details, please refer to the Initial Low Speed Setting given in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications Chart under the Fuel System section). Rotate the pilot screw (normally located on the top of the carb, threaded horizontally into the cover), clockwise SLOWLY and GENTLY until the needle is lightly seated. Back the needle out exactly the proper number of turns as determined before it was removed or using the specifications mentioned earlier. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. 4. Start the powerhead and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. 5. With the outboard at normal operating temperature and operating in NEUTRAL, idle speed should be about 950-1050 rpm. If however you are operating it in GEAR, then speed should be about 900-1000 rpm. If the motor is operating out of the specified range locate the idle speed screw, on the side of the carburetor body. The idle speed screw is threaded downward at an angle through a spring and bracket on the side of the carburetor (located between the carburetor and the throttle cam assembly), so the tip can protrude and contact the carburetor throttle lever. Turn the idle speed screw CLOCKWISE to increase idle speed or COUNTERCLOCKWISE to decrease speed. Make small adjustments, waiting each time for a steady idle speed, before making the next adjustment. 6. On models with an adjustable idle mixture, if it was necessary to adjust it earlier, it may also be necessary to tweak the screw positioning now, with up to 114 turn from standard positioning. Turning the mixture screw CLOCKWISE will lean out the mixture further, while turning it COUNTERCLOCKWISE will enrichen the mixture. Make only a small adjustment, as necessary to stabilize idle. If this adjustment is made, run the engine at or near full throttle for a minute, then quickly drop it to idle. If the motor coughs, pops or doesn't want to drop back down to idle, the mixture is likely still a little too lean. Make a small adjustment, waiting 15 seconds or more for it to stabilize, then try again. The mixture is generally considered good once the idle stabilizes. 7. Once idle speed is properly set you can move on to checking the Ignition Timing. Ignition Timing As stated earlier in this section, timing is controlled by the CDI unit based on signals from a pulser coil. At least annually or every 200 hours of operation you should check ignition timing to verify the system is operating properly. The Idle Speed must be properly adjusted before checking timing. Checking the timing at idle speed should be sufficient and can be pertormed in a test tank or on a flush fitting, but if you want to check that the motor is advancing properly by checking WOT timing, then you'll need to use a test tank or launch the boat. DO NOT attempt to check the WOT timing on a flush fitting. 1. Provide a suitable source of cooling water; a test tank, launch the boat OR a flush fitting (unless you want to check WOT timing). 2. Attach a timing light cord to the No. 1 (Starboard) spark plug wire. One with a built-in tach can be handy otherwise you'll want to attach a tachometer too, especially if you are checking WOT timing and not just idle timing. 3. Start and allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature. 4. There's a timing window and pointer in the manual starterlflywheel cover on the port side of the motor, just above the CDI unit (Ignition Module). Point the timing light at the mark. Idle timing should be about 2' BTDC at 1000 rpm. 5. WOT timing is checked in the same basic fashion, except that you must run the gearcase under a load (in water, with a suitable prop) to prevent a runaway powerhead. Advance the motor to full throttle while watching the timing marks, the timing should advance to about 27' BTDC, but keep in mind that no maintenance recommendation was provided by the manufacturer to check timing at WOT and this timing spec is the maximum advance listed in the design specs for the ignition system. In other words, we wouldn't worry if a check shows slightly less advance, as long as the motor seems to otherwise be running properly. If timing is not correct, the Ignition System should be checked for faults and repairedlreplaced as necessary. 6. Shut the powerhead down, then remove the tachometer andlor timing light. ADJUSTMENTS Only a couple of adjustments are possible on these motors. The following procedures provide instructions how to check and adjust the throttle control linkage and/or cables, Synchronize the Carburetor Throttle Valves, checkladjust the carburetor dashpot, to checwset the idle speed, as well as to check the ignition timing. These motors are equipped with a digital Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) system which utilizes a CDI unitlpowerpack mounted on the powerhead, as well as both a charge coil (in a stator) and a Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS, essentially a triggerlpulser coil) which are all mounted under the flywheel. The CDI unit controls all ignition timing based on signals from the CPS pulser coil, so no adjustments are necessary or possible. Also, it appears that Suzuki (as well as the EPA) wants to discourage tampering with the idle mixture on these motors. The factory service information gives few specifications or details on initial setting of the pilot (idle mixture) screw. Some exploded views do show a pilot needle (low speed mixture) screw, but that's the extent of it. We've endeavored to provide a technique for adjustment that should apply, but remember it ISN'T a periodic adjustment and should only be performed after major component (powerhead or carburetor) overhaul or replacement. Throttle Linkage Adjustments + See Figures 178 and 179 The throttle lever rod, throttle limiterlcontrol (tillerlremote) rod and, on remote models, the shift rod, should all not require any periodic attention, however, should the rod or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure it operates properly. This procedure starts with the throttle applicable rod already disconnected due to service. Check the length of the rod in question compared with the specifications following this paragraph. Measurements are taken from the centerline of a ball connector to the centerline of the connector on the other end. Adjustments should be made by moving BOTH ends as necessary to make sure that approximately the same amount of rod is threaded into the connector on each end. A locknut is provided to tighten against each connector after they are properly positioned. M When measuring a bent or angled rod, like the throttle limiter (tiller) or shift rod (remote) do not try to follow the contours of the rod. Hold the ruler off the rod and measure in straight light from connector-to- connector. Throttle. Lever Rod Throttle Lever Rod Throttle 1 3.19 in. (81mm) * .----* , 5 51 I". (i40mm) Control Rod ' 5.87 in. (143mm) Fig. 178 Throttle control rod adjustment - Tiller handle 25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors Proper rod lengths are as follows: 0 Throttle lever rod (tiller and remote models) -3.19 in. (81mm) 0 Throttle limiter rod (tiller models) -9.47 in. (240.5mm) 8 Throttle control rod (remote models) -5.51 in. (140mm) Shift rod (remote models) -5.87 in. (149mm) Throttle Control Cable Installation/Adjustment See Figure 180 The throttle control cables should not require any periodic attention, however, should the cables or related components be replaced, an initial adjustment is necessary to make sure they operate properly. Adjustment will ensure that they allow the throttle to both open fully at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) operation and close fully when the throttle is returned to idle. This procedure starts with the cables already disconnected due to service. 1. Rotate the throttle control handle to the fully CLOSED throttle position. 2, Align the matchmark on the throttle cam with the center of the throttle lever roller, then hold it in this position. 3. Route the 2 throttle cables into the throttle drum on the powerhead and position the locknuts loosely into the cable holder. 4. Adjust the position of the locknuts to just eliminate sag from the inner cables, then tighten the locknuts to hold this position. 5. Rotate the throttle control handle several times from the fully closed to the WOT position and back again. 6. Now with the throttle fully closed, make sure the matchmark on the throttle cam is still aligned with the center of the throttle lever roller. If not, use the locknuts to reposition the cables as necessary to achieve this again. Synchronizing the Carburetor Throttle Valves See Figures 181 and 182 Anytime a motor is equipped with multiple carburetors (or throttle bodies) it is essential that they are adjusted so that each throttle valve opens and closes at precisely the same time. Adjusting the carburetors so that they open and close together is referred to as Synchronization or Balancing the Carburetors/Throttle Valves. The throttle valve position within a carburetor determines the amount of air which flows into the intake manifold and ultimately the cylinder it feeds. So the amount a throttle valve opens can be measured by the amount of vacuum available at the manifold. Therefore the most common way to Synchronize or Balance carbs is using a set of "carb sticks" (vacuum manometers or gauges). Carburetor synchronization SHOULD NOT BE a necessary periodic adjustment. If the carburetors and linkage are not disturbed the settings should hold indefinitely. However, anytime the carburetors are removed for service, overhaul or just for access to other components they should be Shift Rod Fig. 180 Throttle control cable installation and adjustment -25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors rebalanced upon installation. ost of this procedure takes place in Neutral and at or near idle (except She final idle check, which can be performed separately later, after the carbs are synched), so it can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as in a test tank or on a launchedlrestrained boat. However, after this procedure you'll have to checkladjust the Dashpot and even though the dashpot itself will be adjusted with the linkage in Neutral, when preparing it for adjustment you'll have to run it at 4000 rpm, so a test tank or launched craft is necessary. Regardless where it takes place be CERTAIN to make sure a source of cooling water is supplied to the motor. 1. Before starting, visually check the carburetor throttle bodies, linkage, fuel inlets and the air silencer pipe for signs of wear, cracks or other damage. Replace any damaged components. 2. Connect a standard marine tachometer to the motor, as follows: 0 Yellow lead wire of the tach, to the yeilow/black CDVpowerpack unit wire Gray lead wire of the tach, to the positive battery terminal Black lead wire of the tach, to the negative battery terminal 0 Make sure the tach pole selection switch is set on "12" 3. Operate the carburetor throttle valves gently by hand, feeling for any binding, pinching or drag on the valves and link mechanism. If the assembly does not move smoothly, correct any problems before proceeding. 4 Remove the starboard side lower engine cover for access. For details, please refer to Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases), earlier in this section. 5. RIGHT underneath the pivot bolt for the throttle linkage assembly locate the small threaded No. 3 (bottom) cylinder intake manifold plug (looks like a Philip's head screw in most literature but it is hard to tell). Thread a carburetor synchronizer gauge adaptor into the hole, then connect the hose to the No. 3 tubelgauge. 6. Start the engine and allow it to slowly warm up to normal operating temperature. Once you are certain the choke is FULLY open check the idle speed and adjust to 850-950 rpm (in Neutral) using the No. 3 carburetor idle adjusting screw, as necessary. 7. If you are using the Suzuki synchronizer gauge (which has adjustable air screws on the bottom of each tube), adjust the gauge using the air screw until the steel ball is at the tube's center line. Make sure the other tubes that you are going to use are calibrated the same way. You can start by setting the air screw in the same position, but it is probably a good idea to verify this by connecting each one in turn to the No. 3 cylinder adaptor to check the calibration. 8. Stop the engine, then remove the vacuum plugs from the intake manifold for the No. 1 (top) and No. 2 (middle) cylinders, and thread synchronizer adaptors into them as well. Connect tubes to both adaptors, noting which is connected to which. 9. Restart the engine and make sure it is still fully warmed up with the choke fully open. When synchronizing carburetors it is important to perform all * Make sure the tach pole selection switch is set on "12" adjustments AT IDLE speed, as this is where the greatest variances will occur. The vacuum available at each cylinder will normally even out much more on most motors as the rprn increases. 10. With the motor running in neutral at 850-950 rpm, compare the readings on each of the gauges. Adjust the spring-loaded throttle valve stop screws at each carburetor until all 3 are synchronized (the gauge readings are identical) and the engine idles smoothly. If engine speed raises or lowers during the adjustment, be sure to reset it to 850-950 rprn using the No. 3 (bottom) cylinder throttle screw. 11. Once the carbs are balanced, shift the gearcase into Forward and check the in-gear idle-speed. It should be about 850 rpm. 12. Once you are finished, stop the engine, remove the sync adaptors and reinstall the manifold plugs. 13. Check the Dashpot Adjustment. Dashpot Adjustment See Figures 183,184 and 185 The dashpot is used to provide a controlled deceleration when the throttle is suddenly closed from WOT or mid-range to idle. When working properly the dashpot will briefly hold engine speed at about 1500 rpm, then slowly allow the motor to return to idle. The Dashpot Adjustment must be checked again anytime carburetor synchronization has taken place. Even though the dashpot itself will be adjusted with the linkage in Neutral, when preparing it for adjustment you'll have to run it at 4000 rpm, so a test tank or launched craft is necessary to prevent runaway rprn which could damage the powerhead. 1. If not still connected from the Carburetor Synchronization procedure, connect a standard marine tachometer to the motor, as follows: * Yellow lead wire of the tach, to the yellow/black CDIIpowerpack unit wire Gray lead wire of the tach, to the positive battery terminal Black lead wire of the tach, to the negative battery terminal 2. Start the engine and slowly warm it up to normal operating temperature. 3. Place the motor in gear, then turn the No. 3 carburetor throttle screw to set engine speed at 4000 rpm, counting the number of turns it takes to reach this speed from the proper idle setting. 4. Shift the motor into Neutral and stop the motor, then remove then remove the flywheel cover (or hand rewind starter, as applicable). 5. Operate the throttle to the fully opened (WOT) position, then return it gradually to the idle position, all the while keeping an eye on the tip of the dashpot rod. The tip must contact the accelerator pump lever at the same time that the No. 3 carburetor idie adjusting screw contact? ^19throttle stop. If the two contact points do NOT match, adjust the dashpot rod (turning the rod CLOCKWISE moves the rod tip inward, while turning the rod COUNTERCLOCKWISE moves the tip outward). Recheck the contact points. 6. Reset the engine idle speed by returning the No. 3 carburetor throttle stop screw to its original position by backing it out the same number of turns counted earlier. 7. Install the flywheel cover andlor hand rewind starter, as applicable. 8. Start the engine again and recheckladjust Idle Speed, as necessary. 9, Verify dashpot operation by shifting into forward gear and running at various speeds between mid-range and WOT. Decelerate quickly from various throttle positions to idie, listening for proper dashpot operation each time the throttle is closed. Again, engine speed should hang up around 1500 rprn for a second or so each time the throttle is closed from a higher rprn range. Idle Speed Adjustment See Figures 182 and 186 Idle speed itself can be adjusted with the gearcase in neutral so this adjustment CAN occur with the motor mounted on the boat and in the water, in a test tank or even running on a suitable flushing fitting. However, if you need to adjust the low speed mixture (on models where that is possible) andlor check the idie speed in gear, you'll need a test tank or to at least launch the boat. Balance; Air Scrow .n 3 Turn ---I , Fig. 181 Typical carburetor synchronization Fig. 182 Each carburetor has a throttle Fig. 183 The dashpot is mounted to the top tool (Suzuki tool shown) valve screw of the upper carburetor .Idte Dashpot Adjusting Screw Unit accelerator 'ump Lever Fig. 186 The carburetor idle mixture is Fig. 184 Dash pot adjustment -the rod must Fig. 185 . . .at the same time the No. 3 idle controlled by a pilot jet and usually a pilot touch the accelerator pump lever. . . screw touches the throttle stop screw (though concealed on some models) 1. Before starting, visually check the carburetor throttle bodies, linkage, fuel inlets and the air silencer pipe for signs of wear, cracks or other damage, Replace any damaged components. 2. If not still connected from the Carburetor Synchronization and Dashpot Adjustment procedures, connect a standard marine tachometer to the motor, as follows: Yellow lead wire of the tach, to the yellowlblack CDIIpowerpack unit wire Gray lead wire of the tach, to the positive battery terminal Q Black lea0 çvii'6;ii-ic iach, to the negative battery terminal Make sure the tach pole selection switch is set on "12" 3. Start by making sure the link mechanism and the carburetor throttle valve operates smoothly without binding. Operate the carburetor throttle valves gently by hand, feeling for any binding, pinching or drag on the valves and link mechanism. If the assembly does not move smoothly, correct any problems before proceeding. 4. Start the engine and allow it to slowly warm up to normal operating temperature. Once you are certain the choke is FULLY open check the idle speed and make sure it is about 850-950 rpm (in Neutral). If adjustment is necessary ONLY use the No. 3 cylinder (bottom) carburetor throttle stop screw to make adjustments. NEVER touch the No. 1 (top) or No. 2 (middle) screws unless you are synchronizing the carburetors. 5. As mentioned earlier, the manufacturer does not give much information on adjusting the idle MIXTURE for these carburetors, but specifications are available for certain models. For details, please refer to the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications in the Fuel System section. Also, some exploded views show a pilot screw mounted just under the carburetor cover. We have suggested elsewhere that you should seat the old screw before removal and count the number of turns in order to orovide an initial startina point. If the carburetor or powerhead was rebuil~re~laced and the low speed screwlneedle (if equipped) was not given a preliminary adjustment yet, do that now as follows: a. During assembly you should have already rotated the low speed needle (normally located along the carburetor cover-to-throttle body split line, but threaded into the body itself), clockwise SLOWLY and GENTLY until the needle was lightly seated, then you should have backed the needle out exactly the proper number of turns as determined before it was removed. b. Start the powerhead and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just a few seconds without water will damage the water pump. c. Shift the engine into forward gear and allow it to run at idle for at least 3 minutes. d. With the engine running at idle in forward gear, observe the running conditions as follows: If the engine is running rich, it will show a rough or unsteady idle. If the engine is running lean, it will sneeze or backfire. e. If necessary, adjust the low speed mixture screw as follows to obtain a smooth idle: For rich mixtures, noting the reference mark made earlier, turn the needle 118th turn clockwise, allowing about 15 seconds between adjustments, until the highest consistent rpm is reached. For lean mixtures, noting the reference mark made earlier, turn the needle 118th turn counterclockwise, allowing about 15 seconds between adjustments, until the highest consistent rprn is reached. f. Repeat this procedure for the remaining carburetors g. With the engine still running at normal operating temperature and in forward gear, adjust the idle speed screw to the center range of the Idle Speed (RPM) in Gear listed for your motor under the Tune-up Specifications chart (about 850 rpm). 6. Operate the outboard in forward at or near full throttle for about 3 minutes. Reduce speed suddenly to a low idle and shift into neutral. The powerhead should continue to operate smoothly. If the powerhead pops or stalls, the airifuel mixture is probably too lean. Rotate the low speed needle 1,'[email protected] counterclockwise, allowing about 15 seconds between adjustments, until the powerhead responds as expected. Repeat the full throttle test and sudden deceleration with the shift into neutral to check each adjustment. 7. Start the engine and allow it to slowly warm up to normal operating temperature. Once you are certain the choke is FULLY open check the idle speed one last time and adjust to 850-950 rpm (in Neutral), as necessary. 8. Once idle speed is properly set you can move on to checking the Ignition Timing. Ignition Timing @ See Figure 187 As stated earlier in this section, timing is controlled by the CDI unit based on signals from a pulser coil. At least annually or every 200 hours of operation you should check ignition timing to verify the system is operating properly. The Idle Speed must be properly adjusted before checking timing. Checking the timing at idle speed should be sufficient and can be performed in a test tank or on a flush fitting, but if you want to check that the motor is advancing properly by checking WOT timing, then you'll need to use a test tank or launch the boat. DO NOT attempt to check the WOT timing on a flush fitting. 1. Provide a suitable source of cooling water; a test tank, launch the boat OR a flush fitting (unless you want to check WOT timing). 2. If not still connected from the Carburetor Synchronization, Dashpot Adjustment and Idle Speed procedures, connect a standard marine tachometer to the motor, as follows: Yellow lead wire of the tach, to the yellowlblack CDIlpowerpack unit wire Gray lead wire of the tach, to the positive battery terminal Black lead wire of the tach, to the negative battery terminal Make sure the tach pole selection switch is set on "12 3. Attach a timing light cord to the No. 1 spark plug wire. 4. Start and allow the engine to warm up to normal operating temperature, 5. There's a timing window and pointer in the manual starterlflywheel cover toward the aft port side of the motor. Point the timing light at the mark. Idle timing should be 5BTDC at a speed of about 900 rpm. 6. WOT timing is checked in the same basic fashion, except that you must run the gearcase under a load (in water, with a suitable prop) to prevent a runaway powerhead. Advance the motor to full throttle while watching the timing marks, the timing should advance to 31' BTDC on 25 hp motors or 29' BTDC on 30 hp motors. H If timing is not correct, the Ignition System should be checked for faults and repairedlreplaced as necessary. 7. Shut the powerhead down, then remove the tachometer andlor timing light. Fig. 187 Use the pointer and window on the manual starterlflywheel cover to check timing ADJUSTMENTS DERATE One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. Ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the ECU does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. There is one mechanical setting that should be checked and adjusted annually (or after every 200 hours of operation). The idle air by-pass air screw is a mechanically adjustable passage that provides air to the motor beyond what is controlled by the ECU. This system is used to set a base idle speed by allowing a certain amount of air to by-pass the ECU controls. Although the manufacturer recommends annual checking of this setting, don't get too excited yet, these motors have proven to be very reliable when maintained properly and this setting does not require adjustment often. Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment) See Figures 188 and 189 Idle speed on the 40150 hp EFI motors is controlled electronically through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve. The valve is a stepper motor that can be used by the ECU to allow greater amounts of air into the engine in order to produce fast idle (for quick engine warm-up). Once the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the IAC valve usually closes and all idle air is supplied through the IAC bypass. Therefore, during warm engine operation, the idle by-pass air screw adjustment determines the amount of air circumventing the otherwise closed IAC valve. Perform the warm engine idle speed and by-pass air screw check and adjustment annually or during every other tune-up (every 200 hours of operation). Remember that you must make sure that idle speed is properly adjusted before checking Ignition Timing on these models. H Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle linkage moves smoothly without binding or resistance. As long as all adjustments are to take place at or near idle, they can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. 1. Connect a shop tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions and provide a cooling water source. Because this is a coil over plug direct ignition system you will likely have to remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with plug cap adaptor (#09930-88720) or equivalent between the plug and coil in order to get a tachometer signal. The high tension cord adapter can easily be made from a spare spark plug wire. Basically it's just a way to remove the direct ignition coil and place a wire between its spark plug terminal and the actual spark plug so you can keep the circuit complete and still install an inductive tachometer pickup. 2. Place the gear selector in neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it fully reaches normal operating temperature. 3. Place the throttle control in the idle position and keep the gear selector in neutral. The motor should idle at a speed of 800-900 rprn. If it does, you're done. If idle is out of specification and you're SURE the motor is fully warmed, then continue with the procedure in order to adjust the idle speed. 4. Disconnect the IAC valve hose from the air silencer, then block air flow by pinching or plugging the hose (using a golf tee, plastic plug or piece of tape, heck, you CAN just put your finger over it if need be). 5. If used, remove the rubber plug or cap from the idle air by-pass screw opening on top boss of the throttle body, just below the overhang of the intake manifold. 6. If idle speed requires adjustment, slowly turn the idle speed screw until the engine reaches 800 rprn. Turning the screw clockwise reduces air flow (decreases rpm), while turning the counterclockwise increases air flow (increases rprn). 7. Unblock the IAC valve hose (allowing air into the valve) and recheck the idle speed, it should be stable in the 800-900 rpm range. Keep in mind that the idling or trolling speed is controlled by the IAC system and IF the engine speed does not return to specification when the hose is unblocked, then the IAC passage (including the hose or silencer itself) may be clogged (or not operating correctly from an electrical standpoint). Because the idle speed is ECU controlled through the IAC valve, neutral or trollinglin gear speed should be the same. 8. If used, reinstall the rubber plug or cap to the idle air screw bore. 9. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 10. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing ¥ See Figure 190 The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor, Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch, Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), ail ignition coils fire simultaneously each time a piston reaches 7' BTDC. Once engine speed rises above a certain point (it used to be 440 rpm on these motors), the ECU will begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. Fig. 188 Disconnect and block the IAC valve Fig. 189 Then remove the cap and adjust Fig. 190 Check ignition timing through the hose so no air can pass the by-pass air screw flywheel cover I I After the engine starts and runs at fast idle, ignition timing will remain fixed at 9' BTDC with the motor running in neutral above 1200 rpm. During idlingltrolling, the ECU will vary ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will control ignition timing anywhere from IOATDC to 17' BTDC with engine speeds between 800-900 rpm. For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between approximately 0- 27' BTDC on 40 hp motors or 0-24' BTDC for 50 hp motors (some data suggests that the timing range was more like 0-25 BTDC for some 2002 and 2003 models). Anytime the throttle valve is closed suddenly (as determined by the CTP switch suddenly turning on), ignition timing change is delayed for a programmed duration in order to help prevent stumble or stalling. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. To check ignition timing: 1. Connect the timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions. Because this is a coil over plug direct ignition system you will likely have to remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with plug cap adaptor (#09930-88720) or equivalent between the plug and coil in order to get a tachometer signal. 2. Run the engine either at idle in neutral using a cooling water supply or mounted on a boatlin a test tank and under the various conditions noted above. Timing marks should be on the flywheel, while the pointer is contained in a window on the flywheel cover, at the top of the motor. 3. If proper fixed timing is noted during fast idle operation, the ECU is properly controlling engine timing. Generally you should expect to see timing at about 7' BTDC @ 1000 rpm, or 9' BTDC @ > 1200 rpm (in neutral). ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. Ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine contro! system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the ECU does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. There is one mechanical setting that should be checked and adjusted annually (or after every 200 hours of operation). The idle air bypass air screw is a mechanically adjustable passage that provides air to the motor beyond what is controlled by the ECU. This system is used to set a base idle speed by allowing a certain amount of air to by-pass the ECU controls. Although the manufacturer recommends annual checking of this setting, don't get too excited yet, these motors have proven to be very reliable when maintained properly and this setting does not require adjustment often. Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment) See Figure 191 Idle speed on the 60170 hp EFI motors is controlled electronically through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve, which protrudes from the side of the intake at the front, center of the motor. The valve is a stepper motor that can be used by the ECU to allow greater amounts of air into the engine in order to produce fast idle (for quick engine warm-up). Once the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the IAC valve usually closes and all idle air is supplied through the IAC by-pass (a small brass inlet on the intake manifold that looks like a hose connector). During warm operation, the idle bypass air screw adjustment determines the amount of air circumventing the closed IAC valve. The screw, located in the intake manifold downstream of the throttle body and adjacent to the brass air inlet, is set at the factory and sealed to prevent unnecessary tampering or adjustment. Perform the warm engine idle speed and by-pass air screw check and adjustment annually or during every other tune-up (every 200 hours of operation). Remember that you must make sure that idle speed is properly adjusted before checking Ignition Timing on these models. M Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle linkage moves smoothly without binding or resistance. 1. Connect a shop tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions and provide a cooling water source. 2. Shift the gearcase into neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it reaches normal operating temperature and idle has fully stabilized. 3. With the engine still running in neutral, place the throttle control in the idle position. The engine should idle at a speed of about 650-750 rpm. If it does. vou're done. If idle is out of s~ecification and vou're SURE the motor is fully warmed, then continue with the procedure in order to adjust the idle speed, but note the procedure varies slightly with year as the ECU calibration changed. 4 On 2002 and earlier models, proceed as follows: a. Stop airflow from the IAC valve by disconnecting the hose (connect to the throttle body at the front of the motor a little above the by-pass screw) and cappinglpinchinglholding the hose closed. b. If not done already, remove the cap from the by-pass screw bore, then use the screw to adjust the speed to approximately 600 rpm. Turning the screw CLOCKWISE should LOWER engine speed, while turning the screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE should raise engine speed. c. Release the hose and recheck the idle speed, it should stabilize at 650-750 rpm. Remember the ECU will use the IAC valve to self-adjust the trolling and idle speed to this setting. If engine speed does not return and stabilize at specification then check the IAC passage (including the IAC hose and the silencer) for clogs. If no clogs are found, IAC operation is questionable. Troubleshoot the system further. For more details refer to the Fuel Injection information in the Fuel System section. 1 Fig. 191 By-pass screw and IAC valve hose locations -60170hp motors 5. On 2003 and later models, proceed as follows: a. Check that the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch is ON. Meaning either use a scan toolldiagnostic software, if available, or use a DVOM. A DVOM can be used either to carefully backprobe the connectors of the circuit to check for voltage or it can be used with the switch harness disconnected to check resistance directly across the switch terminals. In either case, you're looking for a sign that the circuit is closed, meaning there IS voltage OR there is littlelno resistance. H Alternately, you may be able to check the CTP switch manually with a DVOM while the motor is not running and the switch harness is disconnected, then note the linkage position andlor look for other physical signs (does the switch click at all when actuated) that the switch is on. 6. Set the IAC valve duty to a constant 22.5% by turning the by-pass air screw until engine speed is at 1000 rpm or more and allow the motor to hold that speed for at least 10 seconds. After 10 seconds a warning buzzer should sound notifying that the IAC duty is in "fixed mode."As long as the motor remains in this mode the buzzer will sound for 0.5 seconds with intervals of 3 seconds. This fixed mode (complete with buzzer) should last for 5 minutes before automatically canceling. You have that long to finish adjustments, or you have to start again. If you wish to manually cancel the "fixed mode" operation before that time, simply open the throttle momentarily to turn the CTP switch off. H Turning the idle air by-pass screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE will INCREASE engine speed, while turning the screw CLOCKWISE will DECREASE engine speed. 7. While the motor runs in IAC "fixed mode" adjust the engine speed to 650-750 rpm using the by-pass screw. Once adjusted, open the throttle valve to turn the CTP switch off, canceling the "fixed mode" operation. 8. Close the throttle and recheck engine idle speed. It should no remain stable at 650-750 rpm. If the engine speed does not return to specification properly then there may be a problem with the IAC system (electrical, or mechanical such as a clogged passage or hose, and we'd suggest checking the mechanical possibilities first). H Because the idle speed is ECU controlled through the IAC valve, neutral or trolling/in gear speed should be the same. 9. If used, reinstall the plug or cap to the idle air screw plug. 10. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 11. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing See Figure 192 The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch, Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), all ignition coils fire simultaneously each time a piston reaches 5' BTDC. Once engine speed rises above a predetermined point (which used to be 440 rpm on these motors), the ECU begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. After the engine starts and runs at fast idle, ignition timing will remain fixed. The ECU will fix timing 5" BTDC with the motor running in neutral above 1000 rpm. During idlingltrolling, the ECU will vary ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will maintain ignition timing at 4-16 BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 700 rpm (650-750 rpm). For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between 10-33' BTDC for 60 hp motors and 10-29' BTDC for 70 hp motors. Anytime the throttle valve is closed suddenly (as determined by the CTP switch suddenly turning on), ignition timing change is delayed for a programmed duration in order to help prevent stumble or stalling. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. To check ignition timing: 1. Connect the timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions. 2. Run the engine either at idle in neutral using a cooling water supply or mounted on a boaffin a test tank and under the various conditions noted above. B Timing marks can be found along with a pointer on the flywheel cover at the top of the motor. 3. If proper fixed timing is noted during fast idle operation, the ECU is controlling engine timing. Generally you should expect to see timing at about 10' BTDC @ 1000 rpm. ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. Ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the ECU does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. There is one mechanical setting that should be checked and adjusted annually (or after every 200 hours of operation). The idle air by-pass air screw is a mechanically adjustable passage that provides air to the motor beyond what is controlled by the ECU. This system is used to set a base idle speed by allowing a certain amount of air to by-pass the ECU controls. Although the manufacturer recommends annual checking of this setting, don't get too excited yet, these motors have proven to be very reliable when maintained properly and this setting does not require adjustment often. Fig. 192 Ignition timing window -60170hp motors Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment) See Figures 193 and 194 Idle speed on the 90/115/140 hp EFI motors is controlled electronically through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve, mounted at the top front of the intake manifoldhhrottle body assembly. The valve is a stepper motor that can be used by the ECU to allow greater amounts of air into the engine in order to produce fast idle (for quick engine warm-up). Once the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the IAC valve usually closes and all idle air is supplied through the IAC by-pass. During warm operation, the idle by-pass air screw adjustment determines the amount of air circumventing the closed IAC valve. The screw, located in the intake manifoldlthrottle body assembly, is positioned horizontally at the front of the motor, about halfway down the silver manifold assembly. It is set at the factory and sealed with a cap to prevent unnecessary tampering or adjustment. Perform the warm engine idle speed and by-pass air screw check and adjustment annually or during every other tune-up (every 200 hours of operation). Remember that you must make sure that idle speed is properly adjusted before checking Ignition Timing on these models. H Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle linkage moves smoothly without binding or resistance. 1. Connect a shop tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions and provide a cooling water source. 2. Shift the gearcase into neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it reaches normal operating temperature and idle has fully stabilized. 3. With the engine still running in neutral, place the throttle control in the idle position. The engine should idle at a speed of about 600-650 rpm for 901115 hp motors or 650-750 rprn for 140 hp motors. If it does, you're done. If idle is out of specification and you're SURE the motor is fully warmed, then continue with the procedure in order to adjust the idle speed. 4. Check that the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch is ON. (Meaning either use a scan toolldiagnostic software, if available, or use a DVOM. A DVOM can be used either to carefully backprobe the connectors of the circuit to check for voltage or it can be used with the switch harness disconnected to check resistance directly across the switch terminals. In either case, you're looking for a sign that the circuit is closed, meaning there IS voltage OR there is littlelno resistance.) Alternately, you may be able to check the CTP switch manually with a DVOM while the motor is not running and the switch harness is disconnected, then note the linkage position andlor look for other physical signs (does the switch click at all when actuated) that the switch is on. 5. Set the IAC valve duty to a constant 15% by turning the by-pass air screw until engine speed is at 1000 rprn or more and allow the motor to hold that speed for at least 10 seconds. After 10 seconds a warning buzzer should sound notifying that the IAC duty is in "fixed mode." As long as the motor remains in this mode the buzzer will sound for 0.5 seconds with intervals of 3 seconds. This fixed mode (complete with buzzer) should last for 5 minutes before automatically canceling. You have that long to finish adjustments, or you have to start again. If you wish to manually cancel the "fixed mode" operation before that time, simply open the throttle momentarily to turn the CTP switch off. B Turning the idle air bypass screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE will INCREASE engine speed, while turning the screw CLOCKWISE will DECREASE engine speed. 6. While the motor runs in IAC "fixed mode" adjust the engine speed to 600-650 rpm for 901115 hp motors or 650-750 rprn for 140 hp motors using the by-pass screw. Once adjusted, open the throttle valve to turn the CTP switch off, canceling the "fixed mode" operation. 7. Close the throttle and recheck engine idle speed. It should now remain stable at 600-650 rpm (901115 hp) or 650-750 rpm (140 hp), as applicable. If the engine speed does not return to specification properly then there may be a problem with the IAC system (electrical, or mechanical such as a clogged passage or hose, and we'd suggest checking the mechanical possibilities first). H Because the idle speed is ECU controlled through the IAC valve, neutral or trollinglin gear speed should be the same. 8. If used, reinstall the plug or cap to the idle air screw plug. 9. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 10. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing ç See Figure 195 The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch, Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), all ignition coils fire simultaneously each time a piston reaches 5' Before Top Dead Center (BTDC). Once engine speed rises above a predetermined point, the ECU will begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. After the engine starts and runs at fast idle, ignition timing will remain fixed. The ECU will fix timing 8' BTDC with the motor running in neutral above 900 rpm. During idlingltrolling, the ECU will vary ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will maintain ignition timing at 3-13' BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 625 rpm (600-625 rpm) for 90111 5 hp motors or 5-1 5' BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 700 rprn (650-750 rpm) for 140 hp motors. For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between 1-44' BTDC for 90 hp motors, 3-44' BTDC for 115 hp motors, and 5-45' BTDC for 140 hp motors. Anytime the throttle valve is closed suddenly (as determined by the CTP switch suddenly turning on), ignition timing change is delayed for a programmed duration in order to help prevent stumble or stalling. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. Fig, 193 The IAC Valve is mounted at the Fig. 194 Air Bypass Screw locations -Fig. 195 Ignition timing window -90/115/140 top corner of the intake 90/115/140 hp motors hp motors To check ignition timing: 1. Connect the timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions. 2. Run the engine either at idle in neutral using a cooling water supply or mounted on a boatfin a test tank and under the various conditions noted above. Timing marks can be found along with a pointer on the flywheel cover at the top of the motor. 3. If proper fixed timing is noted during fast idle operation, the ECU is controlling engine timing. Generally you should expect to see timing at about 8' BTDC @ 1000 rpm. ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. Ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the ECU does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. There is one mechanical setting that should be checked and adjusted annually (or after every 200 hours of operation). The idle air by-pass air screw is a mechanically adjustable passage that provides air to the motor beyond what is controlled by the ECU. This system is used to set a base idle speed by allowing a certain amount of air to by-pass the ECU controls, Although the manufacturer recommends annual checking of this setting, don't get too excited yet, these motors have proven to be very reliable when maintained properly and this setting does not require adjustment often. Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment) OE Idle speed on these EFI motors is controlled electronically through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve, mounted at the top middle of the powerhead on the starboard side (at the top of the intake manifold between the throttle body and the engine lifting bracket). The valve is a stepper motor that can be used by the ECU to allow greater amounts of air into the engine in order to produce fast idle (for quick engine warm-up). Once the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the IAC valve usually closes and all idle air is supplied through the IAC by-pass. During warm operation, the idle by-pass air screw adjustment determines the amount of air circumventing the closed IAC valve. The screw is located on the lower, outer, front corner of the throttle body right by the electrical connector for the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS). It is set at the factory and sometimes sealed with a cap to prevent unnecessary tampering or adjustment (though since it is normally covered by the fuel hose guard on these models the cap may not be installed). Perform the warm enoine idle speed and bv-pass air screw check and adjustment annually or during every other tune-up (every 200 hours of operation). Remember that you must make sure that idle speed is properlv .. . adjusted before checking ignition Timing on these models.' Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle linkage moves smoothly without binding or resistance. 1. Connect a shop tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions and provide a cooling water source. Because this is a coil over plug direct ignition system you will likely have to remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with plug cap adaptor (#09930-89350) or equivalent between the plug and coil in order to get a tachometer signal. B The high tension cord adapter can easily be made from a spare spark plug wire. Basically it's just a way to remove the direct ignition coil and place a wire between its spark plug terminal and the actual spark plug so you can keep the circuit complete and still install an inductive tachometer pickup. 2. Provide a suitable cooling water source. 3. Shift the gearcase into neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it reaches normal operating temperature and idle has fully stabilized. 4. With the engine still running in neutral, place the throttle control in the idle position. The engine should idle at a speed of about 600-700 rpm. If it does, you're done. If idle is out of specification and you're SURE the motor is fully warmed, then continue with the procedure in order to adjust the idle speed. 5. Remove the 3 bolts that secure the fuel hose guard on starboard side of the motor, right above the intake manifold. There is one bolt at either end of the cover and one toward the middle on the top, at the engine lifting bracket. Remove the cover for access. 6. If not done already, shift into Neutral and fully close the throttle, which should cause the TPS to send a "full close throttle signal" to the ECU. According to Suzuki Switching from ON to START 5 times in 10 seconds in the next step should be done with the engine ALREADY RUNNING at idle. We're assuming the powerhead has a safety circuit which will keep the electric starter from attempting to engage during this portion of the procedure or that Suzuki expects key motion to be fast enough to keep it from engaging. 7. Set the IAC valve duty to a constant 10% by turning the ignition key from ON to START (back and forth) 5 times within 10 seconds. At this time the warning buzzer should sound notifying that the IAC duty is in "fixed mode." As long as the motor remains in this mode the buzzer will sound for 0.5 seconds with intervals of 3 seconds. This fixed mode (complete with buzzer) should last for 5 minutes before automatically canceling. You have that long to finish adjustments, or you have to start again. If you wish to manually cancel the "fixed mode" operation before that time, simply open the throttle momentarily. Turning the idle air by-pass screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE will INCREASE engine speed, while turning the screw CLOCKWISE will DECREASE engine speed. 8. While the motor runs in IAC "fixed mode" adjust the engine speed to 600-700 rpm using the by-pass screw. Once adjusted, open the throttle valve to cancel the "fixed mode" operation. Fixed mode operation will cancel anytime the motor is shifted to Forward or Reverse, or the throttle is opened (which changes the TPS full close throttle signal from ON to OFF). 9. Close the throttle and recheck engine idle speed. It should now remain stable at 600-700 rpm. If the engine speed does not return to specification properly then there may be a problem with the IAC system (electrical, or mechanical such as a clogged passage and we'd suggest checking the mechanical possibilities first). Because the idle speed is ECU controlled through the IAC valve, neutral or trollinglin gear speed should be the same. 10. If used, reinstall the plug or cap to the idle air screw plug. 11. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 12. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Shift Position (SP) sensor, Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), all ignition coils fire simultaneously each time a piston reaches 5' BTDC. Once engine speed rises above a predetermined point, the ECU will begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. After the engine starts, during idlingltrolling, the ECU it,'!,',a/y ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will maintain ignition timing at 0- 10' BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 600-700 rpm. For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between 5-26' BTDC. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. To check ignition timing: 1. Connect the timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions or the tips noted earlier in this section under the procedure for Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment). 2. Run the engine either at idle in neutral using a cooling water supply or mounted on a boatiin a test tank and under the various conditions noted above. Timing marks can be found along with a pointer on the flywheel cover at the top of the motor. 3, If proper fixed timing is noted during fast idle operation, the ECU is controlling engine timing. Generally you should expect to see timing at about 10' BTDC @ 1000 rpm. ADJUSTMENTS DERATE One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subiect ' to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. Ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Althoughthe ECU does an incredible iob of reoulatina enaine operation on these motors, it is subiect to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. There is one mechanical setting that should be checked and adjusted annually (or after every 200 hours of operation). The idle air by-pass air screw is a mechanically adjustable passage that provides air to the motor beyond what is controlled by the ECU. This system is used to set a base idle speed by allowing a certain amount of air to by-pass the ECU controls. Although the manufacturer recommends annual checking of this setting, don't get too excited yet, these motors have proven to be very reliable when maintained properly and this setting does not require adjustment often. Checking Idle Speed (Idle By-pass Air Screw Adjustment) OEM Idle speed on the 20012251250 hp EF1 motors is controlled electronically through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve, mounted at the top of the intake manifold where the air intake silencer/flywheel cover connects to the throttle body. The valve is a stepper motor that can be used by the ECU to allow greater amounts of air into the engine in order to produce fast idle (for quick engine warm-up). Once the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the IAC valve usually closes and all idle air is supplied through the IAC by- pass. During warm operation, the idle by-pass air screw adjustment determines the amount of air circumventing the closed IAC valve. The screw, located in the intake manifoldlthrottle body assembly, is positioned horizontally facing toward the starboard side of the motor, not an inch or so down below the air intake'flywheel cover. It is set at the factory and sealed with a cap to prevent unnecessary tampering or adjustment. Perform the warm engine idle speed and by-pass air screw check and adjustment annually or during every other tune-up (every 200 hours of operation). Remember that you must make sure that idle speed is properly adjusted before checking Ignition Timing on these models. B Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle linkage moves smoothly without binding or resistance. Also, be sure to check the PCV valve and hose for blockages, as they would affect idle speed. 1. Connect a shop tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions and provide a cooling water source. Because this is a coil over plug direct ignition system you may have to remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with plug cap adaptor (#5035748) or equivalent between the plug and coil in order to get a tachometer signal. 2. Shift the gearcase into neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it reaches normal operating temperature and idle has fully stabilized. 3. With the engine still running in neutral, place the throttle control in the idle position. The engine should idle at a speed of about 600-700 rpm. If it does, you're done. If idle is out of specification and you're SURE the motor is fully warmed, then continue with the procedure in order to adjust the idle speed. 4. Fully close the throttle to make sure the ECM is getting a fully closed signal from the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS). 5. Set the IAC valve duty to a constant 30% by turning the ignition switch from ON to START 5 times within 10 seconds while the engine is running at idle speed. A warning buzzer should sound notifying that the IAC duty is in "fixed mode." As long as the motor remains in this mode the buzzer will sound for at intervals of 3 seconds. This fixed mode (complete with buzzer) should last for 5 minutes before automatically canceling. You have that long to finish adjustments, or you have to start again. If you wish to manually cancel the "fixed mode" operation before that time, simply open the throttle or shift the outboard momentarily and the ECM will cancel the "fixed duty mode. B Turning the idle air by-pass screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE will INCREASE engine speed, while turning the screw CLOCKWISE will DECREASE engine speed. 6. While the motor runs in IAC "fixed mode" adjust the engine speed to 600-700 rpm using the by-pass screw. Once adjusted, open the throttle valve or shift the outboard in order to cancel the "fixed mode" operation. 7. Close the throttle and recheck engine idle speed. It should no remain stable at 600-700 rpm. If the engine speed does not return to specification properly then there may be a problem with the IAC system (electrical, or mechanical such as a clogged passage, and we'd suggest checking the mechanical possibilities first). ecause the idle speed is ECU controlled through the IAC valve, neutral or trollinglin gear speed should be the same. 8. If used, reinstall the plug or cap to the idle air screw plug. 9. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 10. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing See Figure 196 The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor, Shift Position (SP) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), timing is fixed at 5' BTDC for the starboard bank or 0' BTDC for the port bank. The fixed timing strategy is used until the engine starts. Once engine speed rises above a predetermined point, the ECU will begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. During idleitrolling operation the ECU will vary ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will maintain ignition timing anywhere between 5OATDC and 5' BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 650 rprn (600- 700 rpm). For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between 0-29' BTDC for 200 or 250 hp motors and 0-28' BTDC for 225 hp motors. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. BTDC.5ATDC and 5'be anywhere between To check ignition timing: 1. Connect the timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions. It is preferable to use a light that can attach to the primary wiring for the No. 1 cylinder, but if necessary remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with a plug cap adaptor between the plug and coil in order to get a timing lightltachometer signal. The high tension cord adapter can easily be made from a spare spark plug wire. Basically it's just a way to remove the direct ignition coil and place a wire between its spark plug terminal and the actual spark plug so you can keep the circuit complete and still install an inductive tachometer pickup. 2. Run the engine at about 1000 rpm in neutral, ignition timing should Timing marks can be found along with a pointer on the flywheel cover at the top of the motor. 3. If the motor is mounted on a launched boat or in a test tank you can also check timing at higher RPM. Timing should vary, from 0-28129' BTDC depending upon the motor and engine speed. 4 If proper timing is noted during fast idle and/or high rpm operation, the ECU is controlling engine timing. ADJUSTMENTS One of the great benefits of a fuel injected motor is that most of the functions that are mechanical on a carbureted motor (and therefore subject to wear and adjustment) are electronically monitored and adjusted to maximize engine performance. The fuel and ignition systems are all but completely controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) on these models, and because of the electronic throttle, even more so than on any other of the Suzuki outboards. The ECU is a computer control module that accepts input from various sensors mounted around the engine and makes both ignition timing and fuel mapping decisions based on those inputs. ignition timing can be checked using a timing light, but there are no adjustments. Should it be found out of specification, the electronic engine control system should be checked for problems. Of course, don't get into the trap of assuming every problem that arises is electronic. Although the ECU does an incredible job of regulating engine operation on these motors, it is subject to the same mechanical limitations of any motor. Mechanical problems will often manifest themselves in symptoms of the electronic engine control system and can lead frustration during troubleshooting if you concentrate only on the electronics. Similar to ignition timing, the idle speed is also completely electronically controlled via the electronic throttle system. So like ignition timing no adjustments are necessary or possible, though also like timing, the idle speed should be checked annually (or after every 200 hours of operation) simply to make sure the system is functioning properly. Checking Idle Speed Idle speed on 300 hp EFI motors is controlled electronically through the electronic throttle system. Through management of speed by the ECU trollinglidle speed in gear should be the same as idle speed in neutral (600- 700 rprn), though a slightly faster speed may be regulated during engine warm-up to prevent stalling, hesitation or stumble. B Before checking the idle speed, make sure the throttle control mechanism and the throttle valve on the throttle body assembly moves smoothly without binding or resistance. Suzuki recommends using a battery powered personal computer and the Suzuki Diagnostic System to check the idle speed, though we are pretty sure you should be able to use an inductive shop tachometer on the No. 1 spark plug as long as you install an adaptor (basically a spark plug wire) between the ignition coil and the plug itself so that you can connect an inductive tach to the wire. 1. Shift the gearcase into neutral, then start the engine and allow it to run until it reaches normal operating temperature and idle has fully stabilized. 2. With the engine still funning in neutral, place the throttle control in the idle position. The engine should idle at a speed of about 600-700 rpm. If the idle speed is not correct and no mechanical fault can be found the electronic throttle system may not be functioning correctly. 3. If desired, check the ignition timing at this point. 4. When finished, stop the engine and remove the tachometer. Checking Ignition Timing See Figure 196 The ECU controls both the fuel and ignition systems. The ECU adjusts ignition timing to optimize engine operation based primarily on input from the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors. However, the ECU also uses input from the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor, Shift Position (SP) sensor and, of course, the ignition switch itself. At initial start-up (while cranking), timing is fixed at 5' BTDC for the starboard bank or 0' BTDC for the port bank. The fixed timing strategy is used until the engine starts. Once engine speed rises above a predetermined point, the ECU will begin ignition timing based on programmed mapping. During idleltrolling operation the ECU will vary ignition timing to help stabilize idle speed. The ECU will maintain ignition timing anywhere between 17' ATDC and 7' BTDC with a stable engine speed of about 650 rpm (600- 700 fpm). For normal operation including acceleration, deceleration and engine speeds in gear, above idle, the ECU will follow various ignition timing mapping programs. The ECU will maintain timing between 5ATDC and 24 BTDC. As long as you are not checking WOT timing, this ignition timing check can be performed on a flush fitting, as well as with a test tank or on a launched craft. However, if you wish to check timing from mid-range to WOT, you'll need to place a load on the propeller (i.e. with a test tank or with a launched craft) to prevent possible powerhead damage. To check ignition timing: 1. Connect a timing light according to the tool manufacturer's instructions. It is preferable to use a light that can attach to the primary wiring for the No. 1 cylinder, but if necessary remove the bolt securing the No. 1 (top cylinder) ignition coil, and pull the coil off the spark plug, then install a special high tension cord with a plug cap adaptor between the plug and coil in order to get a timing IighVtachometer signal. M The high tension cord adapter can easily be made from a spare spark plug wire. Basically it's just a way to remove the direct ignition coil and place a wire between its spark plug terminal and the actual spark plug so you can keep the circuit complete and still install an inductive timing lightltachometer pickup. 2. Run the engine at about 1000 rpm in neutral, ignition timing should be anywhere between 0-5 BTDC. Timing marks can be found along with a pointer on the flywheel cover at the top of the motor. 3. If the motor is mounted on a launched boat or in a test tank you can also check timing at higher RPM. Timing should vary, from 5' ATDC and 24' BTDC depending upon engine speed. 4. If proper timing is noted during fast idle andlor high rpm operation, the ECU is controlling engine timing. See Figures 197 thru 200 Lash is a term which is used to denote the amount of space or freeplay between two components (or the amount a component can move before that motion is stopped or affected by another component) so valve lash is the measured gap that occurs between valve train components when they are unloaded (when they are not actively holding a valve open). On these motors valve lash is measured in one of two places, depending upon the valve train design. All 2.5-30 hp motors, as well as the 60170 hp motors, are equipped with rocker arm driven valve trains. This means that the camshaft lobes contact (directly or indirectly) a rocker arm which then pivots to open a valve (or allow it to close depending on the direction of travel). On these motors valve lash is the clearance between the rocker arm and the top of the valve stem. On all 40150 hp and 90-300 hp motors there are no rocker arms, and instead the overhead camshafts ride in journals directly above their respective valves, separated by a shimmed lash adjuster (basically a solid "lifter" which can hold shims of varying sizes). On these motors the valve lash is the clearance between the base of the camshaft lobe and the shimllash adjuster assembly. In either design, the actual amount of valve lash is critical, as too little clearance can hold the valve open or keep it from fully contacting the valve seat, preventing it from cooling by transmitting heat to the cylinder head through contact. This would lead to a burnt valve, requiring overhaul and replacement. Also, too much valve clearance might keep the valve from opening fully, preventing the engine from making maximum horsepower. Of course poor driveability is arguably better than burning a valve. There's an older mechanic's saying that applies here, "a tappy valve, is a happy valve." That's not to say you necessarily WANT your valves a little too loose and tapping, but whenever you're in doubt, leave a valve a little too loose rather than a little too tight. Adjusting valve lash is a part of normal maintenance to keep the valve clearance within a specified range accounting for the normal wear and tear of valve train components. Regardless of the differences in the valve trains covered here, valve clearance is always measured when the rocker or tappet for the valve being measured is fully released meaning that it is in a position where it contacts the base of the camshaft and not any part of the raised camshaft lobe. For this reason it is usually necessary to find when the piston for the valve being measured is at TDC of the compression stroke. Remember that TDC of the compression stroke is the point during the 4- stroke engine cycle when the piston travels upward and both valves close in order to seal the combustion chamber and compress the airlfuel mixture. Although timing marks can be used to determine TDC, always double- check the timing marks by watching the valves for the cylinder on which you are working as the timing mark on the flywheel or camshaft approaches the mark on the engine. During a normal cycle, the exhaust valve will close toward the end of the exhaust stroke (piston traveling up, pushing out gases) and then the intake valve will open (on the intake stroke, piston traveling down to draw in airlfuel mixture) and then it will close as the piston begins its travel upward (on the compression stroke, as it approaches TDC). If instead the exhaust valve opens, the engine is one full turn of the crankshaft away from the start of the compression stroke. Both valves must be closed, and remain closed as the piston comes to the top of the cylinder and the timing marks align. If so, that piston is on TDC and the valves for that cylinder may be adjusted. ADJUSTMENT DERATE 2.5-6 Hp Motors @ See Figures 197 and 201 A set of flat feeler gauges is the only tool that is absolutely necessary to check valve clearance on these motors. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check andlor adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 68'F (2OoC), 1. For safety, and to ease engine compression and make it easy to turn. remove the spark plug and ground the spark plug lead. 2. Remove the manual starter for access to the flywheel in order to rotate the crankshaft. Although some people may endeavor to use the manual starter to accomplish this, it is too easy to turn the flywheel too far with this method and it can get frustrating if you repeatedly miss TDC. It's a lot easier to use a breaker bar and a socket on the crankshaft retaining nut. 3. If necessary on 41516 hp motors, remove the motor cover seal. 4. Support the rocker arm cover while removing the four cover bolts using a simple crossing sequence to prevent cover warpage. 5. Carefully pull the rocker arm cover from the cylinder head. Remove and discard the old O-ring or gasket, as a new one should be used during installation to prevent leaks. 6. Rotate the flywheel clockwise to align the timing mark for TDC about where the timing pointer would normally be (if the manual starter was still installed). While doing so, make sure the intake and exhaust valves remain closed as the piston comes up in it's travel. To verify that the piston is indeed at TDC on the compression stroke, rotate the flywheel about 10-15' beyond TDC and make sure that neither of the rockers move AT ALL. If they do not move, you're good to go. If one of the rockers move, then the piston is on the exhaust stroke and you must rotate the flywheel one more complete turn. For 41516 hp models, turn the flywheel slowly until the round mark on the flywheel is facing the round mark on the top centerline of the powerhead, facing forward toward the carburetorlintake manifold. In this position, both valves should be closed, confirming that the single cylinder is at TDC. Both valves can be adjusted in this position. 7. Measure the clearance of the cylinder intake and exhaust valves. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the rocker arm and the valve Check clearance at each rocker e stem -2.5-30 hp and 60R0 hp Fig. 199 ...then measure between the shim and camshaft using a feeler gauge Fig. 200 Use a micrometer to measure old shims when determining the proper replacements stem for both valves being checked at this point. The size gauge that passes between the arm and stem with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Compare the clearance measured with the specifications of 0.005-0.007 in. (0.13-0.1 7mm) for 2.5 hp motors or 0.001 -0.003 in. (0.03-0.07mm) for 4/56 hp motors. Since the specifications are the same for both intake and exhaust valves on these motors it is not critical that you know which-is-which. However, if you desire, to determine which valve is an intake and which is an exhaust, observe the position of the valves in relation to the other components on the powerhead. The intake valves are adjacent to the ports for the intake manifold attached to the powerhead and the exhaust valves are adjacent to the exhaust ports. 8. If adjustment is necessary, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut, then turn the adjusting screw until the clearance is correct. b. Hold the screw and tighten the locknut to 60 inch lbs.15 ft. Ibs. (7 Nm) on 2.5 hp or to 100 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm) on 6 hp (128cc) and 8 hp motors, or to 96 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm) on 4/56 hp motors. Double-check the adjustment to be absolutely certain the adjuster didn't shift while tightening the locknut, 9. Install a new rocker arm cover gasket (install the gasket dry). On 4/56 hp motors there should be a large tabbed area on the border of the gasket, when present this should be positioned at the bottom, toward the left side when facing the gasket and cylinder head. 10. Install and tighten the rocker arm cover bolts using a crossing pattern to 60 inch lbs.15 ft. Ibs. (7 Nm) on 2.5 hp or to 72 inch lbs.16 ft. Ibs. (8 Nm) on 41516 hp motors. 11. On 41516 hp motors, if removed, install the motor cover seal. 12. Install the manual starter assembly. 13. Install the spark plug and lead. 14. Provide a water source, then start the engine and check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 15. Install the upper engine cover. 9.9115 Hp Motors + See Figures 197 and 202 A set of flat feeler gauges is the only tool that is absolutely necessary to check valve clearance on these motors, however the process is much easier when using Suzuki adjustment tool (#09917-14910) or an equivalent tappet adjustment tool to rotate the valve adjuster, because of the shaft of the adjusters. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check andlor adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 68° (20%). 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable andlor remove the spark plugs and ground the spark plug leads. Be sure to tag the spark plug leads before disconnection. Also, keep in mind that you'll want to remove the spark plugs to relieve engine compression and make the powerhead easy to spin anyway. 2. Remove the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable, for access to the flywheel in order to rotate the crankshaft. Although some people may endeavor to use the manual starter to accomplish this, it is too Fig. 201 The valve cover must be removed for access for valve adiustment -41516 ho shown Cam pulley PUNCH mark Fig. 202 The punch marks and embossed numbers on the camshaft pulley will help you find TDC on 9-9/15 hp motors easy to turn the flywheel too far with this method and it can get frustrating if you repeatedly miss TDC. It's a lot easier to use a breaker bar andia socket on the crankshaft retaining nut. 3. For clearance, remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 4. On models where the breather hose connects to the cylinder headlvalve cover, tag and disconnect the hose. 5. Tag and disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet hoses from the fuel pump (which mounts to the valve cover). When disconnecting the fuel hoses, use a rag to catch all spilled fuel. Use extreme care when working around fuel and fumes as both are highly flammable. Keeping all potential sources of spark or ignition (no smoking and avoid sparks) out of the work area. Refer to the Fuel System section for more details. 6. Support the rocker arm cover while removing the six cover bolts using a crossing or spiraling sequence that starts at the outer bolts and works inward. 7. Carefully pull the rocker arm cover from the cylinder head. Remove and discard the old O-ring or gasket, as a new one should be used during installation to prevent leaks. 8. Rotate the flywheel clockwise in order to align the timing marks for the valves you are checking. Turn the flywheel slowly until the No. 1 pointer (small dot next to the embossed 1on the pulley) on the cam pulley aligns with the protrusion (a small mark at the gasket split line) on the powerhead. In this position the valves for the No. 1 piston (top) will both be closed, confirming that the No. 1 piston is a TDC of the compression stroke. To adjust the valves for the No. 2 piston you will then rotate the flywheel one full turn so that the camshaft pulley rotates 112 turn so the mark for the No. 2 (bottom) piston will then align with the same protrusion on the powerhead. 9. Measure the clearance of the cylinder intake and exhaust valves. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the rocker arm and the valve stem for both valves being checked at this point. The size gauge that passes between the arm and stem with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Compare the clearance measured with the Valve Clearance Specifications Chart. To determine which valve is an intake and which is an exhaust, observe the position of the valves in relation to the other components on the powerhead. The intake valves are adjacent to the ports for the intake manifold attached to the powerhead and the exhaust valves are adjacent to the exhaust ports. M Verify valve positions by watching the pattern of valve opening and closing while the piston approaches top dead center. You can also verify by blowing compressed air into a cylinder through the spark plug opening when only one valve is open and listening for where the air escapes. 10. If adjustment is necessary, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut, then turn the adjusting screw until the clearance is correct. b. Hold the screw and tighten the locknut to 84 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). Double-check the adjustment to be absolutely certain the adjuster didn't shift while tightening the locknut. 11. Rotate the flywheel clockwise one full revolution or 360 in order to turn the camshaft pulley one half of a revolution or 180¡ The pointer should now face opposite the timing mark on the starter boss. In this position the opposite cylinder (No. 2) will be at TDC. Check and adjust the valves for the other cylinder in the same manner as the first. 12. Install a new rocker arm cover gasket (install the gasket dry). Tighten the bolts using a spiraling or crossing pattern that starts at the middle and works outward to 84 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 13. Reconnect any hoses that were tagged and removed. 14. Install the lower engine covers, 15. Install the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable. 16. Install the spark plugs and leads and, if applicable, connect the negative battery cable. 17. Provide a water source, then start the engine and check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 10. Install the upper engine cover. 25 Hp V2 Motors See Figure 197 A set of flat feeler gauges is the only "special" tool that is absolutely necessary to check valve clearance on these motors (other than the usual array of hand tools to remove the valve covers). Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check andlor adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 68'F (20%). 1. Ifequipped, disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. To relieve engine compression and make it MUCH easier to find TDC, tag and disconnect the spark plug wires, then remove the spark plugs. 3. For clearance, remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 4. Remove the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable, for access to the flywheel in order to rotate the crankshaft. Although some people may endeavor to use the manual starter to accomplish this, it is too easy to turn the flywheel too far with this method and it can get frustrating if you repeatedly miss TDC. It's a lot easier to use a breaker bar and a socket on the crankshaft retaining nut. 5. Support each rocker arm cover while removing the four cover bolts using a simple crossing pattern to help protect the covers). Carefully pull the rocker arm cover from the cylinder head, then remove and discard the old rocker cover gaskets. 6. Rotate the flywheel clockwise in order to align the timing marks, then start by checking both the intake and exhaust valves for the No. 1 (starboard side) cylinder. Remember though that for every two times the flywheel timing marks align the piston is only a TDC of the compression stroke one time. The absolute BEST way to determine if the No. 1 cylinder is on the compression stroke (as opposed to the exhaust stroke) is to watch the valves. If the intake valve just closed before the piston started traveling upward then you're on the compression stroke. If however the exhaust valve OPENED, well, then you know you're a full turn of the flywheel away from TDC compression. 7. Once you're certain the cylinder you are checking is on TDC of the compression stroke and that both valves a fully closed (not being held open by the camshaftslrockers), measure the clearance of the cylinder intake and exhaust valves. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the rocker arm and the valve stem for both valves being checked at this point. The size gauge that passes between the arm and stem with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Compare the clearance measured with the Valve Clearance Specifications Chart (should be 0.001-0.003 in10.03-0.07mm for both the intake and exhaust valves on these models). To determine which valve is an intake and which is an exhaust (not that it is that important since the specs are the same, but for posterities sake), observe the position of the valves in relation to the other components on the powerhead. The intake valves are adjacent to the ports for the intake manifold attached to the powerhead and the exhaust valves are adjacent to the exhaust ports. On these motors, that should meant the intake valve is on top and the exhaust valve is on the bottom. @ Verify these valve positions by watching the pattern of valve opening and closing while the piston approaches top dead center. You can also verify by blowing compressed air into a cylinder through the spark plug opening when only one valve is open and listening for where the air escapes. 8. If adjustment is necessary, proceed as follows: a. Loosen the locknut, while holding the pivot (adjusting) nut, then turn the adjusting nut until the clearance is correct. b. Hold the pivot (adjusting) nut and tighten the locknut to 95 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm). Double-check the adjustment to be absolutely certain the adjuster didn't shift while tightening the locknut. 9. Rotate the flywheel clockwise until the intake valve closes fully and the piston comes to the top of travel for the No. 2 (Port) side cylinder. Now with the No. 2 cylinder a TDC of the compression stroke, check and adjust its valves. 10. Once you are finished install the rocker covers using the retaining bolts and NEW gaskets (no sealant). Tighten the bolts gradually for each rocker cover using a crossing pattern to 88 inch lbs.17.2 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 11. Install the lower engine covers. 12. Install the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable. 13. Install the spark plugs and leads and, if applicable, connect the negative battery cable. 14. Provide a water source, then start the engine and check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 15. Installthe upper engine covet. 25/30 Hp (3-Cyl) Motors See Figures 197 and 203 A set of flat feeler gauges is the only thing close to a "special" tool necessary to check valve clearance on these motors. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check and/or adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 20% (68'F). 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable and/or remove the spark plugs and ground the spark plug leads. Be sure to tag the spark plug leads before disconnection. Also, keep in mind that you'll want to remove the spark plugs to relieve engine compression and make the powerhead easy to spin anyway. 2. Remove the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable, for access to the flywheel in order to rotate the crankshaft. Although some people may endeavor to use the manual starter to accomplish this, it is too easy to turn the flywheel too far with this method and it can get frustrating if you repeatedly miss TDC. It's a lot easier to use a breaker bar and a socket on the flywheel retaining bolt. 3. For clearance, remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 4 Tag and disconnect the breather hose from the top corner of the cylinder head cover. 5. Using a crossing pattern, slowly and evenly loosen, then remove the 8 cylinder head cover retaining bolts. Pull the cover away from the cylinder head carefully breaking the gasket seal (but taking care as the gasket, if undamaged, is reusable on these models). H Inspect the gasket for damage. If the gasket is in good shape it is reusable on most models, but consider how easy it was to get to and whether or not you'd want to bother redoing that work to replace it, should it leak after testing. 6. Rotate the flywheel clockwise while watching the operation of the valves to determine when each cylinder is on TDC. Unfortunately the timing chain on this motor is mounted UNDER the powerhead, so there is no visible camshaft pulley with marks to use as a guide. Also, the timing pointer was removed with the manual starter or flywheel cover, though you can position it over top the flywheel for a second in order to get a general idea where the pointer would be (which is fine, because you don't have to be SPOT on TDC to adjust the valves, you just need to be close enough that you're certain the rockers are on the base lobes of the camshaft). Now you may be able to see enough of the camshaft to determine directly when a given valve is on the base of the lobe, and in that case, you can do each of the valves individually, regardless of searching for TDC. Otherwise, watch the movement of the valves in relation to the movement of the piston. When the exhaust valve is already closed and the intake valve CLOSES as the piston approaches the top of travel, then you are on the compression stroke for that cylinder. Adjust the valves with the piston as high as possible in the cylinder and BOTH valves closed. 7. Measure the clearance of the cylinder intake and exhaust valves. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the rocker arm and the valve stem for both valves being checked at this point. The size gauge that passes between the arm and stem with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Compare the clearance measured with the Valve Clearance Specifications Chart. Since the valve clearance specification is the same for both valve it isn't critical to determine which is the intake and which is the exhaust valve, unless of course you're still trying to determine where TDC is for that piston. Two hints in determining which valve is which. First, observe the position of the valves in relation to the other components on the powerhead. The intake valves are adjacent to the ports for the intake manifold attached to the powerhead and the exhaust valves are adjacent to the exhaust ports. Second, remember that during crankshaft rotation the exhaust valve and intake valve TEND to have a small amount of overlap (the exhaust valve is in the process of closing when the intake valve opens), but the opposite is not true (the intake valve should never be still opened when the exhaust valve starts to open). 8. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the locknut, then use a driver to slowly and gently turn the adjusting screw until the clearance is correct. Hold the adjusting screw firmly and tighten the locknut to 97 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm), then double-check the adjustment to be absolutely certain the adjuster didn't shift while tightening the locknut. 9. Now, rotate the flywheel again clockwise while watching the next cylinder's set of valves and repeat the check/adjustment for the next cylinder. Continue until the valves for all 3 cylinders have been checked and adjusted. 10. Apply a [email protected] of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B or equivalent to the Fig. 203 Disconnect the breather hose from the upper corner of the valve cover before removal -25/30 hp (3-cyl motors) two small joint lines (one on each side, toward the very bottom) of the cylinder head-to-cover gasket mating surface. 11. Make sure the cylinder head cover gasket is in good condition. Install the cover and loosely run the 8 retaining bolts down by hand, then tighten them using a crossing pattern to 97 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm). 12. Install the lower engine covers. 13. Install the manual starter or flywheel cover, as applicable. 14. Install the soark oluas and leads and. if annlicable. connect the > -8, . negative battery cable. 15. Provide a water source, then start the engine and check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 16. Install the upper engine cover. 40150 Hp Motors @ See Figures 198,199,200 and 204 thru 210 The 40150 hp motors utilize replaceable shims to adjust valve clearance. A set of flat feeler gauges is all that is required to check valve clearance. But, if adjustments are necessary, you will need a micrometer for shim measurement, an assortment of shims (or a trip during the procedure to purchase the proper size shims) and Suzuki #09916-67010 or an equivalent tappet holder tool. H These motors utilize a dual overhead camshaft arrangement driven by a timing chain and sprockets which are mounted at the BOTTOM of the cylinder. As such, unless the powerhead has been removed for repair, the timing marks on those sprockets are rather useless when it comes to finding TDC and checking valve clearance. Instead, since the camshafts are in plain site (once the cylinder head cover is removed) use them to determine if a given cylinder is on TDC. Remember, the intake valve will be the last to close, right about the time the piston begins to travel back upwards. When the piston on any given cylinder reaches the top of travel and BOTH the intake and exhaust valves for that cylinder are closed, then the cylinder is at TDC. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check and/or adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 20¡ (6VF). 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the ignition coils and spark plugs as described in this section. 3. Remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 4. Remove the flywheel cover as described under Powerhead. 5. Rotate the enaine clockwise to brina the No. 1 cvlinder to TDC of the compression stroke and thereby relieving mechanical pressure from the fuel numo arm. Remove the low oressure fuel numo from the cvlinder head cover , , as described in the Fuel system section. M Suzuki actually just tells techs to disconnect the hoses and leave the fuel pump attached to the valve cover. We've found that it can be a pain during installation and it is usually just easier to remove it. But do as you prefer. Valve Cover Tightening Sequence Valve Cover Loosening Sequence Fig. 204 On these motors you have to disconnect or remove a Fig. 205 Valve cover loosening and tightening sequences -40150 hp number of components before unbolting the valve cover motors of tappet Special tool sing bolt 3-Camshaft b 2-TWet Fig. 208 Before removing the tappet holder, Fig. 206 Positioning the valve shim for use the camshaft lobe to press the valve, removal Fig. 207 Installing the tappet holder tool unloading the tool 6. Disconnect the harness from the camshaft position sensor. For details, please refer to Electronic Engine Controls. 7. Tag and disconnect the breather hose from the top of the cylinder head cover. 8. Loosen and remove the 12 cylinder head cover bolts in the opposite of the tightening sequence (basically by using a crossing pattern that starts at the upper and lower ends of the valve cover and works inward). 9. Remove the cover along with the gasket and O-rings from the powerhead. Be careful not to damage the cover gasket or any O-rings if you have any intention of trying to reuse them. Inspect the gasket for damaged surfaces and reolace. if necessarv. E Suzuki recommends replacing the valve cover gasket and spark plug bore O-rings anytime the cover is removed. 10. Check that the flywheel is still in the No. 1 TDC position by making sure the camshaft lobes face out and directly away from (meaning facing away from or not pushing on) the valve tappets for that cylinder. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the clearance for each valve. 11. The firing order on this motor is 1-3-2, so the No. 3 cylinder should come up to TDC next and the No. 2 cylinder last, then the cycle will return back to the beginning of the firing order. Rotate the flywheel clockwise until the No. 3 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and directly opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance ^Or each - 12. Rotate the flywheel clockwise until the No. 2 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and directly opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size that Passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 13. Comoare the clearances with the Valve Clearance Soecifications chart in this section (it should be 0.007-0.009 in.10.18-0.24mm for both intake and exhaust valves). 14. If incorrect valve clearance is noted, substitute the proper sized shim, determined as follows: a. If valve clearance is greater than spec, subtract the valve clearance specification (using the dead middle of the range) listed in the specification chart from the measured clearance. Obtain a replacement shim, that much thicker than the current shim. b. If valve clearance is less than specification, subtract the measured clearance from the valve clearance specification (again, using the dead middle of the range) listed in the chart. Obtain a replacement shim that much smaller than the original. 218 220 222 224 226 226 230 232 234 238 238 240 242 244 246 246 250 252 254 256 2% 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 276 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 2. 22 222 2.24 2.28 2.28 2.30 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.40 2.42 2.46 2.46 2.48 2.50 2.52 2.54 2.56 2.58 2.60 2.62 2.64 2.06 2.68 2.70 2.72 2.74 2.76 2.78 2.80 2.82 2.84 2.88 2.88 2.90 2.92 2.94 2,546 2.98 3.00 clearance {mm) 0.00 -0.04 218 220 222 224 226 226 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 246 250 252 254 256 256 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 I 0.05 -0.09 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 248 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 284 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 0.10-0.14 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 248 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 264 266 288 290 292 0.15-0.17 216 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 230 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 253 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 268 290 292 294 296 0.18 -0.24 SPECIFIEDCLEARANCE 1 NO ADJUSTMENT REQUIRED 0.25 -0.29 224226226230232234236238240242244246'248'250~ 252254'25~258'26026226-1266268 270272'274276278280282284286288290292294296298~300 0.30-0.34 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 266 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 290 300 0.35 -0.39 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 276 280 282 284 286 288 280 292 294 296 298 300 1. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold". 2. Measure present shim size. 3. Match clearance in vertical column with present shim size in horizontal column. [EXAMPLE] Tappet clearance is -0.35 mm Present shim size -2.40 mm Shim size to be used -2.56 rnm Fig. 209 Valve tappet shim selection chart -40150 hp motors Alternately you can use the accompanying shim selection chart in order to choose the appropriate replacement shim. For example, say you measured a clearance of 0.46mm, and the current shim is a 2.34mm (marked 234). First look down the left outer column to locate the row for 0.46mm (it is the 10th row down, marked 0.45-0.49mm). Next Apply sealant to look across the top for the 234 shim (2.34mm), it is the 9th column over dark shaded from the left. Follow the column down to the point where it intersects mating surfaces with the 0.45-0.49mm row and you'll find that the proper new shim would be marked 260 for 2.6mm. You can also tell from the chart that replacement shims are available from 218 (2.18mm) to 300 (3.0mm) in 0.02mm increments. VALVE COVER 15. If shim replacement is necessary to obtain the proper valve lash: a. Rotate the flywheel clockwise until the camshaft lobe tip for the selected vaive is opposite the tappet (facing out, 180' away from the tappet). b. Carefully rotate the tappet within its bore until the notch is facing toward the opposite camshaft. The notch must be accessible for tappet shim removal. c. Rotate the flywheel clockwise until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the tappet shim (opening the vaive and creating room for the tool). Remove the bolts from the camshaft cap next to the selected vaive. CYLINDER HEAD d. Place Suzuki #09916-67010 or an equivalent tappet retainer over the camshaft cap. Each end of the retainer is marked either IN (for intake) or EX (for exhaust) and the appropriate end must face inward toward the center of the cylinder head (toward the notch on the tappet from which the shim will be removed). Thread the camshaft cap bolts through the retainer and the camshaft cap. Tighten the bolts securely, ensuring the fingers of the tool contact the barrel portion of the tappet and not the shim itself. e. Rotate the flywheel clockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip rotates 90' away from the tappet. Use a small magnet to Fig. 210 Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B to the grab and remove the shim. If absolutely necessary, insert a screwdriver (with cylinder head gasket mating surface and the valve cover (with tape covering the blade to prevent scoring or damage) into the tappet notch gasket installed) at the darkshaded areas at the top of the cylinder and carefully pry the shim from the tappet, then use the magnet to pull the head and bottom side of the valve cover shim from the tappet. DO NOT use your fingers. DO NOT let your fingers get between the camshaft and tappet at any time, as they could be crushed if the tool or camshaft suddenly shifted. f. Measure the shim thickness using a micrometer. Shims are available in sizes from 0.086-0.118 in. (2.18-3.0mm) in 0.001 in. (0.02mm) increments. Select the correct shim thickness as described earlier. ' H On new shims, the thickness can be identified by the number present on the shim's face, divided by 100. Move the decimal point 2 places to the left and you've got your size. For example a new shim labeled 258 on the face is 2.58mm thick. The label can only be trusted on new shims, which have not been in service, as normal wear during service might change shim thickness overtime. g. Place the selected shim into the tappet with the numbered side facing down TOWARD the tappet. h. Make sure the shim seats fully against the step within the tappet, then rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the shim (pushing the tappet downward and taking the load off the tappet holder tool so it can be safely removed. Loosen and remove the bolts from the camshaft cap and tappet retainer. i Carefully pull the retainer from the cap, then install camshaft cap bolts and tighten evenly to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 16. Repeat for each of the valves whose lash was noted out of specification. Once you are finished with any shim changes, recheck the clearance for that valve. And once you are finished with all valve clearance checks, reset the powerhead to No. 1 TDC to ease fuel pump and/or valve cover installation, as applicable 17. Install a new valve cover gasket and set of spark plug bore O-rings on the underside mating surface of the valve cover. Fig. 212 The camshaft sprocket has Fig. 211 Remove the spark plugs and the individual marks to align each cylinder at ignition coils. . . 18. Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B, or equivalent, to the proper portions of the cylinder head cover mating surfaces. At the top of the cylinder head, along the mating surface for the valve cover, apply sealant to the rounded pockets just above the camshafts. Make sure the sealant comes all the way to the flat surfaces on either side of the rounded pockets, and to the rest of the horizontal gasket surface to the LEFT of the cam on the left side (when looking at the head), but DO NOT coat the entire horizontal surface between the two rounded pockets. Also, on tne cylinder head COVERIGasket itself, apply sealant to the two slightly-rounded, vertical surfaces at the widest part (bottom ears) of the cover. 19. Install the cover to the cylinder head making sure the spark plug port O-rings are not dislodged when you are seating it, then install and tighten the cover bolts using the torque sequence (which is essentially a crossing pattern that starts at the center and works outward) to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 20. Reconnect the harness to the camshaft position sensor. 21. Reconnect the breather hose. 22. Install the spark plugs and the ignition coils. 23. Install the fuel pump, flywheel cover and lower engine covers as detailed in the appropriate procedures. 24. Connect the negative battery cable, then connect a flushing device and start the engine to check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 25. Install the engine top cover. 60170 Hp Motors See Figures 197 and 211 thru 216 A set of flat feeler gauges is necessary to check valve clearance on these motors. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check and/or adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 20% (68'F). INDEX mark PUNCH mark PUNCH mark Fig. 213 Rotate the flywheel until the camshaft sprocket is aligned at No. 1TDC... Fig. 214 ...then remove the fuel pump (or 15 Tag and disconnect the breather Fig. 216 ...then loosen the bolts and at least tag & disconnect the hoses) remove the valve cover The No. 1cylinder is at TDC of the compression stroke on the 60/70 hp motor, when the punch mark on the crankshaft timing pulley aligns with the protrusion on the cylinder block and the No. 1mark on the camshaft pulley aligns with the raised boss on the cylinder head. Now, with the flywheel installed you can't see the crankshaft timing pulley, but you may also use the flywheel timing marks and the timing pointer as a reference. Of course, since the valve cover will be removed at some point during the procedure the BEST method is to keep an eye on the camshaft lobes as the camshaft timing marks come up to alignment. At TDC of a compression stroke, the base of the camshaft lobe will be touching the rocker arm (the raised portion of the lobe will face away from the rocker). There are 4 numbered punch marks on the camshaft pulley, each functions as the TDC alignment mark for that numbered cylinder. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. For access, remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 3. Tag and disconnect the spark plug wires, then remove the spark plugs to relieve engine compression. For details, please refer to the Spark Plug procedure in this section. Ground the spark plug leads to prevent damage if the engine is cranked while they are disconnected. 4. Remove the ignition coils from the cylinder head. For details, refer to the Ignition System section. 5. Remove the flywheel cover as described under Powerhead. Before removing the cover, take note of the approximate position of the timing pointer to help determine TDC in the next step. 6. Rotate the engine clockwise to bring the No. 1 cylinder to TDC of the compression stroke and thereby relieving mechanical pressure from the fuel pump arm. Remove the low pressure fuel pump from the cylinder head cover as described in the Fuel System section. M Suzuki actually just tells techs to disconnect the hoses and leave the fuel pump attached to the valve cover. We've found that it can be a pain during installation and it is usually just easier to remove it. as you prefer. 7. Tag and disconnect the breather hose from the cylinder head cover. 8. Support the rocker arm cover and remove the six cover bolts using a crossing pattern. 9. Pull the rocker arm cover from the cylinder head, then carefully remove the cover gasket. 10. Make sure the flywheel is still in the No. 1 TDC position. The raised portion of the camshaft lobes should face away from and not be in contact with the rockers. If the position is correct, both the valves for the No. 1 cylinder will be closed. 11. Measure the clearance intake and exhaust valves for the No. 1 cylinder (in the past the Suzuki also used to recommend measuring the No. 2 cylinder intake valve and the No. 3 cylinder exhaust valve at this point, and you can if for some reason your camshaft pulley doesn't have all the marks, or you can use the additional timing marks provided on the cam pulley to check each cylinder in succession). Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the rocker arm and the valve stem for each valve. The size that passes between the arm and stem with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Comoare the clearance measured with the Valve Clearance Specification chart in this section. 12. If lash is out of specification on one or more valve, adjust it as follows: a. Loosen the locknut, then turn the adjusting screw until the clearance is correct. b. Hold the screw while tightening the locknut to 150 inch lbs.il2.5 ft. Ibs. (17 Nm). c. Recheck the valve clearance to make sure the adjuster wasn't turned while tightening the locknut. 13. If checking each cylinder's valves individually when only that cylinder is at TDC, then rotate the flywheel clockwise 112 turn, so the camshaft sprocket rotates 114 turn, bringing the next cylinder punch mark up into alignment (since the firing order is 1-3-4-2, that means the No. 3 cyl punch mark should be next). Check and/or adjust the valve clearance on the No. 3 cylinder then repeat this step for the No. 4 and No. 2 cylinders, in succession. efore Suzuki labeled each of the 4 TDC marks on the camshaft they used to suggest checking all valves with either the No. 1or the No. 4 cylinder at TDC. The valves that would be checked with the No. 1 at TDC were noted earlier, the rest, would be checked with No. 4. This method is fine, as long as all valves in question are checked while the tappets are only facing the base (non-raised) portions of the camshaft lobes. If using this method, after the No. 1TDC position rotate the crankshaft one full revolution (360') so the No. 4 TDC mark aligns with the raised boss on the cylinder head (and the No. 1cylinder is now on its exhaust stroke). The camshaft rotates at 112 the rate of the crankshaftlflywheel, so rotating the flywheel as directed will turn the camshaft sprocket only 180". This places the No. 1TDC mark exactly 112 a turn away from the previous location. At this point, both of the valves for the No. 4 cylinder should be closed. Then measure the clearance of the No. 4 cylinder intake and exhaust valves, the No 2 exhaust valve and the No. 3 intake valve. 14. Once you are finished checked andlor adjusting the valves, rotate the flywheel clockwise again until the No. 1 TDC mark again aligns with the raised boss on the cylinder head. This is done to ease installation of the fuel pump (or the rocker cover if the fuel pump is still installed). 15. Install the rocker arm cover using a new gasket, then tighten the bolts using a crisscross pattern to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 16. Reconnect the breather hose to the rocker cover. 17. Install the fuel pump, ignition coils, spark plugs, flywheel cover and lower engine covers as described in the appropriate procedures. 18. connect the negative battery cable,' then connect a flushing device and start the engine to check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 19. Install the engine top case. ee Figures 198 thru 200,206 thru 208, and 217 thru 219 The 90i1151140 hp motors utilize replaceable shims to adjust valve clearance.A set of flat feeler gauges is all that is required to check valve clearance. But. if adjustments are necessary, you will need a micrometer for shim measurement, an assortment of shims (or a trip during the procedure to purchase the proper size shims) and Suzuki #09916-49040 or an equivalent tappet holder tool. There is some question as to the style of tool which is sold for this motor. Some factory sources show #09916-49040 as a bridge-type tool that is bolted in place over the camshaft bearing cap to depress and hold the valve tappet. This is the type we have illustrated. Other sources suggest that it is NOT a bolt-on bridge-type tool, but instead a pair of specialized pliers and lever that is instead used to manually depress the tappet. We've included instructions here for use of the bridge-type tool, because that's how Suzuki technical literature describes it. However, if using a pliersllever type tool set, use the instructions included with the tool set instead. These motors are LH rotating. That is, they rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE when looking downward at the flywheel. DO NOT turn them in the wrong direction, or you risk damaging the water pump impeller vanes. These motors utilize a dual overhead camshaft arrangement driven by a timing chain and sprockets which are mounted at the BOTTOM of the cylinder. As such, unless the powerhead has been removed for repair, the timing marks on those sprockets are rather useless when it comes to finding TDC and checking valve clearance. Instead, since the camshafts are in plain site (once the cylinder head cover is removed) use them to determine if a given cylinder is on TDC. Remember, the intake valve will be the last to close, right about the time the piston begins to travel back upwards. When the piston on any given cylinder reaches the top of travel and BOTH the intake and exhaust valves for that cylinder are closed, then the cylinder is at TDC. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check andlor adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 20° (68'F). 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 3. Remove the spark plugs as described in this section. 4. Remove the flywheel cover as described under Powerhead. 5. Tag and disconnect both the breather hose and the evaporation hose from the upper corner of the cylinder head cover. 6. Rotate the engine COUNTERCLOCKWISE to bring the No. 1 cylinder to TDC of the compression stroke and thereby relieving mechanical pressure from the fuel pump arm. Remove the low pressure fuel pump from the cylinder head cover as described in the Fuel System section. B Suzuki actually just tells techs to disconnect the hoses and leave the fuel pump attached to the valve cover. We've found that can be bit of a pain during installation and it is usually just easier to remove it. ut do as you prefer. VALVE COVER TIGHTENING SEQUENCE VALVE COVER LOOSENING SEQUENCE Fig. 217 Valve cover loosening and tightening sequences - 90/115/140 hp motors 7. Loosen and remove the 15 cylinder head cover bolts in the opposite of the tightening sequence (basically by using a crossing pattern that starts at the lower and upper ends of the valve cover and works inward). 8. Remove the cover along with the gasket and O-rings from the powerhead. Be careful not to damage the cover gasket or any O-rings if you have any intention of trying to reuse them. Inspect the gasket for damaged surfaces and replace, if necessary. Suzuki recommends replacing the valve cover gasket and spark plug bore O-rings anytime the cover is removed. 9. Check that the flywheel is still in the No. 1 TDC position by making sure the camshaft lobes face out and directly away from (meaning not pushing on) the valve tappets for that cylinder. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the clearance for each valve. 10. The firing order on this motor is 1-3-4-2, so the No. 3 cylinder should come up to TDC next, followed by the No. 4 cylinder and the No. 2 cylinder last, then the cycle will return back to the beginning of the firing order. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 3 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and directly opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 11. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 4 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and directly opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 12. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 2 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and directly opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 13. Compare the clearances with the Valve Clearance Specifications chart in this section. 14. If incorrect valve clearance is noted, substitute the proper sized shim, determined as follows: a. If valve clearance is greater than spec, subtract the valve clearance specification (using the dead middle of the range) listed in the specification 1. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold". 2. Measure present shim size. 3. Match clearance in vertical column with present shim size in horizontal column. [EXAMPLE] Tappet clearance is -0.35 rnrn Present shim size -2.40 rnrn Shim size to be used -2.50 rnrn Fig, 218 Valve tappet shim selection chart -90/115/140 hp motors chart from the measured clearance. Obtain a replacement shim, that much thicker than the current shim. b. If valve clearance is less than specification, subtract the measured clearance from the valve clearance specification (again, using the dead middle of the range) listed in the chart. Obtain a replacement shim that much smaller than the original. Alternately you can use the accompanying shim selection chart in order to choose the appropriate replacement shim. For example, say you measured a clearance of 0.46mm, and the current shim is a 2.40mm (marked 240). First look down the left outer column to locate the row for 0.46mm (it is the 10th row down, marked 0.43-0.47mm). Next look across the top for the 240 shim (2.40mm), it is the 10th column over from the left. Follow the column down to the point where it intersects with the 0.43-0.47mm row and you'll find that the proper new shim would be marked 260 for 2.6mm. You can also tell from the chart that replacement shims are available from 218 (2.18mm) to 300 (3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.02mm or 0.03mm. 15. If shim replacement is necessary to obtain the proper valve lash use a bridge-type tappet holder tool as follows: a. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip for the selected valve is opposite the tappet (facing out, 180' away from the tappet). b. Carefully rotate the tappet within its bore until the notch is facing toward the opposite camshaft. The notch must be accessible for tappet shim removal. c. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the tappet shim (opening the valve and creating room for the tool). Remove the bolts from the camshaft cap next to the selected valve. d. Place the tappet retainer over the camshaft cap. Each end of the retainer is marked either IN (for intake) or EX (for exhaust) and the appropriate end must face inward toward the center of the cylinder head (toward the notch on the tappet from which the shim will be removed). Thread the camshaft cap bolts through the retainer and the camshaft cap. Tighten the bolts securely, ensuring the fingers of the tool contact the barrel portion of the tappet and not the shim itself. e. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip rotates 90 away from the tappet. Use a small magnet to drab and remove the shim. If absolutely necessarv, insert a screwdriver (with tape covering the blade to prevent scoring or damage) into the tappet notch and carefully pry the shim from the tappet, then use the magnet to pull the shim from the tappet. DO NOT use your fingers. Apply sealant to dark shaded mating surfaces VALVE COVER CYLINDER HEAD Fig. 219 Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B to the cylinder head gasket mating surface and the valve cover (with gasket installed) at the dark shaded areas at the top of the cylinder head and bottom side of the valve cover DO NOT let your fingers get between the camshaft and tappet at any time, as they could be crushed if the tool or camshaft suddenly shifted. f. Measure the shim thickness using a micrometer. Shims are available in sizes from 0.086-0.118 in. (2.18-3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.00078 in. (0.02mm) or 0.00118 in (0.03mm). Select the correct shim thickness as described earlier. On new shims, the thickness can be identified by the number present on the shim's face, divided by 100. Move the decimal point 2 places to the left and you've got your size. For example a new shim labeled 258 on the face is 2.58mm thick. The labe! can only be trusted on new shims, which have not been in service, as normal wear during service might change shim thickness overtime. g. Place the selected shim into the tappet with the numbered side facing down TOWARD the tappet. h. Make sure the shim seats fully against the step within the tappet, then rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the shim (pushing the tappet downward and taking the load off the tappet holder tool so it can be safely removed. Loosen and remove the bolts from the camshaft cap and tappet retainer. i Carefully pull the retainer from the cap, then install camshaft cap bolts and tighten evenly to 96 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm). 16. Repeat for each of the valves whose lash was noted out of specification. Once you are finished with any shim changes, recheck the clearance for that valve. And once you are finished with all valve clearance checks, reset the powerhead to No. 1 TDC to ease fuel pump installation. 17. Install a new valve cover gasket and set of spark plug bore O-rings on the underside mating surface of the valve cover. 18. Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 12076 or equivalent to the appropriate portions of the cylinder head cover mating surfaces. At the top of the cylinder head, along the mating surface for the valve cover, apply sealant to the rounded pockets just above the camshafts. Also, on the cylinder head COVERIGasket itself, apply sealant to the two slightly-rounded, vertical surfaces at the widest part (bottom ears) of the cover. 19. Install the cover to the cylinder head making sure the spark plug port O-rings are not dislodged when you are seating it, then install and tighten the cover bolts using the torque sequence (which is essentially a crossing pattern that starts at the center and works outward) to 96 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs, (11 Nm). 20. Reconnect the breather and evaporation hoses, as tagged during removal. 21. Install the spark plugs. 22. Install the fuel pump, flywheel cover and lower engine covers as detailed in the appropriate procedures. 23. Connect the negative battery cable, then connect a flushing device and start the engine to check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 24. Install the engine top case. 1501175 tip Motors See Figures 198 thru 200,206 thru 208, and 220 thru 223 The 1501175 hp motors utilize replaceable shims to adjust valve clearance, A set of flat feeler gauges is all that is required to check valve clearance. But, if adjustments are necessary, you will need a micrometer for shim measurement, an assortment of shims (or a trip during the procedure to purchase the proper size shims) and Suzuki #09916-69310 or an equivalent tappet holder tool. These motors are LH rotating. That is, they rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE when looking downward at the flywheel. DO NOT turn them in the wrong direction, or you risk damaging the water pump impeller vanes. These motors utilize a dual overhead camshaft arrangement driven by a timing chain and sprockets which are mounted at the BOTTOM of the cylinder. As such, unless the powerhead has been removed for repair, the timing marks on those sprockets are rather useless when it comes to finding TDC and checking valve clearance. Instead, since the camshafts are in plain site (once the cylinder head cover is removed) use them to determine if a given cylinder is on TDC. Remember, the intake valve will be the last to close, right about the time the piston begins to travel back upwards. When the piston on any given cylinder reaches the top of travel and BOTH the intake and exhaust valves for that cylinder are closed, then the cylinder is at TDC. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check and/or adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximately 20% (68¡F) 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the small protective cover that is over the fuel filter and the bottom of the valve cover by gently grabbing and pulling the TOP OF THE COVER OUTWARD and then lifting upward to free the cover from the powerhead. 3. Remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 4. Remove the air intake silencerlflywheel cover. 5. Remove the ignition coils and spark plugs as described in this section. 6. Rotate the engine COUNTERCLOCKWISE to bring the No. 1 cylinder to TDC of the compression stroke and thereby relieving mechanical pressure from the fuel pump arm. Remove the low pressure fuel pump from the cylinder head cover as described in the Fuel System section. 7. Remove the 2 bolts securing the fuel filter bracket to the bottom of the powerhead then remove the filter and bracket for clearance. 8. On 175 hp models, tag and disconnect the Intake Camshaft Position Sensor (IN CMP) at the top starboard side of the cover. if necessary, loosen the bolt and remove the sensor completely from the cover. 9. Tag and disconnect the Exhaust Camshaft Position Sensor (EX CMP) at the top port side of the cover. If necessary, loosen the bolt and remove the sensor completely from the cover. 10. Remove the bolt securing the wire clamp plate that is about halfway down the valve cover on the starboard side. 11. Remove the bolt securing the wire clamp plate which is near the bottom of the valve cover on the port side. 12. On 175 hp models, tag and disconnect the wiring from the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system Oil Control Valve (OCV) which is found at the base of the powerhead head and valve cover on the starboard side, right near the bottom of the fuel rail. Remove the 4 bolts securing the OCV assembly, then remove the assembly and discard the old gasket. 13. Loosen and remove the 14 cylinder head cover bolts in the opposite of the tightening sequence (basically by using a crossing pattern that starts at the upper and lower ends of the valve cover and works inward). 14. Remove the cover along with the gasket assembly from the powerhead. Be careful not to damage the cover gasket if you have any intention of trying to reuse it. Inspect the gasket for damaged surfaces and replace, if necessary. @ Suzuki recommends replacing the valve cover gasket with integral spark plug bore O-rings anytime the cover is removed. 15. Check that the flywheel is still in the No. 1 TDC position by making sure the camshaft lobes face out and away from (meaning not pushing on) the valve tappets for that cylinder. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the clearance for each valve. 16. The firing order on this motor is 1-3-4-2, so the No. 3 cylinder should come up to TDC next, followed by the No. 4 cylinder and the No. 2 cylinder last, then the cycle will return back to the beginning of the firing order. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 3 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 17. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 4 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 18. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the No. 2 camshaft lobe tips are facing out and opposite the valve tappets. Insert feeler gauges of VALVE COVER TIGHTENING SEQUENCE VALVE COVER LOOSENING SEQUENCE Fig. 220 Valve cover loosening and tightening sequences -1501175 hp motors Fig. 221 Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B to the cylinder head at the gasket mating surfaces for the top and bottom of the head 1 0.28 -0.32 223 225 228 230 233 235 238 240 243 245 248 2501253,255 258 260 263 265 268 270 273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 295 298 300 0.33-0.37 228 230 233 235 238 240 243 245 248 250 253'255 258 260 263 265 268 270 273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 295 298 300 ' 0.38-0.42 233 235!238 240 243 245 248 250 253255258280/263265 26812701273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 285 298 300 .- 0.43 -0.47 238 240 243 245 248 250 253 255 25s 2601263 265 268i270 273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 295 298 300 0.48 -0.52 243 245 248 250 253 255 258 260 283 265 268 270 273 275 278 260 283 2851288 290 293 295 298 300 I 0.53 -0.57 248 250 253 255 258 260 263'285 268 270 273 275 278'280 283 285 288 290293 295 298 300 -----------3 0.58-0.62 253 255 258 260 263 265 268 270 273 275 278 280 2831285,288 290 293 295 298 300 I. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold 2. Measure present shim size. 0.63 -0.67 258 260 283 265 268 270 273 275 278280 283 285 2881290 293 295 298 300 3. Match clearance in vertical column with present shim size in horizontal column. [ EXAMPLE ] Tappet clearance is -0.35 mm Present shim size -2.40 mm Shim size to be used -2.50 mm Fig. 222 Intake valve tappet shim selection chart -90/115/140 hp motors TION CHART [EX. side] 1. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold". 2. Measure present shim size. 3. Match clearance in vertical column with present shim size In horizontal column. [ EXAMPLE ] Tappet clearance is -0.40 mm Present shim size -2.40 mm Shim size to be used -2.50 mm Fia. 223 Exhaust valve tannet shim selection chart -90/115/140 ho motors various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the valve clearance for each valve. 19. Compare the clearances with the Valve Clearance Specifications chart in this section. 20. If incorrect valve clearance is noted, substitute the proper sized shim, determined as follows: a. If valve clearance is greater than spec, subtract the valve clearance specification (using the dead middle of the range) listed in the specification chart from the measured clearance. Obtain a replacement shim, that much thicker than the current shim. b. If valve clearance is less than specification, subtract the measured clearance from the valve clearance specification (again, using the dead middle of the range) listed in the chart. Obtain a replacement shim that much smaller than the original. Alternately you can use the accompanying shim selection charts (one for Intake and one for Exhaust since the soecifications are different for each) in order to choose the appropriate replacement shim. For example, say you measured a clearance of 0.46mm for an intake valve, and the current shim for that valve is a 2.40mm (marked 240). First look down the left outer column to locate the row for 0.46mm (it is the 10th row down, marked 0.43-0.47mm). Next look across the top for the 240 shim (2.40mm), it is the 10th column over from the left. Follow the column down to the point where it intersects with the 0.43-0.47mm row and you'll find that the proper new shim would be marked 260 for 2.6mm. You can also tell from the chart that replacement shims are available from 218 (2.18mm) to 300 (3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.02mm or 0.03mm. 21. If shim replacement is necessary to obtain the proper valve lash use a bridge-type tappet holder tool (such as #09916-69310) as follows: a. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip for the selected valve is opposite the tappet (facing out, 180' away from the tappet). b. Carefully rotate the tappet within its bore until the notch is facing toward the opposite camshaft (the center of the cylinder head). The notch must be accessible for tappet shim removal. c. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the tappet shim (opening the valve and creating room for the tool). Remove the bolts from the camshaft cap next to the selected valve. d. Place the tappet retainer over the camshaft cap. In some cases, the end of the retainer is marked either IN (for intake) or EX (for exhaust) and the appropriate end must face inward toward the center of the cylinder head (toward the notch on the tappet from which the shim will be removed). Thread the camshaft cap bolts through the retainer and the camshaft cap. Tighten the bolts securely, ensuring the fingers of the tool contact the barrel portion of the tappet and not the shim itself. e. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip rotates 90' away from the tappet. Use a small magnet to grab and remove the shim. If absolutely necessary, insert a screwdriver (with tape covering the blade to prevent scoring or damage) into the tappet notch and carefully pry the shim from the tappet, then use the magnet to pull the shim from the tappet. DO NOT use your fingers. DO NOT let your fingers get between the camshaft and tappet at any time, as they could be crushed if the tool or camshaft suddenly shifted. f. Measure the shim thickness using a micrometer. Shims are available in sizes from 0.086-0.118 in. (2.18-3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.00078 in. (0.02mm) or 0.00118 in (0.03mm). Select the correct shim thickness as described earlier. @ On new shims, the thickness can be identified by the number present on the shim's face, divided by 100. Move the decimal point 2 places to the left and you've got your size. For example a new shim labeled 258 on the face is 2.58mm thick. The label can only be trusted on new shims, which have not been in service, as normal wear during service might change shim thickness overtime. g. Place the selected shim into the tappet with the numbered side facing down TOWARD the tappet. h. Make sure the shim seats fully against the step within the tappet, then rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the shim (pushing the tappet downward and taking the load off the tappet holder tool so it can be safely removed. Loosen and remove the bolts from the camshaft cap and tappet retainer. i Carefully pull the retainer from the cap, then install camshaft cap bolts and tighten evenly to 104.4 inch lbs.18.7 ft. Ibs. (12 Nm). 22. Repeat for each of the valves whose lash was noted out of specification. Once you are finished with any shim changes, recheck the clearance for that valve. And once you are finished with all valve clearance checks, reset the powerhead to No. 1 TDC to ease fuel pump installation. 23. Install a new valve cover gasket with integral spark plug bore O-rings on the underside mating surface of the valve cover. 24. Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B or equivalent, to the top and bottom horizontal lines of the cylinder head (along the gasket mating surface). 25. Install the cover to the cylinder head making sure the spark plug port O-rings are not dislodged when you are seating it, then install and tighten the cover bolts using the torque sequence (which is essentially a crossing pattern that starts at the center and works outward) to 96 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm). 26. Reconnect the various wiring plates, components and wiring connectors as tagged during removal (including the OCV valve on 175 hp motors, using a NEW gasket positioned so the tab is at the upper bolt on the port side and tighten the bolts to 104.4 inch lbs.18.7 ft. lbs.112 Nm, and be sure to install the fuel filter assembly). 27. Install the spark plugs and the ignition coils. 28. Install the fuel pump, flywheel coverlair intake silencer and lower engine covers as detailed in the appropriate procedures. 29. Install the protective cover over the fuel filter assembly and lower portion of the valve cover. 30. Connect the negative battery cable, then connect a flushing device and start the engine to check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 31. Install the engine top case. 200-300 Hp V6 Motors See Figures 198 thru 200,206 thru 208, and 224 thru 227 The 200-300 hp V6 motors utilize replaceable shims to adjust valve clearance. A set of flat feeler gauges is all that is required to check valve clearance. But, if adjustments are necessary, you will need a micrometer for shim measurement, an assortment of shims (or a trip during the procedure to purchase the proper size shims) and Suzuki #09916-69310 or an equivalent tappet holder tool. These motors are LH rotating. That is, they rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE when looking downward at the flywheel. DO NOT turn them in the wrong direction, or you risk damaging the water pump impeller vanes. These motors utilize a dual overhead camshaft arrangement driven by a timing chain and sprockets which are mounted at the BOTTOM of the cylinder. As such, unless the powerhead has been removed for repair, the timing marks on those sprockets are rather useless when it comes to finding TDC and checking valve clearance. Instead, since the camshafts are in plain site (once the cylinder head cover is removed) use them to determine if a given cylinder is on TDC. Actually, whether or not the particular cylinder is on TDC is not important on these motors, and there are enough valves/cylinders that trying to keep track of that would be un-necessarily complicated. Instead, think only about camshaft position. Check EACH valve only when the camshaft lobe is facing directly AWAY (180') FROM the tappet. Rotate the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE as necessary to rotate the camshafts, and continue to check each valve in succession until you have checked them all. Valve specifications are for an overnight cold engine. It is best to check and/or adjust the valves with the powerhead at approximateiy 2GCC\6SLF1. 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the lower engine covers as described in this section. 3. Remove the ignition coils (as detailed in the Ignition and Electrical System section) and the spark plugs (as detailed in this section). 4. Remove the air intake silencer/flywheel cover assembly, as detailed in the Fuel System section. 5. On 200-250 hp motors, remove the collector assembly, as detailed under Throttle Body and Intake Manifold Assemblies in the Fuel System section. 6. Remove components from the port side cylinder head cover as follows: a. On 200-250 hp motors, tag and disconnect the wiring for the exhaust manifold (EM) temperature sensor found on top of the cylinder bank, then remove the nearly bolt for the wiring harness clamp plate. Also on these models, tag and disconnect the wiring for the cylinder temperature (CT) sensor, also on top of the cylinder bank, near the EM temp sensor connector. b. On 250 and 300 hp motors, tag and disconnect the wiring for the exhaust camshaft position sensor (EX CMP) and intake camshaft position sensor (IN CMP), then remove the bolt securing the wire plate. These sensors will be found on top of the cylinder bank. c. On 300 hp motors, disconnect the PCV valve from the upper corner of the cylinder head cover (right between the aforementioned camshaft position sensors). d. On 250 and 300 hp motors (which are the models which should be equipped with Variable Valve TimingNVT), tag and disconnect the wiring at the oil control valve (OCV) for the VVT which is found at the base of the cylinder head cover. Remove the 4 bolts securing the valve to the cover, then remove the valve and discard the gasket (but note the gasket tab positioning before doing so). e. On 300 hp motors there should be one more wire clamp plate to remove, on the valve cover right above where the OCV assembly mounts. 7. Remove components from the starboard side cylinder head cover as follows: a. On 200-250 hp motors, tag and disconnect the wiring for the exhaust manifold (EM) temperature sensor found on top of the cylinder head cover. b. On all models, tag and disconnect the wiring from the intake camshaft position sensor (IN CMP) found at the top corner of the cylinder head cover, then remove the wire clamp bolt found at the top center of the cylinder head cover. c. On 250 and 300 hp motors, tag and disconnect the wiring at the oil control valve (OCV) which is found at the base of the cylinder head cover. Remove the 4 bolts securing the valve to the cover, then remove the valve and discard the gasket (but note the gasket tab positioning before doing so). d. On 300 hp motors there should be one more wire clamp plate to remove, on the valve cover a little above where the OCV assembly mounts. 8. Remove the port and starboard cylinder head covers by loosening the 11 bolts on each cover using the reverse of the torque sequence (which basically makes for a crossing pattern that starts at the upper and lower ends of the cover and works its way inward). 9. Remove the cover along with the gasket assembly from the powerhead. Be careful not to damage the cover gasket or integral spark plug O-rings if you have any intention of trying to reuse it. Inspect the gasket for damaged surfaces and replace, if necessary. Suzuki recommends replacing the valve cover gasket with integral spark plug bore O-rings anytime the cover is removed. 10. Rotate the engine COUNTERCLOCKWISE to bring each camshaft and tappet you wish to check into a position where the camshaft lobe is facing DIRECTLY opposite (away from, as in "not pressing on") the valve tappet. Insert feeler gauges of various sizes between the tappet shim and the camshaft lobe. The size gauge that passes between the shim and lobe with a slight drag indicates the valve clearance. Record the clearance for that valve, then rotate the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE as necessary to rotate the camshafts, and continue to check each valve in succession until you have checked and recorded them all. @ There are a LOT of valves on this motor, don't confuse yourself, make up a little chart/diagram showing the name (Intake or Exhaust and cylinder number or number from top) for each bank as represented by positions in a rectangular box that correspond to the actual position of each valve, then fill in the measured values on the diagram as you go. This will make it much harder to confuse yourself, record the wrong value or forget to check one or more of the valves. 11. Compare the clearances with the Valve Clearance Specifications chart in this section. 12. If incorrect valve clearance is noted, substitute the proper sized shim, determined as follows: a. If valve clearance is greater than spec, subtract the valve clearance specification (using the dead middle of the range) listed in the specification chart from the measured clearance. Obtain a replacement shim, that much thicker than the current shim. b. If valve clearance is less than specification, subtract the measured clearance from the valve clearance specification (again, using the dead middle of the ranae) listed in the chart. Obtain a reolacement shim that much smaller than the original. B Alternately you can use the accompanying shim selection charts in order to choose the appropriate replacement shim. For example, say you measured a clearance of 0.46mm on an intake valve, and the current shim is a 2.60mm (marked 260). First look down the left outer column to locate the row for 0.46mm (it is the 10th row down, marked 0.43-0.47mm). Next look across the top for the 260 shim (2.60mm), it is the 18th column over from the left. Follow the column down to the point where it intersects with the 0.43-0.47mm row and you'll find that the proper new shim would be marked 280 for 2.8mm. You can also tell from the chart that replacement shims are available from 218 (2.18mm) to 300 (3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.02mm or 0.03mm. 13. If shim replacement is necessary to obtain the proper valve lash use a bridge-type tappet holder tool (such as #09916-69310) as follows: a. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip for the selected valve is opposite the tappet (facing out, 180' away from the tappet). Apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B to the Fig. 224 Port and Starboard valve cover torque sequences -200-head at the gasket mating surfaces at the bottom of each 300 hp V6 motors 1. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold. 2. Measure present shim size. 3. Match clearance in vertical column with present shim size in horizontal column. [ EXAMPLE ] Tappet clearance is -0.35 rnm Present shim size -2.40 rnm Shim size to be used -2.50 rnrn Fig. 226 Intake valve tappet shim selection chart -200-300 hp V6 motors 255258 260 2631265 268 270 273 275 278 980 283 285 288 290 1 -1 293p J298pl 260 263 285 2681270 273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 295 298300 I. Measure tappet clearance "Engine cold" 0.65 -0.69 I250 2531255 258 2601263 265 268 270 2731275 278 260'283 285 288 280293 295 296 300 2. Measure present shim size. 3. Match clearance in vertical column with 0.70-0.74 255 25a1260 26312652.58 270 273 275 278280 283 285 288 290293 295 298 300 present shim size in horizontal column. [ EXAMPLE] Tappet clearance is -0.40 mm Present shim size -2.40 rnrn Shim size to be used -2.48 mm =ig.227 Exhaust valve tappet shim selection chart -200-300 hp V6 motors b. Carefully rotate the tappet within its bore until the notch is facing toward the opposite camshaft (the center of the cylinder head). The notch must be accessible for tappet shim removal. c. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the tappet shim (opening the valve and creating room for the tool). Remove the bolts from the camshaft cap next to the selected valve. d. Place the tappet retainer over the camshaft cap. In some cases, the end of the retainer is marked either IN (for intake) or EX (for exhaust) and the appropriate end must face inward toward the center of the cylinder head (toward the notch on the tappet from which the shim will be removed). Thread the camshaft cap bolts through the retainer and the camshaft cap. Tighten the bolts securely, ensuring the fingers of the tool contact the barrel portion of the tappet and not the shim itself. e. Rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip rotates 90 away from the tappet. Use a small magnet to grab and remove the shim. If absolutely necessary, insert a screwdriver (with tape covering the blade to prevent scoring or damage) into the tappet notch and carefully pry the shim from the tappet, then use the magnet to pull the shim from the tappet. DO NOT use your fingers. DO NOT let your fingers get between the camshaft and tappet at any time, as they could be crushed if the tool or camshaft suddenly shifted. f. Measure the shim thickness using a micrometer. Shims are available in sizes from 0.086-0.118 in. (2.18-3.0mm) in varying increments of either 0.00078 in. (0.02mm) or 0.00118 in (0.03mm). Select the correct shim thickness as described earlier. W On new shims, the thickness can be identified by the number present on the shim's face, divided by 100. Move the decimal point 2 places to the left and you've got your size. For example a new shim labeled 258 on the face is 2.58mm thick. The label can only be trusted on new shims, which have not been in service, as normal wear during service might change shim thickness overtime. See Figure 228 Taking extra time to store the boat and motor properly at the end of each season or before any extended period of storage will greatly increase the chances of satisfactory service at the next season. Remember, that next to hard use on the water, the time spent in storage can be the greatest enemy of an outboard motor. Ideally, outboards should be used regularly. If weather in your area allows it, don't store the motor, enjoy it. Use it, at least on a monthly basis. It's best to enjoy and service the boat's steering and shifting mechanism several times each month. If a small amount of time is spent in such maintenance, the reward will be satisfactory performance, increased longevity and greatly reduced maintenance expenses. But, in many cases, weather or other factors will interfere with time for enjoying a boat and motor. If you must place them in storage, take time to properly winterize the boat and outboard. This will be your best shot at making time stand still for them. For many years there was a widespread belief simply shutting off the fuel at the tank and then running the powerhead until it stops constituted prepping the motor for storage. Right? Well, WRONG! First, it is not possible to remove all fuel in the carburetor or fuel injection system by operating the powerhead until it stops. Considerable fuel will remain trapped in the float chamber and other passages, especially in the lines leading to carburetors. The only guaranteed method of removing all fuel is to take the physically drain the carburetors from the float bowls. On EFI systems, disassemblin~ the fuel injection components to drain the fuel is impractical (and really not necessary) so properly mixing fuel stabilizer becomes that much more imoortant. Actually, these days most manufacturers recommend prepping their motors (even carbureted) using g. Place the selected shim into the tappet with the numbered side facing down TOWARD the tappet. h. Make sure the shim seats fully against the step within the tappet, then rotate the flywheel counterclockwise one half revolution or until the camshaft lobe tip contacts the shim (pushing the tappet downward and taking the load off the tappet holder tool so it can be safely removed. Loosen and remove the bolts from the camshaft cap and tappet retainer. i Carefully pull the retainer from the cap, then install camshaft cap bolts and tighten evenly to 104.4 inch lbs.18.7 ft. Ibs. (12 Nm). 14. Repeat for each of the valves whose lash was noted out of specification. Once you are finished with any shim changes, recheck the clearance for that valve. 15. Install the port and starboard cylinder head covers using a new gasket. Before installation, apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1207B to the cylinder head at the gasket mating surfaces at the bottom of each head. Coat the head-to-cover gasket mating surface from the lower cover retaining bolt web on one side, all the way across and up to the lower bolt web on the other side of the head. One some models (like the 300 hp motors) the port side cylinder head uses a dowel pin right above and slightly to the side of the top spark plug port. If used, make sure any dowel pins are In position before the cover is installed. 16. Install the valve cover retaining bolts and tighten using the proper torque sequence (a crossing pattern that starts and the center and works outward) to 104.4 inch lbs.18.7 ft. Ibs. (12 Nm) on 200-250 hp motors or to 96 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm) on 300 hp motors. 17. Install the wiring, wire retainer plates and any other components that were removed from the valve cover assemblies. On 250 and 300 hp motors (i.e. any models with VVT), install the OCV assembly to the base of each valve cover using a new gasket. MAKE SURE to position the gasket so the tab is at the upper left side bolt when looking at the valve cover. Tighten the OCV retaining bolts to 104.4 inch lbs.18.7 ft. Ibs. (12 Nm). 18. On 200-250 hp motors, install the collector assembly. 19. Install air intake silencer and flywheel cover assembly. 20. Install the spark plugs and ignition coils. 21. Connect the negative battery cable, then connect a flushing device and start the engine to check for oil leaks at the rocker arm cover mating surfaces. 22. install the engine top case. Fig. 228 Add fuel stabilizer to the system anytime it will be stored without complete draining fuel stabilizer as opposed to draining the fuel system, but on carbureted motors, you always have the option. Proper storage involves adequate protection of the unit from physical damage, rust, corrosion and dirt. The following steps provide an adequate maintenance program for storing the unit at the end of a season. PREPPING FOR STORAGE Where to Store Your Boat and Motor Ok, a well lit, locked, heated garage and work area is the best place to store you precious boat and motor, right? Well, we're probably not the only ones who wish we had access to a place like that, but if you're like most of us, we place our boat and motor wherever we can. Of course, no matter what storage limitations are placed by where you live or how much space you have available, there are ways to maximize the storage site. If possible, select an area that is dry. Covered is great, even if it is under a carport or sturdy portable structure designed for off-season storage. Many people utilize canvas and metal frame structures for such purposes. If you've got room in a garage or shed, that's even better. If you've got a heated garage, God bless you, when can we come over? If you do have a garage or shed that's not heated, an insulated area will help minimize the more extreme temperature variations and an attached garage is usually better than a detached for this reason. Just take extra care to make sure you've properly inspected the fuel system before leaving your boat in an attached garage for any amount of time. If a storage area contains large windows, mask them to keep sunlight off the boat and motor otherwise, use a high-quality, canvas cover over the boat, motor and if possible, the trailer too. A breathable cover is best to avoid the possible build-up of mold or mildew, but a heavy duty, non-breathable cover will work too. If using a non-breathable cover, place wooden blocks or length's of 2 x 4 under various reinforced spots in the cover to hold it up off the boat's surface. This should provide enough room for air to circulate under the cover, allowing for moisture to evaporate and escape. Whenever possible, avoid storing your boat in industrial buildings or parks areas where corrosive emissions may be present. The same goes for storing your boat too close to large bodies of saltwater. Hey, on the other hand, if you live in the Florida Keys, we're jealous again, just enjoy it and service the boat often to prevent corrosion from causing damage. Finally, when picking a place to store your motor, consider the risk or damage from fire, vandalism or even theft. Check with your insurance agent regarding coverage while the boat and motor is stored. The Great Ethanol Debate As of this authoring, ethanol has been in use around the US and in various places in the world for quite some time. Truth is that decades ago manufacturers made changes to most fuel system components to make them less or non-susceotible to the affects of alcohol. HOWEVER. in late 2005learly 2006 when Ethanol was suddenly introduced to large areas of the US where it had previously been absent, a few new problems were noted. Ethanol can act like a solvent and in doing so it can clean away deposits in a fuel system that had previously hardened and stuck to component. The biggest concern would be for large fuel supplies (like fuel tanks) where a repeated pattern of evaporation over the years allowed large amounts of deposits to stick to component walls. Suddenly introducing ethanol to this environment, and allowing it to sit in the tank over a winter or longer, gives it time to reconstitute many of these deposits in a manner that they can be drawn into the fuel supply when the motor is taken out of storage, clogging filters or worse, contaminating carburetors or injection systems. Ethanol hasn't seemed to cause this problem in markets where it has already been common for long periods of time and the thought is that it's constant use over the years have prevented deposits from sticking (literally) around. Basically the Ethanol was essentially scrubbing the fuel systems clean in those markets, keeping them from developing enough deposits to clog the system all at once. There is a potential enzymatic solution to ethanol cleaning old fuel tanks and creating sludge/particulates in the form of a fuel treatment from Starbrite called StarTron. Pur~ortedlv StarTron was develo~ed in Japan for use in extremely high-volume industrial equipment that could not economically be shut down in order to replace filters. As such, it uses enzymes to break down the particulates to a size small enough to not only pass through filters, but to harmlessly pass through carburetors or injectors for burning. Though we haven't personally tested this product yet, it comes with high recommendations from a company in which we have some faith, so we are optimistic. Also a problem is the fact that Ethanol can attack and break down the resins used to make Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) gas tanks, both creating contaminated fueland causing a weakening of the tank structure which can lead to leaks. Similarly. Ethanol will. over time, SLOWLY corrode an aluminum tank leading to leaks as well. If a boat you are storing contains an FRP tank and only Ethanol fuel is available in your area, you are going to have to look into replacing the tank and you should probably consider doing this before it becomes a problem. NOT ALL plastic tanks are made of FRP, so don't go replacing a tank until you talk to the boatltank manufacturer to confirm the materials used on the boatltank in question. For aluminum tanks, we'd recommend storing the tank as empty to greatly reduce the amount of time that the tank is exposed to ethanol (basically, don't give it all winter to allow the ethanol to slowly attack the tank structure). Another potential problem with Ethanol is that it has the unique ability (compared to other additives found in fuel) to bond with both fuel and water. The result is that where water would normally sit separate from the fuel in a contaminated system (where the water and fuel could be drawn off individually), water will instead mix with fuel containing ethanol which can lead to a greatly reduced ability to support combustion (to the point where an engine cannot run). In the past we've recommended that it was a wash (six of one, half a dozen of the other) whether or not you stored your fuel tank FULL or EMPTY with regards to the amount of moisture that might enter the system from condensation. However, that was when the moisture might be drawn off from a full tank IF it got that bad. We don't think people are as willing today to risk 20, 50 or 100 gallons of fuel become contaminated with water and have changed our position. We think it is probably smarter to store the fuel tank as EMPTY as possible, and then in spring prior to refilling the tank to use a siphon or primer bulb to draw off any water which has condensed over the storage period. Of course, these are the best current recommendations that we can offer, and this is likely a rapidly changing topic, so we also recommend asking around for other recommendations and solutions as time continues to go by. Storage Checklist (Preparing the Boat and Motor) See Figures 228 thru 232 The amount of time spent and number of steps followed in the storage procedure will vary with factors such as the length of planed storage time, the conditions under which boat and motor are to be stored and your personal decisions regarding storage. But, even considering the variables, plans can chanae (we know this from personal experience), so be careful if you decide to perform only the minimal amount of oreoaration. A boat and motor that has been thorouohlv oreoared " , 0 L for storagecab remain so with minimum adverse affects for as short or long a time as is reasonably necessary. The same cannot be said for a boat or motor on which important winterization steps were skipped. B Always store a Suzuki motor vertically on the boat or on a suitable engine stand. Do not lay a 4-stroke motor down for any length of time, as engine oil may seep past the rings causing extreme smoking upon startup. At best, burning that oil will promote spark plug and combustion chamber fouling, at worst it could cause a partial hydro- lock condition that could even mechanically damage the powerhead. A few words about fuel treatment a Using fuel stabilizer toward the end of the season is probably one of the best things you can do to pre-prepare for storage. As your season draws to a close begin adding fuel stabilizer to the tank with every fill- up and you'll be part way there when it comes time to winterize, 1. Thoroughly wash the boat motor and hull. Be sure to remove all traces of dirt, debris or marine life. Check the water stream fitting and water inlet(s). If equipped, inspect the speedometer opening at the leading edge oi the gearcase or any other gearcase drains for debris (clean debris with a compressed air or a piece of thin wire). 2. Stabilize the engine's fuel supply using a high quality fuel stabilizer and take this opportunity to thoroughly flush the engine cooling system at the same time as follows: a. For ALL motors follow the instructions on the fuel conditioner and add an appropriate amount of fuel treatment for the amount of fuel in the fuel tank or being added to the fuel tank. (Or hopefully, you've already done this by using the treatment regularly toward the end of season, and if so you may not need to add anymore at this time). b. Attach a flushing fitting as a cooling water/flushing source. For details, please refer to the information on Flushing the Cooling System, in this section. c. Start and run the enaine at a fast idle for a~oroximatelv 5 minutes on 30 hp and smaller models orat least 10 minutes o'i40 hp and larger models. This will ensure the entire fuel supply system contains the appropriate storage mixtures. d. Stop the engine, keeping the outboard perfectly vertical. Allow the cooling system to drain completely, especially if the outboard might be exposed to freezing temperatures during storage. Leave the flush fitting in place since you will need to run the motor again for fogging andlor to distribute fresh engine oil after it is changed. Fig. 229 Flush the motor. .. NEVER keep the outboard tilted when storing in below-freezing temperatures as water could remain trapped in the cooling system. Any water left in cooling passages might freeze and could cause severe engine damage by cracking the powerhead or gearcase. 3. Drain and refill the engine gearcase while the oil is still warm (for details, refer to the Gearcase Oil procedures in this section). Take the opportunity to inspect for problems now, as storage time should allow you the opportunity to replace damaged or defective seals. More importantly, remove the old, contaminated gear oil now and place the motor into storage with fresh oil to help prevent internal corrosion. 4. Drain the engine crankcase oil while it is still warm. Replace the oil filter. Refill the crankcase and gearcase with fresh oil (for details, refer to the Oil and Filter Change procedures in this section). On any motor that you do not plan on running for fogging, start and run the motor again, but only for a few minutes to evenly distribute the fresh oil across internal bearing surfaces. Besides treating the fuel system to prevent evaporation or clogging from deposits left behind, coating all bearing surfaces in the motor with FRESH, clean oil is the most important step you can take to protect the engine from damage during storage. NEVER leave the engine filled with used oil, which likely contains moisture and acids or other damaging byproducts of combustion that will damage engine bearings over time. 5. Fog the motors using one of the following methods (as desired): a. The engine can be fogged by spraying the can of fogging oil either down the carburetor or throttle body throat(s) while the motor is running. Although this method is relatively affective, especially for single carblthrottle body motors, it can be difficult to do properly on multi-cylinder, multi- carburetorlthrottle body units (unless you have a couple of extra hands and one can of spray per throat). If desired, make sure the cooling water source is connected, then follow the instructions on the can of fogging oil. Usually you run the motor at idle and spray heavily in to the throat(s) until you either shut the motor off or the oil causes it to choke and die on its own. BE CAREFUL with spray cans that use a small plastic applicator tube, don't blow the tube off and down into the carblthrottle body. Even if a motor is fogged while running, it is a good idea to follow the steps of the non-running fogging procedure JUST to be certain you've thoroughly protected the cylinders. Actually, a combination of both methods is desired, as spraying through the carb or throttle body will coat the intake passages, and spraying directly into the cylinders will make sure all surfaces in the combustion chamber are coated. Better safe than seized, we always say! Fia. 230 . . .and on most models it's a aood idea to manually fog it through the spark Fig. 231 For all motors, store vertically so Fig. 232 If possible, block up the trailer plug ports the cooling system drains during storage I I b. To fog the cylinders directly through the spark plug ports, remove the spark plugs as described earlier in this section. Spray a generous amount of fogging oil into the spark plug ports. Turn the flywheel slowly by hand (in the normal direction of rotation which is Clockwise on most models, EXCEPT the left-hand rotation motors covered here, which are the 90-300 hp motors, which normally rotate Counterclockwise) to distribute the fogging oil evenly across the cylinder walls. On electric start models, the starter can be used to crank the motor over in a few short bursts, but make sure the spark plugs leads remain disconnected and grounded to the powerhead (away from the spark plug ports) to prevent accidental combustion (on EFI cranking is not really the best idea, since unless the fuel pump is disabled the injectors will spray fuel, washing away some of the fogging oil). If necessary, re-spray into each cylinder when that cylinder's piston reaches the bottom of its travel. Reinstall and tighten the spark plugs, but leave the leads disconnected to prevent further attempts at starting until the motor is ready for re- commissioning. On motors equipped with a rope start handle, the rope can be used to turn the motor slowly and carefully using the rope starter. For other models, turn the flywheel by hand or using a suitable tool, but be sure to ALWAYS turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation. 6. For models equipped with portable fuel tanks, disconnect and relocate them to a safe, well-ventilated, storage area, away from the motor. Drain any fuel lines that remain attached to the tank. 7. Remove the battery or batteries from the boat and store in a cool dry place. If possible, place the battery on a smart charger or Battery Tender(r), otherwise, trickle charge the battery once a month to maintain proper charge. Remember that the electrolyte in a discharged battery has a much lower freezing point and is more likely to freeze (crackingldestroying the battery case) when stored for long periods in areas exposed to freezing temperatures. Although keeping the battery charged offers one level or protection against freezing; the other is to store the battery in a heated or protected storage area. 8. For models equipped with a boat mounted fuel filter or filterlwater canister, clean or replace the boat mounted fuel filter at this time. If the fuel system was treated, the engine mounted fuel filters should be left intact, so the sealed system remains filled with treated fuel during the storage period. 9. For any motors equipped with a gearcase speedometer pickup, disconnect the speedometer hose from the upper most connector (usually up near the lower engine cowling, where the cables/hoses pass through into the cowling) and blow all water from the gearcase speedometer pickup. If compressed air is available, use less than 25 psi (167 kPa) of air pressure in order to prevent damage to the system. 10. Perform a complete lubrication service following the procedures in this section. 11. Remove the propeller and check thoroughly for damage. Clean the propeller shaft and apply a protective coating of grease. Refer to the procedure in this section. 12. Check the motor for loose, broken or missing fasteners. Tighten fasteners and, again, use the storage time to make any necessary repairs. 13. Inspect and repair all electrical wiring and connections at this time. Make sure nothing was damaged during the season's use. Repair any loose connectors or any wires with broken, cracked or otherwise damaged insulation. 14. Clean all components under the engine CGvci and apply a corrosion preventative spray. 15. Too many people forget the boat and trailer, don't be one of them. a. Coat the boat and outside painted surfaces of the motor with a fresh coating of wax, then cover it with a breathable cover b. If possible place the trailer on stands or blocks so the wheels are supported off the ground. c. Check the air pressure in the trailer tires. If it hasn't been done in a while, remove the wheels to clean and repack the wheel bearings. 16. Sleep well, since you know that your baby will be ready for you come next season. REMOVAL FROM STORAGE SY See Figures 233,234 and 235 The amount of service required when re-commissioning the boat and motor after storage depends on the length of non-use, the thoroughness of the storage procedures and the storage conditions. At minimum, a thorough spring or pre-season tune-up and a full lubrication service is essential to getting the most out of your engine. If the engine has been properly winterized, it is usually no problem to get it in top running condition again in the springtime. If the engine has just been put in the garage and forgotten for the winter, then it is doubly important to perform a complete tune-up before putting the engine back into service. If you have ever been stranded on the water because your engine has died and you had to suffer the embarrassment of having to be towed back to the marina you know how it can be a miserable experience. Now is the time to prevent that from occurring. Take the opportunity to perform any annual maintenance procedures that were not conducted immediately prior to placing the motor into storage. If the motor was stored for more than one off-season, pay special attention to inspection procedures, especially those regarding hoses and fittings. Check the engine gear oil for excessive moisture contamination. The same goes for engine crankcase oil. If not done before storage or if the motor has been in storage too long (read that as more than one winter), change the gearcase or engine oil to be certain no bad or contaminated fluids are used. Although not absolutely necessary, it is a good idea to ensure optimum cooling system operation by replacing the water pump impeller at this time. Other items that require attention include: 1. Install the battery (or batteries) if so equipped. 2. Inspect all wiring and electrical connections. Rodents have a knack for feasting on wiring harness insulation over the winter. If any signs of Fig. 235 We know you're anxious to enjoy the weather, but don't rush and forget Fig. 233 Start and test run the motor Fig. 234 DON'T FORGET THE PLUG! something important rodent life are found, check the wiring carefully for damage, do not start the motor until damaged wiring has been fixed or replaced. 3. If not done when placing the motor into storage clean and/or replace the fuel filters at this time. This is usually the case on EFI motors, as the filters are often not replaced before filling the system with the storage fuel mixture. 4. If the fuel tank was emptied, or if it must be emptied because the fuel is stale check and make sure it doesn't contain any water (if necessary siphon any water out), then fill the tank with fresh fuel. Keep in mind that even fuel that was treated with stabilizer will eventually become stale, especially if the tank is stored for more than one off-season. Pump the primer bulb and check for fuel leakage or flooding at the carburetor or vapor separator tank. For EFI motors, pressurize the high pressure fuel circuit Unfortunately, because an outboard is mounted on the exposed transom of a boat, and many of the outboards covered here are portable units that are mounted and removed on a regular basis, an outboard can fall overboard. Ok, it's relatively rare, but it happens often enough to warrant some coverage here. The best way to deal with such a situation is to prevent it, by keeping a watchful eye on the engine mounting hardware (bolts and/or clamps). But, should it occur, here's how to salvage, service and enjoy the motor again. In order to prevent severe damage, be sure to recover an engine that is dropped overboard or otherwise completely submerged as soon as possible. It is really best to recover it immediately. But, keep in mind that once a submerged motor is recovered exposure to the atmosphere will allow corrosion to begin etching highly polished bearing surfaces of the crankshaft, connecting rods and bearings. For this reason, not only do you have to recover it right away, but you should service it right away too. Make sure the motor is serviced within 3 hours of initial submersion. OK, maybe now you're saying "3 hours, it will take me that long to get it to a shop or to my own garage." Well, if the engine cannot be serviced immediately (or sufficiently serviced so it can be started), re-submerge it in a tank of fresh water to minimize exposure to the atmosphere and slow the corrosion process. Even if you do this, do not delay any more than absolutely necessary, service the engine as soon as possible. This is especially important if the engine was submerged in salt, brackish or polluted water as even submersion in fresh water will not preserve the engine indefinitely. Service the engine, at the MOST within a few days of protective submersion. After the engine is recovered, vigorously wash all debris from the engine using pressurized freshwater. If the engine was submerged while still running, there is a good chance of internal damage (such as a bent connecting rod). Under these circumstances, don't start the motor, follow the beginning of this procedure to try turning it over slowly by hand, feeling for mechanical problems. If necessary, refer to Powerhead Overhaul for complete disassembly and repair instructions. R try to start a recovered motor until at least the first few steps nes dealing with draining the motor and checking to see it if is hydro-locked or damaged) are performed. Keep in mind that attempting to start a hydro-locked motor could cause major damage to the If the motor was submerged for any length of time it should be thoroughly disassembled and cleaned. Of course, this depends on whether water intruded into the motor or not. To determine this check the crankcase oil (on 4-strokes), and check the gearcase oil (on all motors) for signs of contamination. turning the ignition on (and listening to verify that the fuel pump runs for a few seconds). Inspect the fuel rail and fittings under the engine top case for leaks. 5. Attach a flush device or place the outboard in a test tank and start the engine. Run the engine at idle speed and warm it to normal operating temperature. Check for proper operation of the cooling, electrical and warning systems. Before putting the boat in the water, take time to verify the drain plug is installed. Countless number of spring boating excursions have had a very sad beginning because the boat was eased into the water only to have the boat begin to fill with it. The extent of cleaning and disassembly that must take place depends also on the tvue of water in which the enaine was submeraed. Enaines totally submerged, for even a short length of time, in salt, brackishor polluted water will require more thorough servicing than ones submerged in fresh water for the same length of time. But, as the total length of submerged time or time before service increases, even engines submerged in fresh water will require more attention. Complete powerhead disassembly and inspection is required when sand, silt or other gritty material is found inside the engine cover. Many engine components suffer the corrosive effects of submersion in salt, brackish or polluted water. The symptoms may not occur for some time after the event. Salt crystals will form in areas of the engine and promote significant corrosion. Electrical components should be dried and cleaned or replaced, as necessary. If the motor was submerged in salt water, the wire harness and connections are usually affected in a shorter amount of time. Since it is difficult (or nearly impossible) to remove the salt crystals from the wiring connectors, it is best to replace the wire harness and clean all electrical component connections. The starter motor, relays and switches on the engine usually fail if not thoroughly cleaned or replaced. To ensure a thorough cleaning and inspection: 1. Remove the enaine cover and wash all material from the enaine using pressurized freshwater. If sand, silt or gritty material is present inside the engine cover, completely disassemble and inspect the powerhead. 2. Tag (except on single cylinder motors) and disconnect the spark plugs leads. Be sure to grasp the spark plug cap and not the wire, then twist the cap while pulling upward to free it from the plug. Remove the spark plugs. For more details, refer to the Spark Plug procedure in this section. 3. Disconnect the fuel supply line from the engine, then drain and clean all fuel lines. Depending on the circumstances surrounding the submersion, inspect the fuel tank for contamination and drain, if necessary. When attempting to turn the flywheel for the first time after the submersion, be sure to turn it SLOWLY, feeling for sticking or binding that could indicate internal damage from hydro-lock. This is a concern, especially if the engine was cranked before the spark plug(s) were removed to drain water or if the engine was submerged while still running. 4. Support the engine horizontally with the spark plug port(s) facing downward, allowing water, if present, to drain. Force any remaining the water out by slowly rotating the flywheel by hand about 20 times or until there are no signs of water. If there signs of water are present, spray some fogging oil into the spark plug ports before turning the flywheel. This will help dislodge moisture and lubricate the cylinder walls. 5. On carbureted models, drain the carburetor(s). The best method to thoroughly drainlclean the carburetor is to remove and disassemble it. For details refer to the Carburetor procedures under Fuel System. -84 MAINT 6. Support the engine in the normal upright position. Check the engine aearcase oil for contamination. Refer to the urocedures for Gearcase Oil in this section. The gearcase is sealed and, if the seals are in good condition, should have survived the submersion without contamination. But, if contamination is found, look for possible leaks in the seals, then drain the gearcase and make the necessary repairs before refilling it. For more details, refer to the section on Gearcases. 7. Drain the crankcase engine oil and change the filter. Refer to the procedures in this section. if contaminated oil drains from the crankcase, flush the crankcase using a quart or two of fresh four-stroke engine oil (by pouring it into the motor as normal, but allowing it to drain as well) before refilling the crankcase. 8. Remove all external electrical components for disassembly and cleaning. Spray all connectors with electrical contact cleaner, then apply a small amount of dielectric grease prior to reconnection to help prevent corrosion. For electric start models, remove, disassemble and clean the starter components. For details on the electrical system components, refer to the Ignition and Electrical section. 9. Reassemble the motor and mount the engine or place it in a test tank. Start and run the engine for 112 hour. If the engine won't start, remove the spark plugs again and check for signs of moisture on the tips. If necessary, use compressed air to clean moisture from the electrodes or replace the plugs. 10. Stop the engine, then recheck the gearcase oil and engine crankcase oil. 11. Perform all other lubrication services. 12. Try not to let it get away from you (or anyone else) again! 1bc: 1 barrel carburetor AH: Amp Hours MC: Manual Choke ECU Cont: Fully transistorized, ECU controlled, battery powered ignition NA: Not applicable ECU Cont Dl: Fully transistorized, ECU controlled, directignition NR: Non-Regulated (equipped with rectifier) EFI: Electronic Fuel Injection R: Rope (normally tiller equipped) EP: Electric or automatic Primer (or choke) RE: Remote Electric Start FR: Fully-Regulated (equipped with regulatorlrectifier) TC: Thermostatically controlled IMP: Impeller pump TE: Tiller Electric Start Mag CD: Magneto Powered Capacitor Discharge UG: Upper gearcase mounted @ The most common, referenced charging system (may be optional on some models, rating shown is minimum) @ Optional @ Optional 120 watt coil available 2.5 I 1 I 2006-07 I 4.2 (68) 12.8 fl. OZ. (380 mL) I 2.0 (60) 8 . . , 1, 4 I 1 I 2002-07 I 8.4 (138) I 24 ft. oz (700 mL) I 6.4 (190) 5 1 1 1 2002-07 1 8.4 (138) I 24 ft. oz (700 mL) 1 6.4 (1 90) 140 I 4 I 2002-07 1 125 (2044) I 6.0 qt. (5.7 L) 1 35.5 (1050) 150 I 4 1 2006-07 1 175 (2867) 1 9.0 at. (8.5 L) 1 37.2 (1100) . . 175 1 4 I 2006-07 1 1 9.0 at. (8.5 L) I 37.2 (1 100) u - <-01 C SK ccccc g g .g .g .g .g .5 -0-0.5 "0.5 CKCCCC 8 8 8 8 88 C^CCCCCK COCOCOCOCOCO 0 MAINTENANCE AND TUN AIR INTAKE SILENCER ..................3.90 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION .............3.90 CAMSHAFT POSITION (CMP) SENSOR ....3.121 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.123 TESTING ............................3.122 CARBURETED FUEL SYSTEM ............3.14 CARBURETOR ........................3.17 COLD START ENRICHMENT (CHOKE OR FUEL PRIMER) .............3.33 DESCRIPTION & OPERATION............3.15 FUEL PUMP ..........................3.29 SPECIFICATIONS......................3.34 TROUBLESHOOTING...................3.16 CARBURETOR .........................3.17 2.5 HP MOTORS .......................3.18 4/56 HP MOTORS .....................3.19 9.9115 HP AND 25 HP V2 MOTORS........3.22 25/30 HP (3-CYL) MOTORS ..............3.25 CLOSED THROTTLE POSITION (CTP) SWITCH .3.133 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.133 TESTING ............................3.133 COLD START ENRICHMENT ..............3.33 CRANKSHAFT POSITION (CKP) SENSOR . . 3.124 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.125 TESTING ............................3.124 DIAGNOSTIC CHARTS ...................3.76 40-140 HP POWERHEADS ...............3.77 150-250 HP POWERHEADS ..............341 300 HP POWERHEADS .................3.85 DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES 40-140 HP EFI MOTORS ................3.42 1501175 HP EFI MOTORS ...............3.43 200-250 HP EFI MOTORS ...............3.44 300 HP EFI MOTORS ...................3.45 READING & CLEARING CODES ..........3.41 ECM PINOUTS & CIRCUIT OPERATING VALUES . 3.47 40150 HP MOTORS .....................3.47 60170 HP MOTORS .....................3.52 90-140 HP MOTORS ....................3.55 150-1 75 HP MOTORS ...................3.58 200-250 HP MOTORS ...................3.63 300 HP MOTORS ......................3.67 EFI SYSTEM RELAY ...................'3-137 ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION (EFI) ......3.35 AIR INTAKE SILENCER & FLAME ARRESTER .3-90 CKP SENSOR ........................3.124 CMP SENSOR ........................3.121 CTP SWITCH .........................3.133 DESCRIPTION & OPERATION............3.35 ECM................................3.127 EFI SYSTEM RELAY ...................3.137 ELECTRONIC THROTTLE VALVE ........3.135 ENGINE DIAGNOSTIC CHARTS ..........3.76 EVAPORATION PURGE VALVE ..........3.136 FUEL RAIL & INJECTORS ..............3.116 FUEL PRESSURE REGULATOR .........3.136 IAC VALVE ...........................3.138 LOW PRESSURE ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP .3-110 LOW PRESSURE MECHANICAL FUEL PUMP . .3.107 MAP SENSOR ........................3.131 MULTI-STAGE INDUCTION COMPONENTS 3-1 36 NEUTRAL (SAFETY) SWITCH ...........3.139 OIL CHANGE REMINDER SYSTEM........3.90 READING & CLEARING CODES ..........3.41 SELF DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM .............3.41 SENSOR & CIRCUIT RESISTANCEIOUTPUT TESTS ...........3.47 SHIFT POSITION SENSOR .............3.141 SPECIFICATIONS .....................3.142 TEMPERATURE SENSORS (CT. EM AND IAT) .3.128 THROTTLE BODY & INTAKE MANIFOLD ...3.94 THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR (TPS) ....3.133 TROUBLESHOOTING...................3.35 VST & HIGH PRESSURE FUEL PUMP ....3.111 VVT OIL CONTROL VALVE ..............3.142 ELECTRONIC THROTTLE VALVE .........3.135 OPERATIONAL CHECKS ...............3.135 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.135 ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM) .......3.127 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.127 FLAME ARRESTER ......................3.90 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION .............3.90 FUEL ..................................3.2 OCTANE RATING .......................3-3 VAPOR PRESSURE .....................3.3 ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS ..............3.3 HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION .............3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ...................3.3 CHECKING FOR STALEICONTAMINATED FUEL .. 3.3 FUEL LINES & FITTINGS .................3.11 SERVICE .............................3.13 TESTING .............................3.11 FUEL PRESSURE REGULATOR ..........3.136 FUEL PUMP ELECTRIC (HIGH) .....................3.111 ELECTRIC (LOW) .....................3.110 MECHANICAL........................3.107 FUEL RAIL & INJECTORS................3.116 EXPLODED VIEWS ....................3.120 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ............3.118 TESTING ............................3.117 FUEL SYSTEM BASICS ...................3.2 SERVICE CAUTIONS ....................3.2 FUEL .................................3.2 FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURIZATION .........3.4 FUEL TANK .............................3.7 SERVICE ..............................3.8 FUEL TANK AND LINES ..................-3-7 FUEL LINES AND FITTINGS ..............3.11 FUEL TANK ............................3.7 IDLE AIR CONTROL (IAC) VALVE .........3.138 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.139 TESTING ............................3.138 INTAKE MANIFOLD (EFI) .................3.94 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION .............3.94 MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR ........................3.131 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.132 TESTING ............................3.132 MULTI-STAGE INDUCTION COMPONENTS .3.136 NEUTRAL (SAFETY) SWITCH ............3.139 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ............3.140 TESTING ............................3.139 OIL CHANGE REMINDER SYSTEM .........3.90 RESETTING ..........................3.90 PRESSURIZING THE FUEL SYSTEM ........3.7 RELIEVING PRESSURE (EFI) ..............3.5 40150 HP EFI MODELS ...................3.5 60170 HP EFI MODELS ...................3.5 9011151140 HP EFI MODELS ..............3.6 1501175 HP EFI MODELS .................3.6 200-300 HP EFI MODELS. ................3.6 SELF DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM ..............3.41 DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES ..........3.42 READING & CLEARING CODES ..........3.41 SENSOR & CIRCUIT RESISTANCEIOUTPUT TESTS ............3.47 ECM PINOUTS & CIRCUIT OPERATING VALUES .3-47 TESTING EFI COMPONENTS ............3.47 SHIFT POSITION SENSOR ..............3.141 SPECIFICATIONS CARBURETOR ........................3.34 EFI .................................3.142 TEMPERATURE SENSORS (CT, EM AND IAT) ...3.128 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.130 TESTING ............................3.129 THROTTLE BODY .......................3.94 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION .............3.94 THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR (TPS) .....3.133 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.135 TESTING ............................3.134 VAPOR SEPARATOR TANK (VST) .........3.111 OVERHAUL ..........................3.115 REMOVAL& INSTALLATION ............3.113 TESTING ............................3.111 VVT OIL CONTROL VALVE ...............3.142 DESCRIPTION& OPERATION...........3.142 REMOVAL & INSTALLATION ............3.142 TESTING ............................3.142 If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. Remember also that EFI motors don't even need to be cranked to spray fuel from an open high-pressure fitting, as the fuel pump will run for a few seconds anytime the key is turned to the ON position. Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged, or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. The carburetion or fuel injection, and the ignition principles of engine operation must be understood in order to perform troubleshoot and repair an outboard motors fuel system or to perform a proper tune-up on carbureted motors. if you have any doubts concerning your understanding of engine operation, it would be best to study The Basic Operating Principles of an engine as detailed under Troubleshooting in General information, Safety & Tools section, before tackling any work on the fuel system. The fuel systems used on engines covered by this manual include single carburetors, multiple single barrel carburetors or electronic fuei injection. The carbureted motors utilize various means of enriching fuel mixture for cold starts, including a manual choke, electric choke, manual primer or electric primer solenoid. Refer to the General Engine System Specifications chart in the Maintenance & Tune-up section for more details as to what systems were commonly used on what motors, but keep in mind that additional systems were available as accessories for most motors (you could usually add an electric primer or electric choke later if you desired or it could have been added during rigging). There is no way around it. Working with gasoline can provide for many different safety hazards and requires that extra caution is used during all steps of service. To protect yourself and others, you must take all necessary precautions against igniting the fuel or vapors (which will cause a fire at best or an explosion at worst). Take extreme care when working with the fuel system. NEVER smoke (it's bad for you anyhow, but smoking during fuel system service could kill you much faster!) or allow flames or sparks in the work area. Flames or sparks can ignite fuel, especially vapors, resulting in a fire at best or an explosion at worst. For starters, disconnect the negative battery cable EVERY time a fuei system hose or fitting is going to be disconnected. It takes only one moment of forgetfulness for someone to crank the motor, possibly causing a dangerous spray of fuel from the opening. This is especially true on the high- pressure fuel circuit of EFI motors, where just turning the key to on will energize the fuel pump. Gasoline contains harmful additives and is quickly absorbed by exposed skin. As an additional precaution, always wear gloves and some form of eye protection (regular glasses help, but only safety glasses can really protect your eyes). B Throughout service, pay attention to ensure that all components, hoses and fittings are installed in the correct location and orientation to prevent the possibility of leakage. Matchmark components before they are removed as necessary. Because of the dangerous conditions that result from working with gasoiine and fuel vapors always take extra care and be sure to follow these guidelines for safety: Keep a Coast Guard-approved fire extinguisher handy when working. Allow the engine to cool completely before opening a fuel fitting. Don't all gasoline to drip on a hot engine. The first thing you must do after removing the engine cover is to check for the presence of gasoline fumes. If strong fumes are present, look for leaking or damage hoses, fittings or other fuel system components and repair. Do not repair the motor or any fuel system component near any sources of ignition, including sparks, open flames, or anyone smoking. Clean up spilled gasoline right away using clean rags. Keep all fuel soaked rags in a metal container until they can be properly disposed of or cleaned. NEVER leave solvent, gasoline or oil soaked rags in the hull. Don't use electric powered tools in the hull or near the boat during fuel system service or after service, until the system is pressurized and checked for leaks. Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. @ See Figure 1 In some ways, fuel recommendations have become more complex as the chemistry of modern gasoline changes. The major driving force behind the many of the changes in gasoline chemistry was the search for additives to replace lead as an octane booster and lubricant. These additives are governed by the types of emissions they produce in the combustion process. Also, the replacement additives do not always provide the same level of combustion stability, making a fuel's octane rating less meaningful. In the 1960's and 1970's, leaded fuel was common. The lead served two functions. First, it served as an octane booster (combustion stabilizer) and second, in 4-stroke engines, it served as a valve seat lubricant. Historically for 2-stroke engines, the primary benefit of lead was to serve as a combustion stabilizer. Lead served very well for this purpose, even in high heat applications. For decades now, all lead has been removed from the refining process. This means that the benefit of lead as an octane booster has been eliminated. Several substitute octane boosters have been introduced in the place of lead. While many are adequate in an automobile engine. most do not perform nearly as well as lead did, even though the octane rating of the fuei is the same. I I OCTANE RATING See Figure 1 A fuel's octane rating is a measurement of how stable the fuel is when heat is introduced. Octane rating is a major consideration when deciding whether a fuel is suitable for a particular application. For example, in an engine, we want the fuel to ignite when the spark plug fires and not before, even under high pressure and temperatures. Once the fuel is ignited, it must burn slowly and smoothly, even though heat and pressure are building up while the burn occurs. The unburned fuel should be ignited by the traveling flame front, not by some other source of ignition, such as carbon deposits or the heat from the expanding gasses. A fuel's octane rating is known as a measurement of the fuel's anti-knock properties (ability for a controlled burn without explosion from heat or compression). Essentially, the octane rating is a measure of a fuel's stability. Usually a fuel with a higher octane rating can be subjected to a more severe combustion environment before spontaneous or abnormal combustion occurs. To understand how two gasoline samples can be different, even though they have the same octane rating, we need to know how octane ratina is determined. The ~merican~ociet~ of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed a universal method of determinina the octane ratina of a fuel sample. The octane rating you see on the pump at a gasoline-station is known as the pump octane number. Look at the small print on the pump. The rating has a formula. The rating is determined by the RtMi2 method. This number is the average of the research octane reading and the motor octane rating. The Research Octane Rating is a measure of a fuel's anti-knock properties under a light load or part throttle conditions. During this test, combustion heat is easily dissipated. * The Motor Octane Rating is a measure of a fuel's anti-knock properties under a heavy load or full throttle conditions, when heat buildup is at maximum. Suzuki recommends using a minimum octane rating of 87 AKO (R+M)i2 or 91 RON for all of these motors. Although they recommend avoiding fuels with ethanol or alcohol IF at all possible, Suzuki also mentions that blends of unleaded gasoline and alcohol with equivalent octane content may be used. VAPOR PRESSURE Fuel vapor pressure is a measure of how easily a fuel sample evaporates. Many additives used in gasoline contain aromatics. Aromatics are light hydrocarbons distilled off the top of a crude oil sample. They are effective at increasing the research octane of a fuel sample but can cause vapor lock (bubbles in the fuel line1 on a verv hot dav. If vou have an inconsistent running engine and you suspect vapor lock, use a piece of clear fuel line to look for bubbles, indicating that the fuel is vaporizing. One negative side effect of aromatics is that they create additional combustion products such as carbon and varnish. If your engine requires high octane fuel to prevent detonation, de-carbon the engine more frequently with an internal engine cleaner to prevent ring sticking due to excessive varnish buildup. ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS Although Suzuki recommends avoiding fuels with ethanol or alcohol IF at all possible, they also mention that blends of unleaded gasoline and alcohol with equivalent octane content may be used. When the Environmental Protection Agency mandated a phase-out of the leaded fuels in January of 1986, fuel suppliers needed an additive to improve the octane rating of their fuels. Although there are multiple methods currently employed, the addition of alcohol to gasoline seems to be favored because of its favorable results and low cost. Two types of alcohol are used in fuel today as octane boosters, methanol (wood alcohol) or ethanol (grain alcohol). When used as a fuel additive, alcohol tends to raise the research octane of the fuel, so these additives will have limited benefit in an outboard motor. There are, however, some special considerations due to the effects of alcohol in fuel. Since alcohol contains oxygen, it replaces gasoline without oxygen content and tends to cause the airlfuel mixture to become leaner. * When alcohol blended fuels become contaminated with water, the water combines with the alcohol then settles to the bottom of the tank. This leaves the gasoline on a top layer. OST Modern outboard fuel lines and plastic fuel system components have been specially formulated to resist alcohol leaching effects. However, the increase in ethanol use in the U.S. during 200512006 has shown there are still some concerns, especially with boats that contain Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) or Aluminum gas tanks. For more details on these problems, please refer to the Winterization procedures in the Maintenance and Tune-up section. HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION At elevated altitudes there is less oxygen in the atmosphere than at sea level. Less oxygen means lower combustion efficiency and less power output. As a general rule, power output is reduced three percent for every thousand feet above sea level. On carbureted engines, re-jetting for high altitude does not restore lost power, it simply corrects the air-fuel ratio for the reduced air density and makes the most of the remaining available power. The most important thing to remember when re-jetting for high altitude is to reverse the jetting when return to sea level. If the jetting is left lean when you return to sea level conditions, the correct airifuel ratio will not be achieved (the motor will run very lean) and possible powerhead damage may occur. RECOMMENDATIONS According to the fuel recommendations that come with your outboard, there is no engine in the product line that requires more than 87 octane when rated by the RtMl2 or. Most Suzuki engines need only 87 octane. An 89 or higher octane rating generally means middle to premium grade unleaded. Premium unleaded is more stable under severe conditions but also produces more combustion products. Therefore, using premium unleaded could lead to a need to perform de-carboning. As stated earlier, Suzuki recommends avoiding fuels with alcohol (such as ethanol) but realized this is not always possible. H Check the emissions label found on your motor as it will normally list the minimum required fuel octane rating for your specific model. CHECKING FOR STALEICONTAMINATED FUEL See Figures 2 thru 5 Outboard motors often sit weeks at a time making them the perfect candidate for fuel problems. Gasoline has a short life, as combustibles begin evaporating almost immediately. Even when stored properly, fuel starts to deteriorate within a few months, leavina behind a stale fuel mixture that can cause hard-starting, poor engine performance and even lead to possible engine damage. Further more, as gasoline evaporates it leaves behind gum deposits that can clog filters, lines and small passages. Although the sealed high-pressure fuel system of an EFI motor is MUCH less susceptible to fuel evaporation, the low-pressure fuel systems of all engines can suffer the affects. Carburetors, due to their tiny passages and naturally vented designs are the most susceptible components on non-EFI motors. As mentioned under Alcohol-Blended fuels, modern fuels very often contain alcohol, which is hygroscopic (meaning it absorbs water). And, over time, fuel stored in a partially filled tank or a tank that is vented to the atmosphere will absorb water. In the past, water would settle to the bottom of the tank, promoting rust (in metal tanks) and leaving a non-combustible mixture at the bottom of a tank that could leave a boater stranded. But with alcohol-blended fuels the water can actually bond with the alcohol and remain in suspension in the fuel so that in sufficient quantity it can drastically reduce the combustibility of the fuel itself. One of the first steps to fuel system troubleshooting is to make sure the fuel source is not at fault for engine performance problems. Check the fuel if the engine will not start and there is no ignition problem. Stale or contaminated fuels will often exhibit an unusual or even unpleasant unusual odor. Fig. 4 . . .just make sure it's a screw and not Fig. 2 Carburetor float bowls are normally a jet needle (by trying to very gently turn it equipped with a drain screw on the lower Fig, 3 To drain the carburetor, remove the inward, noting the position if it does move side of the carb drain screw. . . before you try and unthread it) Fig. 5 Commercial additives, such as Sta-bil, may be used to help prevent "souring" The best method of disposing stale fuel is through a local waste pickup service, automotive repair facility or marine dealership. But, this can be a hassle. If fuel is not too stale or too badly contaminated, it may be mixed with greater amounts of fresh fuel and used to power lawnlyard equipment or even an automobile (if greatly diluted so as to prevent misfiring, unstable idle or damage to the automotive engine). But we feel that it is much less of a risk to have a lawn mower stop running because of the fuel problem than it is to have your boat motor quit or refuse to start. Carburetors are normally equipped with a float bowl drain screw that can be used to drain fuel from the carburetor for storage or for inspection. For EFI models, a fuel system drain is normally found on the vapor separator tank, but access to the drain may require removal of the intake manifold or other interfering components (depending upon the model). For some motors, it may be easier to drain a fuel sample from the hoses leading to or from the low pressure fuel filter or fuel pump. Removal and installation instructions for the fuel fillers are provided in the Maintenance Section, while fuel pump procedures are found in this section. To check for stale or contaminated fuel: 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. Secure it and place tape or a small plastic bag over the end so that it cannot accidentally contact the terminal and complete the circuit. Throughout this procedure, clean up any spilled fuel to prevent a fire hazard. 2. For carbureted motors, remove the float bowl drain screw, then allow a small amount of fuel to drain into a glass container. If there is no fuel present in the carburetor, disconnect the inlet line from the fuel pump and use the fuel primer bulb to obtain a sample as on EFI motors. 3. For EFI motors, disconnect the fuel supply hose from the pump or low pressure fuel filter (as desired), then squeeze the fuel primer bulb to obtain a small sample of fuel. Place the sample in a clear glass container and reconnect the hose. If a sample cannot be obtained from the fuel filter or pump supply hose, there is a problem with the fuel tank-to-motor fuel circuit. Check the tank, primer bulb, fuel hose, fuel pump, fitting or inlet needle on carbureted models. 4. Check the appearance and odor of the fuel. An unusual smell, signs of visible debris or a cloudy appearance (or even the obvious presence of water) points to a fuel that should be replaced. 5. If contaminated fuel is found, drain the fuel system and dispose of the fuel in a responsible manner, then clean the entire fuel system. On EFI models, this includes draining the vapor separator tank, then properly draining the high-pressure fuel system by relieving system pressure according to the instructions in this section. If debris is found in the fuel system, clean and/or replace all fuel filters. 6. When finished, reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system and check for leaks. When it comes to safety and outboards, the condition of the fuel system is of the utmost importance. The system must be checked for signs of damage or leakage with every use and checked, especially carefully when portions of the system have been opened for service. The best method to check the fuel system is to visually inspect the lines, hoses and fittings once the system has been properly pressurized. Furthermore, EFI motors are equipped with two inter-related fuel circuits, a low pressure circuit that is similar to the circuit that feeds carburetors on other motors and a high pressure circuit that controls pressure in the sealed high pressure portion of the system (the fuel lines that feed the injectors). As its name implies, the high pressure circuit contains fuel under pressure that, if given the chance, will spray from a damaged/loose hose or fitting. When servicing components of the high pressure system, the fuel pressure must first be relieved in a safe and controlled manner to help avoid the potential explosive and dangerous conditions that would result from simply opening a fitting and allowing fuel to spray uncontrolled into the work area. 1 Fia. 6 To relieve fuel svstem pressure on 40750 hp motors, first locate the intake manifold and VST assembly. . . RELIEVING FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE (EFI MOTORS ONLY) DERATE Before servicing the high pressure fuel circuit or related components, including the vapor separator tank, high pressure filter, fuel rail, injector and related lines, the pressure must be released. Failure to do so in a proper manner could lead to high pressure fuel spray, excessive concentrations of vapors and an extremely dangerous, potentially explosive condition. 40150 Hp EFI Models + See Figures 6,7 and 8 1. Turn the key switch to OFF. 2. On the rear port side of the motor locate and disconnect the high pressure fuel pump wiring from the top of the Vapor Separator Tank (VST, just above the intake manifold and just a bit in front of the high-pressure filter) by releasing the connector's lock tab, then pulling the connector free, 3. Tag, then disconnect the wiring (primary lead connectors) from each ignition coil at the rear of the motor. 4. Use the key switch to crank the engine in 3 second bursts for 5-10 times. This will dissipate the fuel pressure in the lines. After the first couple of bursts, start squeezing the high pressure line (coming out of the rear of the high pressure filter, just behind the fuel pump connector, on top of the powerhead) to determine when the pressure is released. Once the hose is soft to the touch, crank the engine a few more times to ensure pressure is gone. B Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. 5. Unless necessary for service procedures or for safety, reconnect the ignition coil primary leads. 6. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service. andlor leave the fuel pump wiring disconnected until the maintenance or repairs have been completed. We still recommend disconnecting the negative battery cable, especially if any work will be one or around electrical components. Any work on or near the gearcase, propeller or other potentially hazardous moving parts is also good reason to keep the battery disconnected. 7. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the high and low pressure fuel circuits and thoroughly check the system for leakage. 60R0 Hp EFI Models + See Figure 9 1. Turn the key switch to OFF. 2. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service and leave it disconnected until the maintenance or repairs have been completed. 3. Locate the high pressure fuel rail (fuel delivery pipe) on the rear port side of the cylinder head. At the top of the fuel rail is a pipe plug, cover the pipe plug with a shop rag and then slowly and carefully loosen it 2-3 turns to Fig. 8 .. .then disconnect the primary leads from the ignition coils and crank the motor gradually allow fuel pressure in the line to bleed off (spray into the rag). Wipe up right away any fuel which is not caught by the rag. When releasing fuel pressure using the screw on the top of the fuel rail, use extreme caution to prevent fuel from spraying uncontrolled into the work area. There must be NO open flames, sparks or other sources of ignition. It is imperative that there is proper ventilation in order to dissipate vapors. Wear safety glasses to protect your eyes, gloves to protect your skin and, finally, keep extra rags handy, as one might not do the trick. 4. Check that fuel pressure has been released by pinching the high pressure fuel hose that comes out of the bottom of the rail to feel that is has softened. Back the plug out further to confirm, then tighten the plug to 29 ft. Ibs. (40 Nm). Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. We still recommend disconnecting the negative battery cable, especially if any work will be one or around electrical components. Any work on or near the gearcase, propeller or other potentially hazardous moving parts is also good reason to keep the battery disconnected. 5. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the high and low pressure fuel circuits and thoroughly check the system for leakage. , Fig. 9 Fuel rail and pipe plug -60170 hp motors 90/115/140 Hp EFI Models See Figures 10 thru 13 1. Turn the key switch to OFF. 2. Locate the high pressure fuel pump which is mounted in the top of the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly at the rear starboard side of the powerhead, between the powerhead itself and the intake manifold. Disconnect the wiring from the pump (you should be able to access it between the top two runners of the intake manifold) by releasing the connector's lock tab, then pulling the connector free. 3. Tag, then disconnect the wiring (primary lead wire connector) from the top of each ignition coil. 4 Use the key switch to cram the engine in 3 second bursts for 5-10 times. This will dissipate the fuel pressure in the lines. After the first couple of bursts, start squeezing the high pressure line (attached to the top of the'fuel rail) in order to determine when the pressure is released. Once the hose is soft to the touch, crank the engine a few more times to ensure pressure is gone. H Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. 5. Unless necessary for service procedures or for safety, reconnect the ignition coil primary leads. 6. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service, andlor leave the fuel pump wirina disconnected until the maintenance or repairs have been completed. - Fig. 10 To relieve fuel system pressure on 90-140 hp motors, start by locating the VST assembly behind the intake manifold. .. We still recommend disconnecting the negative battery cable, especially if any work will be one or around electrical components. Any work on or near the gearcase, propeller or other potentially hazardous moving parts is also good reason to keep the battery disconnected. 7. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the high and low pressure fuel circuits and thoroughly check the system for leakage. 1501175 Hp EFI Models 1. Turn the key switch to OFF. 2. On the side of the motor, just above the intake manifold, locate the fuel hose guard. Remove the 3 bolts (one at either end and one toward the top, center, at the engine lifting bracket) and remove the hose guard for access. 3. Now at the end of the intake manifold locate the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly and find the high pressure fuel pump connector at about the top center of the assembly. Unplug the wiring for the high pressure fuel pump. 4. Lastly, go the center of the valve cover. then tag and disconnect the primary wiring from each of the ignition coils to disable the ignition system. 5. Use the key switch to crank the engine in 3 second bursts for 5-10 times. This will dissipate the fuel pressure in the lines. After the first couple of bursts, start squeezing the high pressure line (which runs across the top of the intake manifold and enters the top of the fuel rail) in order to determine when the pressure is released. Once the hose is soft to the touch, crank the engine a few more times to ensure pressure is gone. H Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. 6. Unless necessary for service procedures crf~ safety, reconnect the ignition coil primary leads. 7. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service, and/or leave the fuel pump wiring disconnected until the maintenance or repairs have been completed. We still recommend disconnecting the negative battery cable, especially if any work will be one or around electrical components. Any work on or near the gearcase, propeller or other potentially hazardous moving parts is also good reason to keep the battery disconnected. 8. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the high and low pressure fuel circuits and thoroughly check the system for leakage, then install the fuel hose guard and tighten the bolts securely. 200-300 Hp EFI Models 1. Turn the key switch to OFF. 2. Locate the fuel Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly on the powerhead (for more details about the VST, refer to the Vapor Separator Tank information found later in this section). Disconnect the high pressure fuel pump wiring from the top of the vapor separator. 3. On 300 hp models, remove the bolts from the starboard and port air duct guard assembly, then remove the assembly for access to the ignition coils. Fig. 13 . ..pressure is relieved when the Fig. 11 . ,.and unplug the wiring for the Fig. 12 Next, unplug the primary leads from high pressure fuel line to the top of the fuel high pressure fuel pump the ignition coils and crank the motor. . . rail has softened 4. Tag, then disconnect the wiring (primary lead wire connector) from each ignition coil on the valve covers in order to disable the ignition system. 5. With both the fuel pump and ignition systems now disabled, use the key switch to crank the engine in 3 second bursts for 5-10 times. This will dissipate the fuel pressure in the lines. After the first couple of bursts, start squeezing the high pressure line (running into the high pressure fuel filter on top of the powerhead) to determine when the pressure is released. Once the hose is soft to the touch, crank the engine a few more times to ensure pressure is gone. Even after most or all of the pressure has been dissipated, there may still be some liquid fuel left in the lines. Always wrap a shop rag around fittings before they are disconnected to catch any escaping fuel. 6. Unless necessary for service procedures or for safety, reconnect the ignition coil primary leads. 7. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety during service, and/or leave the fuel pump wiring disconnected until the maintenance or repairs have been completed. H We still recommend disconnecting the negative battery cable, especially if any work will be one or around electrical components. Any work on or near the gearcase, propeller or other potentially hazardous moving parts is also good reason to keep the battery disconnected. 8. After maintenance or repairs are finished, fully pressurize the high and low pressure fuel circuits and thoroughly check the system for leakage. For 300 hp motors, don't forget to reinstall the starboard and port air duct guard assembly. PRESSURIZING THE FUEL SYSTEM (CHECKING FOR LEAKS) Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Carbureted Models Carbureted engines covered by this manual are only equipped with a low pressure fuel system, making pressure release before service a non-issue. But, even a low pressure fuel system should be checked following repairs to make sure that no leaks are present. Only by checking a fuel system under normal operating pressures can you be sure of the system's integrity. If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. And on EFI motors, it prevents the electric fuel pump from running should the key be turned to on (even without cranking) which would cause high pressure fuel spray if a fuel component of the EFI system is disconnected. Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. Most carbureted engines (except some integral tank models with gravity feed) utilize a fuel primer bulb mounted inline between the fuel tank and engine. On models so equipped, the bulb can be used to pressurize that portion of the fuel system. Squeeze the bulb until it and the fuel lines feel firm with gasoline. At this point check all fittings between the tank and motor for signs of leakage and correct, as necessary. Once fuel reaches the engine it is the job of the fuel pump($ to distribute it to the carburetor(s). The fuel is pumped directly from the pump to the carburetor No matter what system you are inspecting, start and run the motor with the engine top case removed, then check each of the system hoses, fittings and gasket-sealed components to be sure there is no leakage after service. EFI Models EFI models covered by this manual utilize 2 fuel circuits. A low pressure circuit consisting of a fuel tank, primer bulb, low pressure fuel pump and low pressure filter and fuel line to the vapor separator tank all operate in the same manner as the low pressure fuel system of a carbureted motor. The high pressure circuit consists of the electric fuel pump (integral with the vapor separator tank), the high pressure filter, the fuel raillinjectors and the high pressure lines. Although it is necessary to pressurize and inspect both systems after repairs have been performed on the motor, it is especially important to properly check the high pressure circuit. Leaks from the high pressure circuit (as you might well expect) will be under much greater pressures leading to even more potentially hazardous conditions than a low pressure leak. That's not to say a low pressure leak isn't dangerous, but a high pressure leak can be even more so. After ANY repair to the fuel system, ALWAYS pressurize and check the low pressure circuit as follows: 1. Make sure the fuel tank is sufficiently full to provide an uninterrupted fuel source, then squeeze the bulb until it begins to feel firm. Check the low pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage before continuing. 2. Pressurize the high pressure fuel circuit as follows: Make sure the negative battery cable is connected (if removed for service), then turn the key switch to ON for 3 seconds (6 seconds for 150-300 hp motors, as the pump either runs longer or the module requires a little more time to actuatelreset the circuit) and then OFF again for at least 3 seconds. Repeat the key switch cycle 3-4 times, while listening at the vapor separator to hear the high pressure pump run each time the key is turned to the ON position. If the pump does not run, check the fuel pump and circuit as described in this section under Vapor Separator Tank and High Pressure Pump in this section. Once pressurized, check the high pressure lines, fittings and components for signs of leakage. 3. Start the engine, then allow it to idle it for a few seconds, while continuing to scan all fuel system components for signs of leakage. 4 Stop the motor and recheck the fittings. 5. Repair any leakage, then recheck the fuel system integrity. If a problem is suspected in the fuel supply, tank and/or lines, by far the easiest test to eliminate these components as possible culprits is to substitute a known good fuel supply. This is known as running a motor on a test tank (as opposed to running a motor IN a test tank, which is an entirely different concept). If possible, borrow a portable tank, fill it with fresh gasoline and connect it to the motor. B When using a test fuel tank, make sure the inside diameter of the fuel hose and fuel fittings is of sufficient size (meaning it is at least of the same size with which the motor was originally rigged. In general that means at least 5/16 in./8mm for small and midrange motors or about 318 in.19.5mm for larger motors). In addition, make sure the pickup tubelfilter is not too restrictive, and for proper lift pump operation make sure the pump is not located too far away or above the bottom of the tank. See Figures 14 and 15 There are 3 different categories of fuel tanks that might be used along with these Suzuki motors. Only the very smallest Suzuki motors (2.5-6 hp) are equipped with an integral fuel tank mounted to the powerhead. But, most Fig. 14 Although most of these motors are not rigged with portable tanks, almost any Fig. 15 Remote tanks are connected to the Fig. 16 Fuel tank and fuel valve for 2.5 hp of them CAN be motor using a fuel tine with a primer bulb motors I I motors (from 4 hp and larger) may be rigged using either a portable fuel tank or a boat mounted tank (though honestly by the time you get to the 150t hp range, you almost ALWAYS see them rigged with a boat mounted tank). In either case (portable or boat mounted), a tank that is not mounted to the engine itself is commonly called a remote tank. Although many Suzuki dealers rig boats using Suzuki fuel tanks, there are many other tank manufacturers and tank designs may vary greatly. Your outboard might be equipped with a tank from the engine manufacturer, the boat manufacturer or even another tank manufacturer. Although components used, as well as the techniques for cleaning and repairing tanks are similar for almost all fuel tanks be sure to use caution and common sense. If the design varies from the instructions or illustrations included here, you'll have to use common sense. If we reference 2 or 4 screws for something and the component is still tight after removing that many, look for another or for another means of securing the component, don't force it. Refer to a reputable marine repair shop or marine dealership when parts are needed for aftermarket fuel tanks. Whether or not your boat is equipped with a boat mounted, built-in tank depends mostly on the boat builder and partially on the initial engine installer. Boat mounted tanks can be hard to access (sometimes even a little hard to find if parts of the deck must be removed. When dealing with boat mounted tanks, look for access panels (as most manufacturers are smart or kind enough to install them for tough to reach tanks). At the very least, all manufacturers must provide access to fuel line fittings and, usually, the fuel level sender assembly. No matter what type of tank is used, all must be equipped with a vent (either a manual vent or an automatic one-way check valve) which allows air in (but should prevent vapors from escaping). An inoperable vent (one that is blocked in some fashion) would allow the formation of a vacuum that could prevent the fuel pump from drawing fuel from the tank. A blocked vent could cause fuel starvation problems. Whenever filling the tank, check to make sure air does not rush into the tank each time the cap is loosened (which could be an early warning sign of a blocked vent). If fuel delivery problems are encountered, first try running the motor with the fuel tank cap removed to ensure that no vacuum lock will occur in the tank or lines due to vent problems. If the motor runs properly with the cap removed but stall, hesitates or misses with the cap installed, you know the problem is with the tank vent system. SERVICE DERATE Integral Fuel Tanks See Figures 16 thru 21 v Generally only the smallest of the Suzuki portable outboards (2.5 hp and the 41516 hp motors) may be equipped with an integral fuel tank. On these powerheads the tank is installed at the front of the motor (right in front of the flywheel and powerhead). Unlike some manufacturers that tend to use a filter and fuel petcock (fuel valve) mounted in the bottom of the tank, Suzuki tends to use an inline filter and inline valve which can be more easily accessed and serviced should tne filter, a line, or a valve become plugged. Tank Cap Assy (1) Clip (6) for DF4 Clip (9) for DF5 1 -Clip (1) 10 -Hose (1) 2 -Hose (1) 11 -Protector (2) 3 -Clip (6) for DF4 12 -Screw (2) Clip (9) for DF5 13 -Fuel Cock Assy (1) 4 -3-way Joint (1) 14 -Gasket (1) 5 -Hose (1) 15 -O-ring (1) 6 -Hose (1) 16 -Cock Cap (1) 7 -Washer (2) 8 -Cushion (2) 9 -Bolt (2) Fig. 17 Exploded view of the fuel tank on 41516 hp motors Fig. 19 . . .and the fuel line is (or lines are) Fig. 18 To remove the tank, make sure the disconnected (either here at the valve or at Fig. 20 On 41516 hp motors the fuel valve is retaining bolts are removed. . . the pump as applicable) retained by 2 screws below the engine cover To check fuel flow, disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor (2.5 hp motors) or the fuel pump (41516 hp motors) and fuel should flow from the line if the shut-off valve is open. If fuel is not present, the usual cause is a plugged inline filter. Would you believe, many times a lack of fuel at the carburetor is caused because the vent on the fuel tank was not opened or has become clogged, creating a vacuum strong enough to prevent fuel from flowing? As mentioned under Fuel Tank in this section, it is important to make sure the vent is open or clear at all times during engine operation to prevent formation of a vacuum in the tank that could prevent fuel from reaching the fuel pump or carburetor. To remove the tank, proceed as follows: 1. Make sure the fuel tank valve is shut off. 2. For access, remove the Manual Starter assembly, as detailed in the Hand Rewind Starter section. Have a shop rag handy to catch any fuel that was left in the tank or line when it is disconnected. 3. On 2.5 hp motors proceed as follows: a. Disconnect the fuel output hose from the fuel valve, then remove the fuel tank and fuel valve as an assembly. b. If necessary, loosen the screw securing the valve to the tank, then separate the two for access to the inline filter. If the filter is clogged or damaged, replace the element. If damage is found to the fuel valve itself the assembly should be replaced. 4. On 2.5 hp motors proceed as follows: a. Remove the 2 bolts still securing the fuel tank. There are some discrepancies between Suzuki technical literature and our test motors. Specifically, some of the literature shows the fuel tank output line on these motors as connecting directly to the fuel valve, and though that MIGHT be true on some, on some of our test motors it was not. On some of our motors the tank output line connected to the input port of the fuel pump, then the fuel pump output line connected to the fuel valve input line. Lastly the fuel valve output line connected to the carburetor. b. Tag and disconnect the fuel tank output fuel line at the fuel valve or pump (as applicable). If there is fuel still in the tank, immediately PLUG or pinch the fuel tank hose to minimize fuel spillage. c. Remove the tank completely from the motor. d. If you are removing the valve also, if not done already, tag and disconnect the fuel lines from the valve. Remove the two bolts from the underside of the engine cover, then remove the valve. 5. Check the tank, filler cap and gasket for wear or damage. Make sure the vent on the tank cap is operational and not clogged. Same goes for the fuel valve, make sure it is operational, not clogged and does not leak. Replace any components as necessary to correct any leakage (if found). 6. If cleaning is necessary, flush the tank with a small amount of solvent or gasoline, then drain and dispose of the flammable liquid properly. 7. When installing the tank, be sure all fuel lines are connected properly and that the retaining screws are securely bolted in place. 8. Refill the tank and pressure test the system by opening the fuel valve, then starting and running the engine. Fig. 21 We realize the Suzuki diagrams make it look like the tank connects directly to the fuel valve, but it obviously varies, as this test motor shows the fuel line running from the tank to the fuel pump, and then the pump output line goes to the fuel valve Portable Fuel Tanks See Figures 15 and 22 thru 25 Modern fuel tanks are vented to prevent vapor-lock of the fuel supply system, but are normally vented by a one-way valve to prevent pollution through the evaporation of vapors. A squeeze bulb is used to prime the system until the powerhead is operating. Once the engine starts, the fuel pump, mounted on the powerhead pull fuel from the tank and feeds the carburetor(s) or EFI high pressure fuel circuit, as applicable. The pickup unit in the tank is often sold as a complete unit, but without the gauge and float (when attached, as on the steel Suzuki tanks). To disassemble and inspect or replace tank components, proceed as follows: 1. For safety, remove the filler cap and drain the tank into a suitable container. 2. Disconnect the fuel supply line from the tank fitting. 3. To replacelservice thepickup unit on plastic ~uzuki plastic tanks there is normally a threaded fitting to which the pickup tube and filter element attaches. 4. To replacelservice the pickup unit and float assembly on steel Suzuki tanks, first remove the screws (normally 4) securing the unit in the tank. Next, lift the pickup unit up out of the tank. Remove the Phillips screws (usually 2) securing the fuel gauge to the bottom of the pickup unit and set the gauge aside for installation onto the new pickup unit. B if the pickup unit is not being replaced, clean and check the screen for damage. It is possible to bend a new piece of screen material around the pickup and solder it in place without purchasing a complete new unit. 5. If equipped with a level gauge assembly, check for smooth, non- binding movement of the float arm and replace iibinding is found. Check the float itself for physical damage or saturation and replace, if found. 6. Check the fuel tank for dirt or moisture contamination. If any is found use a small amount of gasoline or solvent to clean the tank. Pour the solvent in and slosh it around ti loosen and wash away deposits, then pour out the solvent and recheck. Allow the tank to air drv, or heto it alona with the use of an air hose from a compressor. Fig. 22 Always make a tank vent is open or operable ~onnector 1 Tank Cap (1) Plug (1) &----Filter (1) Gasket (1) -43 0-Ring (1) , Fuel Tank (1) (1) Fuel hose asw (1) [@primer bulb (I)] [@Connector] [@Connector (I)] [@Clip (411 Fig. 23 Exploded view of a typical small plastic Suzuki portable fuel tank Use extreme care when working with solvents or fuel. Remember that both are even more dangerous when their vapors are concentrated in a small area. No source of ignition from flames to sparks can be allowed in the workplace for even an instant. To install: 7. On steel Suzuki tanks, attach the fuel gauge to the new pickup unit and secure it in place with the Phillips screws. Clean the old gasket material from fuel tank and, if being used, the old pickup unit. Position a new gasketheal, then work the float arm down through the fuel tank opening, and at the same time the fuel pickup tube into the tank. It will probably be necessary to exert a little force on the float arm in order to feed it all into the hole. The fuel pickup arm should spring into place once it is through the hole. Secure the pickup and float unit in place with the attaching screws. 8. On plastic Suzuki tanks, make sure the filter is secure on the bottom of the pickup tube, then make sure the tube is secure on the fitting. Check the tank threads to make sure they are clean and undamaged. Install the assembly using a new O-ring and tighten securely, but do not over-tighten and damage the tank. 9. Connect the line to the fuel tank, then pressurize the fuel system and check for leaks. Boat Mounted Fuel Tanks See Figures 15 and 26 The other type of remote fuel tank sometimes used on these models (usually only on the largest models covered by this manual but could include midrange motors too) is a boat mounted built-in tank. Depending on the boat manufacturer, built-in tanks may vary greatly in actual shapeldesign and access. All should be of a one-wav vented to orevent a vacuum lock. but capped to prevent evaporation design. Most boat manufacturers are kind enough to incorporate some means of access to the tank should fuel lines, fuel pickup or floats require servicing. I / connector -Gasket (1 Fuel Tank (1) 1 -Clip (4) 2 -Primer Bulb (1) Fig. 24 Alternate plastic Suzuki tank (with float level filler cap) 1 -Connector (1) 8 -Lens (1) 3 -Clip (4) 9 -Gasket (1) 4 -Primer bulb (1) 10-Screw 12} 5 -Conector (1) 11-Float (1)' 6 -Cover (1) 12-Push Nut (1) 7 -Gasket (1) 13-Gasket (1) 1 Fia. 25 Exoloded view of a tvoical steel Suzuki oortable fuel tank 1 Fig. 26 Most of the mid-range and larger motors will probably use boat mounted tanks But, the means of access will vary greatly from boat-to-boat. Some might contain simple access panels, while others might require the removal of one or more minor or even major components for access. If you encounter difficulty, seek the advice of a local dealer for that boat builder. The dealer or hislher techs should be able to set you in the right direction. Observe all fuel system cautions, especially when working in recessed portions of a hull. Fuel vapors tend to gather in enclosed areas causing an even more dangerous possibility of explosion. + See Figure 15 In order for an engine to run properly it must receive an uninterrupted and unrestricted flow of fuel. This cannot occur if improper fuel lines are used or if any of the lineslfittings are damaged. Too small a fuel line could cause hesitation or missing at higher engine rpm. Worn or damaged lines or fittings could cause similar problems (also including stalling, poorlrough idle) as air might be drawn into the system instead of fuel. Similarly, a clogged fuel line, fuel filter or dirty fuel pickup or vacuum lock (from a clogged tank vent as mentioned under Fuel Tank) could cause these symptoms by starving the motor for fuel. If fuel delivery problems are suspected, check the tank first to make sure it is properly vented, then turn your attention to the fuel lines. First check the lines and valves for obvious signs of leakage, then check for collapsed hoses that could cause restrictions. B If there is a restriction between the primer bulb and the fuel tank, vacuum from the fuel pump may cause the primer bulb to collapse. Watch for this sign when troubleshooting fuel delivery problems. Only use the proper fuel lines containing suitable Coast Guard ratings on a boat. Failure to do so may cause an extremely dangerous condition should fuel lines fail during adverse operating conditions. TESTING Fuel Line Quick Check + See Figure 15 Stalling, hesitation, rough idle, misses at high rpm are all possible results of problems with the fuel lines. A quick visual check of the lines for leaks, kinked or collapsed lengths or other obvious damage may uncover the problem. If no obvious cause is found, the problem may be due to a restriction in the line or a problem with the fuel pump. If a fuel delivery problem due to a restriction or lack of proper fuel flow is suspected, operate the engine while attempting to duplicate the miss or hesitation. While the condition is present, squeeze the primer bulb rapidly to manually pump fuel from the tank to (and through) the fuel pump to the carburetors (or EFI vapor separator tank, as applicable). If the engine then runs properly while under these conditions, suspect a problem with a clogged restricted fuel line, a clogged fuel filter or a problem with the fuel Pump. Checking Fuel Flow at Motor See Figures 15 and 27 thru 30 To perform a more thorough check of the fuel lines and isolate or eliminate the possibility of a restriction, proceed as follows: 1. For safety, disconnect the spark plug lead(s), then ground each lead to the powerhead to prevent sparks and to protect the ignition system. On Dl ignitions you can disconnect the primary leads to the coils and leave the coils in place. 2. Disconnect the fuel line from the engine. Place a suitable container over the end of the fuel line to catch the fuel discharged. If equipped with a quick-connect fitting, insert a small screwdriver into the end of the line to hold the valve open. Fig. 27 Remove the fuel supply line fitting from the engine to check fuel flow (quick- Fig. 28 Typical fuel quick-connector with 0-Fig. 29 Another method is to remove the ring and check valve visible fuel line at the fuel pump and check for flow 1 Fig. 30 Compressed air can be used to check for obstructions 3. Squeeze the primer bulb and observe if there is satisfactory fuel flow from the line. If there is no fuel discharged from the line, the check valve in the squeeze bulb may be defective, or there may be a break or obstruction in the fuel line. 4. If there is a good fuel flow, reconnect the tank-to-motor fuel supply line and disconnect the fuel line from the carburetorfs) or EFI vapor separator (basically the other end of the fuel pump output line), directing that line into a suitable container. Crank the powerhead. If the fuel pumD is operating properly, a healthy stream of fuel should pulse out of theline. If sufficient fuel does not pulse from the line, compare flow at either side of the inline fuel filter (if equipped) or check the fuel pump. 5. Continue cranking the powerhead and catching the fuel for about 15 pulses to determine if the amount of fuel decreases with each pulse or maintains a constant amount. A decrease in the discharge indicates a restriction in the line. If the fuel line is plugged, the fuel stream may stop. If there is fuel in the fuel tank but no fuel flows out the fuel line while the powerhead is being cranked, the problem may be in one of several areas: Plugged fuel line from the fuel pump to the carburetor(s) or vapor separator tank (EFI). Defective O-ring in fuel line connector into the fuel tank. Defective O-ring in fuel line connector into the engine. Defective fuel pump. The line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump may be plugged; the line may be leaking air; or the squeeze bulb may be defective. * Defective fuel tank. 6. If the engine does not start even though there is adequate fuei flow from the fuel line, the fuel inlet needle valve and the seat may be gummed together and prevent adequate fuel flow into the float bowl or EFI vapor separator tank. 7. Ifa section of line is suspect as clogged, disconnect both ends and use compressed air to blow through the line checking for flow or obstructions. Though you may be able to clear some blockage using compressed air, it's usually a better idea to replace such a fuel hose. Checking the Primer Bulb See Figures 15,17 and 31 The way most outboards are rigged, fuel will evaporate from the system during periods of non-use (at least from the non high-pressure system on carburetor motors and that portion of the system on EFI motors). Also, anytime quick-connect fittings on portable tanks are removed, there is a chance that small amounts of fuel will escape and some air will make it into the fuel lines. For this reason, outboards are normally rigged with some method of priming the fuel system through a hand-operated pump (primer bulb). When squeezed, the bulb forces fuel from inside the bulb, through the one-way check valve toward the motor filling the carburetor float bowl(s) or EFI vapor separator tank with the fuel necessary to start the motor. When the bulb is released, the one-way check valve on the opposite end (tank side of the bulb) opens under vacuum to draw fuel from the tank and refill the bulb. When using the bulb, squeeze it gently as repetitive or forceful pumping may flood the carburetor(s) though we can't imagine it would do anything harmful with EFI motors, as the bulb would probably just get too hard to squeeze past a certain point). The bulb is operating normally if a few squeezes will cause it to become firm, meaning the float bowlltank is full, and the float valve is closed. If the bulb collapses and does not regain its shape, the bulb must be replaced. For the bulb to operate properly, both check valves must operate properly and the fuel lines from the check valves back to the tank or forward to the motor must be in good condition (properly sealed). To check the bulb and check valves use hand operated vacuumlpressure pump (available from most marine or automotive parts stores): 1. Remove the fuei hose from the tank and the motor, then remove the clamps for the fittings or quick-connect valves at the ends of the hose. Most fuel fittings and quick-connect valves are secured to the fuel supply hose using disposable plastic ties that must be cut and discarded for removal. If equipped, spring-type or threaded metal clamps may be reused, but be sure they are in good condition first. Do not over-tighten threaded clamps and crack the valve or cut the hose. Fig. 31 Most primer bulbs contain an arrow that indicates the direction of fuel flow (points toward the motor) 2. Carefullv remove the fittina or auick-connect valve from the motor side of the fuel line, then place the endof the line into the filler opening of the fuel tank. Gently pump the primer bulb to empty the hose into the fuel tank. M Be careful when removing the fitting or quick-connect valve from the fuel line as fuel will likely still be present in the hose and will escape (drain or splash) if the valve is jerked from the line. Also, make sure the primer bulb is empty of fuel before proceeding. 3. Next, remove the fitting or quick-connect valve from the tank side of the fuel line, draining any residual fuel into the tank. M For proper orientation during testing or installation, the primer bulb is marked with an arrow that faces the engine side check valve. 4. Securely connect the pressure pump to the hose on the tank side of the primer bulb. Using the pump, slowly apply pressure while listening for air escaping from the end of the hose that connects to the motor. If air escapes, both one-way check valves on the tank side and motor side of the prime bulb are opening. 5. If air escapes prior to the motor end of the hose, hold the bulb, check valve and hose connections under water (in a small bucket or tank). Apply additional air pressure using the pump and watch for escaping bubbles to determine what component or fitting is at fault. Repair the fitting or replace the defective hoselbulb component. 6. If no air escapes, attempt to draw a vacuum from the tank side of the primer bulb. The pump should draw and hold a vacuum without collapsing the primer bulb, indicating that the tank side check valve remained closed. 7. Securely connect the pressure pump to the hose on the motor side of the primer bulb. Using the pump, slowly apply pressure while listening for air escaping from the end of the hose that connects to the motor. This time, the check valve on the tank side of the primer bulb should remain closed, preventing air from escaping or from pressurizing the bulb. If the bulb pressurizes, the motor side check valve is allowing pressure back into the bulb, but the tank side valve is operating properly. 8. Replace the bulb andlor check valves if they operate improperly. SERVICE SY e See Figures 27,31,32 and 33 Whenever work is performed on the fuel system, check all hoses for wear or damage. Replace hoses that are soft and spongy or ones that are hard and brittle. Fuel hoses should be smooth and free of surface cracks, and thev should definitely not have split ends (there's a bad hair ioke in there, but wewon't sink that low). Do not cut the split ends of a hose and attempt to reuse it. whatever caused the solit host likelv time and deterioration! will cause the new end to follow soon. Fuel hoses are safety items, don'tscrimp on them, instead, replace them when necessary. If one hose is too old, check the rest, as they are likely also in need of replacement. M When replacing fuel lines, make sure the inside diameter of the fuel hose and fitting is of sufficient size (generally 5/16 in.18mm or 318 in.19.5mm but use the original boat rigging as a starting point). Also, be certain to use only marine fuel line the meets or exceeds United States Coast Guard (USCG) A1 or B1 guidelines. Check Fig. 32 Use two picks, punches or other small tool to replace quick-connect O-rings. One to push the valve and the other work the O-ring free Fig. 33 A squeeze bulb kit usually includes the bulb, 2 check valves, and two tie straps When replacing fuel lines only use Suzuki replacement hoses or other marine fuel supply lines that meet United States Coast Guard (USCG) requirements A1 or B1 for marine applications. All lines must be of the same inner diameter as the original to prevent leakage and maintain the proper seal that is necessary for fuel system operation. M Using a smaller fuel hose than specified could cause fuel starvation problems leading to misfiring, hesitation, rough idling and possibly even engine damage. The USCG ratings for fuel supply lines have to do with whether or not the lines have been testing regarding length of time it might take for them to succumb to flame (burn through) in an emergency situation. A line is "A rated if it passes spec,?: rsq~Tements regarding burn-through times, while B"rated lines are not tested in this fashion. The A1 and B1 lines (normally recommended on Suzuki applications) are capable of containing liquid fuel at all times. The A2 and 82 rated lines are designed to contain fuel vapor, but not liquid. To help prevent the possibility of significant personal injury or death, " rated lines when "A" rated lines are required. Similarly, do not use "A2" or "B2" lines when "AT or "A2" lines are specified. Various styles of fuel line clamps may be found on these motors. Many applications will simply secure lines with plastic wire ties or special plastic locking clamps. Although some of the plastic locking clamps may be released and reconnected, it is usually a good idea to replace them. Obviously wire ties are cut for removal, which requires that they be replaced. Some applications use metal spring-type clamps, that contain tabs which are squeezed allowing the clamp to slid up the hose and over the end of the fitting so the hose can be pulled from the fitting. Threaded metal clamps are nice since they are very secure and can be reused, but do not over-tighten threaded clamps as they will start to cut into the hose and they can even damage some fittings underneath the hose. Metal clamps should be replaced anytime they've lost tension (spring type clamps), are corroded, bent or otherwise damaged. The best way to ensure proper fuel fitting connection is to use the same size and style clamp that was originally installed (unless of course the "original" clamp never worked correctly, but in those cases, someone probably replaced it with the wrong type before you ever saw it). When replacing hoses and/or clamps, be sure to pay attention to the amount of hose that extends over the fitting (though it can vary with the type If equipped, disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on electric start motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage if an attempt is made to crank the engine while the fuel system is open. Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. All of the carbureted motors covered by this manual except one engine family are equipped with ONE single-barreled carburetor to feed an airlfuel mixture to the combustion chamber(s). The one exception is the 25/30 hp 3- cylinder motor which uses THREE single-barreled carburetors. This means that for all single cylinder and three cylinder motors each cylinder has its own carburetor throaufloat bowl assembly, however since all of the twin cylinder motors covered here have one, single-barreled carburetor, their two cylinders have to share the carb. of hose you're typically looking for about an inch or 25.4mm of hose beyond the raised portion of the fitting). Also, make sure the clamp is seated on the hose, about 0.1-0.3 in. (3-7mm) from the end of the hose. To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, O-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. On most installations that use quick-connects, the fuel line is provided with quick-disconnect fittings at the tank and at the powerhead. If there is reason to believe the problem is at the quick-disconnects, the hose ends can be replaced as an assembly, or new O-rings may be installed. A supply of new O-rings should be carried on board for use in isolated areas where a marine store is not available (like dockside, or worse, should you need one while on the water). For a small additional expense, the entire fuel line can be replaced and eliminate this entire area as a problem source for many future seasons. (If the fuel line is replaced, keep the old one around as a spare, just in case). If a quick-connect O-ring must be replaced, use two small punches, picks or similar tools, one to push down the check valve of the connector and the other to work the O-ring out of the hole. Apply just a drop of oil into the hole of the connector. Apply a thin coating of oil to the surface of the O-ring. Pinch the O-ring together and work it into the hole while simultaneously using a punch to depress the check valve inside the connector. The primer squeeze bulb can be replaced in a short time. A squeeze bulb assembly kit, complete with the check valves installed, may be obtained from the local Suzuki dealer. The replacement kit will also include two tie straps or clamps (depending upon the manufacturer) to secure the bulb properly in the line. An arrow is clearly visible on the squeeze bulb to indicate the direction of fuel flow. The squeeze bulb must be installed correctly in the line because the check valves in each end of the bulb will allow fuel to flow in only one direction. Therefore, if the squeeze bulb should be installed backwards, in a moment of haste to get the job done, fuel will not reach the carburetor or EFI vapor separator tank. To replace the bulb, first unsnap the clamps on the hose at each end of the bulb. Next, pull the hose out of the check valves at each end of the bulb. New clamps are included with a new squeeze bulb. If the fuel line has been exposed to considerable sunlight, it may have become hardened, causing difficulty in working it over the check valve. To remedy this situation, simply immerse the ends of the hose in boiling water for a few minutes to soften the rubber. The hose will then slip onto the check valve without further problems. After the lines on both sides have been installed, snap the clamps in place to secure the line. Check a second time to be sure the arrow is pointing in the fuel flow direction, towards the powerhead. The entire system essentially consists of a fuel tank, at least one filter, a fuel su~olv line, and for all except the 2.5 ho motor, a mechanical fuel oumo a~sembi~mounted ' to the powerhead. ~egardless, on all motors, the fuel delivery system is designed to feed the carburetor(s) with the fuel necessary to power the motor. Cold start enrichment is achieved through various means on the different carbureted Suzuki motors covered here. The means include a manual or electric choke plate (used on most motors) and a manual or electric primer (used on a late-model Keihin carburetor equipped 9.9115 hp and 25 hp V2 motors). Manual means of cold start enrichment are normally found on Tiller models, especially the rope starts, though some electric start models may also use electric chokes or primers. Remote start models almost always utilize an electric form of cold start enrichment. Of course, we list the . standard forms here, but at time of rigging (or repair) it is very easy to replace one system with the other, so in the end you must determine for yourself how the particular motor on which you are working is set-up. For information on fuels, tanks and lines please refer to the sections on Fuel System Basics and Fuel Tanks and Lines. The most important fuel system maintenance that a boat owner can ~erform is to stabilize fuel su~olies before aliowina the svstem to sit idle for anv ienath of time more thana few weeks. The next most important item is to provide the system with fresh gasoline if the system has stood idle for any length of time, especially if it was without fuel system stabilizer during that time. If a sudden increase in gas consumption is noticed, or if the engine does not perform properly, a carburetor overhaul, including cleaning or replacement of the fuel pump may be required. See Figures 34 and 35 BASIC FUNCTIONS The Role of a Carburetor See Figures 34 and 35 The carburetor is merely a metering device for mixing fuel and air in the proper proportions for efficient engine operation. At idle speed, an outboard engine requires a mixture of about 8 parts air to 1 part fuel. At high speed or under heavy duty service, the mixture may change to as much as 12-13 parts air to 1 part fuel. Carburetors are wonderful devices that succeed in relatively precise airlfuel mixture ratios based on tiny passages, needle jets or orifices and the variable vacuum that occurs as engine rpm and operating conditions vary. Because of the tiny passages and small moving parts in a carburetor (and the need for them to work precisely to achieve proper airlfuel mixture ratios) it is important that the fuel system integrity is maintained, introduction of water (that might lead to corrosion), debris (that could clog passages) or even the presence of un-stabilized fuel that could evaporate over time can cause big problems for a carburetor. Keep in mind that when fuel evaporates it leaves behind a gummy deposit that can clog those tiny passages, preventing the carburetor (and therefore preventing the engine) from operating properly. Float Systems See Figures 34 and 35 Ever lift the tank lid off the back of your toilet. Pretty simple stuff once you realize what's going on in there. A supply line keeps the tank full until a valve opens allowing all or some of the liquid in the tank to be drawn out through a passage. The dropping level in the tank causes a float to change position, and, as it lowers in the tank it opens a valve allowing more pressurized liquid from the supply line back into the tank to raise levels again. OK, we were talking about a toilet right, well yes and no, we're also talking about the float bowl on a carburetor. The carburetor uses a more precise level, uses vacuum to draw out fuel from the bowl through a metered passage (instead of gravity) and, most importantly, stores gasoline instead of water, but otherwise, they basically work in the same way. A small chamber in the bottom of the carburetor serves as a fuel reservoir. Afloat valve admits fuel into the reservoir to replace the fuel consumed by the engine. Fuel level in each chamber is extremely critical and must be maintained accurately. Accuracy is obtained through proper adjustment of the float. This adjustment will provide a balanced metering of fuel to each cylinder at all speeds. Improper levels will lead to engine operating problems. Too high a level can promote rich running and spark plug fouling, while excessively low float bowl fuel levels can cause lean conditions, possibly leading to engine damage. Following the fuel through its course from carburetor float bowl to the combustion chamber of the cylinder, will provide an appreciation of exactly what is taking place. At the carburetor, fuel from the pump or fuelloil mixing unit passes through the inlet passage to the needle and seat, and then into the float chamber (reservoir). Afloat in the chamber rides up and down on the surface of the fuel. After fuel enters the chamber and the level rises to a predetermined point, a tang on the float closes the inlet needle and fuel entering the chamber is cutoff. When fuel leaves the chamber as the powerhead operates, the fuel level drops and the float tang allows the inlet needle to move off its seat and fuel once again enters the chamber. In this manner a constant reservoir of fuel is maintained in the chamber to satisfy the demands of the engine at all speeds. A fuel chamber vent hole is normally located near the top of the carburetor body to permit atmospheri~pressure to act against the fuel in each chamber. This pressure assures an adeauate fuel supply to the various operating systems of the engine. But it also allows fuel to evaporate over time, potentially leaving behind clogging deposits. Idle and Throttle slow speed valve ,orifices ,Air intake \ Float chamber vent& ring / High speed orifice Fig. 34 Fuel flow through the venturi, showing principle and related parts controlling intake and outflow (carburetor with manual choke circuit shown) Induced low air pressure \ Atmospheric air pressure Fig. 35 Air flow principle of a modern carburetor, demonstrates how the low pressure induced behind the venturi draws fuel through the high speed nozzle AirIFuel Mixture See Figures 34 and 35 A suction effect is created every OTHER time the piston moves downward in a 4-stroke motor (each time the piston moves downward on the intake stroke, with the intake valve open). This suction draws air through the intake valve and through the throat of the carburetor. A restriction in the throat, called a venturi, controls air velocity and has the effect of reducing air pressure at this point. The difference in air pressures at the throat and in the fuel chamber, causes the fuel to be pushed out metering jets extending down into the fuel chamber. When the fuel leaves the jets, it mixes with the air passing through the venturi. This airlfuel mixture should then be in the proper proportion for burning in the cylinderls for maximum engine performance. In order to obtain the proper airlfuel mixture for all engine speeds, high- and low-speed orifices or needle valves are installed. On most modern powerheads the high-speed needle valve has been replaced with a fixed high-speed orifice (to more discourage tampering and to help maintain proper emissions under load). There is no adjustment with the orifice type. The needle valves are used to compensate for changing atmospheric conditions. The low-speed needles, on the other hand, are often still provided (even if they are usually hidden under plugs to discourage tampering) so that airlfuel mixture can be precisely adjusted for idle conditions other than what occurs at atmospheric sealevel. Although the low speed needle should not normally require periodic adjustment, it can be adjusted to compensate for high-altitude (riverllake) operation or to adjust for component wear within the fuel system. Both the manufacturer and the EPA greatly discourage any form of tampering with factory settings on these motors. You have been warned! Powerhead operation at sea level compared with performance at high altitudes is quite nonceaoie. A throttle valve controls the volume of airlfuel mixture drawn into the powerhead. A cold engine requires a richer fuel mixture to start and during the brief period it is warming to normal operating temperature. Either a choke valve is placed ahead of the metering jets and venturi to restrict the amount of air provided for starting and while the engine is cold (defacto making the amount of fuel in a higher ratio), or an enrichment system is used to provide extra fuel (with the normal amount of air) through additional passages. When the choke valve is closed or the enrichment system is actuated, a very rich fuel mixture is drawn into the engine. This mixture will help wake-up a cold motor, but will quickly foul the plugs on a warm engine so it should only be used for cold starts and for running until the motor comes up to operating temperature. The throat of the carburetor is usually referred to as the "barrel." Carburetors installed on engines covered here generally have a single metering jet with a single throttle and, if used, a single choke plate. Single barrel carburetors are fed by one float and chamber. So, as far as carburetors go, these are relatively easy carburetors to understand, rebuild or adjust. COMMON PROBLEMS The last step of fuel system troubleshooting is to adjust or to rebuild and then adjust the carburetor. We say it is the last step, because it is the most involved repair procedures on the fuel system and should only be performed after all other possible causes of fuel system trouble have been eliminated. A wise man once said that 90% of all fuel system problems are actually ignition system problems. And another 5% are usually bad or contaminated fuel or problems with fuel delivery. It's VERY rare that the carb is the problem UNLESS you've allowed the motor to be stored for long periods of time and then run it with bad gas. Fuel Delivery + See Figures 36 and 37 Many times fuel system troubles are caused by a plugged fuel filter, a defective fuel pump, or by a leak in the line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump. Aged fuel left in the carburetor and the formation of varnish could cause the needle to stick in its seat and prevent fuel flow into the bowl. A defective choke may also cause problems. Would you believe, a majority of starting troubles, which are traced to the fuel system, are the result of an empty fuel tank or aged fuel? If fuel delivery problems are suspected, refer to the testing procedures under Fuel Tank and Lines to make sure the tank vent is workina ~rooerlv , , and that there are no leaks or restrictions that would prevent fuel from getting to the pump andlor carburetor(s). A blocked low-pressure fuel filter causes hard starting, stalling, misfire or poor performance. Typically the engine malfunction worsens with increased engine speed. This filter prevents contaminants from reaching the low- pressure fuel pump. Refer to the Fuel Filter in the section on Maintenance and Tune-up for more details on checking, cleaning or replacing fuel filters. Sour Fuel + See Figure 5 Fuel will begin to sour in a matter of weeks, and within a couple of months, will cause engine starting problems. Therefore, leaving the motor setting idle with fuel in the carburetor, lines, or tank during the off-season, often results in very serious problems. A fuel additive such as [email protected] may be used to prevent gum from forming during storage or prolonged idle periods. Refer to the information on Fuel System Basics in this section, specifically the procedure under Fuel entitled Checking for Stalelcontaminated Fuel will provide information on how to determine if stale fuel is present in the system. If draining the system of contaminated fuel and refilling it with fresh fuel does not make a difference in the problem, look for restrictions or other problems with the fuel delivery system. If stale fuel was left in the tanklsystem for a long period of time and evaporation occurred, there is a good chance that the carburetor is gummed (tiny passages are clogged by deposits left behind when the fuel evaporated), if no fuel delivery problems are found, the carburetor(s) should be removed for disassembly and cleaning, @ Although there are some commercially available fuel system cleaning products that are either added to the fuel mixture or sprayed into the carburetor throttle bores, the truth is that although they can provide some measure of improvement, there is not substitute for a thorough disassembly and cleaning. The more fuel which was allowed to evaporate, the more gum or varnish that may have been left behind and the more likely that only a disassembly will be able to restore proper performance. ChokeIEnrichment Problems See Figure 38 When the engine is hot, the fuel system can cause starting problems. After a hot engine is shut down, the temperature inside the fuel bowl may rise to 20VF (94OC) and cause the fuel to actually boil. All carburetors are vented to allow this pressure to escape to the atmosphere. However, some of the fuel may percolate over the main nozzle. If the choke should stick in the open position or the enrichment circuit (manual or electric) fail to operate while the engine is cold, it will be hard to start. Likewise, if the choke should stick in the closed position or the Fig. 36 Suzuki motors use a mechanically Fig. 37 .,.or to the cylinder headlvalve Fig. 38 Fouled spark plug, possibly caused operated fuel pump mounted to the side of cover, where it can be actuated by the by over-choking or a malfunctioning the crankcase directlv. . . camshaft enrichment circuit enrichment circuit remains activated during normal engine operating temperatures, the engine will flood making it very difficult to start or, once started, making it buck or hesitate, especially at lower speeds. In order for this raw fuel to vaporize enough to burn, considerable air must be added to lean out the mixture. Therefore, one remedy is to make sure the choke is open or the enrichment circuit is off and open the throttle to the fully open position (to allow in maximum air) and hold it there while the engine is cranked. If this doesn't work, the only remedy remaining is to remove the spark plugs and ground the leads, then crank the powerhead through about ten revolutions to blow out raw fumes. Then, clean the plugs; install the plugs again; and start the engine. If the needle valve and seat assembly is leaking, an excessive amount of fuel may enter the intake manifold in the following manner: After the powerhead is shut down, the pressure left in the fuel line will force fuel past the leaking needle valve. This extra fuel will raise the level in the fuel bowl and cause fuel to overflow into the intake manifold. A continuous overflow of fuel into the intake manifold may be due a defective float or over priming the system using the primer bulb which would cause an extra high level of fuel in the bowl and overflow into the intake manifold. Rough Engine Idle Ifa powerhead does not idle smoothly, the most reasonable approach to the problem is to perform a tune-up (remember, we said about 90% of all fuel problems are really ignition problems) to eliminate such areas as faulty spark plugs and timing or synchronization out of adjustment. Other problems that can prevent an engine from running smoothly include an air leak in the intake manifold or uneven compression between the cylinders. Of course any problem in the carburetor affecting the airlfuel mixture will also prevent the engine from operating smoothly at idle speed. These problems usually include too high a fuel level in the bowl; a heavy float; leaking needle valve and seat; defective choke or enrichment circuit; and improper idle (low-speed) needle valve adjustments. 'Sour" fuel (fuel left in a tank without a preservative additive) will cause an engine to run rough and idle with great difficulty. As with all troubleshooting procedures, start with the easiest items to checklfix and work towards the more complicated ones. Excessive Fuel Consumption See Figures 39 and 40 Excessive fuel consumption can result from one of three conditions, or a combination of all three. 1. Inefficient engine operation. 2. Damaged condition of the hull, outdrive or propeller, including excessive marine growth. 3. Poor boating habits of the operator. If the fuel consumption suddenly increases over what could be considered normal, then the cause can probably be attributed to the engine or boat and not the operator (unless heishe just drastically changed the manner in which the boat is operated). Marine growth on the hull can have a very marked effect on boat performance. This is why sail boats always try to have a haul-out as close to race time as possible. While you are checking the bottom take note of the propeller condition. A bent blade or other damage will definitely cause poor boat performance. If the hull and propeller are in good shape, then check the fuel system for possible leaks. Check the line between the fuel pump and the carburetor while the engine is running and the line between the fuel tank and the pump when the engine is not running. A leak between the tank and the pump many times will not appear when the engine is operating, because the suction created by the pump drawing fuel will not allow the fuel to leak. Once the engine is turned off and the suction no longer exists, fuel may begin to leak. If a minor tune-up has been performed and the spark plugs and engine timingisynchronization are properly adjusted, then the problem most likely is in the carburetor, indicating an overhaul is in order. Check for leaks at the needle valve and seat. Use extra care when making any adjustments affecting the fuel consumption, such as the float level. Engine Surge If the enaine operates as if the load on the boat is beina constantly increased and decreased, even though an attempt is being made to hold a constant enaine soeed. the oroblem can most likelv be attributed to the fuel pump. ~eferto ~uel ~ankand Lines in this sectionfor information on Fig. 39 Marine growth on the lower unit will create "drag" and seriously hamper boat performance Fig. 40 Hub and/or propeller damage will also cause poor performance checking the lines for restrictions and checking fuel flow. Also, refer to Fuel Pump under Carbureted Fuel System for more information on fuel pump operation and service. This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal and installation (including initial bench adjustments), overhaul (disassembly/assembly) and cleaning and inspecting, for the various carburetors installed on powerheads covered in this manual. Although there are similarities between the carburetors used on each motor, small differences from model-to-model make it best to cover them in multiple procedures, sorted by the models on which that carburetor is found. SERVICE (REMOVAL. OVERHAUL & INSTALLATIONS B Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. Make an attempt to keep the work area clean and organized. Be sure to cover parts after they have been cleaned. This practice will prevent foreign matter from entering passageways or adhering to critical parts. Be sure to have a rag handy to catch spilled fuel, as some fuel is bound to still be present in the lines and the float bowl. Take this opportunity to closely inspect the fuel lines and replace any that are damaged or deteriorated. During removal or overhaul procedures, always matchmark hoses or connections prior to removal to ensure proper assembly and installation. Following a rebuild a complete and the initial bench settings, perform the complete Timing and Synchronization procedure as detailed in the Maintenance and Tune-up section. To avoid leaks, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, O-rings or seals whenever a fuel system component is removed. This is especially true when rebuilding a carburetor. 2.5 Hp Motors See Figure 41 This carburetor is Walbro LMJ-26 single-barrel, float feed type with a manual choke. Fuel to the carburetor is normally gravity fed from a fuel tank mounted at the top front of the powerhead. The carburetor contains both a replaceable main air jet and pilot air jet, but no data is available on whether or not it contains an adjustable pilot screw (as the factory data only says "pre-set"), Cold start enrichment is achieved with a manual choke. Removal & Installation DERATE See Figures 41 and 42 w 1. Remove the engine top cover for access. 2. Remove the spark plug lead to prevent accidental starting of the engine. Shut off the fuel supply at the fuel valve on the side of the engine. 3. Remove the Manual Starter for access, as detailed in the Hand Rewind Starter section. B If you make some small marks on the throttle control inner cable right where it enters the linkage, you may be able to skip the adjustment procedure during installation, or at least you'll make it quicker and easier. 4. Locate the throttle control inner cable where it connects to the throttle lever on top of the carburetor. Loosen the screw that secures the cable. 5. Carefully detach the choke rod from the linkage on the carburetor. IF you have enough room to get at the fuel line, you may want to skip ahead one step and disconnect it BEFORE you remove the carburetor bolts. If you don't have enough room, you MAY be able to remove one of the bolts, and loosen the other, then pivot the carb slightly for access (this can be easier than holding the carburetor while also trying to disconnect the fuel line, as Suzuki recommends). 6. Loosen the 2 bolts that secure the air intake silencer and carburetor assembly. Once the bolts are free, separate the air intake silencer and put it aside, but hold the carburetor in position until you can disconnect the fuel line. 7. Place a small shop rag under the fuel line connection at the carburetor (to catch any escaping fuel still in the line), then squeeze the tabs on the fuel line spring-type clamp and slide the clamp back up the fuel line until it is past the fuel inlet nipple. Carefully and gently twisffpull the hose from the carburetor. 8. Remove and discard the old carburetor-to-intake manifold gasket. Also, it appears that there may be some bushings that install between the carburetor and air intake silencer (through which the retaining bolts are inserted), so if used, make sure they are in position and in good condition. To install: H Install the carburetor gasket dry. Do not use sealer. AND, DO NOT reuse the old gasket. 9. Use the two mounting bolts to loosely hold the air intake silencer and carburetor together as an assembly. 10. Connect the fuel tank supply hose to the carburetor and secure to the fitting using the spring clamp. 11. Place the NEW carb-to-intake gasket over the ends of the mounting bolts (which were installed through the air intake silencer and carburetor assembly earlier), then position the assembly to the intake manifold and lightly thread the bolts. Once you're sure everything is properly aligned and the gasket is seated, tighten the bolts to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 12. Install/adjust the throttle cable to the top of the carburetor as follows: a. Fully close the throttle control grip. Idle Adjusting Screw a-Float Chamber Gasket Main Nozzle Main Jet -Float 3rain screw G-asket -Bolt Fig. 41 Exploded view of the carburetor assembly -2.5 Hp Motors 1 Fig. 42 Exploded view of the carburetor mounting -2.5 Hp Motors b. Loosen the spring loaded idle adjusting screw (next to the throttle lever) COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the screw does NOT touch the stopper olate anvmore (doesn't hold the throttle ooen at all). This steo is NOT ' bm~letilvnecessary if you made matchmarks. ' c. insert the throttle control inner cable into the hole provided in the linkage. If you made matchmarks earlier, insert it the exact same distance and tighten the screw to secure it. If you didn't make matchmarks, insert the cable sufficiently to take up any play but not so tight as to start holding the throttle open on its own. d. If the idle screw was disturbed, you'll have to remember to check and adjust idle later. 13. Reconnect the choke linkage to the carburetor. 14. Install the manual starter assembly. 15. Turn the fuel valve ON and allow the carburetor to suitably prime. 16. Check engine idle speed and adjust, as necessary. For details, refer to the procedures found under Timing and Synchronization in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. Also use this opportunity to check for fuel leaks. 17. Shut the powerhead down when finished, then install the engine cover. Overhaul See Figure 41 1. Remove the spring loaded idle adjusting screw from the top of the carburetor (right next to the throttle lever). 2. Remove the 4 Phillips screw at the corners of the carburetor top, then remove the carburetor top plate and gasket. 3. With the plate out of the way, locate and remove the main jet, the pilot air jet and the larger screw which is threaded over top of the pilot jet. With the screw out of the way, remove the pilot jet. 4. Position the carburetor over a small drain basin, then remove the float bowl drain screw from the bottom side of the carburetor and drain any fuel remaining in the bowl. 5. Remove the 1 large float chamber (bowl) retaining bolt (and bolt gasket, which should be replaced during installation), then turn the carburetor upside down and carefully lift the float chamber from the carburetor body. Take care not to damage the float chamber gasketlo-ring, as it can be reused if undamaged. 6. Remove the float pin (from right to LEFT when looking at the inverted carburetor with the pin bosses positioned closer to you than the float). Once the pin is freed, remove the float and float spring, noting the position of the spring (the coiled portion goes over the end of the pin. while one arm goes under the float and the other arm wraps around the carburetor boss through which the pin is installed. If necessary, carefully separate the needle valve from the float. 7. From the bore at the underside center of the carburetor body remove the main jet, followed by the main nozzle. 8. Thoroughly clean and visually check all of the carburetor components as detailed under Cleaning & Inspection in this section, To assemble: 9. Before starting, make sure all components are completely clean and serviceable. Compare parts from the replacement kit to the parts removed from the carburetor. With the exception of wear or damage that might occur on the old parts (requiring their replacement in the first place) the new components should be identical. If you have any questions, check with a local dealer to check parts against a current part catalog before proceeding. To ensure proper operation and durability, replace all displaced or disturbed aaskets, 0-rinas or seals when rebuildina a carburetor - regardlessof their appearance. Do NOT over-tighten needles or jets as this will likely cause distortion and problems with airlfuel metering. 10. Install the main nozzle to the bore in the center, underside of the carburetor body, then install carefully and gently the main jet. 11. If removed, install a new float chamber gasketlo-ring to the groove in the underside of the carburetor body. 12. Carefully position the needle valve to the float, then lower the combination onto the carburetor throttle body positioning the float spring and the hinge pin. Remember to install the hinge pin from the left side boss (when looking straight on at both hinge bosses, with the bosses facing you and the float facing away). 13. Make sure the float moves smoothly, then position the carburetor on its side so the needle is closed BUT the weight of the float IS NOT APPLIED to the valve. Use a pair of vernier calipers with a depth gauge to measure the distance from the bottom of the float to the float chamber mating surface of the carburetor body. The float height should be 0.31-0.47 in. (8-12mm) 14. Install float chamber using the bolt and a NEW bolt gasket, then tighten the bolt securely. Make sure the drain screw, if removed, is also installed securely. 15. Moving to the top of the carburetor install the pilot jet followed by the plug that goes in the bore above it, then install the pilot air jet to the smaller bore right next to it, and toward the opposite side of the carburetor install the main air jet. 16. Install the carburetor cover using a new gasket, and tighten the screws securely. 17. Install the idle adjusting screw. 18. Install the carburetor as detailed earlier in this section. 19. Adjust the idle speed as detailed under the Engine Maintenance section. 41516 Hp Motors @ See Figures 43 and 44 There are 2 slightly different versions of the carburetors used on this manual. Both are a single-barrel, float feed type with fixed main jets and a manual choke. However, there are differences in the Mikuni carburetor bodies used through mid-2004 and the Keihin carburetor bodies used starting in mid-2004 and on all 2005 and later models. However, since the carburetors are functionally almost identical, the differences are only important when servicing them or replacing parts. The quick and easy way to tell the difference is that the Mikunis have a rounded float bowl which is secured by a single large bolt at She bottom center of the bowl. while Keihins have a rounded bowl with a square flange that is secured by 4 screws. Although, keep in mind that it is always possible that a carburetor from a different year could have wound up on any given motor or for motors in different markets, so visually confirm the carburetor on which you are working using the accompanying exploded views. The other main difference between the two is that an adjustable pilot screw is normally found on the top side of the Mikuni carbs (though it might be cappedlsealed on some versions), while the Suzuki literature doesn't even SHOW a screw on the Keihins (though it must be there and capped since some markets show a pilot jet setting). The final difference is in the location of the pilot and main jets. The Mikuni carburetor body places a pilot jet vertically on the same side as the pilot screw (which is the opposite side of the throttle stop screw) and the main jet in the lower, front end of the carburetor body. On Keihin carbs the pilot jet has been moved and is mounted at an angle downward on the same side as the throttle stop screw, and the main jet has been relocated into the underside of the carburetor body, just above the nozzle. Removal& Installation DERATE v @ See Figures 43 thru 49 The accompanying photos are from a Mikuni equipped test motor. Keihins should be similar, but NOT identical. 1. Remove and ground the spark plug lead to prevent any accidental attempt at starting of the engine. If you mark the throttle control inner cable before removal to show how far it is inserted through the linkage it will make installation a little easier. 2. Loosen the small horizontally mounted screw that secures the throttle control inner cable (the screw is just under the throttle tab, on the linkage at the top of the carburetor). 3. Release the spring clamp, then remove the breather tube and protector from the holder on the flame arrestor. 4. Release the spring clamp(s), then disconnect the fuel hose and, if applicable the air vent [email protected]) from the carburetor fitting($. Have a rag or small drain basin handy to drain residual fuel from the carburetor fuel hose. 5. At the top of the carburetor, disconnect the choke rod from the linkage. 6. Loosen and remove the 2 bolts securing the flame arrester (with holder) and the carburetor itself to the intake manifold. Carefully remove the assembly and gasket from the intake manifold. Clean the gasket mating surfaces of any remaining material. To install: Install the carburetor gasket dry. Do not use sealer. AND, DO NOT reuse the old gasket. 7. Position a new gasket, the carburetor and the flame arrester (with the smooth side facing outward) against the intake and thread the mounting bolts to hold them. Or alternately, assemble the components (flame arrester, holder, carburetor and then gasket) over the mounting bolts and use the bolts to hold them together as you move the assembly into position against Choke Rod Connector Y Throttle Choke Knob aFloat Float Bowl Gasket Float Bowl "ÇH urain Screw Float Bowl 4 Retainer Fig. 43 Exploded view of the Mikuni carburetor assemblies used on 41516 hp motors through mid-2004 the powerhead and lightly thread the bolts. Either way, once the assembly i! seated, tighten the 2 mounting bolts alternately and evenly to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 8. Reconnect the choke rod to the linkage. 9. Reconnect the fuel and, if applicable,air vent hoses to the carburetor fittings and secure using the spring clamp(s). 10. Reconnect the breather tube and protector to the flame arrestor holder and secure using the spring clamp. B IF you marked the inner throttle cable before removal, you can usually avoid the part in the next step about loosening the throttle stop (idle adjusting screw). Then again, if you've done anything significant with carburetor (rebuilt or replaced) you'll likely have to adjust idle speed anyway, but the choice is yours. 11. Fully close the throttle grip and turn the throttle stop (idle adjusting) screw counterclockwise until the screw no longer touches the stopper plate. Insert the throttle control inner cable into the linkage hole (to the same point as was marked during removal, if it was indeed marked), then while pulling the cable gently tighten the screw to secure the cable. 12. Gently squeeze the primer bulb while checking for fuel leakage. Correct any fuel leaks before returning the engine to service. 13. Perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance & Tune-up Section. If the carburetor was repaired or rebuilt and it is an adjustable model, be sure to perform the initial low speed adjustment procedure. Either way the idle speed needs to be set. Overhaul CULT v See Figures 43,44 and 50 B Remember, the quick and easy way to tell the difference between the 2 types of carburetors you might find on these motors is that the ikunis have a rounded float bowl which is secured by a single large bolt at the bottom center of the bowl, while Keihins have a rounded bowl with a square flange that is secured by 4 screws. Air Vent Hoses Clarnp-e xploded view of the Keihin carburetor assemblies used in mid-2004 or later 41516 Hp Motors 1. Position the carburetor over a small drain basin, then remove the float bowl drain screw from the bottom side of the carburetor float bowl and drain any fuel remainina in the bowl. 2. For Mikuni models equipped with a pilot (idle mixture) screw, remove the screw and spring from the top side of the carburetor body (threaded downward at an angle, on same side as the pilot jet, which is on the opposite side of the throttle stoplidle speed screw and spring. Before removing the screw, count and record the number of turns required to lightly seat the idle adjustment screw. The number of turns will give a rough adjustment during installation. Back out the idle speed screw and spring from the side of the carburetor body. Normally you discard the screw, but save the spring (a new screw is usually provided in the carburetor rebuild kit to ensure a damaged screw is not used again.) On Keihin models with a pilot (idle mixture) screw, you need to follow the same procedure as the previous step, but since the Suzuki diagrams don't show the screw, we can't tell you where to find it. 3. For all models, locate and remove the pilot jet. On Mikuni models it is threaded vertically into the top of the carburetor body on the same side of the pilot screw (opposite side from the throttle stop screw), but on Keihin models it is threaded downward at an angle (on the same side as the throttle stop screw). 4 Invert the carburetor, then remove the float bowl retainer(s). For Mikuni models there is a single, large bolt at the center of the bowl (along with a gasket which should be replaced to prevent the possibility of fuel leaks). On Keihin models there are 4 bolts (one at each corner of the bowl mounting flange). 5. Lift the float bowl and gasket from the underside of the carburetor body. Discard the old gasket. The float hinge pin can only be removed in one direction these models. And that direction varies with the type of carb (Mikuni type vs. the later model type). 6. Position the carb upside-down (with the float facing upward) with the float pin closest to you (and the float itself further away from you). In this Fig. 45 Loosen the screw and disconnect ig. 46 Remove the breather tube from the Fig. 47 Disconnect the fuel line from the the throttle cable from the linkage carb fuel inlet CARB& " FLAMEARRESTE RETAINING BOLTS Fig. 48 Disconnect the choke linkage from Fig. 49 Remove the bolts securing the flame Fig. 50 Measure float height from the edge the carb arrester holder and carburetor of the float to the gasket mating surface 1 1 direction the float pin must be removed by pushing FROM THE LEFT SIDE TOWARDS THE RIGHT on Mikuni model carburetors or from the RIGHT SIDE PUSHING TOWARDS THE LEFT on Keihin model carbs. Using a small pick or awl, carefully remove the float hinge pin, then remove the float and float valve from the carburetor body (note that the Keihin models have a removable clip, so don't loose track of it). 7. Remove the main orifice (high speed jet) from either the side of the carburetor body (Mikuni models) or from the underside of the body, just below the nozzle (Keihin models). Remove the nozzle from the underside, center of the carb body. 8. Remove the throttle stop screw and spring mounted horizontally in the boss on the side of the carburetor body. 9. Thoroughly clean and visually check all of the carburetor components as detailed under Cleaning & Inspection in this section. To assemble: 10. Before starting, make sure all components are completely clean and serviceable. Compare parts from the replacement kit (especially the gaskets) to the parts removed from the carburetor. With the exception of wear or damage that might occur on the old parts (requiring their replacement in the first place) the new components should be identical. If you have any questions, check with a local dealer to check parts against a current parts catalog before proceeding. H To ensure proper operation and durability, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, O-rings or seals when rebuilding a carburetor regardless of their appearance. 11. Install the throttle stop screw and spring to the boss in the top of the carburetor body. Thread the screw until it just contacts the idle adjustment lever. 12. Install the fuel nozzle into the underside, center of the carburetor body. 14. Carefully insert the float valve into the valve seat, while installing the float using the hinge pin. Remember to install the hinge pin in the opposite direction of which it was removed. After securing the float, check for smooth movement of the float and needle assembly. 15. Hold the carburetor either at about a 45 degree angle with the float hinge upward (Keihin) or completely sideways but still with the float in the needle closed position (Mikuni), so that you can check the float height while making sure the float WEIGHT is not applied to the needle valve. Using a suitable vernier calipers or other instrument, measure the distance from the float bowl gasket mating surface on the carburetor body to the parallel surface on the bottom of the float. This measurement varies with the yearltype of carburetor and should be 0.51-0.59 in. (13-15mm) for Mikuni models or 0.35-0.43 in. (9-11mm) on Keihin models. If adjustment is necessary carefully bend only the adjustment tab itself toachieve the required measurement. But DO NOT bend it to the point that the tab applies pressure to the needle and seat. Be VERY careful when measuring or adjusting the float height not to force the float needle valve downward into the seat. The valve or the seat will likely be damaged if this occurs. 16. Install the float bowl using a new gasket and tighten the [email protected]) securely. On Mikuni models with the round bowl and the single retaining bolt, be sure to replace the bolt gasketlwasher to help ensure there will be no fuel leaks. 17. Install the pilot jet. 18. If equipped, install the low speed (idle) mixture screw and spring into the top of the cover. Thread the screw slowly into the bore until it just lightly contacts the seat, then back it off the specified number of turns listed in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications tableor alternately the number of turns you 13. Install the main jet. counted when you seated it before unthreading during disassembly. 19. Install the carburetor, then perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance & Tune-up Section (including the idle speed and, if applicable, mixture adjustments). 9.9115 Hp and 25 hp V2 Motors @ See Figures 51 and 52 There are different versions of the carburetors used on these models. All are single-barrel, float feed types. However the units from two different carburetor manufacturers were used over the years and they have different forms of cold start enrichment. Generally speaking, through 2004 the carburetors mounted on these powerheads were from Mikuni and they utilized either a manual choke (rope start or tiller electric models) or the used an electric choke (remote electric models, but optional on the tiller electrics). Starting for the 2005 model year Suzuki switched to a different supplier, Keihin whose carburetors utilize either a manual primer (rope start or tiller electric) or an electric primer (remote control models). The Keihin carburetors may or may not be equipped with an accelerator pump, depending upon the model (though the 15 hp and 25 hp motors should normally have one). Obviously since the 25 hp V2 was not introduced until 2006, the Keihins are the only carburetors you would EXPECT to find on that powerhead. We say these are the carburetors you would "expect" to find because keep in mind that it is always possible that a carburetor from a different year could have wound up on any given motor or for motors in different markets, so visually confirm the carburetor on which you are working using the accompanying exploded views. The quick and easy way to tell the difference is that the Mikunis have a more rounded float bowl (and once you remove it, a very rounded float) whereas the Keihins have a squared float bowl with a float that utilizes 2 rectangular sections. Removal& Installation DERATE @ See Figures 51 thru 54 -+=- On some of these motors (specifically 9.9115 hp motors with Keihin carburetors) positioning of components, like the fuel line nipple on the carb, is such that removing the carburetor and THEN disconnecting hoses, linkage and wiring is usually easier. Parts of this procedure are therefore written that way. Remember that the quick and easy way to tell the difference between the 2 types of carbs used on these powerheads is that the Mikunis have a more rounded float bowl (and once you remove it, a very rounded float) whereas the Keihins have a squared float bowl with a float that utilizes 2 rectangular sections. Or looking at them another way, the Mikunis use a choke, and the Keihins use a primer. 1. Remove the engine top cover for access. 2. For safety either tag and disconnect the spark plug leads andlor on electric start models, disconnect the negative battery cable to prevent accidental starting or cranking of the motor. 3. On 9.9115 hp motors remove the starboard side lower engine cover for access. Refer to the procedure under and Engine Covers, as necessary. 4. On 25 hp motors, for access, either remove the Flywheel cover or the Hand Rewind Starter assembly along with the air intake silencer from the top of the powerhead (as applicable). 5. On Mikuni-equipped 9.9115 hp motors, proceed as follows: a. On models through 2002 remove the choke knob from the end of the rod, then tag and disconnect the breather hose from the cylinder head cover. If it is difficult to access the fuel supply hose, the throttle and/or the choke rod from the carburetor, simply wait until the carburetor is unbolted, then position it as necessary for access. b. Disconnect the fuel supply hose either from the fuel pump (that's the method suggested through 2002) or from the carburetor inlet fitting. Have a rag handy, as you should expect fuel to escape from the line and possibly the carb inlet nipple. On some models (again, usually through 2002) there is a fuel hose clamp bolted to the powerhead right underneath the flywheel/manual starter cover, if so equipped remove the clamp and free the fuel hose from it. Pilot hamber Cap ose Fig. 51 Exploded view of the Mikuni carburetor generally found on 9.9115 Hp motors through 2004 (note the accelerator pump differs slightly on some models) c. Disconnect the throttle control rod from the carburetor. On 2003-04 models, disconnect the choke rod from the carburetor as well. On earlier models Suzuki had you remove the choke rod along with the carburetor which is why you pulled the knob from the end of it earlier. d. Loosen and remove the 2 bolts securing the air intake silencer, carburetor and insulator to the powerhead. Carefully separate the components and hold the carburetor as you disengage the remaining components to free it. e. If not done earlier, disconnect the fuel hose, the throttle control rod andlor the choke rod from the carburetor. f. Remove the intake silencer and carburetor assembly. 6. On 9.9115 hp motors equipped with a Keihin carburetor, proceed as follows: a. Loosen and remove the 2 bolts securing the air intake silencer, carburetor and insulator to the powerhead. Carefully separate the components and hold the carburetor as you disengage the remaining components to free it. b. Disconnect the fuel hose from the carburetor inlet. Have a rag handy, as you should expect fuel to escape from the line and possibly the carb inlet nipple. c. Disconnect the throttle rod from the carburetor. d. On tiller models, unscrew the starter (primer) cable locknut, then remove the cable with plunger. e. For remote models, disconnect the wiring (usually 2 bullet connectors) for the electric primer (auto-enrichener). 7. On 25 hp motors equipped with a Keihin carburetor, proceed as follows: a. On manual primer models (usually rope start models), unscrew the starter (primer) cable locknut, and then remove the cable with plunger. UEL SYST 1. Carburetor body 2. Main nozzle 3. Main jet 4. Pilot jet 5. Cap 6. Float 7. Needle valve 8. Needle valve pin 9. Clip 10. Pin 11. Screw 12. Stop screw 13. Spring 14. Gasket 15. Float boat 16. Drain screw 17. O-ring 18. U-ring 19. Top cover 20. Screw 21. Cable holder 22. Cable guide 23. Cable sealing cap 24. Starter valve 25. Spring 26. O-ring 27. Drain hose 28. Clip 29. Plate 30. Screw 31. Starter assy I0 32. Clip 33. Cap 34. Plunger 15 35. Spring 36. Starter knob assy 37. Cable protector 17 n LU- 15 HP -or 25 HP Only Electric Prii Tie Models A Manual Prime Models Fig. 52 Exploded view of the Keihin carburetor generally found on 2005 or later 9.9115 Hp and 25 hp V2 motors (note that not all components are used on all carbs) Fig. 54 . . .you can disconnect the choke at either end (knob or Fig. 53 View of a Mikuni carburetor with manual choke. .. carbl 1 1 b. On electric primer models (usually both Tiller Electric and Remote Electric models), disconnect the wiring (usually 2 bullet connectors) for the electric primer (auto-enrichener). c. At the front of the carburetor throttle body locate the securing plate which is bolted down to the top of the powerhead. Loosen and remove the 2 bolts which are threaded vertically downward through the plate into the powerhead. d. Next remove the 2 bolts which are threaded horizontally from the securing plate through the carburetor body into the intake. e. Remove the plate, outlet tube, carburetor, gasket, insulator and gasket (in that order) from the intake manifold. f. Gently reposition the carburetor for access to the fuel hose, and then carefully free the hose from the carburetor fuel inlet. 8. lf not done earlier, remove and discard the old carburetor gasket, then carefully clean all gasket mating surfaces of any remaining material. To install: install the carburetor, and if applicable, insulator [email protected]) dry. Do not use sealer. Also DO NOT reuse an old gasket or air leakage may result which can severely lean the mixture and damage the powerhead. 9. On Keihin-equipped models, prepare the carburetor for installation by getting the insulator and 2 gaskets ready. 10. On 25 hp motors with a Keihin carburetor, proceed as follows: a. Hold the carburetor in position and reconnect the hose to the carburetor fuel inlet. b. If not done already, install the insulator using a new gasket, making sure that the projection on the diamond point of the insulator is faced to the STARBOARD and INTAKE MANIFOLD sides. Next position the carburetor gasket, the carburetor, outlet tube and plate and loosely install the 2 horizontal bolts to secure everything. Actually, we sometimes find it easier to use the bolts to hold everything together before seating everything against the manifold, the choice is yours. c. Loosely install the other 2 securing plate bolts (the vertical ones), and then tighten all 4 bolts to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm), d. On electric primer models, reconnect the wiring (usually 2 bullet connectors) for the electric primer (auto-enrichener). e. On manual primer models, install the starter (primer) cable and plunger, and then tighten the locknut securely. f. Install either the Flywheel cover or the Hand Rewind Starter assembly, as equipped. 11. On Keihin-equipped 9.911 5 hp motors, hold the carburetor next to the powerhead and reconnect the necessary wires, linkage andlor hoses as follows: a. On remote models, reconnect the wiring (usually 2 bullet connectors) for the electric primer (auto-enrichener). b. On tiller models, install the starter (primer) cable and plunger, then tighten the locknut securely. c. Connect the throttle rod from the carburetor. d. Connect the fuel hose from the carburetor inlet. When installing the carburetor gasket make sure the cold start fuel passage (the small port along the rim of the throttle body) is NOT obstructed, or expect cold start problems. e. Position a new gasket on either side of the insulator, then position the insulator (with the projection facing Starboard toward the intake manifold), carburetor and air intake silencer to the powerhead, then secure using the retaining screws. Tighten the bolts to 89 inch 1bs.F ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). f. Make sure that all components which were disturbed have been returned to their original positions (except the starboard lower engine cover, as you will install that after checking for leaks). 12. On Mikuni-equipped 9.9115 hp motors, you can either hold the carburetor next to the powerhead and reconnect the necessary wires, linkage and/or hoses, if that was the method you used during disassembly OR if you followed the steps recommended for 2002 and earlier models you can put the carburetor in position and then reconnect the fuel hose etc. as follows: a. On models through 2002 remove the choke knob from the end of the rod, then tag and disconnect the breather hose from the cylinder head cover. E If it Is difficult to access the fuel supply hose, the throttle and/or the choke rod from the carburetor, simply wait until the carburetor is unbolted, then position it as necessary for access. b. Loosely position the intake silencer and carburetor assembly. c. If connecting linkage and hoses before the carburetor is secured, do it at this time. Reconnect the choke rod andlor throttle control rod, then reconnect the fuel hose. d. Install the carburetor and intake silencer using a new gasket, then carefully tighten the two retaining bolts to 89 inch Ibs.17ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). e. if not done earlier, reconnect the throttle control rod to the carburetor. f. If not done earlier, reconnect the fuel line to the carburetor or the fuel pump, as applicable. If you followed the method suggested through 2002 install the fuel line to the hose clamp and secure the clamp to the powerhead right underneath the flywheellmanual starter. g. If applicable, reconnect the breather hose to the cylinder head cover. h. If removed, install the choke knob to the end of the choke rod. 13. Gently squeeze the primer bulb while checking for fuel leakage. Correct any fuel leaks before returning the engine to service. 14. On 25 hp motors, install the manual starter or flywheel cover and air intake silencer assembly, as applicable. 15. On 9.911 5 hp motors, install the starboard lower engine cover. 16. Perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance & Tune-up Section. If the carburetor was repaired or rebuilt, be sure to perform the initial low speed adjustment procedure Overhaul CULT See Figures 50,51and 52 Remember that the quick and easy way to tell the difference between the 2 types of carbs used on these powerheads is that the Mikunis have a more rounded float bowl (and once you remove it, a very rounded float) whereas the Keihins have a squared float bowl with a float that utilizes 2 rectangular sections. Or looking at them another way, the Mikunis use a choke, and the Keihins use a primer. 1. Position the carburetor over a small drain basin, then remove the float bowl drain screw from the bottom or bottom side of the carburetor and drain any fuel remaining in the bowl. If equipped (and we know it should be on the Keihins, but can't tell for sure on the Mikunis) discard the drain screw O-ring and replace with a new one during assembly to prevent fuel leakage. 2. On Keihin models with an electric primer (generally only remote models on 9.9115 hp powerheads, but usually includes both remote AND tiller electric 25 hp motors), loosen the screw (9.9115 hp) or screws (25 hp) on the enrichener mounting plate, then remove the enrichener assembly from the bore on the top of the carburetor cover. 3. On Keihin models, loosen the 4 screws securing the carburetor cover to the top of the carburetor body, then remove the cover and discard the old gasket. On carbs which contain a covered pilot screw the manufacturer warns NOT to remove the cover or attempt to adjust the screw. They do not give an explanation for this (whether or not this is IegalIEPA related, but we have our suspicions). 4. If equipped and if desired, remove the low speed (idle mixture) screw from the bore in the side of the carburetor cover (for Keihin models it is on the lower left corner when you are looking at the enrichener bore in the cover, but for Mikuni models it is on the top, side of the carburetor body just above the roller for the throttle lever). Before removing the screw, count and record the number of turns required to lightly seat the idle adjustment screw. The number of turns will give a rough adjustment during installation. Back out the idle speed screw from the side of the carburetor body. 5. Invert the carburetor so it is sitting on the top of the throttle body (on the carburetor cover gasket mating surface for Keihin models), then remove the 4 float bowl screws. Slowly lift the float bowl and gasket from the underside of the carburetor body exposing the float assembly. On Keihin carburetors equipped with an accelerator pump (usually only on 15 hp and 25 hp models) you are also exposing the pump assembly (which includes a spring which might pop free if you're not careful). On Mikuni models, though you're exposing the top of the pump, there is usually less of a chance of it springing free, but use care just the same. Remove and discard the old float bowl gasket. 6. Remove the float assembly as follows, depending upon the model: On Mikuni models, position the carburetor with the float on top and facing away from you so the hinge pin bosses are closest to you. Carefully push the float pin FROM the RIGHT SIDE and OUT to the LEFT. The left side of the pin should have a small flat on it. Carefully remove the float and float valve. Also on these models there is a screw and tab securing the valve seat. If necessary remove the screw, tab and seat. On Keihin models, remove the screw securing the float pin, then carefully remove the float hinge pin followed by the float and float valve from the carburetor body. 7. Remove the main jet either from the bore in the center of the carburetor body underside (Keihin) or from the bore in the front of the carburetor (Mikuni). 8. Remove the main nozzle from the bore in the center of the carburetor body underside. For Mikuni models you first need to remove the main jet nozzle cap. 9. Remove the pilot jet from the carburetor body. On Keihin models it is in the bore just off-center (next to the main jet and nozzle), remove the cap, then remove the pilot jet. On Mikuni models it is in the bore on the side of the carburetor body, about centered. 10. If equipped remove the accelerator pump components depending on the carburetor as follows: * On Mikuni carburetors the components should be installed in the bore on the side of the float bowl. Carefully remove the 2 caps, followed by the holder, plunger and spring. Remove and discard the old O-ring at this time. * On Keihin carburetors (usually only on 15 hp and 25 hp models), from the bore toward the side of the carburetor body, remove the spring and accelerator pump plunger. On the side of the carburetor body release the clamp and remove the rubber cap for the pump plunger. 11. Thoroughly clean and visually check all of the carburetor components as detailed under Cleaning & Inspection in this section. 12. To check the electric primer on Keihin models so equipped, proceed as follows: a. Note the position of the needle, then connect it using a set of jumper wires to a 12-volt power source. b. Wait at least 5 minutes, while periodically checking the needle position to see if it has changed. The needle must be visibly longer after 5 minutes or the assembly must be replaced, 13. To check the electric choke on Mikuni models so equipped, use a DVOM to check solenoid coil resistance across the terminals for the Orange and Black wires. At an ambient temperature of about 68OF (20%) you should see about 2.8-4.2 ohms resistance. To assemble: 14. Before starting, make sure all components are completely clean and serviceable. Compare parts from the replacement kit (especially the gaskets) to the parts removed from the carburetor. With the exception of wear or damage that might occur on the old parts (requiring their replacement in the first place) the new components should be identical. If you have any questions, check with a local dealer to check parts against a current part catalog before proceeding. To ensure proper operation and durability, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, O-rings or seals when rebuilding a carburetor regardless of their appearance. 15. If equipped, install the accelerator pump assembly depending upon the model as follows: On Mikuni models make sure the NEW O-ring is in position, then install the spring, plunger and holder. Install the large cap, followed by the small cap. * On Keihin models, insert the accelerator rod plunger and spring to the bore towards the edge of the carburetor body's underside. On the side of the pump body install the plunger cap and secure using the clamp (clip). 16. Install the pilot jet, and on Keihin models, cover it with the cap. 17. Install the main nozzle to the bore in the center of the carburetor body underside. On Mikuni models install the main jet there next. On Keihin models, install the cap there, then install the main jet to the front of the carburetor. 18. If removed on Mikuni models, install the valve seat and secure using the tab and retaining screw. 19. Carefully install the float along with the needle valve and secure using the hinge pin. On Mikuni models, be sure to insert the pin from the LEFT to the RIGHT side (from the same side you pulled it out of earlier). On Keihin models, lock the hinge pin in place using the retaining screw. Turn the carburetor over for a second and check for smooth float movement, then position the carburetor on its side, with the needle valve closed but WITHOUT the weight of the float on the needle valve to measure installed float height. 20. Using a suitable vernier calipers or other instrument, measure the distance from the float bowl gasket mating surface on the carburetor body to the parallel surface on the bottom of the float. This measurement varies with the carburetor and should be 0.65-0.73 in. (16.6-18.6mm) on Mikuni models or 0.45-0.61 in. (11.5-15.5mm) on Keihin models. If adjustment is necessary carefully bend only the adjustment tab itself to achieve the required measurement. Be VERY careful when measuring or adjusting the float height not to force the float needle valve downward into the seat. The valve or the seat will likely be damaged If this occurs. 21. Install the float bowl to the carburetor body using a new gasket. Install the cover screws, then securely using a crossing pattern. For models with an accelerator pump, actuate the throttle lever by hand feeling and watching for smooth operation of the pump plunger assembly. 22. Invert the carburetor and on Keihin models, install the carburetor cover to the carburetor body using a new gasket. Install the cover screws, then securely using a crossing pattern. 23. If applicable and if removed, install the low speed (pilotlidle) mixture screw and into the round boss on the side of the carburetor cover (Keihin) or to the top, side of the carburetor body just above the roller for the throttle lever (Mikuni). Thread the screw slowly into the bore until it just lightly contacts the seat, then back it off the specified number of turns you counted when you seated it before unthreading during disassembly (or alternately if you didn't count, the number of turns listed in the Carburetor Set-Up Specifications table in this section). 24. On Keihin models with an electric primer, install the enrichener assembly to the bore in the carburetor cover then secure using the screw(s) on the mounting plate. 25. On Mikuni models equipped with an accelerator pump you must checldadjust the pump lever gap before reinstallation to ensure proper pumplcarburetor operation. With the throttle lever fully closed there should be a 0-5mm gap between the accelerator pump lever and the top of the pump plunger rod. If necessary, use the spring loaded throttle lever stop screw which contacts the throttle lever just above and to the side of the accelerator pump plunger to adjust the gap. Keep in mind that this setting is adjusted at the factory and should not NEED to be adjusted in normal service, unless this screw was disturbed. 26. Install the carburetor, then perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance and Tune-up Section (including the idle speed and mixture adjustments). 25/30 Hp (3-Cyl) Motors See Figure 55 These motors are equipped with a stack of 3 carburetors, each mounted individually to a common inlet case which in turn bolts to the intake manifold and air silencer assembly. The carburetors are removed from the powerhead as an assembly and then freed from the inlet case (as they are secured to the case by flange nuts). Although small differences occur between each carburetor (such as a dashpot attached to the top, a choke rod attached to the middle or bottom and an accelerator pump attached to the bottom), each is of the same basic design. Each carburetor is a single-barrel, float feed type containing both a main air jet and main jet in bores at the front of the carburetor throttle body as well as both a pilot jet and pilot needle valve in the side of the carb body. These carburetors are generally equipped with either a manual or an electric choke. Removal& Installation DERATE 9See Figures 55 thru 58 As noted earlier, these carburetors are mounted to a common inlet case which in turn bolts to the intake manifold and air silencer assembly. The carburetors are removed from the powerhead along with the inlet case as an assembly. 1. For safety, disconnect the negative battery cable to prevent accidental cranking of the motor. 2. Either remove the manual starter, as detailed in the Hand Rewind Starter section, or remove the 3 bolts securing the flywheel cover, then remove it from the top of the powerhead, depending on how the outboard is equipped.. 3. Loosen the 4 bolts securing the starboard side lower engine cover and remove the cover for access. For more details, refer to the procedure under and Engine Covers, in the Maintenance &Tune-up section, as necessary. 4. Loosen and remove the 2 bolts securing the air intake silencer case to the powerhead, then remove the 2 bolts securing the air silencer pipe to the crankcase. 5. On Tiller models, follow the choke rod back to the side of the bottom carburetor and locate the E-ring (retaining clip). Carefully remove the clip and free the rod, keeping track of the gasket(s) and other clip. 6. Just in front of the fuel filter, locate and disconnect the throttle control rod from the throttle cam. 7. Remove the bolt securing the fuel filter bracket, then remove/reposition the bracket and the fuel filter assembly. 8. Remove the Fuel Pump, as detailed later in this section. 9. Remove the 2 nuts and 4 bolts that fasten the inlet case to the intake manifold (threaded from the rear of the motorlintake), then slowly remove the carburetor and inlet case assembly from the powerhead. As you pull the assembly away carefully disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the 3-way joint on the bottom. Have a rag handy to catch any fuel which might spill. 10. To remove the carburetors from the assembly, proceed as follows: a. Remove the 4 bolts, then separate the air silencer case from the assembly. b. Remove the choke rods and the throttle link rods from each carburetor. c, As applicable, remove the bolts and choke solenoid (electric choke models) and/or the carburetor protector (tiller models). d. Loosen and remove the flange nuts for each carburetor. e. Separate the plates, air silencer pipe, carburetors, insulators and gaskets from the inlet case. Be sure to discard all gaskets. To install: Install gaskets dry. Do not use sealer. Also DO NOT reuse an old gasket or air leakage may result which can severely lean the mixture and damage the powerhead. 11. Assemble the carburetor and air inlet components using new gaskets. Position the insulators with gaskets on either side, followed by the carburetors, the air silencer gaskets, the air silencer pipe and the carburetor plates all over the air inlet studs. Install the carburetor flange nuts to secure everything and tighten to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 12. Install the choke solenoid and/or carburetor protector, as equipped, and tighten the bolts securely. 13. Install the choke rods and throttle link rods to each carburetor. 14. Install the air silencer case and secure using the 4 bolts. 15. Install the carburetor and air inlet assembly to the powerhead by first holding the assembly almost in place and connecting the fuel inlet hose to the 3-way fitting on the bottom of the assembly. Then, install the assembly to the intake manifold (using a new gasket) and tighten the 2 nuts and 4 retaining bolts to 97 inch lbs.18 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm). 16. Install the Fuel Pump, as detailed later in this section. 17. Install the fuel filter and bracket assembly, and secure using the retaining bolt. 18. Connect the throttle control rod to the throttle cam 19. For tiller models, connect choke rod to the lever on the bottom carburetor, between the E-clips using the gaskets. Secure the outer E-clip to hold the assembly in position. 20. Install and tighten the 2 bolts that secure the air silencer pipe to the crankcase, then install and tighten the 2 bolts that secure the silencer case to the powerhead. 21. Gently squeeze the primer bulb while checking for fuel leakage. Correct any fuel leaks before returning the engine to service. 22. Install the starboard lower engine cover and secure using the 4 retaining bolts. 23. Install the flywheel cover and secure using the 3 retaining bolts or install the manual starter assembly, as applicable. 24. Perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance &Tune-up Section. If the carburetor was repaired or rebuilt, be sure to perform the initial low speed adjustment procedure Fig. 55 Stack of 3 carburetors found on 25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors Carburetor - Fig. 56 Exploded view of the mounting for the 3 carburetors on 25/30 hp motors Overhaul CULT See Figures 50,55 and 59 1. Position the carburetor over a small drain basin, then if equipped, remove the float bowl drain screw from the carburetor float bowl and drain any fuel remaining in the bowl. On carbs which contain a covered pilot screw the manufacturer warns NOT to remove the cover or attempt to adjust the screw. They do - not give an explanation for this (whetheror not this is IegalIEPA related, but we have our suspicions). 2. Locate and remove the Pilot Jet from the bore in the upper side of the carburetor body as well as the Main Air Jet and the Main Jet, each from the bores at the front of the carburetor body (throttle bore). Inlet Case ^I Carburetors not pictured Silencer Gasket \[r~arburetor Plate Q Fig. 57 Exploded view of the air silencer pipe and inlet case assembly -25/30 hp (NOTE: carbs not shown) 3. If equipped and if desired, remove the low speed (idle mixture) screw and spring from the bore in the side of the carburetor body. But before removing the screw, count and record the number of turns required to turn in and lightly seat the idle adjustment screw. The number of turns will give a rough adjustment during installation. Then back out the idle speed screw and spring from the side of the carburetor body. On the bottom carburetor DON'T touch or remove the spring loaded accelerator pump lever screw (the spring loaded screw on the same side of carburetor body as the accelerator pump). This screw is preset at the factory and should not require adjustment, UNLESS you disturb it. 4. Each carburetor will contain one or more spring loaded lever or linkage screws. If desired, back each screw and spring out and position aside. You may wish to take references, as to length of exposed threads or depth that screw is seated to as reference during assembly and installation. 5. If working on the top carburetor and not done already, remove the dash pot. 6. If working on the bottom carburetor, remove the accelerator pump components. Start with the cap and boot, then unthread the holder. Remove and discard the old O-ring from the holder. Remove the plunger and spring. 7. Invert the carburetor with the float bowl facing upward, then remove the float bowl screws (usually 4). Slowly lift the float bowl and gasket from the underside of the carburetor body exposing the float assembly. Remove and discard the old float bowl gasket. 8. Remove the float hinge pin, then carefully remove the float and float needle from the carburetor body. Loosen the screw securing the retainer, then remove the inlet valve and O-ring. 9. Remove the main nozzle cap and O-ring, then remove the main nozzle from the bore in the center of the carburetor body underside. 10. To check the electric choke on models so equipped, use a DVOM to check solenoid coil resistance across the 2 terminals. At an ambient temperature of about 68OF (20°C you should see about 3.8-4.2 ohms resistance. 11. Thoroughly clean and visually check all of the carburetor components as detailed under Cleaning & Inspection in this section. To assemble: 12. Before starting, make sure all components are completely clean and serviceable. Compare parts from the replacement kit (especially the gaskets) to the parts removed from the carburetor. With the exception of wear or damage that might occur on the old parts (requiring their replacement in the first place) the new components should be identical. If you have any questions, check with a local dealer to check parts against a current part catalog before proceeding. To ensure proper operation and durability, replace all displaced or disturbed gaskets, O-rings or seals when rebuilding a carburetor regardless of their appearance. 13. Install the main nozzle along with the nozzle cap and O-ring to the bore in the center of the carburetor body underside. 14. Install the inlet valve using a new O-ring and secure with the retaining plate and screw. 15. Carefully install the float along with the valve needle and secure using the hinge pin. Turn the carburetor over for a second and check for smooth float movement, then return the carburetor to the inverted position with the float facing upward to measure installed float height. 16. Using a suitable vernier calipers or other instrument, measure the distance from the float bowl gasket mating surface on the carburetor body to the parallel surface on the bottom (now the top since it is upside-down) of the float. This measurement should be 0.535-0.615 in. (13.6-15.6mm). If adjustment is necessary carefully bend only the adjustment tab itself to achieve the required measurement. Be VERY careful when measuring or adjusting the float height not to force the float needle valve downward into the seat. The valve or the seat will likely be damaged if this occurs. 17. Install the float bowl to the carburetor body using a new gasket. Install the cover screws, then securely using a crossing pattern. 18. For bottom carburetors (models with an accelerator pump), install the pump plunger with the spring, then install the holder along with a new O-ring. Install the boot and cop on the assembly. Actuate the pump plunger by hand Fig. 58 Loosen the silencer case bolts, then the silencer pipe bolts 1 feeling for smooth operation of the pump plunger assembly. Fig. 59 Exploded view of the carburetor assemblies used on 25/30 hp (3-Cyl) motors (NOTE: not all components used on each carburetor) 19. If applicable and if removed, install the low speed (piloffidle) mixture screw and spring into the round boss on the side of the carburetor body. Thread the screw slowly into the bore until it just lightly contacts the seat, then back it off the specified number of turns you counted when you seated it before unthreading during disassembly. 20. If removed, install the pilot jet, main air jet and main jet into their respective bores in the carburetor body. The pilot jet goes in a bore on the top side, while both main jets go in bores inlaround the throttle body, the main AIR jet, higher up on the carburetor body than the main jet. 21. If the accelerator pump lever screw was disturbed, adjust the gap between the accelerator pump lever and the pump plunger rod using the adjusting screw. When properly set there should be no gap with the throttle valve fully closed, but the rod should also not be preloaded significantly in this position. 22. Install the carburetors, then perform the necessary timing and synchronization procedures from the Maintenance & Tune-up Section (including the idle speed and mixture adjustments). CLEANING & INSPECTION DERATE See Figures 60 thru 65 Start by making sure that all components (even those being discarded) are spread out on a clean work surface for inspection and comparison to replacement parts. Make sure that gaskets are of the same patterns. If a gasket differs, determine if the gasket will function by holding it to each side of the gasket mating surface it will seal. Make sure that the replacement doesn't block or cover any passage that the original did not. If it differs, seek the advice of your parts supplier, they should be able to hunt down the correct gasket or the reason it is now acceptable (possibly it's a superseding part). Some carburetors components used on these outboards are made of a composite material. NEVER, EVER, EVER, submerge composite components into a strong carburetor cleaner or a hot soaking tank. Strong chemicals or hot tank may damage certain parts and sealing compounds. Never dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned only in solvent safe for plastic or rubber components and then immediately blown dry with low pressure (less than 25 psi or 172 kPa) compressed air. Always take precautions when working with solvent and compressed air. Protect your eyes and your skin from chemical burns. Place all metal parts in a screen-type tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, then blow them dry with compressed air. M If compressed air andlor a small solvent tank is not available, use a commercially available carburetor and choke cleaner (such as that soid by Suzuki) to clean components and blow out carburetor passages. Blow out ail passages in the castings with low pressure compressed air (less than 25 psi or 172 kPa). Whenever possible, apply air in the same direction as normal air or fuel flow. Check all parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. Never use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor (wire could remove metal from the inner surface of a calibrated passage, changing calibration from spec and causing performance problems). If necessary, use something that is small, but softer than the metal of the passages to clean them, like a piece of straw from a broom. Fig. 60 Lay out all original parts for Fig. 61 Clean the carburetor body using comparison to the rebuild kit spray Carburetor and Choke cleaner Good Worn Fig. 63 The float needle valve and seat must Fig. 64 Check all needle valves for grooves, not be worn or deformed pitting or damage If debris or contamination is found in the carburetor, inspect and clean the entire system upstream of the carburetor. Chances are water or debris contamination will be present in other components as well. Failure to clean the entire fuel system could result in clogging a newly rebuilt carburetor shortly after it is reinstalled. inspect the main carburetor body, air horn or cover (if equipped) and float bowl gasket sealing surfaces for nicks, gouges or irregularities, which could cause a leak. Check ail nozzle and pickup tubes for security and cleanliness. Inspect the tip of the needle valve for wear, distortion or damage. Replace the needle valve and seat if damaged or worn. Good shop practice dictates to always replace the needle valve and needle seat when the carburetor is fully disassembled. Move the throttle shaft back and forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be too loose, replace the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are normally not available. Check the float for deterioration. Check to be sure the float spring has not been stretched. If any part of the float is damaged, the unit must be replaced. Check the float arm needle contacting surface and replace the float if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect the tapered section of the idle adjusting needles and replace any that have developed a groove. Tightening a needle valve against the valve seat will result in damage to the valve or seat and require replacement of damaged components. Use great care when threading and seating the idle speed mixture screw prior to backing it out for initial adjustment. If the unit being serviced has an adjustable idle speed needle valve. remove the needle valve (but not before gently turning it inward and counting how many turns it was backed out at current adjustment). inspect the needle valve tip for distortion or damage and replace the valve if damaged. Clean the idle speed passages with spray carburetor cleaner and blow dry with compressed air. During installation, screw the needle in until it just makes Fig. 62 Pay close attention to any needle tips during inspection Fig. 65 Check the throttle shaft for excessive wear (typical carb shown) light contact with the seat. Now, back the needle out the appropriate number of turns for the Initial Low Speed Setting (as detailed in the Carburetor Set- Up Specifications chart in this section) or the same amount of turns it was already backed out before removal. As previously mentioned, most of the parts which should be replaced during a carburetor overhaul are included in overhaul kits available from your local marine dealer. One of these kits will contain a matched fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should be replaced each time the carburetor is disassembled as a precaution against leakage (which could lead to flooding during normal operation). Before assembly, use a syringe filled with isopropyl alcohol to check all drillings and passages. See Figure 66 Carbureted models are equipped with a diaphragm-displacement type fuel pump (actually, fuel injected models are too, at least for a lift-pump, but we'll deal with them later in this section). The pump is mounted somewhere on the side or end of the powerhead (powerhead crankcase or rockerlvalve cover depending upon the model). The pump is mounted in such a manner as to mechanically actuate the diaphragm through a plunger that contacts a camshaft lobeldrive tang. For most models this means the pump will actually be mounted on the valve cover, putting it closest to the camshaft. However, on some models (like the gear-driven camshaft of the 41516 hp and 25 hp V2 motors), locating it near the camshaft actually means the pump is mounted to the side of the powerhead. Have a shop towel and a suitable container handy when testing or servicing a fuel pump as fuel will likely spill from hoses disconnected during these procedures. To ensure correct assembly and hose routing, mark the orientation of the fuel pump and hoses before removal. 1 Fig. 66 Typical Suzuki fuel pump 1 TESTING See Figure 66 The problem most often seen with fuel pumps is fuel starvation, hesitation or missing due to inadequate fuel pressure/delivery. In extreme cases, this might lead to a no start condition as all but total failure of the pump prevents fuel from reaching the carburetor(s). More likely, pump failures are not total, and the motor will start and run fine at idle, only to miss, hesitate or stall at speed when pump performance falls short of the greater demand for fuel at high rpm. Before replacing a suspect fuel pump, be absolutely certain the problem is the pump and NOT with fuel tank, lines or filter. A plugged tank vent could create vacuum in the tank that will overpower the pump's ability to create vacuum and draw fuel through the lines. An obstructed line or fuel filter could also keep fuel from reaching the pump. Any of these conditions could partially restrict fuel flow, allowing the pump to deliver fuel, but at a lower pressurelrate. A pump delivery or pressure test under these circumstances would give a low reading that might be mistaken for a faulty pump. Before testing the fuel pump, refer to the testing procedures found under Fuel Lines and Fitting to ensure there are no problems with the tank, lines or filter. If inadequate fuel delivery is suspected and no problems are found with the tank, lines or filters, a conduct a quick-check to see how the pump affects performance. Use the primer bulb to supplement fuel pump. This is done by operating the motor under load and otherwise under normal operating conditions to recreate the problem. Once the motor begins to hesitate, stumble or stall, pump the primer bulb quickly and repeatedly while listening for motor response. Pumping the bulb by hand like this will force fuel through the lines to the carburetor, regardless of the fuel pump's ability to deliver fuel. If the engine performance problem goes away while pumping the bulb, and returns when you stop, there is a good chance you've isolated the fuel pump as the culprit. Perform a pressure test to be certain, then repair or replace the pump assembly. .= Never run a motor without cooling water. Use a test tank, a flush/test device or launch the craft. Also, never run a motor at speed without load, so for tests running over idle speed, make sure the motor is either in a test tank with a test wheel or on a launched craft with the normal propeller installed. Pump Pressure Test See Figure 66 By far the most accurate way to test the fuel pump is using a low pressure fuel gauge while running the engine at various speeds, under load. To prevent the possibility of severe engine damage from over-speed, the test must be conducted under load, either in a test tank (with a proper test propeller) or mounted on the boat with a suitable propeller. H Unfortunately, Suzuki does not provide pump pressure specifications for any of these motors. However, because fuel consumption figures should be in the same ballpark for most motors of similar sizelhp range we can at least use specifications from other similar types of pumps found on other outboard brands as a starting point. Therefore this test can be used to check for pressures that are way out of the norm. 1. Test the Fuel Lines and Fittings as detailed in this section to be sure there are no vacuurn/fuel leaks and no restrictions that could give a false low reading. 2. Make sure the fuel filter(s) is(are) clean and serviceable. 3. Start and run the engine in forward gear, at idle, until normal operating temperature is reached. Then shut the motor down to prepare for the test. 4. Remove the fuel tank cap to make sure there is no pressure in the tank (the fuel tank vent must also be clear to ensure there is no vacuum). Check the tank location, for best results, make sure the tank is not mounted any more than 30 in. (76mm) below the fuel pump mounting point. On portable tanks, reposition them, as necessary to ensure accurate readings. H The fuel outlet line from the fuel pump may be disconnected at either the pump or the carburetor whichever provides easier access. If you disconnect it from the pump itself you might have to provide a length of fuel line (depending on whether or not the gauge contains a length of line to connect to the pump fitting). 5. Disconnect the fuel output hose from the carburetor or fuel pump, as desired. 6. Connect a fuel pressure gauge inline between the pump and the carburetor(s). 7. Run the engine at or around each of the following speeds and observe the pressure on the gauge. 8. Expect to find pressures in this ballpark: 0 At 600 rpm, the gauge should read about 1 psi (7 kPa). 0 At 2500-3000 rpm, the gauge should read about 1.5 psi (10 kPa). At 4500 rpm, the gauge should read about 2.5 psi (17 kPa). 9. If readings are below specification and other causes such as fuel line or filter restrictions have been eliminated, repair or replace the pump. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION See Figures 67 thru 70 1. For safety, either disconnect the negative battery cable (if so equipped) and/or disconnect the spark plug lead(s) and ground them to the powerhead. 2. On all except 4/56 hp motors, slowly and carefully turn the flywheel (in the normal direction of rotation, Clockwise) to bring the No. 1 cyl up to TDC as determined by the timing marks, this will help relieve pressure on the fuel pump arm making it easier to install. 3. Locate the fuel pump on the powerhead and determine if access will be easier if you first remove the lower engine covers. On some models equipped with split (2-piece) lower covers, it is easier to access the pump if the lower engine covers are removed (for instance on 9.9115 hp motors access to the oumo is definitely blocked bv the covers). On most motors the pump is located onlnear the valve cover, but there are'exceptions, like on [he 25 hp V2 motors where the pump is mounted to the base of tne crankcase between the cylinder banks (which means at least the starboard lower engine cover should be removed to ease access). For details, refer to the Engine Cover procedure in the Engine Maintenance section. On most motor the fuel hoses are retained spring-tensioned metal clamps. To remove these clamps gently squeeze them with a pair of pliers on the tabs and then slide the clamps up the hose, passed the raised portion of the nipple. 4. On 25 hp V2 motors, release the fuel filter from the bracket to give some extra play in the fuel hoses. 5. Place a small drain basin or a shop rag under the fuel line fittings (to catch escaping fuel), then tag and disconnect the fuel hoses from the pump. Although we say to tag the hoses, most Suzuki fuel pumps are labeled with Fig. 67 If necessary, remove the lower Fig. 69 Fuel pump found on 9.9115 hp and engine [email protected]) for access Fig. 68 Fuel pump found on 41516 hp motors larger motors I516 H 1. Fuel Pump Body 2. O-ring or Gasket 3. Piston 4. Spring Fia. 70 Various fuel uumw used on these Suzuki outboards IN and OUT marks or arrows showing fuel flow, so even if you forget to tag the lines you SHOULD be ok, but it's a good idea to check that first just to be sure. The fuel pumps used on these motors are normally equipped with 2 sets of bolts (though usually only one set is visible on the surface of the pump). One set is used to hold the pump assembly together, and on 9.9115 and laraer motors thev are usuallv threaded from behind the pump body to confusion. The other set of bolts (normally just two of them) are used to mount the pump to the powerhead. One easy way to identify them is that they areusually threaded through the lowest and widest portion of the pump body and not the pump cover itself. Refer to the accompanying illustrations to help identify the correct bolts. 6. Loosen the oumo mountina bolts (the bolts that thread not throuah the inlet cover, but the body of thepump and into the powerhead) identify the correct bolts depending upon model and pump type, as follows: * 41516 hp models utilize a square-bodied pump with 4 visible cover screws mounted to a pump rounded diamond-shaped pump base secured with 2 larger pump mounting bolts. The 2 mounting bolts should be easy to identify since they are not threaded through the square pump body. 9.9 hp and larger models use a pump that has a round cover on a rounded diamond-shaped body. These are easy to figure out the correct 9.9 HP and larger 5. Cover Screw 6. Mounting Screw 7. Diaphragm screws as there are normally only 2 mounting screws exposed when the pump is installed (one at either end of the rounded diamond-shaped body). The 6 cover screws that hold the assembly together on most models are installed from the underside of the diamond-shaped body. If in doubt as to which bolts secure the pump, look at the back of the pump (as can be seen at the pump-to-powerhead seam line) to see which bolts continue throuah the uumu assembly and into the powerhead. These are the only bolts that shouldbe loosened for pump removal. 7. Once the mounting screws are out, carefully remove the pump from the powerhead. 8. If necessary, remove the cover screws andlor body screws in order to disassemble the fuel pump for inspection or overhaul, as applicable. For details. refer to the Fuel Puma Overhaul orocedure in this section. 9. Clean the mating surface of the and powerhead. Be careful not to damage the surface as that could lead to oil leaks. Most pumps are seated with an O-ring, be sure to replace that O-ring each time the pump is removed to ensure proper sealing. To install: 10. On all except 41516 hp motors, if the powerhead was serviced or the flywheel rotated while the pump was off, slowly and carefully turn the flywheel (in the normal direction of rotation, Clockwise) to bring the No. 1 cyl up to TDC as determined by the timing marks, this will help relieve pressure on the fuel pump arm making it easier to install. 11. Apply a light coating of Suzuki water resistant grease, an equivalent marine grade grease, or some engine oil to the new pump O-ring. 12. Position a new O-ring and install the pump to the powerhead using the retaining screws. Tighten the screws to specification as follows: 41516 hp motors: 72 inch lbs.16 ft. Ibs. (8 Nm) 9.9 hp and larger: 89 inch 1bs.R ft. Ibs. (10 Nm) 13. Reconnect the fuel lines as noted during removal and secure using the clamp or new wire ties, as applicable. When reusing spring clamp, make sure they are still in good condition and haven't lost their spring, if in doubt, replace them. 14. Gently squeeze the primer bulb while checking for fuel leakage. Correct any fuel leaks before returning the engine to service. 15. If removed, install the lower engine covers. 16. Connect the negative battery cable andlor spark plug lead(s). OVERHAUL @ See Figure 70 Most of the fuel pumps used on these motors may be disassembled for overhaul. And, happily, the pumps are of a fairly simple design with relatively few moving parts. But before taking one apart, check with your local parts supplier to make sure that an overhaul kit containing the necessary parts are available for your model. In most cases, the parts are limited to the diaphragm(s), gasket(s) and a fuel inlet screen (if equipped), though some might include the check valve components as well. Though it appears the 25 hp V2 motor uses the same basic design pump as the other 9.9 hp and larger motors, some factory service information states that it is NOT SERVICEABLE and should not be disassembled. If overhaul is required due to damage from contamination or debris (as opposed to simple deterioration over time) disassemble and clean the rest of the fuel supply system prior to the fuel pump. Failure to replace filters and clean or replace the lines and fuel tank, could result in damage to the overhauled pump after it is placed back into service. All diaphragms and seals should be replaced during assembly, regardless of their condition. Check for fuel leakage after completing the repair and verify proper operating pressures before returning the motor to service. No sealant should be used on fuel pump components unless otherwise specifically directed. If small amounts of a dried sealant were to break free and travel through the fuel supply system it could easily clog passages (especially the small, metered orifices and needle valves of the carburetor). 1. Remove the fuel pump from the powerhead as detailed in this section. 2. Matchmark the fuel pump cover, housing and base to ensure proper assembly. B To ease inspection and assembly, lay out each piece of the fuel pump as it is removed. In this way, keep track of each component's orientation in relation to the entire assembly. 3. On 41516 hp motors, proceed as follows: a. Remove the 4 pump cover screws (they are threaded through nuts on the under side of the body so you'll have to keep the nuts from turning), then separate and carefully remove the pump cover, outer diaphragm and the square pump valve body. b. Locate the pump plunger (piston at the backside of the diamond- shaped pump body) for the diaphragm assembly, then gently pivot it counterclockwise until if you align the piston pin with the hole in the side of the pump body. Remove the pin, freeing the piston and inner diaphragm assembly. When removing the piston pin, keep gentle pressure on the piston and diaohraam components as springs mounted under each will attemptto push them outward. ~on'tloose the springs or allow components which may be reused to become damaged. c. Remove the piston and smaller diameter spring from underneath the pump body. Remove the diaphragm and larger diameter spring from the top side of the pump body. 4 On 9.9 hp and larger motors with a serviceable pump, disassemble the pump as follows: a. Invert the pump so it is sitting on the cover with the plunger facing upward. Remove the 6 cover screws from this backside of the pump. Then remove the round pump cover, outer diaphragmlgasket and the round valve body. b. Next move to the underside of the pump assembly again. Rotate the piston (on one side) and the diaphragmlplunger (on the other side) until the pin comes out through the cutout in the pump body. While placing gentle pressure on the diaphragm (on top) and piston (on the bottom) to hold the components against spring pressure, remove the pin, then carefully remove the retaining components. On the underside remove the piston and the smaller diameter spring. On the topside remove the diaphragmlplunger and the larger diameter spring. On all models now: 5. Clean the metallic components thoroughly using solvent and carefully remove all traces of gasket material. 6. Inspect the diaphragm closely for cracks or tears. B It is advisable to replace the diaphragm ANYTIME the fuel pump is disassembled to ensure reliability and proper performance. As a matter of fact, for most models the manufacturer specifically states NOT to attempt to reuse a diaphragm set. Once the set is removed it is highly unlikely that it will ever be aligned properly and seal properly again. 7. Inspect the fuel pump body for cracks. Check gasket surfaces for nicks, scratches, or irregularities. Inspect the mating surfaces of the fuel cover, body and base using a straight edge to ensure that they are not warped from heat or other damage Replace warped or damaged components. 8. Check the springs for damage or lack of tension. To assemble: 9. Assemble the components of the fuel pump housing, base and diaphragm noting the following: a. Use new 0-ringlgaskets and diaphragms. Make sure each gasket and the components it seals are aligned properly. b. Align the matchmarks made during disassembly to ensure proper component mounting. c. Insert the piston pin then rotate the diaphragm about 90' to make sure the piston pin cannot come out of the slot in the pump body. 10. Apply a coating of Suzuki Nut Lock, or an equivalent threadlocking compound to the pump housing and base screws, then install and tighten them securely to 35-56 inch Ibs. (4-6 Nm). 11. If equipped, install the fuel pump cover and filter screen using a new gasket or O-ring($ then tighten the center screw securely. 12. Install the fuel pump, then check for leaks and for proper operation. @ See Figure 71 Cold start enrichment is achieved through various means on the different carbureted Suzuki motors covered here. The means include a manual or electric choke plate and a manual or electric primer. Generally speaking, all but the late-model (Keihin carburetor equipped) 9.9115 hp and 25 hp V2 motors utilize a manual or electric choke, while the Keihin carburetors found on 9.9115 hp and 25 hp V2 motors utilize a manual or electric primer. Whether or not the choke or primer is electrically actuated or not is simply dependent upon trim, rope start, tiller control, remote electric etc, but regardless of how it was spec'd to come from the factory it could have been changed on rigging. At the end of the day it's simple. If you've got a choke knob and linkage or cable that goes to the carburetor, it's manual. If you've got some wires going to a component mounted to the carburetor and no said linkagelcable, then it's electric. For more details on model-by-model basis, please refer to the General Engine System Specifications chart in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. Now you might be asking, what is the difference between a choke and a primer? Essentially they both achieve the same result (a richer air!fuel ratio to help a cold engine start and run), but through the exact opposite means. Achoke does exactly what it sounds like, it physically blocks off some of the air to the carburetor so that the same amount of fuel that is normally metered into the intake manifold is now of greater ratio because there is less air. In contrast, an enrichener does not restrict the air flow, but instead opens up a secondary fuel metering passage. In this way more fuel is introduced for the same amount of air, again, making the ratio more rich. As far as primers are concerned, there is only one manual type found on these motors. On Keihin-equipped 9.9115 hp and 25 hp V2 motors a simple cable and plunger assembly is mounted to the top of the carburetor. When the starter knob is pulled on this style primer additional fuel is drawn into the starter circuit from the carburetors float bowl. The starter jet meters this fuel, which then flows into the fuel pipe to mix with incoming air from the upper part of the float chamber. This rich fuel mixture then reaches the starter plunger and mixes again with air coming from a passage from the main bore. Remixing the incoming air in such a manner produces a suitably rich fuel mixture for starting when it is sprayed through the starter outlet port into the main bore. Service on this system is limited to replacement of the cablelplunger assembly or servicing the carburetor passages themselves. For more details on servicina these models, olease refer to the amrotxiate . . Carburetor Overhaul procedure earlier in this section. The electric primer found on some 9.911 5 hp and 25 hp V2 models equipped with a Keihin carburetor functions in the same fashion as the manual primer, the only difference being that it is electronically actuated. Like the manual primer version of these motors the electric primer is attached to the top of the carburetor body and works with internal carburetor passages and the fuel supply already in the carburetor float bowl. Also similar to the manual primer system service is limited to removal from the carburetor and replacement of the entire auto-enrichener valve assembly. The assembly consists of a PTC heater, a thermo-wax and a plunger needle. When the wax is cold the plunger needle is held in an upward position allowing fuel to be drawn from the float bowl into the enrichener circuit. The wax will expand when hot (either from sufficient ambienffengine temperature or when the PTC heater coil has warmed it) pushing the needle into the enrichener passage, closing it off. TESTING See Figure 71 An inoperable chokelprimer will cause hard start or possibly even a no start condition during attempts to start a cold motor. The colder the ambient temperature, the more trouble an inoperable chokelprimer will cause. A primer (manual or electric) with internal leakage (allowing fuel to bypass the airlfuel metering system) will cause rich running conditions that could include hesitation, stumbling, rough running, especially at idle and lead spark plug fouling. When it comes to chokes, the most simply test is to visually check that the choke linkage andlor the choke plate (you'd have to remove the air intake silencer and peer down the throttle body for that later one) is actually moving (openinglclosing) when the choke is actuated (electrically or mechanically, as applicable). There are a few additional tests by function or for the electronic components of electric chokelprimer system. Function Test This test should work for manual chokes and primers. It may work for electric chokes if the circuit is set-up in such a wav that it can be electronically engaged, on even a hot engine, butthe design of the electric primer (using a heating element) will normally prevent it from being effective on those motors). If the motor is operable, but trouble is suspected with the chokelprimer system, perform a function test with the engine running. Although this test can be conducted on a flush-fitting, engine speed will reach 2000 rpm and it is much safer to conduct the test in a test tank or with the boat launched. 1. Start and run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature. 2. Once the engine warms, set the throttle so it runs at 2000 rpm. 3. Activate the chokelprimer and observe engine operation. If the chokelprimer is operating correctly, the engine should run rich and should hesitatelstumble, speed should drop to about 1000 rpm. Electric Primer or Choke Testing To check the electric choke on 9.9115 hp motors equipped with Mikuni carburetors, use a DVOM to check solenoid coil resistance across the terminals for the Orange and Black wires. At an ambient temperature of about 68'F (20°C you should see about 2.8-4.2 ohms resistance. To check the electric choke on 25/30 hp (3-cyl) motors equipped with Mikuni carburetors, use a DVOM to check solenoid coil resistance across the 2 terminals. At an ambient temperature of about 68'F (20°C you should see about 3.8-4.2 ohms resistance. To check the electric primer on 9.9115 hp and 25 hp V2 motors equipped with Keihin carburetors, only the most simple testing is possible or necessary for this system. By removing the enrichener, noting the position of the needle and then hooking it up to 12-volts and waiting for at least 5 minutes you can I if the system is working. The needle must be visibly longer after 5 minutes or the assembly must be replaced. Disconnect the negative battery cable ANYTIME work is performed on the engine, especially when working on the fuel system. This will help prevent the possibility of sparks during service (from accidentally grounding a hot lead or powered component). Sparks could ignite vapors or exposed fuel. Disconnecting the cable on EFI motors will also help prevent the possibility fuel spillage (ok, fuel SPRAY) if the key is turned to start while the high-pressure fuel system is open. Fuel leaking from a loose, damaged or incorrectly installed hose or fitting may cause a fire or an explosion. ALWAYS pressurize the fuel system and run the motor while inspecting for leaks after servicing any component of the fuel system. nla: not applicable Initial low speed setting turn(@: back (counterclockwise) from a lightly seated position @ No published specification. We recommend you lightly seat the needle, counting the number of turns it takes, before removal and reuse that setting. @ These carbs are preset to this specification and sealed 6 See Figures 72 thru 80 The fuel system used on all 40 hp and larger models is an electronically controlled multi-port fuel injection system, not unlike that used on modern automobiles. If fact, all of the EFI motors covered here are built by Suzuki for Suzuki and, the 60170 hp motor is essentially a marinized and updated version of the motor found in the Suzuki Sidekick and Geo Tracker for many years. The EFI system itself can be segmented into 3 inter-related sub-systems: Q Low pressure fuel circuit * High pressure fuel circuit * Electronic engine controls The low pressure circuit delivers fuel from the tank to the vapor separator via a mechanical diaphragm-displacement fuel pump, very similar in form and function to those used on mid-range Suzuki carbureted motors. The low pressure circuit may be rigged with a portable or built-in fuel tank and normally contains both an inline filter and a fuel primer bulb. The role of the low pressure circuit is to keep the high pressure circuit electric pump supplied with sufficient fuel to meet engine operating demands. The high pressure circuit is necessary to ensure proper operation of the fuel injectors (whose operation depends upon a constant supply of highly pressurized fuel). The circuit uses a high pressure pump mounted within the vapor separator tank to build system pressure and maintain it through a fuel pressure regulator that vents excess fuellpressure back into the vapor separator tank. Fuel injectors, mounted between a fuel rail assembly and the intake manifold or cylinder head, deliver the high pressure fuel directly before the cylinder head mounted intake valves for each cylinder. The high pressure circuit is activated by the engine's Electronic Control Module (ECM) for a few seconds every time the ignition is turned ON and constantly during engine cranking or operation. Fuel injectors, also controlled by the ECM, are electronic solenoid valves that open against internal spring pressure when activated (allowing fuel to spray from the nozzle tips), injector activation occurs sequentially, immediately before each intake valve is ready to open. The electronic engine control system monitors and controls engine operation in order to properly meter fuel delivery to match operating conditions. The role of the ECM and the fuel injectors is to do electronically what the carburetor does mechanically on other motors. The precise control made possible by the ECM's microprocessors allows an EFI engine to increase both reliability and performance while simultaneously decreasing harmful emissions. And, those are ail good things, right? The electronic engine control system monitors engine operation through a number of electronic switches and sensors. The role of the sensors and switches is to translate mechanical information such as engine temperature, powerhead speed, throttle position or even the exact position of the pistons (on what portion of each stroke, each piston is) into electronic data for use by the ECM. The system is equipped with the following sensors: * Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor (including additional CMPs on Variable Valve TimingIVVT models such as the 175 hp, 250 hp and 300 hp models) Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor 0 Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch (except 150 hp and larger models) * Cylinder Temperature (CT) sensor Q Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor Q Exhaust Manifold (EM) temp (multiple ones on V6 models) * Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) sensor Shift Position (SP) sensor (150 hp and larger models) Q Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) (150 hp and larger models, multiple - both a main and sub for 300 hp models) 4 Water Pressure (WP) sensor (300 hp models) Q Tilt and Trim Sensor (300 hp models) In addition, the ECM will also use signals from various switches, including the Neutral switch, Oil pressure switch, Emergency stop switch and Ignition switch. In fuel injection terms this type of system is known as a speed-density injection system. This is because the basic engine fuel mapping decisions are made by the ECM based on a comparison between the engine rpm (speed) and the manifold pressure (air density). The basic, pre-programmed, fuel mapping is then modified based upon input from the remaining sensors. Specifically, cylinder and air temperatures are taken into account. When a CTP switch or TPS sensor (as equipped) signal is received (showing that the throttle is closed), the ECM uses a fuel delivery strategy specifically intended for idlingltrolling. Besides the amount of fuel delivered (controlled through the fuel injectors) the ECM can also control the amount of air delivered during idle conditions. This is accomplished through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve. The ECM uses inputs from the CMP sensor(s) to control the fully electronic ignition system and make all ignition timing adjustments. To make matters even MORE complicated, the 300 hp motors uses an electronic throttle (fly-by-wire) system which means there is a second computer involved, the Boat Control Module (BCM) on these motors. The BCM interfaces with the ECM through CAN Communication System and Controller Area Network. Like the BCM (just like the ECM) receives various inputs (such as from the Main Switch, the Lever Position Sensor or Sensors, the Start and Stop Switch or Switches, etc) and gives various output signals to the ECM to control the Throttle Motor Relay and the Shift Motor Relay. The BCM also has the ability to receive inputs from the ECM such as when to control the warning buzzer (of which the BCM maintains direct control). On carbureted outboards fuel is metered through needles and valves that react to changes in engine vacuum as the amount of air drawn into the motor increases or decreases. The amount of air drawn into carbureted motors is controlled through throttle plates that effectively increase or decrease the size of the carburetor throat (as they are rotated open or closed). In contrast, while fuel injected engines still use a throttle plate or plates to regulate the amount of air allowed in the motor, they also use a computer control module to regulate the amount of fuel introduced to the motor (to match that fuel to the amount of air). The module or Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors input from various engine sensors in order to receive precise data on items like engine position (where each piston is on its 4-stroke cycle), engine speed, engine and air temperatures, manifold pressure and throttle position. Analyzing the data from these sensors tells the engine exactly how much air is drawn into the motor at any given moment and allows the ECM to determine how much fuel is required. The ECM will energize (open) the fuel injectors for the precise length of time required to spray the amount of fuel needed for that intake stroke. In actuality, the injectors are not just activated and held-open as much as they are pulsed, opened and closed rapidly for the correct total amount of time necessary to spray the total desired amount of fuel. This electronically controlled, precisely metered fuel spray or "fuel injection" is the heart of a modern EFI system and the main difference between an injected and carbureted motor. Troubleshooting a fuel injected motor contains similarities to carbureted motors. Mechanically, the powerhead of a 4-stroke fuel injected motor operates in the same way as that of a 4-stroke carbureted motor. There still must be good engine compression and mechanical timing (valves must open and close fully and at the right time) for either engine to operate properly. Wear or physical damage will have virtually the same affect upon either motor. Furthermore, the low pressure fuel system that supplies fuel to the reservoir in the vapor separator tank operates in the same manner as the fuel circuit that supplies gasoline to the carburetor float bowl. INPUT (sensor/switch) OUTPUT (actuator etc.) I Fuel injection control system Fuel injector 1 we[ Ignition coil 1 MAP sensor Idle air control system IAC valve I I IAT s e n s o r Fuel pump control system 1 High pressure fuel pump 1 Cylinder temp. sensor 1 Caution buzzer I Fail-safe system CTP switch 1 JI I Start-in-gear protection system Starter motor J Neutral switch O2 feedback system 1 Oil oressure switch O2 sensor (optional) Fig. 72 Fuel injection control system inputs and outputs -40-140 hp motors Fuel tank Low pressure fuel filter ntrol Ignition switch 1 1 Alternator (Battery charge coil) Rectifier regulator OzSensor must be installed when performing "Osfeedback operation" only Fig. 73 Fuel injection system schematic -40150 shown, but 60-140 hp motors VERY similar INPUT CONTROL OUTPUT (eenaor/swlfch) (actuator etc.) -Fuel InJector CMP sensor È Ignition coil CMP sensor È Oil control valve MAP sensor High pressure fuel pump IAT sensor Cylinder temp. sensor VSV (Vacuum switching valve) Exhaust manifold temp. sensor Throttle position sensor 1---+1 Caulion system 1 sen diagnostic system Caution Buzzer ^Ñ Neutral switch Shift position sonsor Fall safe system I Oil pressure switch Emergency stop switch Starter motor relay, (Starter motor) 02 sensor (Optional) NOTE: * DF150 model is not equipped with CMP sensor #2and VW system. Fig. 74 Fuel injection control system inputs and outputs -1501175 hp motors CKP sensor Ignition coil Fuse : Os Sensor must be installed when oerformino "02feedback operation" only. ": DF150 model is not equipped with OCV and VW system. Fla. 75 Fuel injection system schematic -1501175 hp motors / / Throttle position sensor I MAP sensor INPUT OUTPUT (sensor/switch) (actuator etc.) CKP sensor Fuel injection system -Fuel injector Ignition coil -IAC valve - - - - -OCV (Oil control valve) MAP sensor -rLow pressure fuel pump Fuel pump system tAT sensor High pressure fuel pump CMP sensor #3(250 HP) WT system ^=^1 1 Cylinder temp. sensor -VSV (Vacuum switching valve) Evaporation purge system I Purge valve Caution system Caution Buzzer Exhausl manifold lamp. sensor #2 i Throttle position sensor - Seif-diagnostic system Neutral switch -Monitor-tachometer Shift position sensor - Oil pressure switch - Starter motor relay, Ignition switch (Starter motor) Starter motor relay control system 1 Oa sensor 1Ootionatl 1- Oafeedback system I IMPORTANT: 200 and 225 HP models are not equipped with CMP sensor #2 and 3 or WT system 200 HP model is not equipped with Multi-stage induction system. ECM I A 1 Fuse : Ch Sensor must be installed when periorming "02 feedback operation" only. Throttle position sensor' MAP sensor Fig. 77 Fuel injection system schematic -200 hp motors sensor I Emergency stop switch Main relay P1 I Fuse :O? Sensor must be installed when performing Throttle position sensor' "Oa feedback operation" only. ":DF225model is not equipped with OCV and WT system Fig. 78 Fuel injection system schematic -2251250 hp motors MAPsensor INPUT (sensor/switch) CMP sensor ft2 CMP sensor È MAP sensor IAT sensor PI Main switch CKP sensor 1 Ignition system 1 Fuel wmo wstam t I 1ignition coil 4011control valve 1 OUTPUT (actuator etc.) PWIURI pump system 1 High pressure fuel pump system Cylinder temp. sensor Evaporation purge system I -1 ~ u valve m I Exhaust manilold tamp. esneor #1 Exhaust manifold temp. snwr a2 Throttle motor relay Throttlepositionsewr (Main.Sub) 1 Electronic lhrottle system I Throttle motor Neutral switch Shift position sensor OH pressure switch Emergency stop switch Caution system Tachometer-monlinrWater pressure sensor Sail diagnostic system Digital display screen Speed sensor Fallsafe system Tilt &Trim sensor 1 .ChxraUno hour indtat$onsvmm 1 1 Oil chan&a reminder sys&m f Start-in-gear protection system prter motor m!q (Starter motor) 1 .Station select switch Throttle only switch Starter motff relay control system -STAFIT& STOP willch r*l BCM 1 I CAM Controler Acea Network BCM Fig. 79 Fuel injection control system (Engine Control Module) inputs and outputs -300 hp motors INPUT CONTROL OUTPUT (sensor/swltch etc.) (BCM) (actuator etc.) Main switch BCM power source Throttle motor relay 1 Lever position sansor 1 (Main. Sub) CAN Communication system ÑÑ ' I^^^ Lever position sensor 2 (Mein. Sub) ^I I I Caution buzzer I START 8.STOP switch 2 START & STOP switch 3 1 b--+ Emergency stop switch 1 ThmtSie onlv switch b Station select switch Digital display screen -Enoine RPM 1 Synchronization switch .Engine temperature .Battery voltage .Fuel consumption Engine operation hours a Shift position .Oil change reminder .SeWiagnostic code *Caution display a Trim angle -Coolina water oressure Fig. 80 Fuel injection control system (Boat Control Module) inputs and outputs -300 hp motors -1 The major difference in troubleshooting engine performance on EFI motors is the presence of the ECM and electronic engine controls. The complex interrelation of the sensors used to monitor engine operation and the ECM used to control both the fuel injection and ignition systems makes logical troubleshooting all that nr.uch more important. Before beginning troubleshooting on an EFI motor, make sure the basics are all true. Make sure the engine mechanically has good compression (refer to the Compression Check procedure that is a part of a regular Tune-up). Make sure the fuel is not stale (perhaps substitute a portable fuel tank with known good fuel to eliminate that possible cause of a problem). Check for leaks or restrictions in the Lines and Fittings of the low pressure fuel circuit, as directed in this section under Fuel Tank and Lines. EFI systems cannot operate properly unless the circuits are complete and a sufficient voltage is available from the battery and charging systems. A quick-check of the battery state or charge and alternator output with the engine running will help determine if these conditions are adversely affecting EFI operation. Loose/corroded connections or problems with the wiring harness cause a large percentage of the problems with EFI systems. Before getting too far into engine diagnostics, check each connector to make sure they are clean and tight. Visually inspect the wiring harness for visible breaks in the insulation, burn spots or other obvious damage. In order to help find electronic problems with the EFI system, the ECM contains a self-diagnostic system that constantly monitors and compares each of the signals from the various sensors. Should a value received by the ECM from one or more sensors fall outside certain predetermined ranges the ECM will determine there is a problem with that sensor's circuit. Basically the ECM compares signals received from different sensors to each other and to real world possible values and makes a decision if it thinks one must be lying. For instance, if the ECM receives camshaft position sensor signals that show the engine is rotating, but also receives a signal from the crankshaft position sensor that says the engine is stopped, it knows one is wrong (presumably the one that says it's stopped because of the way the know there is something wrong with that signal. Depending on the severity of the fault or faults, the engine will likely continue to run, substituting fixed values for the sensors that are considered out of range. Under these circumstances, engine performance and economy may become drastically reduced. H Record diagnostic codes as described in this section BEFORE disconnecting the battery. If codes are not present, yet problems persist, use the symptom charts (toward the end of the diagnostic charts for each motor) to help determine what further components or systems to check. When a fault is present the ECM will store a diagnostic code in memory. The ECM will illuminate the Check Engine light in the gauge package and sound the warning horn to alert the operator. Codes can be read from the flashing of the Check Engine light and then used to help determine what components and circuits should be checked for trouble. Remember that a fault code doesn't automatically mean that a component (such as a sensor) is bad, it means that the signal received from the sensor circuit is missing or out of range. This can be caused by loose or corroded connections, problems with the wiring harness, problems with mechanical components (that are actually causing this condition to be true), or a faulty sensor. B An important diagnostic procedure for electronic engine controls which is known by some as the "Wiggle Test" involves cranking or operating the motor while you physically grab and shake parts of the wiring harness. If the symptoms occur when doing this you have likely found intermittently loose connections or wires which may be broken underneath the insulation. Further testing on those specific wires may indeed confirm your suspicion. In addition, when possible, troubleshooting charts are provided based on certain trouble codes or symptoms that should be used to help narrow down problems in engine performance. Refer to these charts (after performing the sensors function!. Similarly, if it receives a ridiculous sianal, sav the intake an basic checks mentioned earlier) to help determine what further components temperature suddenly a signal above 338OF (i7ooc),the ECM will or systems to check. Once components or circuits that require testing have been identified, use the testing procedures found in this section (or other sections, as applicable) and the wiring diagrams to test components and circuits until the fault has been determined. Keep in mind that although a haphazard approach might find the cause of problems, only a systematic approach will prevent wasted time and the possibility of unnecessary component replacement. In some cases, installing an electronic component into a faulty circuit that damaged or destroyed the previous component, will instantly destroy the replacement. For various reasons, including this possibility, most parts suppliers do not accept returns on electrical components. DEBATE See Figures 81,82 and Charts 1 thru 9 READING & CLEARING CODES DERATE See Figures 81,82 and Charts 1 thr Certain electrical equipment such as stereos and communication radios can Interfere with the electronic fuel injection system. To be certain there is no interference, shut these devices off when troubleshooting. If a check engine light illuminates immediately after installing or re-rigging an existing accessory, reroute the accessory wiring to prevent interference. When the electronic engine control system detects a problem with one of its circuits, the ECM will activate the check engine light found in the gauge pack (usually the gauge built into the tachometer on these models) and in most cases will sound the warning horn. As a result of most faults, the ECM will ignore the circuit signal and enter a fail-safe mode designed to keep the boat and motor from becoming stranded. During fail-safe operation the ECM I provide a fixed substitute value for the faulty circuit. During fail-safe operation the engine will run, but usually with reduced performance (power and economy). Substitute values are generally as follows: 5 MAP sensor: 319-475mm Hg @ 750-4000 ipm for 40-140 hp motors or, 260-760mm Hg for 15011 75 hp motors or 280-560mm Hg for V6 motors, the later two groups also under varying engine speeds for (but no specific range is given though one would assume it was probably about 750-6000 rp6dep NOTE: "WIRE C0LOR"shows the wire color of engine wire harness side. wiring diagram -2001 and later 40150 hp motors circuit identification -2001 and later 40150 ho motors 6010 Hp Motors Through 2000 #09930-89910-4-pin test cord See Figures 83,85,93 and 94 #09930-89920 -6-pin test cord Q Suzuki sells 4 different test harnesses all of which would be #09930-89930-&pin test cord Q necessary to test all of the ECM circuit voltages on these models. The test harnesses are as follows: #09930-89940 -12-pintest cord Q TERMINAL FOR TESTER STANDARD RESISTANCE ITEM PROBE CONNECTION (at 20°C CKP sensor No.1 E4 (RIB) to El (B) CKP sensor No.2 E3 (WIB) to El (B) 168-252 Q CMP sensor E2(0/G) to El (B) Ignition coil No.1 & 4 (Primary) A5 (0) to B5 (Gr) lanition coil No.2 & 3 (Primary) A1 (Bl) to B5 (Gr) FU~injector No.1 B4(0/B) to B5(Gr) Fuel injector No.2 Fuel injector No.3 A7 (BIY) B1 (RIW) to to B5 (Gr) B5 (Gr) 11.0- 16.6 Q Fuel injector No.4 A8 (Lg)) to B5 (Gr) IAC valve 1 A4 (BIR) to B5 (Gr) 1 4.8 -7.2 Q IAT sensor D6 (LgIB) to Dl (BIW) O° ( 32OF): 5.1 -6.0 kQ25OC ( 77OF): 1.8 -2.3 kQ Cylinder temperature sensor ECM main relay 1 D3 (LgIW) I1 B2 (PIB) to to Dl (BIW) 11 Terminal @ [NOTEI]1 50° (122OF): 0.76 -0.90 kQ 75OC (1350~): 0.34 -0.42 kQ (Thermistor characteristic) . 80 -120 Q Starter motor relav 1 Dl1 (YIG) to Ground 1 3.5- 5.1 Q ote connect remote control connect tester probe to terminal Fig. 93 Componentlcircuit test values when testing at the ECM harness connectors -60R0 hp motors through 2000 168 -252 0 1.9 -2.5ft 8.1 -11.1 k0 11.0 -16.50 Fuel Injector No. 3 A8 (RN) to 65 (Gr) IAC Valve 84 (BIR) to 65 (Gr) 21.5 -32.3 ft IAT Sensor D6 (LgIB) to Dl (BIW) 32' F (0' C) :5.3-6.6k0 77' F (25' C): 1.8-2.3 k0 Cylinder Temperature Sensor D3 (LgN) to Dl (BN) 122"F (50C) :0.73-0.96 k0 135' F (75' C):0.33-0.45Ml Exh. Manifold Temperature Sensor C9 (V/W) to Dl (B/W) (Thermistor characteristic) , Starter Motor Relay , Dl 1 (YIG) to Ground 3.5 -5.1 ft Fig. 94 ECM pin out circuit identification and normal voltage readings. Values for completed circuit only (back-probed at the harness connectors, with al! connectors attached to the ECM or with Suzuki test harnesses installed) -60R0 hp motors through 2000 iff 0 - 0 a.£ w to &. (3> - 03 - u!= w 7 0 w CM 90-140 Hp Motors See Figures 87,88 and 99 thru 102 - Approx. 5V < 2 Approx. 0V Ignition switch ON, stop switch plate OUT Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON, key pushed in 3 0 Buzzer cancel Approx. 0V Ignition switch ON, key not pushed in 4 YIB Tachometer -- Approx. 0V Ignition switch ON, shift in NEUTRAL 5 Br Neutral switch Approx. 2.5V Ignition switch ON, shift in FORWARD or REVERSE 6-12V While engine cranking. 6 B Ground -- 7 ViW Ex-manifold temp. sensor 0.10 -4.63V Ignition switch ON 8 9 Lg/W Cylinder temp. sensor 0.10 -4.63V Ignition switch ON 10 B Ground for ECM 11 BIW Ground for sensors 12 BUB Oil lamp 13 PIB Ground for ECM main relav -- I I I 15 I RIB ICKP sensor 16 I ON I PC communication 1 -- 1 1 , I 17 GIY TEMP lamp -- 18 BIR IAC valve solenoid (-) Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON 19 - 20 B Ground for ionition coil - 22 Lg No.4 Fuel injector (-) Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON Approx. 5V Engine running 23 Bl Oil pressure switch Approx. 0V Engine stopped (Ignition switch ON) Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON, throttle open (any position) 24 LgIR CTP switch Approx. 0V Ignition switch ON, throttle fully closed ?cl -- I I I 26 1 G/W ICHECK ENGINElamp 27 I BIN IBuzzer I 28 29 W MAP sensor 0 20 -4 53V Ignition switch ON 30 Gr ECM power source Approx 12V Ignition switch ON 31 LgIB IAT sensor 0 04 -4 46V Ignition switch ON 32 B Ground for ECM 33 01G CMP sensor Approx 0 3V or 5V Ignition switch ON - I 34 I BIG IOofeedback1 PC communication 1 1-I 35 R Power source for MAP sensor Approx. 5V Ignition switch ON 36 Y PC communication For 3 sec. after ignition switch ON Approx. OV 37 B/W Fuel pump (-1 . Engine running Approx. 12V Engine stopped (Ignition switch ON) 38 RiW No.3 Fuel injector Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON 39 BN No.2 Fuel injector Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON 40 01B No.1 Fuel injector Approx. 12V Ignition switch ON Fig. 99 ECM nominal circuit voltages -values for completed circuit only (back-probed at the harness connectors or using test harness terminal number, with all connectors attached to the ECM) -90/115/140 hp motors 1 ITEM 1 CKP sensor 1lanition coil No. 1 and 4 (Primary)--, ignition coil No. 2 and 3 (Primary) Fuel injector No. 1 Fuel injector No. 2 30 (Gr) to 38 (Riw) I 30 (Gr) to 22 (Lg) 30 (Gr) to 18 (B/R) 8-120 IAT sensor 31 (Lg/B) to 11 (Biw) O° (32OF): 5.3 -6.6 kQ Cylinder temperature sensor 9 (LgIW) to 11 (Biw) 25OC (77OF): 1.8 -2.3 kQ' 50° (1 22OF): 0.73 -0.96 k0 Ex-mani. temperature sensor 7 (Viw) to 11 (Biw) 75OC (1 35OF): 0.33 -0.45 kt2 (Thermistor characteristic) 1 ECM main relay 13 (P/B) to Terminal (A) [NOTE11 80-120 Sl(01-03) 145-190 0(2004+) NOTE 1: Check the Gray wire with the remote control harness disconnected. Fig. 100 ComponenffCircuit resistance testing from the ECM end of the main wiring harness -90/115/140 motors I 1 I FCM I I Fig. 101 Internal ECM wiring diagram -90/115/140 motors 6 I B 1 Ground 28 1 -- 7 1 V/W IEx-manifold temp. sensor 29 1 W IMAP sensor 1 30 I Gr IECM power source I 9 Lg/W Cylinder temp. sensor 31 LgIB IAT sensor 10 B Ground for ECM 32 B Ground for ECM 11 B/W Ground for sensors 33 0/G CMP sensor 11 12 13 1 1 BIIB PIB l0il lamp l~roundfor ECM main relay I 34 35 niG R o2feedback / PC communication Power source for MAP sensor 1 36 1 Y !PC communication I 1 15 I RIB ICKP sensor I 37 1 B/W 1 Fuel pump (-) 1 16 I OR IPC communication 1 38 1 R/W INo.3 Fuel injector f-4, , 39 BIY No.2 Fuel injector (-) 18 BIR IAC valve solenoid (-) 40 0/B No.1 Fuel injector (-) 19 --41 -- 20 B Ground for ignition coil 42 B Ground for ignition coil 2 1 --43 Bl N0.2 lanition coil (4 22 Lg No.4 Fuel injector (-) 1 44 I 0 1 No.1 lanition coil (4 1 1501175 Hp Motors See Figures 103 thru 114 Fig. 103 ECM pin out -1501175 hp and 20012251250 hp motors White connector Fig. 105 Main ECM harness (34-pin and 26-pin connectors) pin outs (to test main sensorlcomponent circuits) -1501175 hp and 20012251250 hp motors WIRE STANDARD CIRCUIT CONDITION/REMARKS TERMINAL CIRCUIT CONDITIONFIEMARKS VOLTAGE 1 1 - VOLTAGE 1 G Starter relay control Approx. 1.3 V ignition switch ON, Shift in Neutral, stop 27 1 - --- switch plate OUT I I 28 1 FUW 1 No. 3 Fuel injector 1 Approx. 12 V 1 Ignition switch ON Approx. 0.5 V Ignition switch ON. Shift in Neutral, stop &itch plate IN 2 WG 02 Feedback -- 30 1 --I -I - - 3 ----31 1 %r/R IOCV 1 Approx. 12 V 1 Ignition switch ON --32 ---- 4 I R/B CKP sensor 5 1 YBI CMP sensor #1 Approx.3 V or 5 V Ignition switch ON 33 Gr/G Variable intake control valve Appmx. 12 V Ignitionswitch ON 6 ----('JSV) 34 PiW REV-LIMIT lamo -- 7 010 ] CMP sensor È (VVT) Approx. 0.3 V or 5 V Ignition switch ON 8 ViW 1 Ex. manifoldtemp. sensor 0.14 -4.75 V Ignition switch ON 9 Lg/W 1 Cylinder temp. sensor 0.14 -4.75 V Ignition switch ON in ---- 11 P/Bl Shift position sensor Appmx. 2 V 1 Ignition switch ON, Shift in Neutral .- 1 1 1 39 G? NO. 3 1gniti:n cz Apprr 0 V [Ignitionswitch ON Appro~.4 V ignition switch ON, Shift in Forward -Approx, 0.6 V Ignition switch ON, Shift in Reverse An - -- ! I 1 1 12 1 W 1 MAP sensor 1 0.20 -4.53 V 1 Ignition switch ON 13 B ~odeldisttnction 1 1 1 Approx 5 V 1 Iqnition switch ON -. --- I (DFlSOoniy) 1 14 I R 1 Power source for sensor . 15 I BIIR 1 Emeraency stop switch 1 Approx. 11 V 1 lqnition switch ON I IStoo switch date IN B 1 Ground for power I - - 1-1 B I - Ground for oower - Stop switch plate OUT A-. 48 1 B 1 Gmund for ECM I 16 Br/Y+r~~~sensor Approx. 4 V Ignitionswitch ON. Throttle WOT - ---1 1 ---I Approx. 0.7 V Ignition switch ON. Throttle FCT I-.. . -' 1 Approx. 0 V ignition switch ON 17 PIE 1 Ground for ECM main relay - - 18 Br NeutraVCrankingswitch Approx. 0.7 V Ignition switch ON, Stop switch plate IN, 51 1 BI/B 1 Oil lamp I Engine stopped, shift into NEUTRAL 52 1 High pressure fuel pump (-) Approx. 0V Stop switch plate IN, Shift in Neutral. 1 For 6 sec after ianition switch ON Approx. 2.5 V Ignition switch ON, Shift into FORWARDor REVERSE . -. ---. -~- Approx. 10 V 1 While engine cranking - 1 switch platb'~~. shift in Neutral. 19 Bl Oil pressure switch Approx. 5 v 1 While engine running 1 53 Lg No. 4 Fuel injector Approx. 12 V 1 Ignition switch ON I I Appro~.0 V 1 Engine stopped (Ignition switch ON) 54 -010 No. 1 Fuel injector ~pprox.12 v 1 ignition switch ON 20 Gr I ECM power source I Approx. 12 V 1 Ignition switch ON 55' W/B IAC valve È Approx. 12 V or 0 V Ignition switch ON - 21 1 Y 1 PC communication 1 1 R/Y IAC valve È Approx. 12 V or 0 V Ignition switch ON - 56' 57" W/BI IAC valve IM Approx. 12 V or 0 V Ignition switch ON 22 O/Y PC communication -I 23 6/81 Engine switch 58-RIG IAC valve 93 Approx. 12 V or 0 V Ignition switch ON 24 0 Buzzer cancel 59 GIW "CHECK ENGINE lamp - - 1 Key not pushed in 60 G/Y "TEMP lamp -- I 25 1 LqB 1 IATsensor 1 0.04 -4.46 V 1 Ignition switch ON :When 12 V is displayed at No. 55 (57) terminal, 0 (zero) V is displayed at No. 58 (56) terminal. Con- versely, if 0 V is displayed at No. 55 (57) terminal, 12 V will be displayed at No. 58 (56) terminal. nominalcircuit voltages (Pins 1-25)-values for completed circuit only (back-nominal circuit voltages (Pins 26-60) -values for completed circuit only (back- probed at She harness connectors or using test harness terminal number, with all connectors g test harnessterminal number, with all connectorsattachedto the ECM) -1501175 hp motors TERMINAL FOR TESTER STANDARD RESISTANCE ITEM PROBE CONNECTION (at 20 "C) CKP sensor 4 (RIB) to 49 (BIW) 168.- 252 0 Fuel injector No. 1 54 (016) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 Fuel injector No. 2 36 (B/Br) to Terminal @ [NOTE I] 10-140 Fuel injector No. 3 28 (R/W) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 Fuel injector No. 4 153 (Lg) to Terminal @[NOTE 11 1AC valve #I ,155 IWIB) to Terminal ~ , 0-.[NOTE 31 IAC valve #2 56 (W)to Terminal @[NOTE 31 25-340 IAC valve #3 58 (RIG) to Terminal @ [NOTE 31 IAC valve #4 57 (WIBI) to Terminal 0[NOTE 3) OCV (Oil control valve) 31 (BrIR) to Terminal @ [NOTE 31 6.0 -8.3 0 VSV (Vacuum switching valve) 33 (GrIG) to Terminal @ [NOTE 3) 34-460 IAT sensor 25 (LgJB) to 49 (BW) 0 "C (32 "F):5.3 -6.6 W Cylinder temperature sensor 9 (Lg/W) to 49 (EM) 25 'C (77 OF): 1.8 -2.3 kCl 50 ¡ (122 OF): 0.73 -0.96 k0 Ex-manifold temperature sensor 8 (VW) to 49 (BW) 75 ¡ (135 OF): 0.33 -0.45 kQ (Thermistor characteristic) , , ECM main relay 17 (PIE) to Terminal @ [NOTE 21 145-1900 Note 1: Disconnect ECM main relay from fuse box, and connect tester probe to relay terminal "A" of fuse box side. Note 2: Disconnect remote control wire harness and connect tester probe to terminal "B" (White wire). Note 3: Disconnect 10 amp (IAC, CMP)fuse from fuse box and connect tester probe to fuse terminal "C" of fuse box side. CPU Fig. 109 Internal ECM wiring diagram -1501175 hp motors TERMI-WIRE TERM!-WIRE CIRCUIT CIRCUIT NAL COLOR NAL COLOR 1 G Starter relay control 2 1 BIG 02 Feedback --I I I Variable intake control valve 4 I I RIB I ICKP sensor 1 5 1 YIBI CMP sensor #1 6 I --I BIBr No. 2 Fuel injector (-) 7 1 01G ICMP sensor #2 (VVT) 8 1 ViW 1 Ex-manifold temp. sensor 39 1 GrIY 1 No. 3 Ignition coil 42 I 0 INo. 1 lanition coil ., 43 1 BIiW 1 Buzzer 44 I - 45 LgIR No. 4 Ignition coil 46 B Ground for power 47 B Ground for power 48 B Ground for ECM 23 BIB1 Engine switch 24 0 Buzzer cancel 25 LgIB IATsensor 271-1 - 28 1 R/W 1 No. 3 Fuel injector (-1 I Fia. 110 ECM circuit identification -1501175 hp motors Fig. 111 EFI Component Locations -1501175 hp motors (overhead view) IAT Sensor Oil Pressure Switch 7A----.,-..- Fuel Injector vsv Shift Position Sensor eutral Switch 1 Fig. 112 EFI Component Locations -1501175 hp motors (stbd) Exhaust Manifold Temp. Sensor Fig. 113 EFI Com~onent Locations -1501175 ho motors (oortt ,.>;rLz:;z-L-7==-7=->---.:.\ .... CMP Sensor #1 -CMP Sensor #2 (DF1501175) ignition Coil Fig. 114 EFI Component Locations -1501175 hp motors (aft) WIRE STANDARD TERMINAL COLOR CIRCUIT VOLTAGE CONDITIONIREMARKS 26 I --I -I - Approx. 3.m [ignition sw~c~~'~~'.~hrottle'~~ 16 Br/Y '~hrottleposition sensor Approx. 0.7 V Ilgnition switch Ot'TTITroilleTCT- 17 I P/B [GroundfGTCra'mZinre-- 'Ignition switch OR, S6Tswitch cfip 1 lAPprox. o-7 Engine stopped, Shift into Neutral -r NeulrslfCranhinoswitch . 1 1 Stop switch clip IN, Shift in Neutral IADWOX 0 V For 6 sec after ionttion switch ON (1) When 12 V is displayed at No 55 (57) terminal 0 (zero)V is displayed at No 58 (56) terminal Conversely, if 0 V is displayed at No 55 (57)terminal. 12V will be displayed at No 58 (56) termrnal Fig. 115 ECM nominal circuit voltages (Pins 1-25) -values for completed circuit only (back- nominal circuit voltages (Pins 26-60) -values for completed circuit only probed at the harness connectors or using test harness terminal number, with all connectors (back-probed at the harness connectors or using test harness terminal number, with all attached to the ECM) -20012251250 hp motors connectors attached to the ECM) -20012251250 hp motors IAC valve #2 I56 (RIY)to Terminal A [See NOTE I] 25 to 34 QIAC valve #3 I58 (RIG) to Terminal A [See NOTE 11 (O/R)z~!B/Wl 13VF (7VC): 0.33 to 0.45 kC2 (Thermistor characteristic) Fig. 117 Componentl6rcuit resistance testing from the ECM end of the main wiring harness -20012251250 hp motors Fiu. 118 Internal ECM wirina diaaram -20012251250 ho motors Fig. 119 ECM circuit identification -20012251250 hp motors Ground Cable Ground Starter Motor Relay Of ECM Main Relay Battery Cable Connector to Shift Sensor Wire to Neutral Switch Wire to Trim Sender, Tilt Limit Switch & PIT Motor Main Fuse (60A) Fig. 121 EFI Component Locations -20012251250 hp motors (front) Oil Pressure Switch CMP Sensor- Port Side (250 hp only) Fig. 123 EFI Component Locations -20012251250 hp motors (aft) CKP Sensor Main Fuse (60A) High pressure fuel Sub Fuse (30A) Low pressure fuel Wire to PTT Switch Shift Position Sensor CMP Sensor arboard side (all models) Ignition Coil Oil Control Valve (OCV) 300Hp Motors See Figures 124 thru 142 Fig. 124 Engine Control Module (ECM) pin out -300hp motors Fig. 125 Boat Control Module (BCM) pin out -300hp motors Fig. 126 Main ECM harness pin outs (34-pin and both 26-pin connectors) -use to test main sensor/component circuits through the harness -300 hp motors Wire Harness Fig. 127 Test harness # 09930-89340 (34-pin and 26-pin test cord pin outs) and test harness # 09930-89850 connected to test monitor ECM circuits -300 hp motors White connector Fig. 128 Test harness # 09930-89340 (34-pin and 26-pin test cord pin outs) connected to test monitor BCM circuits-300 hp motors STANDARD cmcurr CONDITIONIREMARKS VOLTAGE --. . .- - --I---- 26 IIAT 0.04 -4.46 V 1Main switch ON - 27 .... ..-.--- 28 ---- 29 Br/Y Throttle position sensor (main) 0.5 -4.5 V Main switch ON RBI Power source for TPS Approx. 5 V Main switch ON --31 R/W Power source for SPS Appmx. 5 V Main switch ON 3O ..... CAN (H) 32 BrlB Shift position sensor GND -- Approx. 5 V 1 While engine running Oii pressure switch 33 B Ground for ECM -- Approx. 0 V !Engine stopped (Main switch ON) Approx. 12 V Main switch ON. ESA system Fail. CMP sensor #2 (WT_PORT) I Approx. 0.3 V or 5 V IMain switch ON 34 G/Bi Shift motor relay Approx. 0.5 V Main switch ON. ESA system Normal. .--.--.. . 35 --- Water pressure sensor -. - 36 -- Ex. manifold temp. sensor #2 1 0.14 -4.75 V 1 Main switch ON 1 27 -- CAN (L) Approx. 2.5 V or 1.4 V Main switch ON -- - Throttle position sensor (SUB) 2.5 -4.5 V Main switch ON -. -- Appro~. 5 V Main switch ON. Slop switch plate IN Emergency stop switch 1 40 I BIIY lgnilion coil (-) 1 Appro~. 0 V IMain switch ON --4 [NO.~ Annrox 0 V iMain switch ON Ston switch date OUT Main switch ON. APprox, ,2 PTT UP switch depressed. PTT switch UP Main switch ON. Appox, PTT UP switch not depressed. Trm and Tilt sensor 0.3 -4.5 V Main switch ON ECM power source prox. 12 V 1 Main switch ON .~~ .- &I--I Arox. 0 V Mains-N Cylinder temp. sensor 1 0.14 -4.75 V 1 Main switch ON ---prox. 0 V 11 Main switch ON A 3 5 V Main switch ON Shift in Neutral -1 48 1 0 ECM main relay 1 Approx. 0.8V Main switch ON - 1-3 + 1 1 Shtft position sensor V Whde engine running shift in Forward 49 Y ~mmunicatimniine NO.I - -. Approx 1.3 V I White engine running. Shift in Reverse - ]-shift 1,110NEUTRAL-- i 50 0fY 1 Communicatmn line No.2 - - -. . - 51 YIG Approx. 12 V Ignition switch Appmx. 12 V Main switch ON Neutral switch 52 Gr ECM power source Appmx. 12 V Main switch ON 53 BrIR No.2 0CV (-1 Approx. 12 V Main switch ON Main switch ON. 54 Ly No.4 Fuel injector (-) Approx. 12 V Main switch ON PTT DN switch depressed. 55 018 No.? Fuel injector (-) Appro~. 12 V PTT switch DOWN -Main switch ON -. .- 56 B/Br No.2 Fuel injector (-) Approx. 12 V Main switch ON 57 WiBI Throttle motor (-) Approx. 0 V or 12 V Main switch ON Starter relay control 58 Y Throttle motor power source Approx. 12 V Main switch ON 59 Y Throttle motor power source Approx. 12 V Main switch ON MAP cmwr - 60 FXY Throttle motor (+) Approx. 0 V or 12 V Main switch ON Speed sensor 1 0.5 -4.5 V 1 Main switch ON 1 61 G Shift motor (-) Approx. 0 V or 12 V Main switch ON 62 Br/W No.! OCV (-1 Approx. 12 V Main switch ON 63 -- 64 -- 65 B 1Ground for throttle motor 1 -- e6 ----- Ground tor throttle motor - 67 B Ground for shin motor - ------.--------- 68 8 Ground for shift motor -- 69 GrIR Shift motor power source Approx 12 V Main switch ON nominal circuit voltages (Pins 1-25) -values for completed circuit only (back- nominal circuit voltages (Pins 26-69) -values for completed circuit only (back- using test harness terminal number, with all connectors using test harness terminal number, with all connectors TERMINAL 1 2 FIN Power source for LPS main 2 Approx. 5 V Main switch ON Main switch ON, Not depressed Start & Approx, Stop switch 2. WIRE STANDARD YIB Start & Stop switch 2 CONDITIOWBEMARKS MainswitchswitchON, Depressed Start & StopTERMINAL CIRCUIT 2. COLOR VOLTAGE Approx, I I I Stoo switch date IN. Main switch ON, Not depressed Center- Approx, shift into NEUTRAL control switch. Approx LgIB Center control switch For 6 sec. after main switch ON. Main switch ON, Depressed Center con- .While engine running -. Approx, trol switch. WR High pressure fuel pump (-) Enaine sto~Ded. ADD~OX.5 V Main switch ON. Not depressed Sync -~aynswitch.0~. 0/B Synchronization switch switch. Approx, l2 Stop switch plate IN. Approx. 0 V Main switch ON, Depressed Sync switch. Shift into NEUTRAL - B Ground for ECM power -- - Approx. 2.2V Main switch ON, Shift in Neutral BUY Lever position sensor sub 2 0.5-1.7V Main switch ON, Shift in Forward 2.7-4.5 V Main switch ON. Shift in Reverse No.1 Ignition coil (-) Approx. 2.2V Main switch ON, Shift in Neutral Wi?' Lever position sensor main 2 2.7-4.5 V Main switch ON, Shift in Forward 0.5 -1.7 V Main switch ON, Shift in Reverse Power source for shift motor Main switch ON, Stop switch plate IN Approx Start & Stop switch 3 not depressed. YIR Stari & Stop switch 3 Main switch ON, Appox, Start & Stop switch 3 depressed. .While engine running 1 Low pressure fuel pump (-) a Engine stopped. ON. 1 1 *pprox, I 2v Stop switch plate IN. ---Shift into NEUTRAL W 1 No 3 Fuel injector (-) 1 Appmx 12V 1 Main switch ON 1 - position sensor main 2 YIR 1 No 6 Fuel injector (-) 1 Approx 12V 1 Main switch ON OBI 1 NOS Fuel injector (-) 1 Approx. 12V 1 Main switch ON I I 0/W IPurge valve 1 Appmx. 12V 1 Main switch ON I I R 1 Shift motor (+) 1 Approx. 0 V or 12V 1 Main switch ON Lg Center engine control LED 0 Synchronization LED -- Fig. 131 ECM nominal circuit voltages (Pins 70-86) -values for completed circuit only (back- nominal circuit voltages (Pins 1-26) -values for completed circuit only (back- probed at the harness connectors or using test harness terminal number, with all connectors using test harness terminal number, with all connectors - STANDARD TERMINAL $:& CIRCUIT CONDITIONElEMARKS VOLTAGE 27 W CAN 1 (H) Appro~. 2.5 or 3.6 V Main switch ON 28 B CAN 1 (L) Approx. 2.5 or 1.4 V Main switch ON 90 ---- - - Power source for IPS main 1 Approx. 5 V Main switch ON Approx. 2.2 V Main switch ON, Shift in Neutral Lever position sensor sub 1 0.5 -1.7 V Main switch ON. Shift in Forward 2.7 -4.5 V Main switch ON, Shifl in Reverse Approx. 2.2 V Main switch ON. Shift in N~~~al BW Lever position sensor main 1 2.7 -4.5 V Main switch ON. Shift in Forward i TERMINAL FOR TESTER STANDARD RESISTANCE ~ ITEM 0 5 -1 7V Main switch ON Shift in Reverse PROBE CONNECTION (at 20 -C) 35 1 B l~roundforBCM I -1 -1 CKP sensor 4 (RB) to 6 (B/W) 168-252 Q - 36 1 G 1Throttle only LED -1 Fuel injector NO. 1 55 (OB) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 1 I 1 Approx, 5 V Main switch ON, Not depressedThroltle only switch Fuel injector No. 2 56 (B/Br) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 37 WB \Throttle only switch 1 1 1 Aoorox, 0 V IMain switch ON. Depressed Throttle only 1 Fuel injector No. 3 179 (RM) to Terminal @ [NOTE 1) Fuel injector No 4 154 (Lg) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 Fuel injector No 5 181 fO/B1) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 . . 1 Fuel iniector No. 6 180 W/R>to Terminal (K> INOTE 11 I . . -. Emergency stop switch plate IN OCV (Oil control valve) #1 162 (BrIW) to Terminal @[NOTE 11 Emergency stop swflch 6.0 -8.3 Q OCV (Oil control valve) #2 153 (BrtR) to Terminal @[NOTE 1) Purge valve 84 (OM) to Terminal @ [NOTE 11 28-35Q IAT sensor 26 (LgB) to 6 (BM) 0 ¡ (32 OF): 5.3 -6.6 kQ - Cylinder temperature sensor 19 (LgiW) to 6 (W) 25 *C (77 *F): 1.8 -2.3 kQ t-yl- 1 - rtimind for BCM -- Ex-manifold temperature sensor #I 5 (VM) to 6 (BM) 50 "C(122 'F): 0.73 -0.96 kQ 44 1 Br 1 Station select switch 1 -I I-- 4 75%(135'F) 033-045kQ Ex-manifold temperature sensor #2 12 (GIR) to 6 (W) (Thermistor charactenstic) ECM main relay 48 (0) to Terminal @ [NOTE 21 145-1900 Buzzer reset switch IThrottle motor relay 76 (WIB) to 45 (Gr) 145-190Q 1 Shift motor relay 134 (G/Bi) to 45 (Gr) 145- 1900 1 Iswitch 1 Approx. 0 V 1 Main switch ON, Depressed move main ECM relay from fuse box and connect tester to fuse box 1 Aoorox. 5 V 1' Main switch ON. Not deoressed Start & side for relay terminal A (center terminal). Stop switch 48 Y/G Start & Stop switch 1 Appmx. 0 V Main switch ON, Depressed Start & Stop switch --Note 2: Probe terminal B (white wire) in engine main harness connector with 49 the remote control harness disconnected. 50 --- - .- 51 W BCM power source -Appro~. 12 V Main switch ON - El Buzzer 1 .-I - I--*= 1 - Diag LED . .-. I 57 --- - ....-- ..-.---. - - - 56 Y Communication line No.2 .. .- ---.-..- p~~mmunication line NO.? - .-.- 59 60 Gr 1 Main switch Approx 12 V Main switch ON nominal circuit voltages (Pins 27-60) -values for completed circuit only (back- using test harness terminal number, with all connectors Fig. 134 ComponenVCircuit resistance testing from the EC end of She main wiring harness - 300 hp motors Sub BCM , Control TERMI-WIRE CIRCUIT CIRCUIT 1 1 1 NAL COLOR 44 I R 3 Power source for sensor 2 -- -] .. 3 YIBI CMP sensor (11 4 RIB CKP sensor Communication 5 VIW Ex-manifold temp. sensor #I 6 BIW Sensor GND Communication line No 1 7- W CAN (H) ON Communication line No 2 8 Bl Oil pressure switch 51 YIG Inn~finnt;wiirh Master BF 9 01G CMP sensor #2 (VW PORT) power source to BCM control relationship -300 hp motors -...-. 10 El0 CMP sensor S3 (VVT STBD) Br/R No2 0CV (-) 11 BIIB -Water pressure sensor No 4 Fuel injector (-) 12 GIR Exmanifold temp. sensor #2 55 0lB NO-1 Fuel injector (-) CIRCUIT -TERMI-WIRE 13 B CAN (L) 56 B/Br No 2 Fuel injector (-) -.NAL COLOR-- 14 PIW Throttle position sensor (Sub) --57 WIBI Throttle motor (-) F-lr~ BVR Emergency slop switch -5-77 .?Y/B PTT switch UP 1 Start & Stop switch 2 ~ Trim and tiltsensor .. . ..-.-----.. .---- - Center control switch 1R - ..... .. 35 I Ground for BCM .------....--....--- .~ ition sensor sub 2 -- - ---.- ....+-__4---. Emergency stop switch - 1 ii 1 2 ~2-~~B/w~~i Gsition sensor main I ..- 29 BrN Throttle position sensor (Main) Ground for BCM 30 RIB1 Power source for TPS 31 --RIW Power source for SPS > Lever position sensor main 2 32 BrIB Shift position sensor GND 15 Bly GND 33 B Ground for ECM 34 GIBI Shift motor relay Buzzer reset switch No.6 Fuel injector (-) 19 -- - ' OBI No.5 Fuel injector (-) ---- 20 50 82 -- 21 51 W BCM power source . ---.-- 1 40 ! BIN IN0.6 lanition coil (-1 1 83 --22 -52 Bl Buzzer84 1 0/W Purge valve - 23 85 1 -- - 24 , - 86 1 R 1 shift motor (+) ---.-.. -...~ .. Center engine control LED down switch - - ~:TE~F 25-Lg 26 0 Synchronization LED Cruise up switch .- - 27 W CANl(H)-.-I - 28 B CAN 1 (L) --.--- 29 to --1 60 ! Gr IMain switch circuit identification -300 hp motors circuit identification -300 hp motors !4 e Ex. Temp. Sensor (STBD) Ex. Temp. Sensor (STBD) / Ex. Temp. Sensor (STBD) Fig. 139 EFI Component Locations -300 hp motors (overhead view) CKP Sensor Parts holder back side Fig. 140 EFI Component Locations -300 hp motors (front) Oil pressure Fia. 141 EFI Component Locations -300 hp motors (stbd) CMP sensor STBD CMP sensor PORT , Fig. 142 EFI Component Locations -300 hp motors (aft) 40-140 HP POWERHEADS ...................................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 34 (MAP SENSOR) ...........................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 42 (CKP SENSOR) ...........................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 31 (IAC VALVEIBYPASS SCREW ADJUSTMENT) . . 3.77 TROUBLE CODE 24 (CMP SENSOR) ...........................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 22 (CTP SWITCH) ............................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 14 (CT SENSOR) ............................3.77 TROUBLE CODE 23 (IAT SENSOR) ............................3.78 TROUBLE CODE 32 (MAP SENSOR, OR SENSOR HOSE ON 40/50/60/70 HP MOTORS) . 3-78 TROUBLE CODE 11 (RECTIFIER/REGULATOR OVERCHARGING) ...3.78 TROUBLE CODE 15 (EMT SENSOR) ...........................3.78 TROUBLE CODE 43 (FUEL INJECTOR CIRCUIT) .................3.78 ENGINE CRANKS, BUT WON'T START (OR STALLS IMMEDIATELY) . 40-70 HP POWERHEADS ONLY (THRU 2000) ...................3.79 ENGINE RUNS, BUT UNSTABLE AT IDLEITROLL (OR STALLS OFTEN) . 40-70 HP POWERHEADS ONLY (THRU 2000) ...................3.79 ENGINE CRANKS, BUT WON'T START (OR STALLS IMMEDIATELY . 2001 & LATER ............................................3.80 ENGINE RUNS, BUT UNSTABLE AT IDLEiTROLL (OR STALLS OFTEN) . 2001 & LATER ............................................3.80 150-250 HP POWERHEADS .................................-3-81 TROUBLE CODE 34 (MAP SENSOR) ...........................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 31 (IAC VALVEIBYPASS SCREW ADJUSTMENT) . . 3.81 TROUBLE CODE 14 (CT SENSOR) ............................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 23 (IAT SENSOR) ............................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 42 (CKP SENSOR) ...........................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 24 (CMP SENSOR) ...........................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 22 (AIR INTAKE SYSTEM) .....................3.81 TROUBLE CODE 32 (MAP SENSOR 2, PRESSURE DETECT PASSAGE) ..............3.81 TROUBLE CODE 11 (RECTIFIER/REGULATOR OVERCHARGING) ...3.82 TROUBLE CODE 15 (EMT SENSOR. STARBOARD SIDE ON V6 MOTORS) ............3.82 TROUBLE CODE 16 (EMT SENSOR. PORT SIDE .V6 ONLY) . 200-250 HP V6 POWERHEADS ONLY .........................3.82 TROUBLE CODE 43 (FUEL INJECTOR CIRCUIT) .................3.82 TROUBLE CODE 21 (TPS CIRCUIT) ............................3.82 TROUBLE CODE 12 (SHIFT POSITION SENSOR) ................3.82 TROUBLE CODE 25 (CMP SENSOR. VVT PORT .V6 ONLY) . 200-250 HP V6 POWERHEADS ..............................3.82 TROUBLE CODE 26 (CMP SENSOR. VVT STARBOARD ON V6 MOTORS) ............3.82 TROUBLE CODE 51 (VVT ADVANCE. STARBOARD ON V6 MOTORS ONLY) . 200-250 HP V6 POWERHEADS ONLY .........................3.83 TROUBLE CODE 52 (VVT ADVANCE. PORT ON V6 MOTORS) ......3.83 TROUBLE CODE 33 (NEUTRAL SWITCH) .......................3.83 Page: 199 Suzuki Outboards 1996-07 2.5-300HP 4-stroke Repair Manual TROUBLE CODE 41 (MODEL DISCRIMINATION FAULT) ...........3.83 TROUBLE CODE 61 (OIL CONTROL VALVE. STARBOARD ON V6 ONLY) . 200-250 HP V6 POWERHEADS ONLY .........................3.83 TROUBLE CODE 62 (OIL CONTROL VALVE. PORT ON V6 MOTORS) .................3.83 ENGINE CRANKS. BUT WON'T START (OR STALLS IMMEDIATELY) .................................3.84 ENGINE RUNS. BUT UNSTABLE AT IDLEiTROLL (OR STALLS OFTEN) ....................................... 3.84 300 HP POWERHEADS ......................................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 34 (MAP SENSOR) ...........................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 14 (CT SENSOR) ............................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 23 (IAT SENSOR) ............................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 15 (EMT SENSOR, STARBOARD) ...............3.85 TROUBLE CODE 16 (EMT SENSOR, PORT) .....................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 35 (SPEED SENSOR) .........................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 37 (TRIM SENSOR) ..........................3.85 TROUBLE CODE 21 (TPS CIRCUIT) ............................ 3.85 TROUBLE CODE 12 (SHIFT POSITION SENSOR) ................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 11 (RECTIFIERiREGULATOR OVERCHARGING) ...3.86 TROUBLE CODE 43 (FUEL INJECTOR CIRCUIT) .................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 42 (CKP SENSOR) ...........................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 24 (CMP SENSOR) ...........................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 26 (CMP SENSOR, VVT PORT) .................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 25 (CMP SENSOR, VVT STARBOARD) ...........3.86 TROUBLE CODE 22 (AIR INTAKE SYSTEM) .....................3.86 TROUBLE CODE 32 (MAP SENSOR 2, PRESSURE DETECT PASSAGE) ..............3.87 TROUBLE CODE 33 (NEUTRAL SWITCH) .......................3.87 TROUBLE CODE 51 (VVT ADVANCE, STARBOARD) ..............3.87 TROUBLE CODE 52 (VVT ADVANCE, PORT) ....................3.87 TROUBLE CODE 61 (OIL CONTROL VALVE, STARBOARD) .........3.87 TROUBLE CODE 62 (OIL CONTROL VALVE. PORT ON V6 MOTORS)................. TROUBLE CODE 71 (ELECTRONIC THROTTLE VALVE ECM) .......3.87 TROUBLE CODE 72 (ELECTRONIC THROTTLE VALVE MOTOR) ....3.87 TROUBLE CODE 73 (ELECTRONIC THROTTLE VALVE, ETV) .......3.88 TROUBLE CODE 74 (SUB BOAT CONTROL MODULE, SUB BCM) ... 3.88 TROUBLE CODE 75 (DRIVE BY WIRE SYSTEM, DBW) ............3.88 TROUBLE CODE 81 (ELECTRONIC SHIFT ASSEMBLY ECM, ESA) . .3.88 TROUBLE CODE 82 (ELECTRONIC SHIFT ASSEMBLY MOTOR, ESA MOTOR) .........3.88 TROUBLE CODE 83 (ESA POSITION FAULT) ....................3.88 ENGINE CRANKS, BUT WON'T START (OR STALLS IMMEDIATELY) .3.89 ENGINE RUNS, BUT UNSTABLE AT IDLERROLL (OR STALLS OFTEN) .......................................3.89 < lgnition switch "ON" > Check terminal voltage. Is result OK? START fTemIn.4'"D2"on models through 2000 or Temlnal'"3.Yon 2003 and lator models) (4015019011 151140 hp a 60170 hp m~ mm) m k k C IgnitiOnSwitch> "OFF"/Cranking or Circuit Signal (2001 m6laler 606'0 hp) 4CKP sensor failure < lgnition switch "ON" > is result OK? Check terminal voltage. MAP sensor failure Is result OK? [Tamlnal"D7" onmod& through 2000 or NOTE: Terminal "2V on 2003 and latermodels) . It wlll be posslble to sten engine if CKP sensor has failed. * Wire continuitylconnection failure Lk YES Possible cause: ECM failure 0 Wire continuitylconnection failure 3iagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 34 (MAP Sensor) -40-140 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 42 (CKP Sensor) -40-140 kip Powerheads Powerheads < lgnition switch "OFF" > Check IAC valve resistance Is result OK? START w YES < lgnition swltch "OW 1 Cranking > < lgnition swltch "ON" > Check CMP sensor sianai. Check terminal voitage. (4015019011151140 hp;60l70 hpmqhmo) Is result OK? or < lgntt~onSw~tch"OFF"> reststance No CMP sensor fatlure (Terminal'*B4"-40150 hp through 2000 (mt ~~d~~w60170 hp) II Terminal "A@ -60170 hp through 2000 is result OK? Terminal "I8 -all 2001 and later modeis) NOTE: . 11 wiii be possibie to statt engine if CMf sensor has failed. Possible cause: a Wire continuitylconnection lallure * Incorrect by-pass air screw adjustment IAC valve failure (mechanical) IAC passage failure (clogged hose1 silencer, etc.) 0 ECM failure Wire continuity/connection failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 31 (IAC VaIvelBypass Screw Adjustment) -40-140 Hp Powerheads START ;TART - < ignition switch 'ON > < Ignition switch "OFF" > Check terminal voltage. Check cylinder temp. sensor resistance. Is result OK? Is result OK? (Tennmal"DL? for models through 2000 [NOTE 11 , Termmal"2Y for 2001 and later models) & YES NOTE I: In this mse, CTP switch will be in *always OW Possible cause: condition. (terminai voltage wiii be 0 V ECM failure eiways regardless lhroftle position.) -Wire continulty/connection failure Wire continuitylconnection failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 22 (CTP Switch) -40-140 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 14 (CT Sensor) -40-140 Hp Powerheads Powerheads START 1 < Individual check > Check MAP sensor hose is in good con- d~t~onlconnect~on (Except 90 -140 hp) TART Is result OK? < ignition switch "OFF' > I YES 1 Check IAT sensor resistance IAT sensor failure Is result OK? 1 < lonltion switch "ON" > e I ch&k MAP sensor output voltage & YES change. MAP sensor failure Is result OK? Possible cause: I I .ECM failure 4 YES * W~reconttnu~ty/connectionfatlure Passibte cause: Gas filter failure (clogged, etc.) .ECM failure liagnostic ChartJ Trouble Code 23 (IAT Sensor) -40-140 Hp Diagnostic ChartJ Trouble Code 32 (MAP SensorJ or Sensor Hose on Dowerheads 40150160170 hp motors) -40-140 Hp Powerheads < Ignition switch "OFF" > START Check exhaust manifold temp. sensor Exhaust manifold temp. sensor resistance. Is result OK? 'fier and regulator resistance. YES Possible cause: -ECM failure Wire continuity/connection failure - itage at idiespeed. Possibie =use : * ECM failure (0JE: his self-diagnostic code indication may be canceled by ming ignition switch ON because ECM detects baftery voltage, IOJEl: Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 15 (EMT Sensor) -40-140 Hp is difficult to check rectifier and regulator wmpletely. lefore replacing with new one, check if its ground point has good electrical contact Powerheads START c Ignition switch "OFF' > Check fuel injector resistance. Fuel injector failure Is result OK? -# YESI,I!Possible cause: ECM failure .Wire continuity/connection failure ! Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 11(RectifierlRegulator Overcharging) -40-140 Hp Powerheads 17; Before starting this troubleshooting, make sure that : -Thore is no self-diagnostic code indication. -Emergency stop switch plate is set in place. -j5A fuse Is good. START 1 < Ignition switch "ON" > ECM main relay failure Emergency stop switch 1 Check "BY terminal voltage. Is result OK? Check -Clnterminal 1 1 voltage r- r- Is result OK? (See page 3-24.) Spark plug failure Check injector operating K-sound. YES NO Is result OK? < Cranking> < Individual check > Check ignition spark using Check if spark plug is in good condition. NO timing light YES (P~o.09930-76420). Is OK? 1 < Ignition switch "OFF > Is there light flashing? ch&k fuel injector 2.-resistance. < lgnition switch "OFF > Is result OK? Check ignition primary coil resistance. (See page 3-35.) I i * Check ignition secondary < Ignition switch "ON> coil resistance. and A5 terminal voltage. (40150) terminal voltage or ~ri 1 res&ts-OK? Is result OK? A7, A8, Bl and B4 (60l70). -4 NO1 {YES YES NO Power supply wire (Gr) < Cranking> failure Check ignition coil operat- < Cranking> Check fuel iniector operating signal. Is result OK? 1 Fuel pump failure 1 -Fuel injector failure Check fuel pump 3 sec. Check "BI" terminal (40150) . operating sound. . voltage for 3 sec. after Engine start signal wire switch ON. "A?/ (60l70) (YIG) failure Is result OK? I I bi < Cranking> < Crankina > ;;;;::I= terminal Check 'aBl" terminal (40150) No voltage. "A3" (60l70) Failure of high pressure Is result OK? Is result OK? fuel system components. Before starting this troubleshooting, make sure that : * There is no self-diagnostic code indication. ;TART Check neutral switch function. Possible cause : * Incorrect by-pass air screw adjustment [NOTE31 IAC valve failure [NOTE31 IAC passage failure (clogged hose I silencer, etc.) [NOTES] Spark plug failure * lgnition coil failure ECM failure * Wire continui!y I connection failure Failure of high pressure fuel system components : Fuel injector (clog, stuck valve, etc.) Fuel pressure regulator (incorrect regulated pressure, etc.) Fuel pump (clogged suction filter, leakage in tank, etc.) * Fuel filter (clog, etc.) Hose (clog, kink, leakage, etc.) lOJE7: 'neutral switch has failed (while engine running), engine will tend to stall when shifting into geac 'neutral switch has failed as %/ways ON", engine speed is limited to 3000 rhin by intermittent fuel injection nd ignition timing is fixed at BTDC9 '(40150) or BTDC5O @OW. 'neutral switch has failed as "always OFF, engine cannot be cranked (40150). lOTE2: ' CJP switch has failed, engine will tend to stall when decelerating. lOJE3: The self-diagnostic code "3-1"may not be indicated because IAC valve condition depends on ECM control. If IAC valve has failed, "Fast-idle function (warm-up mode)" won't opemte. iiagnostic Chart, Engine Cranks, But Won't Start {OrStalls immediately) -40-70 kip liagnostic Chart, Engine Runs, But Unstable At IdleKroIl (Or Stalls Often) -40-70 Hp lowerheads (Thru 2000) 'owerheads (Thru 2000) ?Before starting this troubleshooting, make sure thak * There is no self-diagnostic code indication. START Iswitch function. I [NOTE 11 < Ignition switch "ON" > < Individual check > No (Always ") Check -24"terminal voltage. Check CTP switch function Is result OK? Is result OK? . I I I 1 YES Ignition coil failure 4 Check ianition ~rimaw coil [NOTE 21 resistance. I- Check "44 and 43 "terminal Check ignition secondav Possible cause: 0 Incorred bypass air screw adjustment [NOTE 31 coil resistance. * IAC valve failure [NOTE 31 Check "40,39,38 and 2T a IAC passage failure (clogged hose I silencer, etc.) [NOTE 31 terminal voltage. Are resuits OK? o Spark plug failure 0 Ignition coil fallure * ECM failure Vhre continuity 1connection fatlure failure e Fatlure of h~gh pressure fuel system components : 8 Fuel injector (clog, stuck valve, etc.) @ Fuel pressure regulator (incorrect regulated pressure, etc.) ECM failure a Fuel pump (clogged suction filter, leakage in tank, etc.) operattng signal. e Fuel filter (clog, etc.) Is result OK? * Hose (clog, ktnk, leakage, etc.) I Fuel pump failure VOTE I: Fuel Injector failure If neutral switch has failed, engine will tend to stall when shiffing into gear. c lgnition switch "0 If neutral switch has failed as 'Wways ON", engine speed is limited to 3000 r/min by intermiifent fuel c lanition switch "OW > njection and ignition timing is fixed at BTDC9". ch&k "37'' terminal voltage for 3 sec. after switch ON. -Is result OK? VOTE2: If CTP switch has failed, engine will tend to stall when decelerating, Check terminal voltage. VOTE 3: possible cause: Is result OK? I The self-diagnostic code "3-1" may not be indicated because IAC valve condition depends on ECM e i I 1 system components. 1 1 control. I If IAC valve has failed, "Fast-idle function (warm-up mode)" won't operate. Diagnostic Chart, Engine Cranks, But Won't Start (Or Stalls Immediately) -40-140 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Engine ut UnstableAt idle/Troil (Or Stalls Often) -40-14Q Hp Powerheads (2001 & Later START < Ignition switch "ON > Check No. I4 terminal voltage, [pp-'pl Is result OK? ECMfailure YES Ignitionswitch <'ON> MAP sensor failure * ECM failure * Wire continuity1connection failure Diagnostic Chartl Trouble Code 34 (MAP Sensor) -150-250 Hp Powerheads -. . .. . . 4gnition witch "OFF, Check cylinder temperature sensor resistance. +1 Cylinder temperature sensor faliure Is result OK? ECM failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 14 (CT Sensor) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START Che& thrdlle posltion sensor output Throttle position sensor failure voltaw charwe. & YES .Che& MAP sensor, IAC valve for air leak. Air intake systemCheck lector and cover for alr leak, 1 v Po&slble cause: .ECM failure START - ~lgnltlonswitch "OFF 4 ON> Posslbte case: Check tAC valve operatlon. Izb 1 :hgrr;;$ bpa~;ir screw adiustment Is result OK? NO Check No. 55, 56, 57, 58 terminal voltage. .Wire continuity/conneclion faiiwe Is result OK? ECM faiiure & YES IAC valve failure (mechanical) .ECM failure * Wire wntinuitylconnection faiiure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 31 (IAC VaIvelBypass Screw Adjustment) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START 4gnition switch"OFF> Check IAT sensor resistance, 1 IAT sensor failure Is result OK? & YES -ECM fallure Diagnostic Chartl Trouble Code 23 (IAT Sensor) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START 9 CMP sensor faiiure Check CMP sensor signal. 1 wire continuity/connection failure Is result OK? yp Possible cause: ECM failure Wire continuily/connection lallure Diagnostic Chartl Trouble Code 24 (CMP Sensor) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START Check MAP sensor output voltage change. Is result OK? .... YES Possible cause: 'Clogged pressure detect passage .ECM failure .Wlre wntinuitylconnection failure Diagnostic Chartl Trouble Code 22 (Air Intake System) -$50-250 Hp Diagnostic Chartl Trouble Code 32 (MAP Sensor Pressure Detect Powerheads Passage) -150-250 Hp Powerheads MPORTANT: Because the ECM detects batleiy voltage, this selfdiagnostic code Indication may be ancelled by turning the Ignition switch ON. START:Individual check> Check rectilierlregulator resistance. Racliierlreguiator failure [See NOTE] Is result OK? YES 1 YES Check exhaust manifold temperature Exhaust manifold temperature sensor sensor (PORT) resistance. (PORT) failure I Is result OK? i I Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 16 (EMT Sensor, Port Side -V6 only) -200-250 Hp V6 Powerheads START -.. . ... Check throtlie position sensor output .Throttle position sensor failure voltage change. .Wire continuity/connection failure is rfisiilt OK? & YES Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 21 (TPS Circuit) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START <:ignition switch "ON"> Check CMP sensor (VVT-STBD) signal. -CMP sensor failure is result OK? Wire mntinuitylconnection failure .,--+- Exhaust manifold temperature sensor sensor (STBD on V6) resistance. (STBDon V6) failure Is result OK? I Check No, 27:28,29: 36, 53,Mterminal ECM failure voltage. Wire continuitylconnection failure Is resurt OK? Check fuel injector operating signal. NO .ECM failure Is result OK? .Wire continulty/connectlon failure 4gniton switch" F > Check fuel injector operating sound (individual). Fuel injector fallure is result OK? Possible cause: ECM failure * note that terminals 27 & 29 are used onib on V6 models. -Wire continuitylconnection faiiure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 43 (Fuel Injector Circuit) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START , Shift position sensor failure * Wire continulty/connection faiiure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 12 (Shift Position Sensor) -150-250 Hp Powerheads START Check CMP sensor (vVT_PORT)*~~~~~I. CMP sensor failure Is result OK? Wire continuity/connection failure YES Possiblecause: .ECM failure note sensor for this failure is located on the Wire continuitylconnection failure port side for V6 models. Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 25 (CMP Sensor, VVT Port -V6 Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 26 (CMP Sensor, VVT Starboard on Ionly) -200-250 Hp V6 Powerheads V6 Motors) -150-250 Hp Powerheads I START -... ..., -...... Check No. 20, 23 terminal voltage ECM power source (battery,battery switch, ECM power source (battery, battery switch. (ECM power source voltage) sub-battery cable, etc) failure. (ECM power source voltage). sub-batterycable, etc) faiiure. IS resun OK? 1 & YES 1YES 1 - OCV and/or OCV gasket failure filter condition. - ts result OK? IS result OK? I ,J CMP sensorfailureCheck CMP sensor ttl, 82, #3*signal. Check neutralswitch function. failure -F-k1 IS result OK? wire continuity/connecttonfa11ure 1Is result OK? YES4YES Possible cause: ECM failure Possible cause: ¥No13 terminal wiring Wire short circuit open circuit. (150 hp and 200 hp) 'note that terminal3 is only used by V6 model;No. 13 terminal connector short circuit --... - (T75 hp and *Xi1250 hp) 1 Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 33 (Neutral Switch) -150-250 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 41 (Model Discrimination Fault) - Powerheads 150-250 Hp Powerheads START START NO NO Check OCV operation. +1 OCV failure Check OCV operation. Is result OK? is result OK? 1 1IÑÑÑ iOCV fa'1ure 4YES YES I ignition switch "OFF> -1 NO - Check OCV resistance. Is result OK? mure IÑÑÑ I 4YES Possible cause: ECM failure Wire continuity/connectionfailure 'Wire continulty/connectionfaiture Diagnostic Chart,Trouble Code 61 (Oil Control Valve, Starboard on Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 62 (Oil Control Valve, Port on V6 V6 Only)-200-250 Hp V6 Powerheads Motors) -150-250 Hp Powerheads IPORTANT: Before starting troubleshooting procedure, make sure there is no self-diagnostic code jication and the emergency stop switch clip is installed. -...... * Ignition switch failure Check No. 23 terminal voltage. * Wire continuity/connection failure Is result OK? YES ECM main relay failure Check low pressure fuel pump * Low pressure fuel pump failure operation. * Wire continuitylconnection failure Is result OK? High pressure fuel pump failure * note terminals 27 & 29 are only ]~Wirecontinuiiy/connection~~l~re~~ I used on V6 models T: Before starting troubleshooting procedure, make sure there is no selfdiagnostic code indication. START ition sensor output Shift position sensor failure [See NOTE 11 * Wire continuitylconnection failure Check throttle position sensor output *Throttle position sensor failure [See NOTE 21 voltage change. * Wire continuitylconnection failure YES Possiblecause: Incorrect bypass air screw adjustment [See NOTE 31 * IAC valve failure [See NOTE 31 * IAC passage failure (clogged, etc.) [See NOTE 31 * Spark plug failure Ignition coil failure -ECM failure -Wire continuity/connection failure Failure of high pressure fuel system components: * Fuel injector (clogged, stuck valve, etc.) * Fuel pressure regulator (incorrect regulated pressure, etc.) * Fuel pump (clogged suction filter, leakage in tank, etc.) Fuel filter (clogged, etc.) * Hose (clogged, kinked, leakage, etc.) NOTE 1: if the shift position sensor has failed (while engine is running), the engine will tend to stall when shifting into gear. NOTE 2: If the throttle position sensor has failed, the engine will tend to stall when decelerating. NOTE 3: The self-diagnostic code "3-1" may not be indicated because IAC valve condition depends on ECM control. If the IAC valve has failed, fast-idle function (warm-up mode) will not operate. iagnostic Chart, Engine Cranks, But Won't Start (OrStalls Immediately) -150-250 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Engine Runs, But Unstable At Idle/Troll (Or Stalls Often) -150-250 Hpawerheads Powerheads START < Main switch "ON > Is result OK? ---.--- * Wire continuity/connection . ----. failure START ....... ---~ -

- START ..... . . I Check ECM "44" terminal voltage. :Main switch "OFF", i . . ~ ~ ~ --.--~.. -. .~. -. -..- Check Ex. rnan~fold temp sensor PORT L.Ex. manifold temp sensor PORT failure !-yw & YES resistance -Wire conlinuity/conneclion failure mnlt OK7 1 :Main switch "ON; Check ECM "25" terminal voltage. -¥>1 Speed sensor failure i YES ----- -- .----..-.. . Is result OK7 --. --- Possible cause: 1 r- -. i YESECM iailure - Wire continuity/connection failure I Possible cause: ----.-... .. 1 :E~~~~u~ty~connection 1, failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 16 (EMT Sensor, Port) -300 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 35 (Speed Sensor) -300 Hp Powerheads Powerheads START - :Main switch "ON", NO i Check ECM "44" terminal voltage. ' START.-.-- Is result OK? tagture
-. ~~~%~u~ty~connectson ~ YES voltago change Throttie position sensor failure v ~ -... ......- :Main switch "ON> Check ECM -17"terminal voltage. Is result OK? YES Possible cause: ECM failure 1 Wire continuily/connection failure 1 Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 37 (Trim Sensor) -300 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 21 (TPS Circuit) -300 Hp Powerheads Powerheads Note: This seif-dlagnostic code indication may be canceled by turning main switch ON, because OEM detects battery voltage. START :Main switch "ON; Check shift position sensor output voltage J""Ñ .Shill position sensor failure I YES I change. .Wire continuity/connection failure 1'; r~- Check CMP sensor signal is result OK7 _..___I 4 VES YES Possible cause: Possible cause: * EcM fa~ii~re i .ECM failure -Wire coniinui!yiconnection faiiure ! Wire coniinuity/connection failure ---. ~ Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 24 (CMP Sensor) -300 Hp Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 26 (CMP Sensor, VVT Port) -300 Hp Powerheads Powerheads
Check throttle position sensor output Throttle position sensor faiiire voltage change START --Is result OK' -----.-1 Check MAP sensor, throttle body for air ' YES YES--Y leakage. Air intake system failure Possible cause: .Check intake collector and cover for air -ECM failure leakage. .Wire con!n"!tyicontiectson fatlure -is result OK? i Diagnostic Chart, Troubie Code 25 (CMP Sensor, VVT Starboard) -Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 22 (Air Intake System) -300 Hp 300 HDPowerheads Powerheads START :Main switch "ON> -Main swltch"OFF"> Check MAP sensor output voltage change. Check neutral switch function. START MAP sensor failure Is result OK? i Is result OK? YES Posslble cause: . Clogged pressure detect passage ECM failure .Wire short circuit Wire continuity/connection failure Shift position sensor lever damage Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 32(MAP Sensor 2,Pressure Detect Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 33(Neutral Switch) -300Hp Passaae)-300HD Powerheads Powerheads I 1 I START START :Main switch "ON?
- Check ECM "45""52" terminal voltage ECM power source (battery. battery switch, Check ECM "45"'52" terminal voltage (ECM power source voltage). sub-battery cable, etc.) failure (ECM power source voltage). Is result OK? & YES & YES :Main switch "OFF">
Check OCV operation and OCV gasket 1 OCV anUw OCV gasket falure Check OCV operation and OCV gasket ~ ----.-1 niter condition. 1 OCV and/or OCV gasket faiiure ' filter condition. Is result OK? I Is result OK? 7---- & YES & YES Possible cause: 1 Posslble cause: , -ECM failure ECM failure , .Wire conlinuity/connection failure Wire continuity/connection failure OCV oil passage faiiure OCV oil passage failure OCV actuator failure i * OCV actuator failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 51 (VVT Advance, Starboard) -300 Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 52(VVT Advance, Port) -300Hp Hp Powerheads Powerheads START START YES [ OCV faiiure ~ - Possible cause: -ECM failure Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 61 (Oil Control Valve, Starboard) -Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 62(Oil Control Valve, Port on V6 300Hp Powerheads Motors) -300Hp Powerheads START
Check throttle motor resistance. ~ ---- START I IS result OK? I - .....-.....I ETV motor relay failure Is result OK? ECM failure ____________I ---. Check ETV motorimotor relay circuit.
Select the 1st station. .Lwer posvtaon sensor ,allure Check 1st lever position sensor output Wire continuity/conneclion failure I 1 vcitaae chance. is result OK?" -1 YES .. ..-. . . -... Select the 2nd station. -Lever position sensor failure Check 2nd lever position sensor output + Wire continuitylconneciion laiiure voitage change. Is result OK? 1 >, YES Check ECM "7"'13"terminal voltage. is result OK7 1 * YES
Check shift motor resistance. I Shift motor lailu~e is result OK? 4 YES Chack electronic shift system operation. is i-esnlt OK? Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 81 (Electronic Shift Assembly ECM, ESA) -300 Hp Powerheads START [-<~ain swilch "ON"> Check shift position sensor output voltage. 7- .Wire continuity/connec'Jon failure 1 j Is result OK? 4 YES :Main switch "OFF> FA--- clutch lever --.- .To cnock smwin gear ongagemern. shih 1 tno clutch co:Htot tebo! to Fotwaid and Reverse position from Neutral position I Is resuit OK? I Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 82 (Electronic Shift Assembly Diagnostic Chart, Trouble Code 83 (ESA Position Fault) -300 Hp Motor, ESA Motor) -300 Hp Powerheads Powerheads Before starting the troubleshooting, make sure that: There is no self-diagnostic code indication. Emergency stop switch plate is set in place. START heck ECM "51" terminal voltage. * Wire continuity/connection ECM main relay failure YES YES Check ECM "55, 56, 79, 54, 81, Check ignition coil operating 80 terminal voltage signal. Is result OK? Before starting this troubleshooting, make sure that: 0 There Is no self-diagnostic code Indication. START
Check throttle valve operation. NO ------W 1 Electronic throttle body assembly failure 1 IS result OK? I YES Throttle position sensor failure 1
Check air intake system (Throttle body, MAP sensor, Intake collector, etc.) for air 1 Air intake system failure leakage. * Spark plug failure Ignition coil failure ECMfailure * Wire continuity/connection failure Failure of high pressure fuel system components: Fuel injector (clog, stuck valve, etc.) Fuel pressure regulator (incorrect regulated pressure, etc.) * Fuel pump (clogged suction filter, leakage in tank, etc.) Fuel filter (clog, etc.) Hose fcloa. kink, leakaae, etc.) High pressure fuel pump failure 1 Wire continuity/connection failure 1 Diagnostic Chart, Engine Cranks, But Won't Start (OrStalls Immediately) -300 Hp Powerheads Diagnostic Chart, Engine Runs, But Unstable At Idle~TrolI(OrStalls Often) -300 Hp Powerheads Starting in about 2001, Suzuki included an oil change reminder system in the EFI control logic. The ECM, which also monitors total operating hours, will trigger the system as the powerhead reaches predetermined points (the initial 20 hours, the subsequent 80 hours, and every 100 hours thereafter). The system works just slightly differently depending on whether you are talking about a tiller or a remote control model. For tiller models, once triggered, each time the ignition key is turned ON the buzzer will begin a series of double-beeps. The beeps should continue until the motor is started and then will continue either for an additional minute (40150 hp models and 2001-02 60170 hp models) or for an additional 3-4 times (2003 or later 60170 hp models). On remote control models the oil lamp will flash AND the buzzer will begin sounding a series of double-beeps once the system is triggered anytime the key is turned ON. On most models the beeps will cease as soon as the motor is started, however the oil lamp will usually keep flashing while the motor is running, until the system is manually reset. In all cases, resetting the system is a relatively easy matter. Obviously the system is there for a reason, to encourage the operator to replace the oil. If the system is cancelled before the oil is actually replaced basic human nature helps make it too easy to put off the now necessary maintenance, so avoid doing this. HOWEVER, if the oil is changed on an annual basis, sooner than the recommended hourly intervals, sufficient time may not have passed since the last oil change when the system is triggered and we can condone resetting the system without changing the oil under those circumstances. RESETTING THE REMINDER SYSTEM -40-250 HP MODELS 6 See Figure 143 1. Make sure the safety lanyard cliplplate is in position. 2. Turn the ignition key to the ON position without starting the powerhead. 3. Remove the safety lanyard cliplplate, then grasp the emergency stop switch knob and pull it uploutward 3 times in 7 seconds. A short beep will be heard if the cancellation is successful 4. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. 5. Reinstall the safety lanyard cliplplate. RESETTING THE REMINDER SYSTEM -300 HP MODELS 6 See Figure 144 1. Make sure the safety lanyard cliplplate is in position. 2. Turn the main ignition key to the ON position, then remove the safety lanyard cliplplate. 3. Depress the START & STOP button 3 times in 10 seconds. A short beep will be heard if the cancellation is successful. 4. Turn the main ignition key to the OFF position. 5. Reinstall the safety lanyard cliplplate. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 40150 Hp Models 4 See Figures 145 thru 148 The air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly attaches to the throttle body at the front of the powerhead. As their names imply, the air intake silencer is designed to reduce mechanical noise emitted from the engine while the flame arrester is designed to protect the engine cases and external components from the possibility of a backfire through the manifold and throttle body. On the 40150 hp motors, a plastic silencer housing is mounted over the flame arrester, seal plate and seal. A small drain valve located in the bottom of the silencer housing prevents condensation build-up. On late-models the flywheel cover attaches to the top of the air intake silencer assembly and so the flywheel cover must be removed for more than just access. On early-models you may wish to remove the flywheel cover for better access anyway. The silencer housing serves as a mounting point for the Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor and the idle Air Control (IAC) valve air hose. 1. Remove the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section if needed for additional access (you'll have to disconnect the evaporation hose from the cover). On late-models, take a look at the front of the flywheel cover, if you see a bolt threaded downward into th,e air intake silencer, you have to AT LEAST remove that bolt. 2. Disengage the wiring connector from the IAT sensor at the bottom corner of the housing. 3. Remove the intake silencer mounting bolt(s). If the wiring for the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch is in the way or in danger of becoming damaged, tag and disconnect it before pulling the silencer housing too far back off the throttle body. 4. Carefully pull the silencer housing away from the throttle body for access then disconnect the IAC valve hose from the bottom center of the housing. You can usually access the IAC valve hose while the housing is still installed, but some people find it easier to remove once the housing is free. SUZUKI 1) Lanyard ClipIPlate 2) Start & Stop Button Fig. 143 Resetting the oil change reminder system -40-250 hp models Fig. 144 Resetting the oil change reminder system -300 hp models FUEL SYSTEM 3-91 5. Wipe the inside of the silencer housing using a rag and a small amount of suitable solvent. 6. If necessary, remove the flame arrester, seal plate and seal. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester and seal for signs of damage, and replace, as necessary. To install: 7. If removed, install the seal, seal plate and flame arrester. 8. Make sure.the rubber mounting cushions for the intake silencer are in position and still in good shape. 9. Align the cover and throttle body, then seat reconnect the IAC valve hose, and carefully push the cover onto the throttle body and install the retaining bolt(s). Fig. 145 On late-models, the flywheel cover Fig. 146 . . .tag and disconnect the IAT attaches to the silencer cover. .. sensor wirina and IAC valve hose. .. SILENCER I SEAL FLAME ARRESTOR Fig. 148 Exploded view of the air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly -40150 hp motors (late-model shown, early model Fig. 149 View of that air intake silencer VERY similar) cover and flame arrester -60R0 hp motors 10. If unplugged, reconnect the wiring to the CTP sensor. 11. Inspect the wiring connector terminals and clean, if necessary. Connect the wiring harness to the IAT sensor. 12. If removed, install the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section. At the very least, on late-models, install the flywheel cover-to-intake silencer retaining bolt. 60170 Hp Models e See Figures 149 thru 153 The air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly attaches to the throttle body at the front of the powerhead. As their names imply, the air intake silencer is designed to reduce mechanical noise emitted from the INTAKE 'OLT CTP SENSOR Fig. 147 ...then remove the silencer bolts (and if necessary disconnect the CTP sensor wiring) Fig. 150 The silencer cover is secured by a retaining bolt. . . HOLDER I 'x.. I FLAME I. ARRESTOR I I COVER Fig. 153 Exploded view of the air intake Fig. 151 The silencer cover is secured by a silencer, cover and flame arrester assembly retaining bolt. . . 3-92 FUEL SY engine while the flame arrester is designed to protect the engine cases and external components from the possibility of a backfire through the manifold and throttle body. On 60170 hp motors, a separate plastic silencer cover is mounted over top a flame arrester, holder and the air intake silencer housing. The silencer housing itself serves as a mounting point for the vent hoses from the vapor separator and the crankcase. 1. If necessary for clearance, remove the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section if needed for additional access. 2. Tag and disconnect the crankcase and vapor separator breather hoses from the top of the silencer cover. Both hoses are normally secured by spring-type clamps, simply squeeze the clamp ears and pull them back to release. 3. Remove the bolt holding the silencer cover, then remove the cover band and cover from the silencer. Wipe the inside of the silencer cover clean with a shop towel and suitable gentle solvent. 4. If necessary, remove the flame arrester and holder. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester for signs of damage, and replace, as necessary. 5. If necessary, tag and disconnect the wiring for the IAT sensor (on top of the silencer), then remove the bolts securing the intake silencer housing itself and remove it from the engine. W It may also be necessary to disconnect the wiring from the CTP switch (on the bottom of the throttle body, right below the silencer) for clearance. To install: 6. If removed, align the bolt holes, then install intake silencer housing and secure using the retaining bolts. Reconnect the wiring for the IAT sensor. If unplugged, reconnect the wiring for the CTP switch. 7. If removed install the flame arrester and holder. 8. Make sure the rubber mounting cushion for the intake silencer cover is in position and still in good shape. 9. Align the cover and intake silencer opening, then install the cover and secure using the mounting bolt. 10. Connect the breather and evaporation hoses to the intake silencer cover and secure using the clamps. 11. If removed, install the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section. 90/115/140 Hp Models See Figures 154 thru 159 The air intake duct is mounted to the top of the powerhead and connects to a vertically mount silencer which contains the flame arrester and holder assembly. The silencer attaches directly to the throttle body. As their names imply, the air intake duct and silencer is designed to route air to the motor while reducing mechanical noise emitted from the engine, and the flame arrester is designed to protect the engine cases and external components from the possibility of a backfire through the manifold and throttle body. Ifit is desired or necessary it should be possible to remove either the air intake silencer or the duct assembly without removing the other component. Fig. 154 It's best to remove the flywheel cover since it attaches to the silencer components at various points Fig. 155 The air duct Is secured by 2 bolts Fig. 156 Disconnect the breather hose from the silencer case NOTE: Duct shape varies slightly (140 hp shown) Fig. 159 Exploded view of the air intake Fig. 158 Either unplug the wiring or remove duct, silencer and flame arrester assembly - Fig. 157 Remove the 3 silencer case bolts 1 the IAT sensor 90/115/140 hp models I I 1. If desired for access, remove the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section. Although it is not necessary to completely remove the flywheel cover, since the cover does attach to the air intake components at one or two points with plastic fasteners, removing it means it's easier to remove the air intake components and makes you less likely to damage anything. 2. If removing the air intake silencer itself, the lower retaining bolt is normally obscured by the Lower Engine Covers. If necessary, refer to the Engine Cover procedure in the Maintenance & Tune-up section and remove them for access. 3. To remove the air duct, remove the 2 bolts that secure the air duct (one at the front end of the duct, the other toward the aft end, just underneath the duct at the top of the intake manifold), then carefully separate the duct from the silencer and remove the duct from the powerhead. The breather hose is usually secured using a spring-type retaining clamp which is released by gently squeezing the clamp ears. 4. To remove the silencer itself, start by tagging and disconnecting the breather hose from the silencer. The IAT sensor is normally mounted to the back of the silencer on these motors. Reposition the housing slightly for access to disconnect the wiring in the next step. 5. While holding the silencer remove the bolts (usually 3 one at about each corner of the assembly) securing it to the powerhead, then reposition the cover slightly for access to the Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor wiring. Tag and disconnect the wiring and/or remove the silencer completely. Wipe the inside of the silencer with a shop towel and suitable solvent. 6. If necessary, remove the flame arrester and holder. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester for signs of damage, and replace, as necessary. To install: 7. Make sure the rubber mounting cushions for the intake silencer are in position and still in good shape. Also, if removed install the holder and flame arrester to the silencer. 8. While holding the silencer up near position at the powerhead, either reinstall and/or reconnect the IAT wiring (as applicable), then align the bolt holes and install intake silencer housing. Secure using the retaining bolts. 9. Connect the breather hose to the intake silencercover. Secure using the clamp. 10. Position the air duct and secure using the 2 retaining bolts. 11. IF removed, install the lower engine covers as detailed in the Maintenance & Tune-up Section 12. If removed, install the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section. AIR INTAKE SILENCER AND RING GEAR COVER FLAME See Figure 160 The air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly attaches to the top of the throttle body inlet and also acts as the flywheel cover. 1. Loosen the clamp that secures the breather hose at the cylinder head cover (as that is the point most easily accessed), then carefully disconnect it from the cylinder head cover. 2. At the rear of the air intake silencer and flywheel cover locate the IAT sensor, then disconnect the sensor (either unplug the wiring or remove the sensor from the housing, as desired). 3. Remove the 4 bolts that secure the flywheel cover (3 are found in a triangular layout around the top front of the flywheel, and the last one is found toward the rear, port side of the cover, just behind the starter). 4. Remove the air intake silencer and flywheel cover from the top of the powerhead. 5. If necessary, remove the flame arrester and holder. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester for signs of damage, and replace, as necessary. To install: 6. Position the air intake silencer and flywheel cover assembly over the top of the powerhead and secure using the 3 retaining bolts. Tighten them securely. 7. Reconnect the IAT sensor. 8. Reconnect the breather hose and secure using the clamp. 20012251250 Hp Models See Figure 161 The air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly attaches to the top of the throttle body inlets and the end of the flywheel cover. You have to raise the assembly (flywheel cover and intake silencer) in order to access the wiring for the IAT sensor, as well as the purge valve hose. 1. Loosen the clamps that secure the breather hoses, then carefully disconnect them from the air intake silencer. 2. Next loosen the clamps that secure the silencer outlet tubes to the tops of the throttle body inlets. 3. Remove the 3 bolts that secure the flywheel cover (they are found in a triangular layout around the top of the flywheel). 4. Pull upward gently on the flywheel cover and air intake silencer assembly so you can access the IAT sensor wiring and the purge valve hose. Disconnect the sensor (either unplug the wiring or remove the sensor from the housing, as applicable) and then disconnect the purge valve hose. 5. Remove the air intake silencer and flywheel cover from the top of the powerhead. 6. If necessary, remove the flame arrester and holder. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester for signs of damage, and replace, as necessarv. 7. check the air silencer sea! for damage and replace, as necessary. FLAME TUBE Fig. 160 Exploded view of the air intake silencer and flame arrester Fig. 161 Exploded view of the air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly -1501175 hp models assembly -20012251250 hp models To install: 8. Position the air intake silencer and flywheel cover assembly over the top of the powerhead. Reconnect the IAT sensor and the purge valve hose, then seat the flywheel cover and air intake silencer. Align the silencer tubes with the throttle body inlets. 9. Secure the flywheel cover using the 3 retaining bolts, then tighten the clamps on the silencer tubes. 10. Reconnect the breather hoses and secure using the clamps. 300 Hp Models See Figure 162 The air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly attaches to the top of the throttle body inlet and also serves as the flywheel cover on this model. You have to raise the assembly in order to access the purge valve hose and the wiring for the IAT sensor before the assembly can be completely removed. 1. Remove the 4 bolts (2 each) from the starboard and port air duct guards, then remove the guards. 2. Loosen the clamp that secures the breather hose to the top corner of the starboard cylinder head cover, then carefully disconnect the hose from the cylinder head cover. 3. Remove the 3 bolts that secure the flywheel cover (they are found in a triangular layout around the top of the flywheel). 4 Pull upward gently on the flywheel cover and air intake silencer assembly so you can access the IAT sensor wiring and the purge valve hose. Disconnect the sensor (either unplug the wiring or remove the sensor from the housing, as applicable) and then disconnect the purge valve hose. 5. Remove the air intake silencer and flywheel cover from the top of the powerhead. 6. If necessary, remove the flame arrester. Whether removed or not, inspect the flame arrester for signs of damage, and replace, as necessary. To install: 7. Position the air intake silencer and flywheel cover assembly over the top of the powerhead. Reconnect the IAT sensor and the purge vaive hose, then seat the flywheel cover and air intake silencer. 8. Secure the flywheel cover using the 3 retaining bolts, and tighten securely. 9. Reconnect the breather hose and secure using the clamp. 10. Install the port and starboard air duct guards and secure using the retaining bolts. uard, Air Cover I Flame Arrestor .Guard, Air t Duct f REMOVAL& INSTALLATION See Figures 163 thru 172 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. It is found at the front of the intake manifold, behind the air intake silencer. The intake manifold consists of a common plenum connected to separate intake runners (one for each cylinder). The intake manifold is used as a mounting or anchoring point for multiple other components on these models as well. The Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch that is mounted to the throttle body was adjusted at the factory to signal the Engine Control Unit (ECM) when the throttle is closed. When the engine is operating at idle, the throttle plate closes most of the way, but is held open very slightly by the CTP switch. The air that passes by the throttle plate, along with the air metered through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve and idle air bypass screw passage determines engine speed at idle. On 40150 hp motors, the IAT sensor is found in the intake silencer housing. The vapor separator tank and the throttle body, along with the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor vacuum hose are attached to the manifold assembly. The fuel rail is integral with (is a cast portion of) the intake manifold. For this reason, the high pressure fuel lines and the fuel injectors are attached to the intake manifold as well. 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. Remove the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 3. Remove the air intake silencer cover and flame arrester assembly, as described in this section. 4. If not done already when removing the air intake silencer assembly. tag and disengage the wiring connector from the CTP switch. B When disconnecting wiring, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 5. Separate the throttle rod from the lever on the throttle body by carefully prying the rod off the pivot. 6. Remove the bolts securing the side cover holder (the piece right next to the oil filter), then remove the holder. 7. Loosen the water hose clamps, then disconnect the water inlet and outlet hoses from the bottom of the vapor separator tank. 8. Drain the fuel from the vapor separator tank. If equipped, loosen the screw on the bottom of the tank, then use the drain hose to empty the fuel from the vapor tank into an appropriate container (the fuel can be poured back into the main boats fuel tank). If not so equipped, use the fuel return hose to drain the vapor separator. 9. Tag and disconnect all fuel hoses from the vapor separator tank (there should be a low pressure fuel inlet hose and a high pressure fuel outlet hose). Position a shop rag to catch any spillage, then drain each hose into a suitable container as it is removed from the fitting. 10. Tag and disconnect the wiring for the MAP sensor (at the top of the manifold). 11. Tag and disconnect the high pressure fuel pump wiring connector from the top of the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly. 12. Remove the 2 bolts securing the bottom of the high pressure fuel filter to the top of the intake manifold. 13. Tag and disconnect the wiring from each of the injectors. 14. If desired, remove the 4 bolts securing the throttle body, then remove the throttle body assembly from the manifold and disconnect the IAC valve hose. Brace. Cover To prevent the possibility of warping and damaging the intake manifold, work slowly when loosing the fasteners. Although not absolutely :ig. 162 Exploded view of the air intake silencer/flywheel cover and necessary, it is a good idea to use a few passes in the reverse of the lame arrester assembly -300 hp models torque sequence to properly loosen the fasteners. FUEL SYST 15. Su~~ort the intake manifold, then loosen the nuts and bolts araduallv in the reverse of the torque sequence (working from the front of the" powerhead and moving toward the rear; starting from the outside and moving toward the inside). Once you are certain all fasteners are removed, carefully pry the intake from the cylinder head. 16. Remove and discard the gaskets (throttle body, if separated, and intake), then carefully clean the mating surfaces of all debris, being careful not to score or otherwise damage them. Use a quick drying solvent to clean all removed components. 17. If necessary, remove the vapor separator tank from the manifold as detailed in this section. - THROTTLE GASKET BODY 1^ @-I THROTTLE ROD Fig. 163 Exploded view of the throttle body assembly -40150 hp motors 1 Fig. 166 Disconnect the wiring from the CTP switch Fig. 169 Remove wires and hoses from the VST assembly GASKET To install: 18. If removed, install the vapor separator tank to the manifold assembly. NEVER reuse the intake manifold gasket. During installation position a new gasket that has been lightly coated on both sides with Suzuki Bond No. 1207B or equivalent. 19. Position a new intake manifold gasket that has been coated on both sides with Suzuki Bond No. 1207B, then install the manifold using the retainers. Carefully thread and hand-tighten the retainers, then tighten them securely using multiple passes of the tightening sequence. Tighten the large Fig. 164 Exploded view of the intake manifold mounting -40150 hp motors INTAKE MANIFOLD \ Fig. 167 Remove the bolts securing the side cover holder Fig. 170 Tag and disconnect the injector wiring Fig. 165 Start by removing the flywheel cover for access INTAKE MANIFOLD Fig. 168 Disconnect the wiring from the MAP sensor Fig. 171 Remove the boltslnuts retaining the intake assembly (8mm) screws/nuts to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) and the small screws/nuts (6mm) 96 inch lbs.18 ft. lbs. (11 Nm). 20. If removed, reconnect the IAC valve hose and position the throttle body assembly to the intake manifold using a new gasket, then tighten the bolts securely. 21. Reconnect the wiring to the fuel injectors, high pressure fuel pump and MAP sensor, as tagged or noted during removal. 22. Use the 2 mounting bolts to re-secure the high pressure fuel filter. 23. Reconnect the fuel hoses, as tagged or noted during removal. 24. Reconnect the cooling water hoses to the bottom of the vapor separator. 25. Install the side cover holder to the front lower corner of the manifold, near the oil filter, and secure using the retaining bolts (actually, if you followed the intake manifold torque sequence, you probably started this already, look at number 14 in the sequence). 26. Apply a light coating of grease to all pivot points. Connect the throttle rod to the lever on the throttle body. B Grease all points, even any pivot point not disconnected. 27. Reconnect the wiring for the CTP switch. 28. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. 29. Install the air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly as described in this section. 30. Install the lower engine covers. 60,70 Hp Modeis See Figures 173 thru 183 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. On these EFI models, it is found at the front of the intake manifold, behind the air intake silencer. Historically the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch is mounted to the throttle body and adjusted at the factory to signal the Engine Control Unit (ECM) when the throttle is closed. When the engine is operating at idle, the throttle plate closes most of the way, but is held open very slightly by the CTP switch. The air that passes by the throttle plate, along with the air metered through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve and idle air bypass screw passage determines engine speed at idle. On 60170 hp motors, the Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor is also mounted to the throttle body assembly. On these EFI motors the intake manifold consists of a common plenum connected to separate intake runners (one for each cylinder). The intake manifold is used as a mounting or anchoring point for multiple other components on these models as well. The vapor separator tank and the throttle body, as well as the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor vacuum hose are attached to the manifold assembly. On 60170 hp motors, the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve and IAC air silencer, along with the idle air bypass screw and high pressure fuel filter are all mounted to the manifold assembly as well. 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. Remove the flywheel cover. 3. Remove the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 4. Remove the air intake silencer cover and flame arrester assembly, as described in this section. B When disconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 5. Tag and disconnect both hoses from the low pressure fuel pump located near the center of the valve cover. 6. At the bottom of the manifold, toward the center, loosen and remove the 2 bolts securing the high pressure fuel filter to the manifold. 7. Tag and disconnect the fuel hose from either the regulator adapter and fuel pressure regulator (through 2001 models) or from the fuel railldelivery pipe (2002 and later models). 8. Tag and disconnect the wiring from each of the injectors. 9. Remove the 2 bolts securing the fuel rail (delivery pipe) and injectors to the powerhead, then remove the rail and injector assembly. 10, Tag and disconnect the necessary cooling water hoses, depending upon the year as follows: / / ROD Fig. 173 Exploded view of the throttle body assembly -60R0 hp motors Fig. 174 Exploded view of the intake manifold mounting -60R0 hp motors FUEL SYSTEM On models through 2001, disconnect the hose between the engine holder and intake manifold, the hose between the oil pan 3-way joint and upper crankcase, and finally the lower crankcase 3-way joint and intake manifold. On 2002 and later models, disconnect the cooling water hose from the oil pan fitting (at the lower corner of the exhaust housing) and the other water hose from the joint fitting right below the manifold assembly. 11. Remove the bolt securing the low pressure fuel filter assembly, then remove or reposition the assembly for access. 12. Disconnect the throttle rod from the lever on the underside of the throttle body. Carefully pry the lever rod connector free of the lever pivot. 13. Remove the 2 bolts from the manifold, just below the throttle body assembly. I I Fig. 175 Begin by removing the flywheel cover.. . 14. On 2002 and later models, at the front of the powerhead, just above the tilt pivot remove the 2 bolts securing the front panel. 15. Tag and disconnect the wiring from the CTP switch, the IAT sensor and the IAC valve (all around the throttle body assembly). 16. Tag and disconnect the MAP sensor hose from the intake manifold (located just above and to the side of the throttle body). 17. On 2002 models, remove the 2 bolts threaded into the end of the manifold from the side of the throttle body assembly. 18. Tag and disconnect the wiring from the high pressure fuel pump at the top of the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly and top manifold runner. 19. Remove the fuel oil level aauae to orevent damaae to it. Remove thc bolt and gauge guide, then use S~~I~CLEAN bag to keep rag or Fig. 176 ...in order to provide better access Fig. 177 Remove the air silencer cover Fig. 178 Tag and disconnect the hoses from Fig. 179 Remove the fuel rail and injector Fig. 180 Unplug the wiring from the various the fuel pump assembly sensors around the throttle body. . . Fig. 181 . . .and from the high pressure fuel Fig. 182 Loosen the various intake manifold Fig. 183 Intake manifold tightening pump on top ot the VST assembly fasteners and remove the assembly sequence -60R0 hp motors contaminants out of the oil reservoir. 20. On models through 2001, remove the bolt just under the top manifold runner (at the rear end of the manifold) and remove the 15 amp fuse holder. 21. On 2002 and later models, tag and disconnect the evaporation hose from the fuel vapor separator tank assembly. To prevent the possibility of warping and damaging the intake manifold, work slowly when loosing the fasteners. Although not absolutely necessary, it is a good idea to use a few passes in the reverse of the torque sequence to properly loosen the fasteners. 22. Support the intake manifold, then loosen the nuts and bolts gradually in the reverse of the torque sequence (working from the front of the powerhead and moving toward the rear; starting from the outside and moving toward the inside). Once you are certain all fasteners are removed, carefully pry the intake from the cylinder head. 23. If necessary, remove the vapor separator tank from the manifold as detailed in this section. 24. Remove all gasket material from the mating surfaces, being careful not to score or otherwise damage them, then use a quick drying solvent to clean all removed components. B The intake manifold assembly through 2001 uses a separate intake manifold cover and gasket that is retained by six screws. If necessary, loose and remove them to remove the cover and replace the gasket. To install: 25. If removed, install the vapor separator tank to the manifold assembly. 26. On models through 2001, apply a light coating of Suzuki Bond No. 1104 or equivalent to BOTH sides of the new intake manifold cover gasket and/or intake manifold gasket. If removed, install the intake manifold cover and secure using the 6 retaining screws. 27. On 2002 or later models, apply a light coating Thread Lock No. 1342 or equivalent to the 2 bolts in positions 10 and 11 of the tightening sequence prior to installing the intake manifold assembly. 28. Position a new intake manifold gasket and, make sure the 2 dowel pins are in position (toward the top and bottom corners of the powerhead gasket mating surfaces). Install the manifold using the retainers. Carefully thread and hand-tighten the retainers, then tighten them to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) on models through 2001, or to 18 ft. Ibs. (25 Nm) on 2002 and later models, using multiple passes of the tightening sequence. 29. On models throuah 2001, reposition and install the 15 amo fuse holder to the manifold, just under the upper runner. 30. On 2002 or later models, reconnect the evaporation hose to the vapor separator. 31. Install the oil level dipstick guide using the retaining bolt, then seat the dipstick. 32. Reconnect the wiring to the high pressure fuel pump. 33. On 2002 or later models, install the two bolts from the side of the throttle body into the end of the manifold assembly and tighten securely. 34. Reconnect the MAP sensor hose to the intake manifold, then reconnect She vk+:? as noted to the CTP switch, IAT sensor and the IAC valve. 35. On 2002 or later models, install the front panel and secure using the two retaining bolts. 36. Install the 2 bolts into the manifold from just underneath the opening of the throttle body. 37. Apply a light coating of grease to all pivot points. Connect the throttle rod to the lever on the throttle body. Grease all points, even any pivot point not disconnected. 38. Reposition the low pressure fuel filter and secure the bracket with the retaining bolt. 39. Reconnect the various water hoses, as noted or tagged during removal. 40. Install the fuel rail (delivery pipe) with the injectors. Secure using the retaining bolts, then reconnect the wiring as noted during removal. Reconnect the fuel hose to the rail assembly using new gaskets. 41. Reposition and secure the high pressure fuel filter using the 2 bolts. 42. Reconnect the fuel hoses as noted or tagged during removal. 43. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. 44. Install the air intake silencer and flame arrester assembly as described in this section. 45. Install the lower engine covers. 46. Install the flywheel cover. 90/115/140 Hp Models See Figures 184thru 199 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. On these EFI models, it is found at the front of the intake manifold, between the end of the manifold and the intake silencer. Historically on the inline 4-strokes, the Closed Throttle Position (CTP) switch was mounted to the throttle body and adjusted at the factory to signal the Engine Control Unit (ECM) when the throttle is closed. On most models there is no separate switch available, and we could not find one in the Suzuki parts manuals for these motors, so it may still be true. When the engine is operating at idle, the throttle plate closes most of the way, but is held open very slightly by the CTP switch. The air that passes by the throttle plate, along with the air metered through the Idle Air Control (IAC) valve and idle air bypass screw passage determines engine speed at idle. On these EFI motors the intake manifold consists of a common plenum connected to separate intake runners (one for each cylinder). The intake manifold is used as a mounting or anchoring point for multiple other components on these models as well. The vapor separator tank and the throttle body, as well as the MAP sensor and IAC valve are all attached to the manifold assembly. 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. Remove the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 3. Remove the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section if needed for additional access. 4 Remove the 2 bolts that secure the air duct, then carefully separate the duct from the silencer and remove the duct from the powerhead. When disconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 5. Disconnect the evaporation hose (it is usually easier to disconnect it from the cylinder head cover at this time). The evaporation and breather hoses are usually secured using spring-type retaining clamps which are released by gently squeezing the clamp ears. 6. Disconnect the breather hose from the silencer. 7. Tag and disconnect the hoses from the low pressure fuel pump located near the bottom of the valve cover. 8. Locate the fuel hose connected to the fitting on top of the fuel rail (delivery pipe). Loosen the spring-type clamp and slide it back past the fitting nipple, then place a large cloth over the end of the hose and slowly pull the hose free of the fitting. Drain any fuel remaining in the hose into a small container. 9. Tag and disconnect the wiring from each of the injectors. 10. Taa and disconnect the wirino from the hiah pressure fuel pump on top of the Vapor Separator Tank (vs?) assemb~~.~~ou ' can access the connector, RIGHT below the fuel line fitting for the fuel rail (from which you disconnected the hose 2 steps ago). 11. Remove the 2 bolts securing the low pressure fuel filter bracket. 12. Remove the 2 bolts securing the fuel rail (delivery pipe) and injectors to the powerhead, then remove the rail and injector assembly. 13. Remove the 2 bolts securina the fuel return be. Taa and disconnect the cooling water inlet and outlet hoses from the fuel return pipe. Position the oice over a small suitable container, then disconnect the fuel inlet hose and butlet hose (they also use spring-type clamps) from the pipe and remove the pipe completely from the powerhead. 14. Remove the 3 bolts securing the vertically mounted air intake silencer case, then carefully remove the silencer from the powerhead. In order to remove the silencer you'll have to tag and disconnect the IAT sensor (wiring or the sensor itself). 15. Tag and disconnect the wiring from the CTP switch (right below the throttle body) and from both the IAC valve and MAD sens:' ;at She top of the manifold assembly). 16. Tag and disconnect the water inlet hose and the water outlet hose from the 3-way joints just above and below the oil filter (at the bottom of the FUEL SYSTEM 3-9 THROTTLE BODY INTAKE I Q / THROTTLE THROTTLE LEVER ROD RING :ig. 184 Exploded view of the throttle body assembly -90/115/140 Fig. 185 Exploded view of the intake manifold mounting - ip motors 90/115/140 hp motors 1 Fig. 188 ...and the air intake silencer case Fig. 186 Remove the flywheel cover. . . 1 1 Fig. 187 ...the air intake duct. .. 1 1 all for access Fig. 189 Disconnect the EVAP hose from Fig. 190 Disconnect the hoses from the low Fig. 191 Disconnect the fuel line from the the top of the cylinder head cover pressure fuel pump top of the fuel rail manifold). 18. Support the intake manifold, then loosen the fasteners (2 nuts and 9 17. If not done already, disconnect the throttle rod from the throttle lever bolts) gradually using a sequence that starts at the outer fasteners and (underneath the throttle body assembly). works inward. Once you are certain all fasteners are removed, carefully pry the intake from the cylinder head. 19. If necessary. remove the Vaoor Seoarator Tank (VST\ from the To prevent the possibility of warping and damaging the intake manifold, backside of the manifold as detailed in this section. > , work slowly when loosing the fasteners. Although not absolutely 20. Remove all gasket material from the mating surfaces, being careful necessary, it is a good idea to use a few passes of a sequence that not to score or otherwise damage them, then use a quick drying solvent to starts at the outer fasteners and works inwards. clean all removed components. Fig. 193 See the VST assembly behind the Fig. 194 . . .unplug the high pressure pump Fig. 192 Tag and unplug the injector wiring intake. .. wiring from the top of it Fig. 197 You have to disconnect the IAT Fig. 196 Remove the 2 bolts each from the sensor (to remove the silencer) and the CTP Fig. 195 Remove the 2 bolts for low fuel rail and injector assembly and the fuel switch to remove the throttle bodylmanifold pressure fuel filter and bracket return pipe assembly I I Fig. 199 Loosen the 2 nuts and 9 bolts securing the intake Fig. 198 Also tag and disconnect the wiring from the MAP sensor assembly 21. If necessary, remove the bolts (usually 10) that secure the water jacket cover to the back of the intake manifold. Remove the cover and discard the old seal. To install: 22. If removed, install the water jacket cover to the back of the manifold assembly using a new seal. Tighten the bolts securely. 23. If removed, install the VST assembly to the back of the manifold assembly. 24. Make sure the 2 manifold locating dowel pins and the 2 cushions are in position, then place a new manifold gasket over the dowels and install the manifold assembly. Tighten the bolts and nuts gradually to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm), using multiple passes of a sequence that starts at the center and works outward. 25. Apply a light coating of grease to all pivot points. Connect the throttle rod to the lever. S Grease all points, even any pivot point not disconnected. 26. Reconnect the water inlet hose and the water outlet hose to the 3- way joints above and blow the oil filter. 27. Reconnect the wiring as noted to the MAP sensor, IAC valve, CTP switch and IAT sensor (obviously the IAT sensor can only be reconnected as the silencer case is installed in the next step). 28. Reconnect the breather hose to the vertically mounted air intake silencer case, then position the case to the throttle body and powerhead. Secure using the 3 retaining bolts. 29. Position the fuel return pipe to the powerhead, then reconnect the fuel and water hoses (inlet and outlet water and fuel hoses) securing them with the spring-type clamps. Once the hoses are properly reconnected as noted during removal, use the 2 retaining bolts to secure the pipe to the powerhead. 30. Install the fuel rail and injectors to the powerhead using new injector cushions, then secure using the 2 retaining bolts. For more details, please refer to the Fuel Rail and Injector procedure in this section. Reconnect the wiring to the 4 fuel injectors as noted during removal. B It is usually easier to hold off on connecting the fuel hose to the fitting on the top of the fuel rail until after the fuel pump wiring is reconnected later in this procedure. 31. Install the lower pressure fuel filter bracket and secure using the 2 retaining bolts. 32. Reconnect the wiring to the high pressure fuel pump. 33. If not done already, reconnect the fuel hose to the fitting on the top of the fuel rail (delivery pipe). 34. Reconnect the fuel inlet and outlet hoses to the low pressure fuel Pump. 35. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. 36. Connect the evaporation hose to the intake silencer cover. Secure using the clamp. 37. Position the air duct and secure using the 2 retaining bolts. 38. Install the flywheel cover as described in the Powerhead section. 39. Install the lower engine covers. l5OIl75 Hp Models See Figures 200,201 and 202 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. For these EFI models it all starts with air entering the intake silencer case and into a single-throat throttle body assembly mounted on top of a single intake manifold. Once air passes through the throttle body it flows into a surge tank before being drawn into the individual runners for each cylinder. The throttle body itself consists of a main bore, throttle valve, by-pass air passage, by-pass air screw and Throttle Position Sensor (TPS). S NEVER try to adjust or remove any part of the throttle body components (such as the TPS, throttle valve, throttle stop screw etc) as they have all been precisely set at the factory and no further adjustment is necessary. As noted, the Idle Air Control valve (stepper motor valve) is mounted on top of the intake manifold (next to the throttle body) and is used to control the amount of intake air which bypasses the throttle valves inside the throttle bodies. This gives the ECM direct control of idle speed via the valve airflow. A MAP sensor is also mounted to the top end of the intake, immediately adjacent to the IAC valve. Though this procedure is for the complete removal and disassembly of the Intake Manifold, including the removal of the Throttle Body only after the intake has been removed, it should be possible to remove ONLY the throttle body with the intake still installed, if so desired. In this case, the majority of this procedure is ignored and you should only follow the steps relevant to the throttle body itself. 1. If the intake manifold is being removed (and not just the throttle body and collector assembly), properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section. 2. If not done for the previous step, disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 3. For access to the lower portion of the manifold, remove the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 4. Remove the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 5. On the side of the motor, just above the intake manifold, locate the fuel hose guard. Remove the 3 bolts (one at either end and one toward the top, center, at the engine lifting bracket) and remove the hose guard for access. 6. Just behind (inboard toward the center of the powerhead) the throttle body, locate and remove the 2 bolts securina the throttle body bracket to the top of the powerhead. 7. Remove the 2 bolts securing the engine cover front panel, then remove the panel for access. 8. Remove the 3 bolts securing the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly and either reposition the tank for access (with the majority of hoses and wiring still connected) OR refer to the Vapor Separator Tank procedure later in this section and remove the assembly completely. 9. Remove the Fuel Rail and Injectors, as detailed later in this section. When disconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 10. Tag and disconnect the fuel outlet hose from the low pressure fuel pump. 11. Locate the Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV) toward the middle of the intake manifold where the runners enter the cylinder head, then tag and disconnect the wiring. SOR THROTTLE BODY - ASSEMBLY 4 s SEAL RING INTAKE GASKETS-~'H) / 4 ASSEMBLY VACUUM CHAMBER Fig. 200 Exploded view of the intake manifold assembly -1501175 hp models 12. Tag and disconnect the wiring for the MAP sensor, IAC valve and the TPS, all located at the top of the intake assembly. 13. Tag and disconnect the vacuum hoses from the vacuum chamber (secured at the bottom of the manifold assembly). 14. Remove She 2 bolts securing the throttle drum to the intake manifold, then remove the throttle link connector from the throttle drum. 15. Tag and disconnect the water inlet hose from the bottom side of the fuel cooler. 16. Tag and disconnect the water outlet hose from the top of the balancer water jacket cover. 17. Tag and disconnect the water outlet hose and water return hose from the water return union, at the base of the powerhead, adjacent to the vacuum chamber (right near the end of the chamber where you disconnected the vacuum hoses earlier). 18. Remove the 8 bolts and 2 nuts securing the intake manifold to the powerhead (using a few passes in the reverse of the torque sequence to help prevent manifold warpage, which results in a pattern that starts at the outside and works its way inward), then remove the manifold assembly. 19. Carefully remove the 4 gaskets (and any traces of material they might leave behind) from the mating surfaces on the manifold and cylinder heads. Be careful not to score or otherwise damage the mating surfaces. 20. If necessary, disassemble the manifold as follows: a. Remove the 2 bolts securing the high pressure fuel filter to the assembly. b. Remove the 2 bolts securing the fuel cooler to the assembly. c. Remove the 2 screws securing the MAP sensor. Keep track of the 0- ring. d. Remove the 3 screws securing the IAC valve. Keep track of the 0- ring. e. If necessary, remove the flame arrester from the top of the throttle body, Fia. 201 Intake manifold toraue seauence -1501175ho models Check Valve lack A ide From Intake @Manifold Assy Fig. 202 The arrow molded on the vacuum check valve should face toward the INTAKE f. Remove the 4 bolts securing the throttle body assembly. Remove the throttle body, then remove and discard the old seal. g. Remove the 2 bolts securing the vacuum chamber. Remove the chamber and keep track of the spacer. h. Using a crossing pattern that starts at the outside and works inward, remove the 17 bolts that secure the intake manifold cover to the back side of the manifold assembly. Remove the cover, then carefully remove and discard the old gasket. To install: H DO NOT reuse gaskets on the intake manifold (for the cover or the assembly), OR the throttle body. It MAY be possible to reuse O-rings, such as for the IAC valve or MAP sensor, but it is preferable to replace them. 21. If necessary, assemble the manifold as follows: a. Using a NEW cover gasket, install the cover to the back of the intake manifold. Tighten the retaining bolts securely using a crossing pattern that starts at the inside and works outward. b. Make sure the spacer is positioned to the bottom of the intake, then carefully install the lever of the vacuum chamber onto the pivot shaft making sure to align the hole in the lever with the end of the shaft. Position the vacuum chamber and secure using the 2 bolts. c. Position a new seal ring, then install the throttle body assembly and tighten the bolts to 16.6 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm). d. If removed, install the flame arrester to the top of the throttle body. e. Install the IAC valve and O-ring. f. Install the MAP sensor and O-ring. g. Install the fuel cooler assembly. h. Install the high pressure fuel filter to the assembly. 22. Install new intake manifold-to-cylinder head gaskets, positioning them into the grooves of the manifold. 23. Carefully position the manifold to the powerhead, then install and tighten the bolts/nuts to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) using the proper torque sequence (a crossing pattern that starts toward the inside at the head and works outward, ending at the top and bottom at the far end of the manifold), H When reconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure route and connect them as noted and tagged during removal. 24. Reconnect the water outlet hose and water return hose to the water return union, at the base of the powerhead, adjacent to the vacuum chamber (right near the end of the chamber where you disconnected the vacuum hoses earlier). 25. Reconnect the water outlet hose to the top of the balancer water jacket cover. 26. Reconnect the water inlet hose to the bottom side of the fuel cooler. 27. Engage the throttle link connector to the throttle drum, then install the 2 bolts securing the throttle drum to the intake manifold. 28. Reconnect the vacuum hoses to the vacuum chamber (secured at the bottom of the manifold assembly). 29. Reconnect the wiring for the MAP sensor, IAC valve and the TPS, all located at the top of the intake assembly. 30. Reconnect the wiring to the Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV) toward the middle of the intake manifold where the runners enter the cylinder head. 31. Reconnect the fuel outlet hose to the low pressure fuel pump. 32. Install the Fuel Rail and Injectors, as detailed later in this section. 33. Install the VST assembly and secure using the 3 retaining bolts. If removed completely, refer to the procedure later in this section for details. 34. Install the engine cover front panel and secure using the 2 bolts. 35. Install the 2 bolts securing the throttle body bracket to the top of the powerhead. 36. Install the fuel hose guard to the top of the intakelpowerhead and secure using the 3 bolts. 37. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then, if the intake was removed or fuel lines were disturbed, properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. 38. Install the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 39. Install the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 20012251250 Hp Models See Figures 203 thru 206 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. On V6 EFI models there is a factory synchronized, dual-throat throttle body assembly which is part of a common collector assembly that mounts to a single intake manifold in the valley (V) between the cylinders. Two versions of the throttle body and collector assembly exist, a single stage induction unit which is normally found on 200 hp motors, and a multi- stage induction unit which is usually found on 225 hp or larger motors. Both units operate in a very similar fashion, but the multi-stage unit is designed to improve intake efficiency by changing the intake tract volume to match engine speed. The system can improve both low and mid range torque while increasing power output at the higher rpm ranges. The basic layout of both induction systems incorporates two throttle bodies, one on either side of the collector. The PORT side throttle body includes the main bore with throttle valve, a bypass air screwlpassage assembly, as well as the throttle position sensor. The STARBOARD throttle body consists only of the main bore and throttle valve. NEVER try to adjust or remove any part of the throttle body components (such as the TPS, throttle valve, throttle stop screw etc) as they have all been precisely set at the factory and no further adjustment Is necessary. An Idle Air Control valve (stepper motor valve) is mounted on top of the collector assembly and is used to control the amount of intake air which bypasses the throttle valves inside the throttle bodies. This gives the ECM direct control of idle speed via the valve airflow. A MAP sensor is also mounted to the top of the collector, immediately adjacent to the IAC valve. The multi-stage induction unit has a few more components in the collector housing, specifically individual air funnels (runners) for each cylinder which are secured to a funnel bracket. But even with a few subtle differences, service of the two units is basically the same. 1. If the intake manifold is being removed (and not just the throttle body and collector assembly), properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section. 2. If not done for the previous step, disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 3. Remove the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 4. Remove the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 5. For single-stage induction models, locate the PCV hose on the port cylinder bank, then loosen the clamp and disconnect the PCV hose from the ~ollector cover, THROTTLE CAM Fig. 204 Exploded view of the throttle body and collector assembly -single-stage induction V6 models B When disconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 6. Tag and disconnect the wiring for the MAP sensor, IAC valve and the TPS, all located onlnear the top of the collector assembly. 7. Remove the 2 screws securing the cable bracket right below the throttle cam, then carefully free the cables from the throttle cam (drum). 8. On multi-stage induction models, tag and disconnect the vacuum hoses from the vacuum chamber (secured to the bottom of the collector). 9. Slowly and evenly loosen the 7 bolts and 2 nuts (located around the collector perimeter) that secure the collector cover, then carefully remove the cover along with the cover gaskeffseal. 10. On multi-stage induction models remove the balance of the collector assembly as follows: a. Remove the 4 bolts and 2 nuts that secure the funnel bracket, then remove the size funnels and funnel bracket assembly. b. Tag and disconnect the wiring for the Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV) located on the top rear of the collector assembly. c. Loosen the 4 bolts at the center of the collector, then remove the collector assembly from the intake manifold. Remove the collector and the collector4o-intake manifold gasket. 11. On single-stage induction models remove the balance of the collector assembly as follows: a. Using a crossing sequence that starts at the top left fastener and works inward from the edges (basically the reverse of the torque sequence), loosen and remove the 6 bolts and 2 nuts that secure the collector assembly to the intake. b. Once the fasteners are removed, carefully pull the collector Fig. 206 Collector assembly tightening sequence -single-stageassembly, followed by the collector-to-intake manifold gasket off of the induction V6 modelsintake. 12. If the intake manifold is also being removed, proceed as follows: a. Locate the fuel hose connected to the fitting on top of the port side fuel rail (delivery pipe). Loosen the spring-type clamp and slide it back past the fitting nipple, then place a large cloth over the end of the hose and slowly pull the hose free of the fitting. Drain any fuel remaining in the hose into a small container. b. Tag and disconnect the wiring from the 6 fuel injectors. c. Loosen the 2 bolts which secure the fuel rail on each side (2 on the port side, then 2 on the starboard side). d. Remove the fuel rails and injectors as an assembly, keeping track of the fuel rail collars (rubber insulators for the rail mountslbolts). Remove the fuel injector cushions from the intake manifold, as new cushions should be used during installation. e. Remove the 4 bolts and 4 nuts securing the intake manifold to the powerhead, then pull the remove the manifold away from the powerhead. Disconnect the water inlet and outlet hoses from the manifold fittings (at the top and bottom of the manifold), then remove it completely. f. Carefully remove all traces of gasket from the mating surfaces on the manifold and cylinder heads. Be careful not to score or otherwise damage the mating surfaces. To install: DO NOT reuse gaskets on the intake manifold OR the collector, that even goes for the collector cover gasket. 13. If the intake manifold was also removed, proceed as follows: a. Hold the manifold just in front of the powerhead while reconnecting the water inlet and outlet hoses to the fittings on the manifold. b. Position NEW gaskets, then install the manifold to the cylinder heads. Tighten the manifold retaining nuts and bolts to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) using a criss-cross pattern which starts at the center and works outward to help ensure the manifold does not become warped or damaged. c. If not done already, install new fuel injector cushions into the manifold, then position the fuel rails and injectors to the manifold. Make sure the bolts are inserted through the collars, then thread them into position. Tighten the retaining bolts to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm), then double-check to make sure the injectors still rotate smoothly. d. Reconnect the wiring to the 6 fuel injectors, as tagged during removal. e. Reconnect the fuel hose and secure using the clamp. 14. On all models, apply a light coating of Nut Lock or equivalent threadlocking compound to the threads of the bolts (and nuts on single-stage induction models) which are used to secure the collector. 15. Position a new collector-to-manifold gasket, as well as a new collector cover gasket. 16. On single-stage induction models install the collector assembly as follows: a. Install the collector over the new gasket and onto the manifold, then thread and finger-tighten the nuts and bolts which are used to secure the collector.. b. Tighten the collector retainers (both nuts and bolts) to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) using a crossing pattern that starts at the center and works outwards. 17. On multi-stage induction models remove the balance of the collector assembly as follows: a. Install the collector over the new gasket and onto the manifold, then tighten the 4 collector retainers bolts) to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) using a crossing pattern. b. Reconnect the wiring for the Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV) located on the top rear of the collector assembly. c. Install the funnels and funnel bracket assembly and using the 4 bolts and 2 nuts that secure the funnel bracket, then tiahten them to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm). 18. Install the collector cover, then slowly and evenly tighten the 7 bolts and 2 nuts (located around the collector perimeter) that secure the collector cover. 19. On multi-stage induction models, reconnect the vacuum hoses to the vacuum chamber on the bottom of the collector, as tagged during removal. 20. Reconnect the cables to the throttle cam, then secure the cable bracket using the 2 screws. 21, Reconnect the wiring to the MAP sensor, IAC valve and the TPS, ail located onlnear the top of the collector assembly. 22. On single-stage induction models, reconnect the PCV hose to the collector cover and secure using the clamp. 23. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then, if the intake was removed or fuel lines were disturbed, properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. 24, Install the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 25. Install the lower engine covers as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance &Tune-up section. 300 Hp Models See Figures 207 thru 210 Like the throttle bore of a carburetor, the throttle body assembly controls engine speed by mechanically controlling the amount of air allowed to enter the engine. On 300 hp motors however this mechanical control is actuated electronically as they use a throttle-by-wire system. This electronic throttle body is found atop a common collector assembly that in turn mounts to a single intake manifold in the valley (V) between the cylinders. Air enters through the silencer case and throttle body where it flows into the intake collector and is distributed to the individual cylinders through the intake manifold. The intake collector itself acts as a surge tank and the pressure is monitored by the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor as an indirect measure of intake air flow. Because of the electronic throttle system no IAC valve is necessary, and idle speed is instead directly controlled by the ECM through the throttle actuator which is in charge of throttle valve position. S NEVER try to adjust or remove any part of the throttle body components (such as the TPS, throttle valve, throttle actuator etc) as they have all been precisely set at the factory and no further adjustment is necessary. The MAP sensor is mounted to the top of the collector, immediately adjacent to the throttle body and IAT sensor. 1. If the intake manifold is being removed (and not just the throttle body and collector assembly), properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section. 2. If not done for the previous step, disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 3. Remove the lower engine covers for access as described under Engine Covers in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 4. Remove the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 5. Locate the PCV hose in the top of the collector assembly, right by the throttle body, then loosen the clamp and disconnect the PCV hose from the collector cover. When disconnecting wiring or hoses, be sure to note routing for installation purposes. 6. Still on top of the collector assembly, tag and disconnect the wiring for the MAP sensor and the lead wire connector for the electronic throttle body. 7. Moving to the base of the collector, remove the 4 bolts and the lower mounting bracket. 8. Using a crossing pattern that starts at the outer bolts and works inner, remove the 17 bolts that secure the collector cover, then remove the cover from the assembly. 9. There are 4 cylindrical spacers toward the center of the collector assembly, remove them so they are not lost. Remove the dowel pin and 0- ring from each side of the spacer. 10. Loosen and remove the 4 bolts securing the funnels, then remove the 2 funnels from the motor. 11. Remove the 2 nuts at the top of the collector, right behind the throttle body, then remove the collector and throttle body assembly. Remove and discard the old collector-to-intake manifold gasket, and keep track of the 2 dowel pins (one should be at the top left and the other the bottom right of the manifold when you're looking directly at it). 12. If the intake manifold is also being removed, proceed as follows: a. Remove the fuel rails and injectors, as detailed later in this section. b. Remove the 4 bolts and 4 nuts securing the intake manifold to the powerhead, then pull the manifold away from the powerhead. Disconnect the water inlet (bottom) and outlet (top) hoses from the manifold fittings, then remove it completely. c. Carefully remove all traces of gasket from the mating surfaces on the manifold and cylinder heads. Be careful not to score or otherwise damage the mating surfaces. <'=I Air flow I.Throttle body 2. Throttle actuatorflhrottle position sensor 3. MAP sensor 4. IAT sensor 5. Intake collector assembly 6. Air intake silencer Fig. 207 Operational diagram of intake manifold, throttle body and air induction components-300 hp motors NOTE: Manifold shape varies, but bolt positions are correct relative to each other Fig. 209 Intake manifold torque sequence - 300 hp motors Grommet Gasket Collector / / Grommet Fig. 210 Exploded view of the throttle body and collector assembly -300 hp models To install: 23. Install the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover). DO NOT reuse gaskets on the intake manifold OR the collector, that 24. Install the lower engine covers. even goes for the collector cover gasket. 13. If the intake manifold was also removed, proceed as follows: a. Apply a light coating of Thread Lock 1342 or an equivalent See Figures 211,212 and 213threadlocking compound to the threads of the intake manifold bolts and nuts, then put them aside ready for installation. b. Hold the manifold just in front of the powerhead while reconnecting the water inlet (bottom) and outlet (top) hoses to the fittings on the manifold. c. Position a NEW gasket, then install the manifold to the cylinder heads. Tighten the manifold retaining nuts and bolts to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm) using multiple passes of a criss-cross pattern which starts at the center and works outward to help ensure the manifold does not become warped or damaged. DON'T tighten the bolts all at once, on the first pass LIGHTLY seat them, on the second pass tighten them to about 113 of the specified torque. On the third pass, tighten them to about 213 of the specified torque. On the fourth and final pass tighten the bolts fully to spec. d. If not done already, install new fuel injector cushions into the manifold, then position the fuel rails and injectors to the manifold. Make sure the bolts are inserted through the collars, then thread them into position. Tighten the retaining bolts to 17 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm), then double-check to make sure the injectors still rotate smoothly. e. Install the fuel injectors and fuel rails, as detailed later in this section. 14. Make sure the dowel pins are installed in the top-left and bottom-right corners of the intake manifold, then position a new collector-to-manifold gasket over the dowel pins. 15. Install the collector and throttle body assembly, then lightly tighten the 2 retaining nuts at the top, near the throttle body. Those nuts will be tightened later when the rest of the assembly is installed. 16. Install the 2 funnels and tighten the 4 retaining bolts for them securely. 17. Place a dowel pin and an O-ring on each end of the 4 spacers, then position the 4 spacers and the collector cover-to-collector gasket on the collector assembly. 18. Install the collector cover, then tighten the bolts and nuts to 16.5 ft. Ibs. (23 Nm), in the following order: a, First, tighten the 6 fasteners at the centerlbottom center of the cover. b. NEXT, tighten the 2 collector nuts, right behind the throttle body, which were only loosely installed earlier. c. Finally, tighten the remaining collector cover fasteners which are all around the cover perimeter. 19. Install the bracket to the base of the collector and tighten the 4 bolts securely. 20. Reconnect the wiring for the electronic throttle body and the MAP sensor. 21. Reconnect the PCV hose the intake collector cover and secure using the clamp. 22. Reconnect the neaative batten/ cable, then. if the intake was removed or fuel lines were disturbed, properly pressurize the fuel system, then check for fuel leakage before starting and running the motor. Repair all fuel leaks before proceeding any further. FUEL PUMP SEAL BASE 1 / 1 The inline 4-stroke EFI motors covered here utilize a low pressure fuel pump which operates in an identical fashion to the pump found on 4-stroke carbureted engines. It draws a steady fuel supply from the tank and feeds a float bowl. The difference comes in what happens in the float bowl, since the bowl is the bottom of a vapor separator tank with a high pressure pump instead of being a chamber mounted under the throttle bore of a carburetor. In any case, the low pressure, mechanical fuel pump for these models is mounted on the rocker cover at the rear of the powerhead. The pump is actuated by a lobe on the camshaft. H V6 models instead use a low pressure electric fuel pump, covered separately later in this section. The actual design of the pump (shape of the housing, shape and position of the fittings) varies very slightly from model-to-model, but for all models that a repair kiffexploded view was available for the number and type of components as well as the function were essentially the same (even if the components were not necessarily interchangeable). TESTING DERATE See Figures 211,212 and 213 The problem most often seen with fuel pumps is fuel starvation, hesitation or missing due to inadequate fuel pressureldelivery. In extreme cases, this might lead to a no start condition as an all but total failure of the pump prevents fuel from reaching and filling the vapor separator tank). More likely, pump failures are not total, and the motor will start and run fine at idle, only to miss, hesitate or stall at speed when pump performance fails short of the greater demand for fuel at high rpm. Before replacing a suspect fuel pump, be absolutely certain the problem is the pump and NOT with fuel tank, lines or filter. A plugged tank vent could create vacuum in the tank that will overpower the pump's ability to create vacuum and draw fuel through the lines. An obstructed line or fuel filter could also keep fuel from reaching the pump. Any of these conditions could partially restrict fuel flow, allowing the pump to deliver fuel, but at a lower pressurelrate. A pump delivery or pressure test under these circumstances would give a low reading that might be mistaken for a faulty pump. Before testing the fuel pump, refer to the testing procedures found under Fuel Lines and Fitting to ensure there are no problems with the tank, lines or filter. If inadequate fuel delivery is suspected and no problems are found with the tank. lines or filters, a conduct a auick-check to see how the Dump affects performance. use the primer bulb to supplement fuel pump. This is done by operating the motor under load and otherwise under normal operating conditions to recreate the problem. Once the motor begins to ,TO VAPOR SEPARATOR COVERS DIAPHRAGM TO VAPOR Fig. 213 Exploded view of the low pressure Fig. 211 View of a typical Suzuki mechanical fuel pump assembly -60R0 hp Motors (90- low pressure fuel pump (40150 hp shown) 140 hp similar) hesitate, stumble or stall, pump the primer bulb quickly and repeatedly while listening for motor response. Pumping the bulb by hand like this will force fuel through the lines to the vapor separator tank, regardless of the fuel pump's ability to draw and deliver fuel. If the engine performance problem goes away while pumping the bulb, and returns when you stop, there is a good chance you've isolated the low pressure fuel pump as the culprit. Perform a pressure test to be certain, then repair or replace the pump assembly. Never run a motor without cooling water. Use a test tank, a flushltest device or launch the craft. Also, never run a motor at speed without load, so for tests running over idle speed, make sure the motor is either in a test tank with a test wheel or on a launched craft with the normal propeller installed. Pump Pressure Test By far the most accurate way to test the fuel pump is using a low pressure fuel gauge while running the engine at various speeds, under load. To prevent the possibility of severe engine damage from over-speed, the test must be conducted under load, either in a test tank (with a proper test propeller) or mounted on the boat with a suitable propeller. Unfortunately, Suzuki does not provide pump pressure specifications for any of these motors. However, because fuel consumption figures should be in the same ballpark for most motors of similar sizelhp range we can at least use specifications from other similar types of pumps found on other outboard brands as a starting point. Therefore this test can be used to check for pressures that are way out of the norm. 1. Test the Fuel Lines and Fittings as detailed in this section to be sure there are no vacuum/fuel leaks and no restrictions that could give a false low reading. 2. Make sure the fuel filter@) is(are) clean and serviceable. 3. Start and run the engine in forward gear, at idle, until normal operating temperature is reached. Then shut the motor down to prepare for the test. 4. Remove the fuel tank cap to make sure there is no pressure in the tank (the fuel tank vent must also be clear to ensure there is no vacuum). Check the tank location, for best results, make sure the tank is not mounted any more than 30 in. (76mm) below the fuel pump mounting point. On portable tanks, reposition them, as necessary to ensure accurate readings. The fuel outlet line from the fuel pump may be disconnected at either the pump or the vapor separator tank whichever provides easier access. if you disconnect it from the pump itself you might have to provide a length of fuel line (depending on whether or not the gauge contains a length of line to connect to the pump fitting). 5. Disconnect the fuel output hose from the vapor tank or fuel pump, as desired. 6. Connect a fuel pressure gauge inline between the pump and the tank. 7. Run the engine at or around each of the following speeds and observe the pressure on the gauge. 8. Expect to find pressures in this ballpark: At 600-1000 rpm, the gauge should read about 1 psi (7 kPa). At 2500-3000 rpm, the gauge should read about 1.5 psi (10 kPa). At 4500 rpm, the gauge should read about 2.5 psi (17 kPa). 9. If you are experiencing fuel system problems with readings are below specification and other causes such as fuel line or filter restrictions have been eliminated, repair or replace the pump. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 9 See Figures 211 thru 216 The pump is located on the rocker arm cover on the cylinder head (at the rear of the powerhead assembly). B To ensure proper assembly and hose routing, mark the fuel pump relative to the powerhead before removal. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable for safety. 2. Set the engine at Top Dead Center (TDC) to ensure the fuel pump rod or arm is not pre-loaded. This step is really more so that you don't have to do it before installation, so if you're going to rotate the crankshaft at some point before the pump is installed (for other repairs) you can skip it now and do it later, during installation. S For details on finding TDC of the No, 1cylinder refer to the Valve Adjustment procedure found in the Maintenance and Tune-up section. Of course, only follow the portions of the procedure that you need to, and there should be no need to remove the valve cover. On some models (such as the 60170 hp motors) you should be able to find TDC exactly by using the timing marks on the crankshaft pulley, but on others you will likely have to pull a spark plug and use the marks on the flywheel. REMINDER also that the 90 hp and larger motors are COUNTERCLOCKWISE rotation when viewed from above the flywheel! 3. On 60170 hp motors, remove the Lower Engine Covers for access, as detailed in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 4. Tag the fuel hoses for identification during assembly. On these models the inlet hose (from the fuel filter) is normally the lower of the two fittings, and the outlet hose (to the vapor tank) is normally the upper of the two fittings. On 90-150 hp motors the outlet hose normally points straight UPWARD. B If hoses are removed completely or replaced, be sure to make a note of hose routing for installation purposes. Hoses must be carefully positioned to prevent interference with other components, as interference could wear away at hoses over time, eventually causing a hazardous fuel leak. Fig. 214 On 60/70hp motors, remove the Fig. 216 . . .then unbolt and remove the fuel lower engine covers to access the pump Fig. 215 Tag and disconnect the fuel lines. . . pump 1 5. Loosen the spring clamps (using pliers) and reposition them back on the fuel hoses. With a small drain basin to catch any escaping fuel, carefully disconnect the hoses from the fittings. If a hose is stuck on the fitting, use a small blade to carefully cut and peel it free of the fitting. Be careful not to damage the fittings with the blade. Use extreme care when disconnecting the hoses to prevent damaging or breaking the fittings on the fuel pump assembly. Replace hoses that are worn (spongy, hard or brittle). 6. Loosen the 2 pump mounting bolts (located 180' apart from each other, on the rounded diamond-shaped pump base), then slowly pull the pump from the rocker cover. When a separate pump pushrod is used (such as on the 60170 hp motors), it is not necessary to remove it from the powerhead except for replacement. 7. To replace the separate pump pushrod (on models so equipped), use a pair of pliers or a magnet to carefully pull it from the opening in the rocker cover. 8. Remove and discard the O-ring seal from the fuel pump or rocker arm cover surface. 9. Carefully clean and thoroughly inspect the fuel pump mounting surfaces. Keep in mind that dirty or damaged surfaces can cause oil leaks. 10. Inspect spring clamps for corrosion or a lack of spring tension. Replace damaged, worn or questionable clamps. 11. Replace hoses that are worn (spongy, hard or brittle). 12. If necessary (and if possible, as parts are not available for all pumps), disassemble the pump for overhaul as detailed in this section. To install: 13. If equipped and if removed, install the new pushrod by applying oil to the surfaces and then sliding it into the bore in the pump mounting boss. 14. If not done earlier, or if the flywheel was turned afterwards, set the motor to TDC for the #1 cylinder in order to relieve pressure on the pump pushrod. 15. Apply a coating of fresh engine oil to the NEW pump O-ring seal, then install the seal to the pump assembly. 16. Position the pump carefully onto the rocker cover, then install and tighten the retaining bolts to 89 inch lbs.17 ft. Ibs. (10 Nm). 17. Connect the fuel lines as noted during removal and secure the hoses using clamps. 18. Connect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system and check for leakage. Pump the primer bulb until it becomes firm, then check of the fuel fittings and lines that were disconnected for any signs of weepage. 19. Correct any fuel leaks before starting or running the engine, then run the motor and recheck. 20. On 60170 hp motors, install the Lower Engine Covers removed earlier for access to the pump. OVERHAUL @ See Figure 217 We could not find any information in either Suzuki service or parts literature regarding overhaul of the pumps used on 1501175 hp motors. If no parts are available, do not attempt to disassembleloverhaul the pump. If overhaul is required due to damage from contamination or debris (as opposed to simple deterioration) disassemble and clean the rest of the fuel supply system prior to installing the overhauled fuel pump. Failure to replace filters and clean or replace the lines and fuel tank, could result in damage to the overhauled pump after it is placed back into service. All diaphragms and seals should be replaced during assembly, regardless of their condition. Check for fuel leakage after completing the repair and verify proper operating pressures before returning the motor to service. No sealant should be used on fuel pump components unless otherwise specifically directed. If small amounts of a dried sealant were to break free and travel through the fuel supply system it could easily clog passages (especially the small, metered orifices and needle valves of the fuel injectors). 1. Remove the fuel pump from the powerhead as detailed in this section. 2. Matchmark the fuel pump cover, housing and base to ensure proper assembly. B To ease inspection and assembly, lay out each piece of the fuel pump as it is removed. In this way, keep track of each component's orientation in relation to the entire assembly. 3. Remove the 6 (40-70 hp) or 4 (90-140 hp) cover screws from the back side of the fuel pump, then carefully lift the outer cover from the pump body. If necessary, pry gently using a small prytool covered with tape to avoid damaging the gasket surface. Do not disturb the diaphragm that is attached to the pump cover unless the diaphragm is going to be replaced. During installation, the diaphragm surface is molded into the shape of the cover; and, if it is removed for any reason it must be installed in EXACTLY the same position (which is pretty darn tough and not worth the effort). Then again, coming this far and NOT replacing the diaphragm is pretty silly too! Considering that it has a propensity to stick to both sides of the housing, it can be REALLY tough not to dislodge it when removing the outer cover. 4. If you are replacing the diaphragms, remove them from the outer cover and pump body. To do so you'll have to remove the pump body from the mounting base, but, matchmark them to ensure proper installation, then carefully pry them apart. Notice that the diaphragm used on 90-140 hp motors gas a tab which fits into a groove in the pump body so it can really only be installed facing in one orientation. 5. Note the position of the diaphragm (again this is for assembly purposes), then slowly push the piston in until the spring fully compresses. Hold the piston compressed while rotating the upper portion of the piston assembly on the pump mounting base. Turn it about 90¡ until the pin in the piston aligns with the mounting base slot. Continue to hold pressure on the piston. 6. Remove the pin from the mounting base using a small magnet, then release the pressure on the piston, slowly allowing the piston to push outward. Lift the piston and spring from the mounting base. Pull the diaphragm and spring from the opposite side of the base. I 2. O-ring or basket 3. Spring 4. Piston 5. Cover Screw 6. Mounting Screw 7. Diaphragm Fig. 217 Exploded view of the mechanical low pressure fuel pump used on inline models (some pump body and diaphragm shapes will vary slightly) 7. Clean the fuel pump using a suitable solvent, then dry all components with compressed air. 8. Inspect the fuel pump cover, body and base using a straight edge. Inspect their gasket surfaces for scratches, voids or any irregularities. Replace warped or damaged components. 9. Inspect the fuel pump body for cracks. Replace damaged components. 10. Inspect the pump check valves for bent, cracked or corroded surfaces. The check valves are not normally replaceable, if damage or defects are found, replace the pump body. To assemble: When installing the diaphragm on the pump used by 90-140 hp models, remember to align the tab on the edge of the diaphragm with the groove in the pump body. 11. Insert the large spring into the top of the body and the small spring into the bottom, then align the slotted portion of the diaphragm plunger with the hole in the piston and the slot in the mounting base. Push in on the diaphragm and piston, compressing the springs. Then hold the spring tension. 12. With the spring still compressed, install the pin through the openings. Rotate the piston and diaphragm assembly about 90' to face the pin opposite from the mounting base slot (while aligning the diaphragm bolt holes), then slowly release spring tension, making sure the diaphragm and piston do not bind in the body. M When assembling, use the screw holes in the diaphragms to ensure proper orientation. 13. If disturbed, worn or damaged, install a new diaphragm between the pump body and the outer cover. 14. Align the matchmarks made before disassembly, then install the outer cover and secure using the covers screws. Tighten the screws securely. 15. Install the low pressure fuel pump, as described in this section. The V6 EFI motors covered here utilize a low pressure electric fuel pump instead of the mechanical pump used on smaller motors. The pump is mounted to or near the VST assembly. It is ECM controlled and is actuated for 6 seconds anytime the ignition switch is turned ON or anytime the ECM is receiving an input signal from the Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor. However, just because the pump is electrical instead of mechanical doesn't mean that the basic role it plays is not the same. In fact, it performs the same basic function that mechanical pumps do for both carbureted or other EFI motors. It draws a steady fuel supply from the fuel tank and feeds a float bowl. The difference between carbureted and EFI motors starts with what happens in the float bowl, since the bowl is the bottom of a vapor separator tank with a high pressure pump instead of being a chamber mounted under the throttle bore of a carburetor. In any case, the low pressure, electrical fuel pump is mounted via a small bracket to the end of the vapor separator tank assembly. The fuel flow itself orovides coolina for the oumo. DO NOT run the pump dry for any length of time orit will likely be damaged! TESTING DERATE @ See Figures 218 and 219 Avoid operating the fuel pump empty as electric fuel pumps will tend to burn up quickly under those circumstances. Always be sure to prime the system using the primer bulb to fill the fuel lines before the pump is operated. The pump is a sealed component and is non-serviceable. If testing shows it to be faulty the pump must be replaced. 1. Shift the outboard into NEUTRAL and make sure the safety lanyard is in place. 2. Turn the ignition switch from OFF to ON (without cranking, so on 200-250 hp models do NOT turn the key to START or on 300 hp models, do not press the START AND RUN button) and listen for the sound of pump operation. If the control circuit is operating properly you should hear the pump run for about 6 seconds. 3. If no sound is heard turn the ignition switch OFF and disconnect the wiring from the pump. Use a DVOM set to read resistance across the two terminals of the pump harness (pump side NOT the ECM side) and check the pump motor coil resistance. If the pump is good you should be about 0.8- 5 ohms. If resistance is well out of specification, replace the pump. If resistance is good refer to ECM nominal circuit voltages, under ECM PINOUTS & CIRCUIT OPERATING VALUES earlier in this section and check for the proper ECM output voltage on the pump harness. Check at the pump connector (ECM side) first, then work your way back to the ECM connector. Repair or replace components as necessary. 4. If you can hear the pump run but you are still unsure of pump operation, verify fuel flow by disconnecting the pump output hose from the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly and positioning it into a suitable container. Turn the ignition switch again from OFF to ON while listening for the pump to run and watching for fuel to spray into the container for about 6 Fig. 219 Check for fuel discharge from the pump-to-VST assembly Fig. 218 Use a meter to check pump motor coil resistance hose seconds. If the pump runs but no fuel is discharged, check for a clock or other failure in the fuel line between the tank and the pump. Try pushing fuel through the line from the tank to the pump using the primer bulb. If no clog can be found and you can manually push fuel through, but no fuel is discharged when the pump runs, replace the pump. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION The low pressure fuel pump is mounted vertically, to a bracket that is bolted to the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly. In some cases it may also be attached by one or more wire ties which must also be removed. In all cases, removal is a relatively straightforward procedure of tagging and disconnecting the wiring and hoses, then cutting the wire tieis) and unbolting the bracket to free the pump from the VST. When disconnecting the hoses, place a small rag over each fitting in order to catch any fuel in the line which will discharge as soon as the fitting is released. B The low pressure fuel pump can also be removed along with the VST assembly as a set. Where fuel delivery is concerned, the first major difference between an EFI and carbureted system (at least first for inline motors, maybe second for V6 since they have the low pressure electric pump), comes at the fuel Vapor Separator Tank (VST). The vapor separator is mounted on the powerhead (port side for inline motors) of the motor, directly behind and attached to the intake manifold on inline motors through 140 hp or independently mounted to the powerhead (usually the front, port side on V6 motors or fronb'froni starboard side of 15011 75 hp motors). The separator tank functions as a bizarre cross between a very large float bowl and a verv tinv aas tank. It receives fuel from the low pressure ourno via a float and needlevalve assembly (in the same manner as a carburetor's float bowl). The level is maintained within the vapor separator tank so that is serves as a reservoir for the high pressure electric fuel pump mounted in the separator cover. In addition, the separator tank also provides an outlet for excessive fuel pressure generated by the electric fuel pump. @ The float and needle valve are serviced in the same manner as a carburetor's float bowl. They can be accessed once the vapor separator coverifuel pump assembly is removed. To help prevent fuel problems like vapor lock or not soak, either the separator itself is water cooled by the engine cooling circuit or the fuel is run through a rail or water cooler on it's way back to the tank. Fuel vapors are vented to the air intake silencer (though not always directly as they seem to take a path to the crankcase on 90-175 hp models or through a purge valve on V6 models) so they can be drawn into the throttle body and burned when the engine is running. The tank cover contains the high pressure fuel pump assembly. Although it was originally believed that the cover components were unserviceable on early-models, most sources report that both the pump and the float assembly are replaceable. A fuel pressure regulator is mounted in the bottom of the separator tank on all except a few early-models (specifically the 1998 60170 hp motors, on which the regulator was installed inline at the bottom of the fuel rail between the rail and VST). On most applications and the fuel pressure regulator may be removed from within the tank should the regulator require replacement. Usually a fuel reservoir drain screw can be found on the bottom of the tank and can be used to drain the tank of fuel, but the cooling water circuit will self-drain whenever the engine is shut off and left in a perfectly vertical position. TESTING M The test procedures for the low pressure fuel system are covered in this section under Low Pressure Mechanical Fuel Pump or Low Pressure Electric Fuel Pump, as applicable, and also under Fuel Tanks and Lines. The high pressure electric fuel pump for ALL models is mounted in the vapor separator tank and controlled by the ECM (which provides the ground necessary to activate the circuit). On inline motors through 140 hp the ground is provided on the B/Wfuel pump wire which connects to terminal 37 of the ECM harness, and on 150i175 hp inline motors the ground is on the iR wire which connects to ECM terminal 52,while on V6 models the ground is provided by the BIR fuel pump wire which connects to terminal 52 (200-250 hp) or terminal 70(300 hp) of the ECM harness. Regardless of the motor, the fuel pump is controlled based on 3 basic inputs to the ECM, the Ignition Switch, Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor and battery voltage. For starters, anytime the ignition switch is turned from OFF to ON the ECM will run the fuel pump for 3 seconds (inline motors through 140 hp) or 6 seconds (150 hp and larger motors, including inline or V6 motors) in order to prime the fuel system. In the absence of a CKP signal, the ECM will then deactivate the pump. Once the motor is cranked the ECM will continuously operate the pump until the engine starts. However, once the engine begins to run, the ECM will operate the fuel pump on a duty cycle (a repeated onloff cycle) at a rate of up to 1000 times per second. Though the duty cycle is 100% during cranking, once the motor starts it will vary anywhere from 50-100% depending on the model, current engine speed and battery voltage. Perform the Electric Pump Tests if the engine refuses to start and/or you suspect the high pressure circuit is not building any fuel pressure. The pressure tests are used to locate the culprit when power is applied to the pump, and the pump seems to be running, but is still not supplying sufficient pressure. The high pressure fuel system, as its name might imply, is capable of spraying fuel under extreme pressure. This means that the fuel will spray free under high pressure if a fitting is opened without first relievina oressure (which makes for aood fuel atomization and a hiahlv combustible condition). It will also spray fuel if the pump is actuated - for any reason while a fitting is disconnected. These could lead to extremely dangerous work conditions. Do not allow ANY source of ignition (sparks, flames, etc) anywhere near the work area when servicing the fuel system. Electrical Pump Tests See Figures 220thru 223 UICK TEST Use this test to check for circuit operation 1. Place a stethoscope, or if one is not available, use a short length of hose or a small wooden dowel as a substitute tool, on the Vapor Separator Tank (behind the intake manifold on 40-140 hp inline motors). On V6 models because there is also a low pressure electric fuel pump mounted to the VST you might want to unplug the wiring harness from it (the low pressure pump) so that you don't confuse the sound of it running with the sound of the high pressure pump inside the VST. 2. Listen on the stethoscope or substitute while an assistant turns the ignition keyswitch to ON, without starting the motor. You should hear the pump run for about 3 seconds on 40-140 hp inline motors, or 6 seconds on 150 hp and later motors. 3. Turn the switch OFF for at least 30 seconds, then repeat. Most models do not require the delay, and will re-initialize the pump almost instantly, but if in doubt, give it the delay to be sure. 4. Again, you should hear the pump run for about 3 or 6 seconds respectively. This should occur anytime the keyswitch is turned ON in such as manner as described (with about 30 second delays between each cycle as necessary). VOLTAGE TEST If the pump fails to operate in the previous Quick Test, check the voltage supply as follows: 5. Disconnect the pump wire harness from the top side of the Vapor Separator Tank (VST). 6. Set the DVOM to the 20 VDC scale, then connect the positive meter test lead to the Gray wire terminal in the engine harness connector. Connect the negative meter test lead to the blacklwhite (inline motors through 140 hp) or blackired (150 hp and larger motors) wire terminal of the connector. 7. Observe the meter while an assistant cycles the ignition key switch to the ON position. If the connections are correct and the circuit is working ECM Battery charge coil ECM Rectifier & regulator 30 A fuse 1 - Ignition switch Fuel pump Battery Fig. 220 Simplified fuel pump circuit -40-70 hp motors w, Sensorlswitch signal input Battery Fuel pump Fig. 222 Simplified fuel pump circuit -200-250 hp V6 motors properly, the meter should indicate 6-12 volts for 3 or 6 seconds respectively, then it should indicate about 0 volts. If so, the circuit is operating properly. If you suspect a bad ground signal from the ECM, repeat the test with the negative lead to a good powerhead ground, if power is now seen, the problem is in the ground side of the circuit or the ECM. 8. If the specified vottage could not been found across the pump harness connectors and ground is not an issue, move the positive meter test lead back through the circuit toward the ECM relay, and then the fuse toward the battery to find the problem. 9. When finished testing, be sure to reconnect harness to the vapor separator tank. Pump Pressure Test + See Figures 224 and 225 uick Test found under Electric Pump Circuit Tests to ensure that the fuel pump is operating before attempting to check its pressure. The Pump Pressure Test is used to determine if the electric fuel pump is delivering fuel at the fuel pressures necessary for proper engine operation. But, use this test with caution as it only determines if the pump is capable of building sufficient pressure. I; does not test whether or not the pump and regulator continue to deliver sufficient fuel pressure under all possible engine operating conditions. H Rememberthat the low and high pressure fuel systems may test within specification at or near idle speeds only to fall below spec once higher rpm and load demands are placed on them. Leaks or restrictions (including partially blocked fuel filters) may cause fuel starvation problems only at higher engine rpm. If pressure tests fine, but engine performance suggests inadequate fuel supply under certain conditions, operate the engine under those conditions with a fuel pressure gauge still attached to determine if the fuel delivery system is responsible. Battery Fuel pump Fig. 221 Simplified fuel pump circuit -90-140 h$ motors kin relav ECM I I $ Sensor switch signal input @ Main switch Battery Fuel pump Fig. 223 Simplified fuel pump circuit -300 hp V6 motors High pressure fuel /filter '// 3-Way Joint and Hose Fig. 224 Connect a fuel pressure gauge using a T-fitting between the high pressure fuel filter and the fuel rail (delivery pipe) Fuel Pressure 3-Way. Joint Pressure Gauge A special hoseladapter (#09912-58432) and fuel pressure joint (#09912- 58490) or equivalent, and a fuel pressure gauge of at least 46 psi (31 7 kPa) capacity are necessary for pressure testing. Make sure the gauge and test hoseladapter are sealed in order to prevent the possibility of a hazardous fuel leak. 1. Relieve the fuel system pressure, as detailed in this section, leaving the pump harness disengaged or the fuse removed and/or battery temporarily disconnect for safety while installing the test gauge. 2. Connect the fuel gauge adapter on the high pressure fuel supply hose in between the high pressure fuel filter and the fuel rail as follows (making sure to securely tighten all connections to prevent fuel leakage): @ 40150 hp motors -install the hose between the fuel filter and the 3-way joint. @ 60170 hp motors -remove the Port side Engine Cover for access and free the high pressure fuel filter from the mounting point on the intake manifold, then connect the adapter between the fuel supply and fuel rail. 90/115/140 hp motors -loosen the fuel rail upper plug, then connect the adapter between the fuel feed hose and the fuel rail. Once the adapter is connected, re-tighten the fuel rail upper plug. 1501175 hp motors -disconnect the high pressure fuel feed hose from the top of the fuel railldelivery pipe (from the upper uniontjoint of the fuel rail), then connect the adapter between the fuel feed hose and the fuel rail. 200-300 hp motors -remove the Air Intake Silencer and Flywheel Cover for access, then disconnect the high pressure fuel hose to the fuel rail from the 3-way joint and install the adapter between the joint and rail. The manufacturer advises to reinstall the Air Intake Silencer and Flywheel Cover, but many people do not bother for a short test. 3. Reconnect the negative battery cable, fuel pump wiring harness andlor the fuse, as applicable. 4. Squeeze the primer bulb to fill the vapor separator tank with fuel. 5. Attach a source of cooling water to the motor. 6. Observe the fuel pressure on the gauge while cranking andlor running the motor. Fuel pressure under either circumstance should be 36.3 psi (255 kPa). 7. Shut the engine down (or stop cranking) and wait 5 minutes. The pressure should drop slightly, but should stabilize. The residual pressure after 5 minutes should be at least 28.4 psi (200 kPa). 8. Relieve the fuel system pressure once again, then remove the gauge and adapter. 9. Pressurize the fuel system and check for leaks. Pressure Regulator Test This test, in this particular format (with the pressure regulator still installed) was, as far as we can tell, never officially recommended by Suzuki, but was suggested by JohnsonlEvinrude (under OMC) when they first started selling rebadged Suzuki 4-stroke EFI motors. We cannot see why it would be harmful, unless Suzuki is worried about over-pressurizing the Vapor Separator Tank (VST) assembly. So to address that possible concern we'd recommend draining the housing prior to this test and to proceed with caution. However, the only way to be 100% certain you are following Suzuki's recommendations is to REMOVE the pressure regulator first! The only test that Suzuki currently recommends for the pressure regulator is to basically perform this same test, but with the regulator REMOVED from the VST (or fuel rail on 1998 60170 hp motors with the external pressure regulator). A regulated air supply (from a compressor or a hand-pump), along with a pressure gauge and a length of fuel hose are necessary to test the fuel pressure regulator. 1. Relieve the fuel system pressure, as detailed in this section. 2. If the VST is equipped with a drain screw, position a small basin and drain all fuel from the VST. Leave the screw open to allow air pressure from this test to escape. If the VST is NOT equipped with a drain screw, we recommend that to be sure you will not damage any components, remove the pressure regulator from the VST to test it. 3. Position a small basin to catch any fuel that might escape, then disconnect the fuel supply hose from the regulator pressure nipple (located at the bottom of the vapor separator tank assembly). 4. Attach the regulated air source (compressor or hand-pump) to the regulator pressure nipple using a length of fuel supply hose. 5. Apply air to the regulator nipple, slowly increasing the amount of pressure until air is released through the outlet side of the pressure regulator (you should be able to hear or feel it, depending on whether the regulator is still installed or not IMMEDIATELY note the amount of pressure on the gauge (that is, note at WHAT pressure the regulator opened and started to allow air flow). If using an air compressor, shut the compressor off once about 40-45 psi (276-310 kPa) is applied (if using a hand-pump, stop pumping). The pressure should bleed down and stabilize at about 34.1-38.4 psi (240-270 kPa). 6. The fuel pressure regulator should be replaced if insufficient pressure is obtained or if it does not stabilize at a sufficient pressure once the pump is turned off. REMOVAL& INSTALLATION .. 40-140 Hp Powerheads See Figures 226 and 227 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. Drain the fuel from the vapor separator tank into an approved container using the drain screw located on the bottom of the tank and a drain hose. 3. Remove the intake manifold, as detailed under the Throttle Body & Intake Manifold Assemblies procedures in this section. 4 Loosen and remove the mounting screws (normally 3 on most motors, but 4 bolts on some late-model 60170 hp powerheads), then remove the vapor separator as an assembly from the back of the intake manifold. On 9011151140 hp models the fuel outlet hose may still be connected, if that is the case, be sure to disconnect it before attempting to separate the VST and intake manifold. To install: 5. Secure to the vapor separator tank to the intake manifold using the retaining screws and tighten securely. If the fuel outlet hose was removed from the VST on 9011151140 hp models, be sure to connect and secure it now. 6. Install the intake manifold as detailed in this section. 7. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, as detailed in this section and check for leaks. Correct anv leaks before returning the engine to service. Valve Pressure Regulator* 10-O-ring 11-Cushion 12-Vapor Separator * Note that 1998 60170 hp motors use an ''* "-\^ external pressure regulator Fig. 226 Exploded view of the vapor separator tank and high pressure fuel pump assembly used on 40-70 hp motors HIGH PRESSU & PROTECTOR Fig. 227 Exploded view of the vapor separator tank and high 1501175 Hp Powerheads See Figure 228 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. Remove the lower Engine Cover(s) for access. For details, refer to the procedure in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 3. Remove the 2 bolts securing the front panel for access. 4. Drain the fuel from the vapor separator tank into an approved container using the drain screw located on the bottom of the tank and a drain hose. 5. Tag and disconnect the high pressure fuel pump wiring connector from the top of the VST and pump assembly. 6. Tag and disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the top, end of the VST assembly. 7. Loosen and remove the 3 bolts securing the VST assembly to the crankcase, then pull the assembly outward just slightly for better access to the remaining hoses. Tag and disconnect the following hoses, then remove the VST completely: * Fuel return hose at the bottom rear of the tank. * Fuel outlet hose from the top of the VST or the bottom of the high pressure fuel filter. * Evaporation hose from the top of the VST. HIGH PRESSURE To install: 8. Position the VST assembly next to the powerhead and reconnect the following hoses (to which access is difficult/impossible once the VST is bolted in position: * Evaporation hose to the top of the VST. * Fuel outlet hose either to the top of the VST or the bottom of the high pressure fuel filter, depending on where you removed it. * Fuel return hose to the bottom rear of the tank. 9. With the hoses from the previous step connected, seat the VST against the crankcase, then install and tighten the 3 mounting bolts securely. 10. Reconnect the fuel inlet hose to the top, end of the VST assembly. 11. Reconnect the high pressure fuel pump wiring connector to the top of the VST and pump assembly. 12. Install the 2 bolts securing the front panel. 13. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, as detailed in this section and check for leaks. Correct any leaks before returning the engine to service. 14. Once you are sure there are no leaks, install the lower engine cover. 200-300 Hp Powerheads @ See Figures 229 and 230 1. For safety, properly relieve the fuel system pressure as described under Fuel System Pressurization in this section and leave the battery cable disconnected. 2. For access on 300 hp motors, remove the engine side cover(s). For details, please refer to the Engine Covers (Top and Lower Cases) procedure in the Maintenance & Tune-up section. 3. Remove the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 4. Drain the fuel from the vapor separator tank into an approved container using the drain screw located on the bottom of the tank and a drain hose. 5. Tag and disconnect the wiring from the low pressure and high pressure fuel pumps. 6. Tag and disconnect the purge valve hose from the fuel vapor separator. 7. On 300 hp motors, tag and disconnect the speed sensor lead wire from the connector at the sensor (located on the powerhead, just behind the VST and just below the high pressure fuel filter). 8. Tag and disconnect the water outlet hose from the fitting on the crankcase water jacket cover, right above and behind the electrical junction box (a little behind the high pressure fuel filter and on 200-250 hp models, near the powerhead lifting eye). 9. Tag and disconnect the fuel inlet hose from the water separating fuel filter at the base of the powerhead, just tucked in behind the VST and low pressure fuel pump. 10. Tag and disconnect the water inlet hose from the bottom of the fuel cooler, at the base of the powerhead, in between the water separating fuel filter and the VST assembly. 11. Tag and disconnect the high pressure fuel hose from the 3-way joint that is attached by hose to the high pressure fuel filter. Then, right below that joint on 200-250 hp models, tag and disconnect the wiring connector which attaches to the purge valve. 12. Remove the 2 bolts that secure the VST assembly to the crankcase (on the top and end of the VST cover), then remove the 2 bolts that secure the high pressure fuel filter to the crankcase (right above the VST). Lastly remove the 2 bolts that secure the VST bracket to the crankcase (at the rear base of the VST assembly). 13. Remove the VST assembly complete with the low pressure fuel pump and the high pressure fuel filter. As you pull the assembly away from the powerhead, tag and disconnect the cooling water outlet hose from top of the fuel cooler. 14. If necessary for low pressure pump replacement or for VST overhaul, unbolt the low pressure fuel pump (2 bolts) from the VST assembly. You are also going to have to cut the wire tie that secures the low pressure pump fuel filter. 15. Remove the fuel water separator, pressure relief valve, low pressure pump filter and low pressure pump all from the VST assembly. 16. If necessary, separate the pressure relief valve from the low pressure assembly in order to test the valve as follows: a. Disconnect the relief valve inlet hose from the water separating fuel filter and the relief valve outlet hose from the bottom of the low pressure pump (leaving both of those hoses attached to the relief valve). b. Tag and disconnect the other two hoses from the top end of the valve Fig. 229 Exploded view of the vapor separator tank assembly, complete with both the high and low pressure fuel pumps used on V6 motors Fig. 230 Testing the low pressure relief valve using a hand air (the one on the top side goes to the low pressure fuel filter and the one on the very top goes to the VST). c. Connect a small hand air pump or low pressure compressed air source (you can use either, but it must have an air pressure gauge) to the inlet side of the relief valve (the lower hose on the side, the one that came from the water separating fuel filter). Block off the outlet hose (the hose on the bottom, the one that ran to the low pressure fuel pump). d. Slowly pump air into the valve until you can hearlfeel it start to come out of the bare fittings (the ones that hoses were attached to that ran to the low pressure fuel filter and to the VST assembly). Note the pressure on the gauge at the point where air starts to be released -it should be about 10-11 psi (70-80 kPa). If pressure is not in spec, the valve should be replaced. To install: 17. If removed, install the low pressure pump and low pressure fuel system components to the VST assembly, as noted or tagged during removal. 18. Position the entire the VST assembly (complete with the low pressure fuel pump and the high pressure fuel filter) to the powerhead. As you position the assembly, connect the cooling water outlet hose to the fuel cooler. 19. Secure the VST assembly to the powerhead. Start with the 2 bracket bolts and the bottom of the VST, then most to the 2 bolts that secure the high pressure fuel filter and lastly the 2 bolts at the top center and end of the VST cover. 20. On 200-250 hp motors, reconnect the wiring connector to the purge valve. 21. Reconnect the high pressure fuel hose to the 3-way joint that is attached by hose to the high pressure fuel filter. 22. Reconnect the water inlet hose to the fuel cooler, at the base of the powerhead, in between the water separating fuel filter and the VST assembly. 23. Reconnect the fuel inlet hose to the water separating fuel filter at the base of the powerhead, just tucked in behind the VST and low pressure fuel Pump. 24. Reconnect the water outlet hose to the fitting on the crankcase water jacket cover, just behind the high pressure fuel filter and the powerhead lifting eye. 25. On 300 hp motors, reconnect the speed sensor lead wiring connector at the sensor just behind the VST and below the high pressure fuel filter. 26. Reconnect the purge valve hose to the fuel vapor separator. 27. Reconnect the wiring to the low pressure and high pressure fuel pumps. 28. Reconnect the negative battery cable, then properly pressurize the fuel system, as detailed in this section and check for leaks. Correct any leaks before returning the engine to service. 29. Install the Air Intake Silencer and Flame Arrester (along with the Flywheel Cover) as described earlier in this section. 30. On 300 hp motors, install the Engine Coverfs). OVERHAUL DERATE See Figures 226 thru 229 and 231 M On the inline models, most literature says that the VST cover and caseltank are a matched set and should be replaced together as an assembly should one become damaged. 1. Remove the VST assembly from the powerhead, as detailed earlier in this section. 2. For V6 models, remove any external components that are still attached to the VST assembly, as follows: a. If not done already, remove the low pressure fuel pump and related components. b. Remove the 3 bolts that secure the fuel cooler brackets to the VST assembly. c. Tag and disconnect the inlet fuel hose (top), outlet fuel hose (top) and fuel return hose (bottom) from the VST. 3. The VST cover and tank are a matched set. Some models will even contain painted matchmarks at one point along the mating surfaces. If not, take a moment to paint a matchmark at this time. On some models (such as the early 60i70 hp motors) Suzuki warned not to try separating the cover from the fuel pump. So, before attempting this on those models, be sure to confirm that a separate replacement pump is available for THAT YEAR. IF no separate pump is available, the VST assembly itself may be needed for a repair. 4. Loosen and remove the cover screws (usually 5 on inline models or 7 on V6 models), then carefully separate the cover and high pressure pump assembly from the reservoir tank. Remove and discard the 0-ringlgasket from the cover. 5. If necessary, remove the float, valve and needle assembly for inspection or replacement: a. On models equipped with a float pin retaining screw (such as the 1501175 hp motors), loosen and remove the screw before attempting to remove the float hinge pin. b. Using a small pick or awl, carefully remove the float hinge pin. c. Carefully lift the float and then the inlet valve needle from the underside of the tank cover. d. Remove the screw, plate (if used) and valve seat from the underside of the tank cover. 6. If necessary, remove the pressure regulator from the bottom of the vapor separator tank as follows: a. On 40-70 hp models (with internal pressure regulators), remove the plastic deflector plate from the bottom of the separator tank for access. b. Remove the pressure regulator retaining screw, then separate the regulator from the tank. If equipped, remove and discard the old O-ring from the regulator fitting. Good Worn I Fig. 231 Just like when servicing carburetors, check the float needle and valve seat for wear or damage 7. If necessary, service the high pressure pump assembly, as follows: a. Invert the cover to visually check the small, round, fud pump pickup screen. If the screen is damaged or contaminated it will have to be removed and cleaned or replaced. However on some models, usually 40-70 hp powerheads, the screen and holder are secured by the fuel pump bracket so the retaining screw and bracket must be removed in order to remove