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Workshop Manua. Engine Component. Models .................. 30GSMEFS, 30GSPEFS43GLPEFS, 43GiPEFS50GLPEFS, 50GiPEFS ................... 57GSPEFS, 57GSiPEFS74GiPEFS, 74GSiPEFS DPX385XEFS, DPX415XEFS82GSiPEFS Contents General Information......................................................... General Engine Mechanical - V6 and V8 Models............. 3.0 GS Engines................................................................. 4.3 GL, GS and Gi Engines ............................................... 5.0 GL, Gi, 5.7 GS and GSi Engines ................................. 7.4 Gi Engines ................................................................... 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi Engines ............................................ Steering System................................................................ Throttle and Shift Control Systems ................................. Cooling Systems............................................................... Engine Removal and Installation ..................................... Safety ................................................................................ S i Model Identification 1 M All stern drive system components must be matched for either single or dual engine installations. Failure to properly match engine, transom bracket and vertical drive will result in poor boat performance, and risk damage to engine and drive because of incorrect drive gear ratio. Model identification is located on the engine valve cover, and MUST correspond with the transom bracket and vertical drive numbers as listed in this document. DR1145 123 Engine Model Number 4 Transom Bracket Model Number 5 Vertical Drive Model Number 2 3 DR4282 DR6815 4 DR2058 5 DR4957 iii Section 1 General Information Table of Contents Battery Cable Requirements ........................................................... 1-40 Belt Adjustments Alternator .......................................................................................1-25 Power Steering .............................................................................. 1-26 Belt Tension ...................................................................................... 1-24 Compresion Pressure Limit Chart .................................................... 1-7 Conversion Charts Drill ................................................................................................. 1-42 Metric ............................................................................................. 1-41 Crankcase Oil ................................................................................... 1-11 Engine Break-in ................................................................................1-21 Engine Compression Testing ............................................................ 1-5 Engine Troubleshooting Guides ..................................................... 1-29 Gasolines Containing Alcohol ........................................................ 1-10 Gasoline Requirements ................................................................... 1-10 Intake Manifold Vacuum Testing ....................................................... 1-8 Introduction ........................................................................................ 1-2 20-Hour Check .................................................................................. 1-23 Off-Season Storage Preparations ................................................... 1-13 Oil Filter ............................................................................................. 1-12 Periodic Maintenance Chart ............................................................1-44 Positive Closed-Type Ventilation System ...................................... 1-27 Power Steering Fluid Level ............................................................. 1-13 Power Trim/Tilt Fluid Level .............................................................. 1-13 Preparation for Boating After Storage ............................................ 1-20 Steering System Lubrication ........................................................... 1-13 Submerged Engine...........................................................................1-23 Symbols ............................................................................................ 1-43 Torque Specifications, General ....................................................... 1-40 Troubleshooting - System Isolation................................................1-28 Tune-up Specifications ....................................................................1-36 Tuning the Engine .............................................................................. 1-5 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of a Volvo Penta stern drive, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. 1 1-1 Introduction This service manual is divided into sections concerning various systems and assemblies. Refer to the Contents to locate the section covering the system or assembly requiring service. Each section title page has an additional listing that will describe the sections contents in more detail. Be sure to read the Safety Section at the end of this manual, and pay special attention to all safety warnings as they appear throughout the text. Since models are subject to change at any time, some photos may not depict actual product. Good Service Practice Service required for stern drives is generally one of three kinds: Normal care and maintenance - which includes putting a new stern drive into operation, storing engines, lubrication, and care under special operating conditions such as salt water and cold weather. Operating malfunctions - due to improper engine or drive mounting, propeller condition or size, boat condition, or the malfunction of some part of the engine. This includes engine servicing procedures to keep the engine in prime operating condition. Complete disassembly and overhaul - such as major service or rebuilding a unit. It is important to determine before disassembly just what the trouble is and how to correct it quickly, with minimum expense to the owner. When repairing an assembly, the most reliable way to ensure a good job is to do a complete overhaul on that assembly, rather than just to replace the bad part. Wear not readily apparent on other parts could cause malfunction soon after the repair job. Repair kits and seal kits contain all the parts needed to ensure a complete repair, to eliminate guesswork, and to save time. Repair time can also be minimized by the use of special tools. Volvo Penta special tools are designed to perform service procedures unique to the product that cannot be completed using tools from other sources. They also speed repair work to help achieve service flat rate times. In some cases, the use of substitute tools can damage the part. Do not operate engine out of water even momentarily. If operated in test tank, use proper test wheel. Failure to do so can damage supply pump, overheat engine, or allow excessive engine RPM. 1-2 Preparation for Service Proper preparation is extremely helpful for efficient service work. A clean work area at the start of each job will minimize tools and parts becoming misplaced. Clean an engine that is excessively dirty before work starts. Cleaning will occasionally uncover trouble sources. Obtain tools, instruments and parts needed for the job before work is started. Interrupting a job to locate special tools or repair kits is a needless delay. Use proper lifting and handling equipment. Working on stern drives without proper equipment can cause damage and personal injury. Always use clean fresh fuel when testing engines. Troubles can often be traced to the use of old or dirty fuel. Service Policy It is a Volvo Penta policy to provide dealers with service knowledge so they can give professional service demanded by todays consumer. The Volvo Penta Training Centers, frequent mailing of Service Bulletins, Letters and Promotions, Special Tools and this Service Manual represent the latest effort to assist dealers in giving consumers the best and most prompt service possible. If a service question does not appear to be answered in this manual, you are invited to write to the Volvo Penta Service Department for additional help. Always be sure to give complete information, including engine model number and serial number. When a brand-name product or specific tool is called for, another item may be used. However, the substitute must have equivalent characteristics, including type, strength, and material. You must determine if incorrect substitution could result in product malfunction and personal injury to anyone. To avoid hazards, equivalent products which are used must meet all current U.S. Coast Guard Safety Regulations and ABYC standards. Replacement Parts When replacement parts are required, always use genuine Volvo Penta parts, or parts with equivalent characteristics, including type, strength, and material. Failure to do so may result in product malfunction and possible injury to the operator and/or passengers. Parts Catalogs Parts Catalogs contain exploded views showing the correct assembly of all parts, as well as a complete listing of the parts for replacement. These catalogs are helpful as a reference during disassembly and reassembly, and are available from Volvo Penta Parts. Special Service Tools Volvo Penta has specially designed tools to simplify some of the disassembly and assembly operations. These tools are illustrated in this Service Manual, in many cases in actual use. All special tools can be order from Volvo Penta Parts. Individual purchasers of Service Manuals must order Special Tools through an authorized dealer. Product References, Illustrations & Specifications Volvo Penta reserves the right to make changes at anytime, without notice, in specifications and models and also to discontinue models. The right is also reserved to change any specifications or parts at any time without incurring any obligation to equip same on models manufactured prior to date of such change. All information, illustrations and specifications contained in this manual are based on the latest product information available at the time of printing. The right is reserved to make changes at anytime without notice. All photographs and illustrations used in this manual may not depict actual models or equipment, but are intended as representative views for reference only. The continuing accuracy of this manual cannot be guaranteed. Tuning The Engine The purpose of an engine tune-up is to restore power and performance that has been lost through wear, corrosion or deterioration of one or more parts or components. In the normal operation of an engine, these changes can take place gradually at a number of points, so that it is seldom advisable to attempt an improvement in performance by correction of one or two items only. Time will be saved and more lasting results will be obtained by following a definite and thorough procedure of analysis and correction of all items affecting power and performance. Economical, trouble-free operation can better be ensured if a complete tune-up is performed once every year, preferably in the spring. Components that affect power and performance can be divided into three groups: Components affecting compression Components affecting ignition Components affecting fuel system Tune-up procedures should cover these groups in the order given. While the items affecting compression and ignition may be handled according to personal preference, correction of items in the fuel system group should not be attempted until all items affecting compression and ignition have been satisfactorily corrected. Most of the procedures for performing a complete engine tune-up will be covered in greater detail in this manual. This section will deal mainly with the order of procedures involved in tuning the engine. Engine Compression Testing During all work done around the engine, while the engine is running or being cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting fingers or clothing caught in any belts, pulleys, or other moving parts. 1. Visually inspect stern drive unit for leaks, missing parts or other obvious defects. Replace deteriorated parts. 2. Compression check: Proper compression is essential for good engine performance. An engine with low or uneven compression cannot be properly tuned. a. Operate engine to normal operating temperature. Engine must not be started and run without water for cooling. b. Remove any foreign matter from around spark plugs by blow ing out with compressed air. c. Remove and inspect all spark plugs. Install thread-type compression gauge in spark plug hole. d. To Prevent Sparking: All Models Except 5.0 GL and 5.7 GS: Remove (grey) 2-wire connector, with purple and grey wires, at ignition coil. 5.0 GL and 5.7 GS Models Only: Remove both distributor primary wires from the ignition coil. Tape wire terminals to prevent accidental grounding. e. With choke and/or throttle plates wide open, crank engine through at least four compression strokes. Test Conclusion The indicated compression pressures are considered normal if the lowest reading cylinder is within 75% of the highest. Example: If the highest pressure reading was 140 PSI, 75% of 140 is 105. Therefore, any cylinder reading less than 105 PSI indicates an improperly seated valve, worn valve guides, piston, cylinder, or worn or broken piston rings. Any cylinder reading 105 PSI or greater is within specifications, and compression is considered normal. If one or more cylinders read low, squirt approximately one tablespoon of engine oil on top of the pistons in the low reading cylinders. Repeat compression pressure check on the cylinders. 1. If compression improves considerably, the piston rings are at fault. 2. If compression does not improve, valves are sticking or seating poorly, or valve guides are worn. 3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low compression pressures and squirting oil on the pistons does not increase the compression, the cause may be a cylinder head gasket leak between the cylinders. This problem could allow engine oil and/or coolant to enter the cylinders. It is recommended the following quick reference chart be used when checking cylinder compression pressures. The chart has been calculated so that the lowest reading number is 75% of the highest reading. Compression Pressure Limit Chart Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI 134 101 154 115 174 131 194 145 136 102 156 117 176 132 196 147 138 104 158 118 178 133 198 148 140 105 160 120 180 135 200 150 142 107 162 121 182 136 202 151 144 108 164 123 184 138 204 153 146 110 166 124 186 140 206 154 148 111 168 126 188 141 208 156 150 113 170 127 190 142 210 157 152 114 172 129 192 144 212 158 After checking cylinder compression, repairs should be made as necessary. Subsequent adjustments to an engine that does not have proper compression will not measurably improve performance or correct operational problems. After verifying compression, check ignition and fuel system compo nents. Ignition System Spark Plugs Spark Plug Leads Distributor Cap Rotor Ignition Coil High Tension Lead Ignition Switch Circuit Wiring and Connectors IC Module Fuel System Fuel Tank Pickup and Screen Fuel Tank Vent Anti-Siphon Valve (if equipped) Fuel Octane and Quality Boat Fuel Lines and Valves External Engine Fuel Filter Fuel Pump(s) and Line Carburetor Fuel Filter or Screen Carburetor Adjustments Engine PCV Valve Flame Arrestor Pressure Regulator and injectors All of the above listed components are not necessarily part of an engine tune-up, but must be considered when attempting to correct engine/boat performance problems. Repair or replace components only as required. Do not substitute automotive parts. Volvo Penta marine components meet U.S. Coast Guard regulations for external ignition proof operation and marine use. Volvo Penta marine components are specially designed not to cause ignition of fuel vapors in the bilge or engine compartment. The use of automotive parts can result in fire and explosion. Intake Manifold Vacuum Testing Test Procedures 1. Install a vacuum gauge to a good intake manifold source, following the gauge manufacturers instructions. Start and warm up the engine. 2. Observe the vacuum gauge while operating the engine over a range of engine speeds. Test Results 1. A steady vacuum reading between 18 and 22 in. Hg. (60,7-74,3 kPa) at idle indicates an engine in good mechanical condition. 2. A vacuum reading below 18 in. Hg. (60,7 kPa) at idle, indicates an engine that is not developing enough vacuum. Further testing for base mechanical problems is needed. 3. Possible causes of low intake manifold vacuum are late ignition timing, low compression, poor engine sealing, leaks at vacuum lines and connections or bad MAP sensor. 4. If the gauge fluctuates at idle, possible causes are sticking or leaking valves, or an ignition miss. 5. If the gauge fluctuates at idle but smooths out as engine RPM increases, check for bad valves or camshaft. 6. If the gauge fluctuates more with increases engine RPM, check for weak or broken valve springs, bad valves, ignition miss, or a leaking head gasket. 7. If the vacuum gauge fluctuates regularly with each engine cycle, check for a bad valve. 8. If the vacuum reading drops steadily as engine RPM increases, check the exhaust system between the engine and vertical drive for restrictions. 9. See chart on the following page for more information. 1-8 DRC6688 1-9 Gasoline Requirements The models covered in this manual are designed for maximum performance with the use of lead-free gasoline with the following minimum or higher octane specification: Inside the U.S., (R+M)/2 (AKI) - 89 Outside the U.S., (RON) - 93 4.3 GL, GS, 5.0 GL, and 5.7 GS Models Only -The ignition timing will have to be retarded if lower octane fuels, with minimum 86 AKI (90 RON) octane, are used. Refer to Timing in Tune-up Specifications. When ignition timing is retarded, a slight decrease in power can be expected. Use of gasoline with lower than 89 AKI (93 RON) octane in 4.3 GL, GS, 5.0 GL, and 5.7 GS models, without retarding ignition timing as specified, will result in serious damage to your engine and will void the engine warranty. All Other Models - Lower octane fuels, with minimum 86 AKI (90 RON) octane, can be used. With the use of lower octane fuel, a slight decrease in power can be expected. Engine damage resulting from the use of gasoline with octane lower than 86 AKI (90 RON) is considered misuse of the engine and will void the engine warranty. Some marinas sell fuel with lead additives. Do not use such fuel as it may plug the fuel injectors. Premium fuel contains injector cleaners and other additives that protect the fuel system and provide optimum performance. The use of premium grade fuels in all models is strongly recommended. To prevent gum formation and corrosion in the fuel system, use DuraPlusTM Marine Fuel Cleanerin the gasoline. DuraPlusTM Marine Fuel Cleaner is available from your authorized dealer. Gasoline is extremely flammable and highly explosive under certain conditions. Always stop engine and do not smoke or allow open flames or sparks near the boat when refueling gas tanks. When filling the gas tank, ground the tank to the source of gasoline by holding the hose nozzle firmly against the side of the deck filler plate, or ground it in some other manner. This action prevents static electricity build-up which could cause sparks and ignite fuel vapors. Gasolines Containing Alcohol Many gasolines being sold today contain alcohol. Two commonly used alcohol additives are Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and Methanol (methyl alcohol). See the boats Operators Manual to determine if the boats fuel system is compatible with alcohol blended fuels. If it is, your engine may use gasolines blended with no more than 10% Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) meeting the minimum octane specification. Do not use any gasoline which contains METHANOL (methyl alcohol). Continued use of METHANOL (methyl alcohol) fuel will cause serious damage to the fuel system. If you use gasoline containing alcohol, be aware of the following: The engine will operate leaner. This may cause engine problems such as vapor lock, low speed stalling, or hard starting. Alcohol blended fuels attract and hold moisture. Moisture can cause fuel tank corrosion. Inspect fuel tanks at least annually. Replace corroded or leaking fuel tanks. Frequently inspect non-metallic parts of fuel system and replace if excessively stiff, deteriorated or leaking. Fuel leakage can contribute to a fire and/or explosion. Crankcase Oil DRC6834 12 Initial factory fill is a high quality motor oil for API Service SG/ CD. During the break-in period (20 hours), frequently check the oil level. Somewhat higher oil consumption is normal until piston rings are seated. The oil level should be maintained in the safe range between the Add and Full marks on the dipstick. This range represents approximately 1 liter (1 quart). If it is necessary to add or change the motor oil, use a quality oil with API service category SG/CD that meets General Motors Standard GM-6094-M. At the end of the break-in period (20 hours), change the crankcase oil and replace the oil filter. Refer to Lubrication and Inspection Chart for recommended oil change intervals. 1 DR1563C 2 The use of multi-viscosity oils, such as 10W-30 or 10W-40, is not recommended. Draining and Filling the Engine Crankcase Drain and refill crankcase every 100 hours of operation or once a year, whichever occurs first. To prevent fire and explosion, always make sure engine compartment is free of gasoline fumes before using any spark-producing tools such as the electric drill motor used with oil withdrawal pump kit. Safety Related 3 Check the motor oil level frequently with the dipstick. When oil is to be changed, remove dipstick and withdraw oil from crankcase through withdrawal/dipstick tube. The oil withdrawal tube is provided so oil does not have to be drained into the bilge. Withdraw oil with a suction pump. Fill the crankcase to the specified capacity with a quality motor oil labeled for service category SG/CD which meets General MotorsStandard GM-6094-M. Oils conforming to this standard contain detergent and anti-wear additives that will prolong engine life. When changing motor oil, select from the following chart the SAE viscosity that matches the temperature range in which the boat will be operated. If it is necessary to add motor oil, use motor oil of the same viscosity. IF THE LOWEST ANTICIPATED TEMPERATURE IS: THE FOLLOWING SAE VISCOSITY OILS ARE RECOMMENDED: 32 F (0 C) and above 0 F (-18 C) to 32 F (0 C) Below 0 F (-18 C) SAE 30 SAE 20W-20 SAE 10W 1 2 Disregard any reference to multi-viscosity oil printed on engine. Such reference is intended for automotive use only and not marine application. Do not fill above full mark. Overfilling results in high operating temperatures, foaming (air in oil), loss of power, and overall reduced engine life. Crankcase Capacities Model Less Filter With Filter 3.0 GS 3.5 qts. (3,3 litres) 4.0 qts. (3,8 litres) 4.3 GL and Gi 4.0 qts. (3,8 litres) 4.5 qts. (4,3 litres) 5.0 GL and Gi 5.0 qts. (4,7 litres) 6.0 qts. (5,7 litres) 5.7 GS and GSi 5.0 qts. (4,7 litres) 6.0 qts. (5,7 litres) 7.4 Gi and GSi 8.0 qts. (7,5 litres) 9.0 qts. (8,5 litres) 8.2 GSi 8.0 qts. (7,5 litres) 9.0 qts. (8,5 litres) 3 Oil Filter Replace the oil filter whenever the motor oil is changed. This filter is a self-contained, screw-on type. To remove, unscrew filter canister counterclockwise and discard. When attaching a new filter, be sure the gasket is lightly lubricated with motor oil. Hand tighten only, run engine and check for leaks. Do not run engine without supplying cooling water. See parts catalog for model and filter requirements. 1-12 Power Steering Fluid Level 45 Maintain the level with DuraPlusTM Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid. Approved power steering fluids such as GM power steering fluid or Dexron II automatic transmission fluid can also be used. Do not overfill the pump reservoir. Steering System Lubrication 67 Every 60 days, grease the steering ram A with Volvo Penta grease. 24074 Power Trim/Tilt-Fluid Level 8 At the beginning of each boating season, check the fluid level in the reservoir as follows: Level should be between the MIN and MAX marks on the reservoir. If necessary, add DuraPlusTM Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid. Replace the cap B and tighten securely. Off-Season Storage Preparations 4 5 COA6781A There are nine steps that must be completed for off-season storage preparation. Step 1. Condition Fuel System: Add DuraPlusTM Marine Fuel Stabilizer to fuel system. Follow instructions for adding conditioner and running engine as stated on the container. This will stabilize the fuel and prevent formation of varnish and gum in entire fuel system. Do this before continuing with the following procedures. Models equipped with 4 BBL carburetors should be run under a 6 load at a high enough throttle setting to circulate conditioner through the secondary fuel system. 7 47564 A 8 Step 2. Change Motor Oil and Oil Filter: Engine should first be operated under load until oil is thoroughly warmed up. If oil is allowed to warm up before draining, a more complete draining will be accomplished. In addition, accumulated impurities will be held in suspension by the oil and be removed during draining operation. Remove motor oil by siphoning it out of oil withdrawal tube. Follow the procedure under Draining and Filling the Engine Crankcase. Install a new oil filter and fill crankcase with recommended oil. Vertical drive must be submerged in water or an accessory flushing adaptor must be used while operating engine. When using a flushing adaptor, remove propeller before starting engine to prevent accidental contact with rotating propeller. With vertical drive in full down position, run engine at a fast idle for a few minutes to distribute clean oil through engine. Shut off engine and check oil level. Check oil filter gasket for leaks. Add oil if necessary to bring oil level up to, but not over, the full mark. Step 3. Change Vertical Drive Lubricant: Drain and refill with fresh DuraPlusTM GL-5 Synthetic Gear Lubricant or Mobilube 1 SHC Fully Synthetic SAE 75W-90 (meeting or exceeding MIL-L-2105C or D, API GL-4 or 5) gear lubricant. Refer to Vertical Drive Service Manual. Step 4. Fog Engine: Carbureted Models Only: Warm up engine to ensure fuel conditioner is throughout fuel system. Use 1/2 pint (0.24 liter) of Volvo Penta Fogging Oil 12 oz. (355 ml) spray can to fog engine. Remove flame arrestor from carburetor. Following instructions on container, bring engine up to a fast idle and slowly pour or spray 2/3 of fogging oil into carburetor. Keep engine running while pouring fogging oil into carburetor throat. Rapidly add remaining 1/3 of fogging oil to carburetor, then reduce throttle to idle and let engine die. Turn off ignition and replace flame arrestor. Close fuel shutoff valve (if so equipped). Fuel Injected Models Only: Prepare an engine storage mixture in an outboard V6 six gallon fuel tank. It must consist of 5 gallons fuel; 4 pints (64 oz.) Volvo Penta Fogging Oil; and 1/3 cup (2.5 oz.) DuraPlusTM Marine Fuel Stabilizer. Mix these ingredients thoroughly. Disconnect boat fuel line at engine fuel pump. Run engine on the storage mixture for approximately 5 minutes at 1500 RPM. This will ensure that all fuel system and internal engine components are thoroughly protected. Shut off engine before the storage mixture is used up. Do not run engine out of fuel. The electric fuel pumps will be damaged. Step 5. Drain Cooling System: When draining engine, raise or lower bow of boat to position engine in a horizontal plane. This will provide for complete drainage of block and manifolds. If bow of boat is higher or lower than stern, some water may be trapped in block or manifolds. Improper or incomplete draining may result in freeze damage to the engine, manifolds, vertical drive or other components. Freeze damage is not covered under the warranty. 3.0 GS Models 1 Starboard 1 Disconnect and drain large hose at circulating pump. 2 Port 2 Remove exhaust manifold drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 23907 3 Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 1 2 1-15 49457 44195 49458 31 2 4.3 Gi Models Only 1 Front 1 Disconnect the small water by-pass hose at the top of the thermostat housing. 2 Rear 2 Disconnect the water discharge hose. Lower to the rear of the block. Blow out water by applying air to the by-pass hose. 4 4.3 GL, GS and Gi Models 3 Front 34 Disconnect and drain large hose at circulating pump. Remove plug and drain intake manifold. 4 Port And Starboard 5 Remove brass drain plug. 5 Starboard 6 Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 6 Port 7 Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 5 34091A 6 34102A 1-16 5.0 GL and Gi Models 7 Front 3 Disconnect and drain large hose at circulating pump. 8 Starboard 45 Remove brass drain plug. Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to 49458 ensure complete drainage. 9 Port 67 Remove brass drain plug. Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 7 8 5.0 Gi and 5.7 GSi Models Only 1 Front 1 Disconnect the small water by-pass hose at the top of the thermostat housing. 2 Rear 2 Disconnect the water discharge hose. Lower to the rear of the block. Blow out water by applying air to the by-pass hose. 5.7 GS and GSi Models 7 Front 3 Disconnect and drain large hose at circulating pump. 8 Starboard 45 Remove brass drain plug. Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 9 Port 67 Remove brass drain plug. Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 9 1-17 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSI Models Only 1 Front Disconnect the water bypass hose at large diameter of check valve. Drain or blow out check valve and short hose to thermostat housing. Drain or blow out long hose to fuel reservoir. 1 Front 42863 Disconnect and drain large hose at circulating pump. 2 Starboard Loosen clamp and remove rubber hose from exhaust manifold. 7.4, 8.2GSi only: Remove cylinder block drain plug. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 7.4Gi only: Remove Knock sensor. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 2 3 Port Loosen clamp and remove rubber hose from exhaust manifold. Remove Knock sensor. Clear hole with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 3 1 1-18 Models With Oil Coolers 4 On models so equipped, remove the lower water hose from the power steering cooler. If cooler is mounted horizontally, remove one water hose A from oil cooler, loosen mounting bolt B , and tip oil cooler downward to drain. 5 Loosen and slide hose clamps back. Remove hoses from the supply pump and drain. Crank the engine no more than 2 seconds (DO NOT START) to expel any water trapped in the supply pump. Replace supply pump hoses. 4 Step 6. Inspect Vertical Drive Water Pickup for Obstructions. Step 7. Disconnect the Battery and Place in Storage. When storage will be for a considerable length of time, periodically recharge the battery following the manufacturers recommendations. Step 8. Spray Entire Engine and Vertical Drive With a Rust Preventative. Use DuraPlusTM Corrosion Sprayfollowing the directions on the container. 5 1-19 Preparation for Boating After Storage 1. Install all drain plugs. Install cooling hoses and clamps. Check condition of hoses, manifold end caps and clamps. Connect hoses to engine and tighten clamps securely. Install boat drain plug, if removed. 2. Remove the distributor cap and rotor. Wipe the inside of the distributor cap dry with a clean cloth and spray with DuraPlusTM Corrosion Spray. Replace the rotor and cap. 3. Clean the battery terminals. With the ignition switch in the OFF position, install the battery and attach the battery cables. Spray terminals with DuraPlusTM Corrosion Spray . 4. Open the fuel shut-off valve (if so equipped) and check all fuel line connections for leaks. 5. Check the flame arrestor and clean if necessary. Reinstall, make sure all parts are in place and tighten nut securely. 6. Make a thorough check of the boat and engine for loose or missing nuts and screws. Pump the bilge dry and air out the engine compartment. Safety Warning To prevent a possible explosion, operate the blower as recommended by the boat manufacturer before starting engine. If the boat is not equipped with a bilge blower, open engine cover or hatch prior to starting and leave open until after engine is running. If operating boat in water, tie boat securely to dock to prevent forward or backward movement. When using a flushing adaptor, remove the propeller before starting engine to prevent accidental contact with rotating propeller. 7. Test run engine: Launch boat or use a flushing adaptor installed on vertical drive. Do not start engine out of water unless using a flushing adaptor. Always turn water on before starting engine. Control water pressure as full water pressure may cause damage to supply pump and engine. 8. With engine compartment open, start the engine. Monitor the voltmeter, oil pressure and water temperature gauges frequently to be sure all systems are operating properly. Check for fuel, oil, and water leaks. Engine Break-in All engines have been run for a short period of time as a final test at the factory. You must follow the Engine Break-In procedure during the first 20 hours of operation to ensure maximum performance and longest engine life. To ensure proper lubrication during the break-in period, do not remove factory break-in oil until after the 20-hour break-in is completed. First Two Hours For the first five to ten minutes of operation, operate engine at a fast idle (above 1500 RPM). After engine has reached operating temperature, momentarily reduce engine speed, then increase engine speed, to assist break-in of rings and bearings. During the remaining first two hours of operation, accelerate to bring boat onto plane quickly and bring throttle back to maintain a planing attitude. During this period, vary the engine speed frequently by accelerating to approximately three-fourths throttle for two to three minutes, then back to minimum planing speed. Maintain planing attitude to avoid excessive engine load. DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD. Next Eight Hours During next eight hours, continue to operate at approximately three- fourths throttle or less (minimum planing speed). Occasionally reduce throttle to idle speed for a cooling period. During this eight hours of operation it is permissible to operate at full throttle for periods of less than two minutes. DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD. Final Ten Hours During the final ten hours of break-in, after warming engine to operating temperature, it is permissible to operate at full throttle for five to ten minutes at a time. Momentarily reduce then increase engine speed to assist break-in of rings and bearings. Occasionally reduce engine speed to idle to provide cooling periods. 1-21 DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD. During break-in period, be particularly observant during initial running of engine, as follows: 1. Check crankcase oil level frequently. Maintain oil level in safe range, between add and full marks on dipstick. If you have a problem getting a good oil level reading on dipstick, rotate dipstick 180 in tube. 2. Watch oil pressure gauge. If indicator fluctuates whenever boat attitude (i.e. turning, climbing on plane, etc.) is changed, it may be the oil pickup screen is not covered with oil. Check crankcase dipstick, and add oil to crankcase if required. DO NOT OVERFILL. If oil level is correct and condition still exists, check for possible gauge or oil pump malfunction. Oil pressure will rise as RPM increases, and fall as RPM decreases. In addition, cold oil will generally show higher oil pressure for any specific RPM than hot oil. Both of these conditions reflect normal engine operation. 3. Watch engine temperature indicator to be sure there is proper water circulation. Failure to follow the break-in procedure will void the engine warranty. At end of break-in period (20 hours), remove motor oil and replace oil filter. Fill crankcase with recommended 4-cycle motor oil. Operation After Break-in After break-in, the engine can be operated at any RPM from idle to full throttle. However, cruising at 3600 RPM or less saves fuel, reduces noise, and prolongs engine life. When starting a cold engine, always allow engine to warm up gradually. Never run engine at full throttle until engine is thoroughly warmed up. Be sure to check oil level frequently during the first 50 hours of operation, since oil consumption will be high until piston rings are properly seated. 1-22 Submerged Engine Remove engine from water as quickly as possible. It is imperative that your dealer remove all water from the engine and immediately relubricate all internal parts. All electrical devices must also be dried and inspected for water damage. Delay in completing these actions may allow extensive engine damage. Frequently check engine compartment for gasoline fumes and excessive water accumulation; water depth in bilge should be kept well below flywheel housing. 20-Hour Check 1. Change engine oil and oil filter. 2. Check power trim/tilt reservoir for proper fluid level. 3. 3.0 GS Models Only: Clean and inspect the ceramic filter located under the fuel pump. 4. All Models Except 3.0 GS: Change fuel filter/water separator. 5. Check flame arrestor for proper mounting. 6. Start engine and check complete fuel system for leaks. 7. Lubricate steering cable ram with Volvo Penta grease. Check power steering pump reservoir for correct fluid level on models equipped with power steering. Failure to properly lubricate the steering system could lead to loss of steering control. 8. Check shift system for proper adjustment and operation. 9. Inspect exhaust system. Tighten all hose clamps, and check for leaks. 10. Check tension on all drive belts. 11. Check all engine mount screws for tightness. 12. Carbureted Models Only: Check and adjust carburetor for correct idle mixture and RPM. 13. Check for any deficiencies, malfunctions, signs of abuse, etc. Correction of any problems at this time will prevent the worsening of a minor problem and help ensure a trouble-free boating season. 14. Check oil level in vertical drive and add as necessary with DuraPlusTM GL-5 Synthetic Gear Lubricant or Mobilube 1 SHC Fully Synthetic SAE 75W-90 (meeting or exceeding MIL-L-2105C or D, API GL-4 or 5) gear lubricant. 14. Make sure engine can achieve maximum rated RPM. See engine specifications. Belt Tension All Carbureted Models Except 3.0 Liter 1 1 Power Steering Pump Belt 2 Alternator Belt With engine stopped, check belt tension half way between the crankshaft and the appropriate accessory pulley using one of the following methods: 1 Use belt tension gauge to set tension to 75 10 lb. (33.6 44.5 N). 2 Use light thumb pressure and check for 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) belt deflection. If belts are too tight, excessive belt and bearing wear can occur. If they are too loose, slippage can occur, resulting in belt wear; and poor circulating pump, alternator, supply pump or power steering operation. Tension of a new belt should be checked after 10 hours of service and every 50 hours thereafter. 5 All Other Models 4 5 Serpentine belts do not require tensioning. Replace when the tnesion indicator lines up wth the single line on the housing. DRC7451 47507 47508 1 2 3 4 Alt. P/S or Idler Circ. Pump C/S GR991021 1-24 Alternator Belt Adjustment All Carbureted Models Except 3.0 liter 6 Crankshaft Pulley Circulating Pump Pulley Alternator Pulley 12345 Belt Tension Check Point Supply Pump Pulley 6 Check alternator belt tension 4 midway between the circulating pump pulley 2 and the alternator pulley 3 . 1. Loosen alternator mounting screws and nuts, and pivot alternator away from engine to increase belt tension. 2. While maintaining pressure on alternator, retighten top screw, bottom screw and nut. Recheck belt tension. 6 DRC7451A The belts used for the alternator, circulating pump, and power steering pump are heavy-duty. DO NOT replace with automotive belts. 1-25 Power Steering Pump Belt Adjustment All Carbureted Models Except 3.0 liter 1 123 Power Steering Pump Pulley Circulating Pump Pulley Belt Tension Check point 1 Improper power steering belt adjustment will cause a loss of power steering assist, resulting in hard steering. DRC7451 2 Check power steering belt tension midway between the circulating pump pulley and the power steering pump pulley. 4.3GL, 5.0GL, and 5.7GS Models 3 To increase belt tension: Loosen pump mounting bracket screws, insert a 1/2 in. breaker bar into the square hole in the pump mounting bracket, and pivot pump away from engine as shown. While maintaining pressure on pump, retighten all mounting screws. Recheck belt tension. Never pry against the pump reservoir or pull filler neck. 2 3 1-26 Positive Closed-Type Ventilation System A malfunctioning closed crankcase ventilation system may be indicated by loping or rough engine idle. Do not attempt to compensate for this idle condition by disconnecting the crank-case ventilation system and making carburetor adjustments. The removal of the crankcase ventilation system from the engine will adversely affect fuel economy and engine ventilation with resultant shortening of engine life. To determine whether loping or rough idle condition is caused by a malfunctioning crankcase ventilation system, perform the following tests. With Engine Idling 1. Remove PCV valve from its mounting, but leave vacuum inlet side connected to hose. If the valve is functioning properly and not plugged, a hissing noise will be heard as air passes through valve. A strong vacuum will be felt when a finger is placed over valve inlet. Check for vacuum leaks in hose line and at all connections. 2. Reinstall PCV valve, then remove crankcase air inlet hose at flame arrestor connection. Loosely hold a small piece of stiff paper (such as a 3 x 5 memo card or parts tag card) over opening at end of inlet hose. After a minute or so, (to allow crankcase pressure to lower) the piece of paper should be sucked against hose opening with a noticeable force. With Engine Stopped Remove PCV valve from its mounting and shake it. A metallic clicking noise should be heard, indicating that valve parts are free, and not sticking. If ventilation system passes these two tests, it can be considered functionally OK, and no further service is required. If it fails either test, replace PCV valve and repeat Engine Idling Test. If system still does not pass test, clean ventilation system hoses and all passages to induction system in accordance with established procedures. Servicing PCV Valve Do not attempt to clean crankcase ventilation regulator valve, it should be replaced. Clean crankcase ventilation system connection(s) on intake manifold by probing with a flexible wire or bottle brush. Clean hoses, tubes and associated hardware with a low-volatility, petroleum- base solvent and dry with compressed air. 1-27 Troubleshooting - System Isolation The following is to help you isolate a malfunction of one or possibly several systems. After determining which systems are related to the malfunction, refer to the individual system troubleshooting charts to isolate the specific cause. Cranking System Engine IgnitionDoes Not SystemRun Fuel System Engine Runs Improperly Engine should crank at specified RPM. If not, check for: 1. Discharged or dead battery 2. Loose or corroded connections 3. Cranking System Troubleshooting Chart in the Electrical/ Ignition/Fuel Service Manual Must have good spark at spark plugs. If not, check the: 1. Distributor cap and rotor 2. Coil and spark plug leads 3. Ignition timing 4. Automatic spark advance 5. Appropriate Ignition Troubleshooting Chart in the Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual 6. EFI Models: refer to GMDiagnostic Manual EFI Models: refer to GMDiagnostic Manual Non-EFI Models: Carburetor accelerator pump should squirt fuel into venturi when throttle is advanced. If not, check the: 1. Fuel tank, valves, and lines 2. Fuel pumps and filter 3. Carburetor and filter 4. Boat Fuel System Troubleshooting Chart 5. Carburetor Troubleshooting Chart 6. Engine Fuel System Troubleshooting Chart Check the following: 1. Compression 2. Ignition system 3. Fuel and carburetor/injector system 4. Lubrication system 5. Cooling system 6. Vertical drive and propeller 7. Vertical drive gear ratio and installation 8. PCV Valve 9. Engine Troubleshooting Guides 1-28 Engine Troubleshooting Guides EFI Engines Only: Refer to EFI Diagnostic Service Manual. These guides were written to help you trace the symptoms of the trouble to the source, without having to read through and prove every possibility. Much of the information here will be familiar to well informed mechanics. Also, many factors will seem insignificant but when you think of it, usually the toughest problem to troubleshoot is caused by the smallest error. The greatest aid to solving a service problem is information. Start gathering information from the boat operator and write it on his job card or work ticket. Find out pertinent facts, such as: When did this trouble start? How was the boat loaded? Did the trouble occur suddenly, or start gradually? Analyze this information and try to match it to similar situations you have experienced in the past. Keep in mind the fundamental rules: 1. COMPRESSION - Mixture inducted into cylinder and compressed. 2. SPARK - Proper intensity at the proper time. 3. FUEL - Proper mixture of air and fuel. These are very old rules, but necessary for the engine to run. Use these charts and the service information they refer to. Do not try to remember tolerances, settings, measurements, etc., as they are written in the service manual. Leave your mind free to analyze the problem. Following is a list of the troubleshooting guides which may be found on the pages indicated. Title................................................................................................... Page 1. Engine Will Not Crank ................................................................. 1-30 2. Engine Cranks, But Will Not Start .............................................. 1-30 3. Hard Starting - Cold Engine........................................................ 1-31 4. Hard Starting - Hot Engine.......................................................... 1-31 5. Engine Runs Rough .................................................................... 1-32 6. Engine Noises and Vibrations .................................................... 1-32 7. Engine Overheats........................................................................ 1-33 8. Engine Dies Out .......................................................................... 1-34 9. Engine Wont Reach Operating RPM ......................................... 1-34 10.Defective Engine Lubricating System ........................................ 1-35 11. Low Battery Voltage After Short Storage ................................... 1-35 1-29 Engine Will Not Crank Starter Circuit - Check: Battery condition: weak, dead, sulfated, bad cells Battery cables for loose or corroded connections Shorted or open ignition switch Starter motor and solenoid for shorts, grounds or open circuits Starter assist solenoid/starter relay Circuit breakers Wiring from battery to ignition switch See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual Engine Cranks, But Will Not Start Ignition Circuit - Check: Primary circuit wiring from ignition switch to ignition coil/ ignition module Secondary circuit wiring from coil to spark plug Spark plugs for proper gap, fouling, burned electrodes, cracked or dirty insulator See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual Low battery voltage Quantity and condition of fuel in boat tank Operation and flow capacity of boat anti-siphon valve Fuel tank vent is unrestricted Fuel tank pick-up screen is clean Correct diameter/unrestricted boat fuel lines Fuel shutoff and multiple tank valves are open and operating properly Fuel pump vent hose for signs of fuel or oil that would indicate a fuel pump failure. Fuel pump/relay/circuit breaker operation External fuel filter canister and carburetor filter Carburetor accelerator pump See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Conduct test following procedure in this section, and compare readings to Compression Limit Chart Fuel System - Check: Cylinder Compression - Check 1-30 Hard Starting - Cold Engine Ask these questions first: Has Engine Always Done This? Check: Carburetor choke operation and adjustment Fuel lines for obstructions For debris inside fuel tank See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual For clean external canister and carburetor fuel filters Empty carburetor float bowl due to evaporation Water in fuel due to condensation Fuel quality deterioration See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Carburetor choke operation and adjustment Carburetor accelerator pump Fuel system for leaks, dirt, or obstructions Engine timing and ignition system See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Was Engine Used For A Long Time? Check: Is This A New Condition? Check: Hard Starting - Hot Engine Ask these questions first: Has Engine Always Done This? Check: Carburetor choke operation and adjustment See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Brand, type or octane of fuel Spark plugs Water in fuel Condition of battery and cables Starter motor for overheat damage Ignition system primary circuit Ignition coil/ignition module Engine timing Carburetor choke operation and adjustment See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Is This A New Condition? Check: Did Engine Refuse To Start After Being Run? Check: 1-31 Idle speed and idle mixture Engine timing and spark plugs Fuel pump pressure Water or contaminants in fuel Carburetor or manifold vacuum leak Internal carburetor fuel leak See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Air leak on suction side of fuel system Too low octane fuel Ignition system secondary circuit Engine timing Wrong model or size carburetor, improper main jets or power valve, defective secondary fuel circuit, secondary vacuum diaphragm failure External canister and carburetor fuel filters Fuel pump pressure Engine compression Water or contaminants in fuel, water in cylinders See General Information section and Electrical/Ignition/ Fuel System Service Manual Engine Runs Rough If At Slow Speed - Check: If At High Speed - Check: Engine Noises and Vibrations Valves - Hydraulic Lifters Rapping only when starting (oil too heavy for prevailing weather, varnish on lifter, oil needs to be changed) Intermittent rapping (leakage at lifter check ball) Idle noise (excessive leak down rate, faulty check ball seat) Generally noisy (excessive oil in crankcase, stuck lifter plunger) Loud noise at operating temperature (scored lifter plunger, fast leak down rate, oil viscosity too light for prevailing weather or operating temperatures) See appropriate Engine section 1-32 Engine Noises and Vibrations, Cont. Ignition System (Ping or Knock) Improper tuning Incorrect spark plug wire routing Use higher octane fuel See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual Supply pump Loose belts, pulleys See Cooling System section Loose, broken or worn engine mounts Loose lag screws holding mounts to stringer Loose bolt(s) Loose pulley, worn bearings Loose mounting bolts Failed U-joints or gimbal bearing Damaged internal drive components Worn, bent or broken propeller hub or blades Loose, worn or damaged engine coupler Cooling System Mountings Crankshaft Balancer or Flywheel Alternator Vertical Drive Engine Overheats - Check: Actual engine temperature by verifying with an accurate thermometer Gauge operation and wiring circuit Sending unit operation and wiring circuit Supply pump, circulating pump and belts Water intake screens for blockage Thermostat Water supply hoses Engine timing Water leaks on pressure side of supply pump Air leaks on suction side of supply pump Engine compression 1-33 Engine Dies Out Loss Of, Or Out Of, Fuel - Check: Fuel gauge operation and wiring Fuel level in tank Water or debris in fuel Fuel pickup tube and screen blockage Fuel tank vent blockage Plugged external canister or carburetor fuel filters Air leak on suction side of fuel system Fuel leak on pressure side of fuel system Inoperative, restricted or incorrectly sized anti-siphon valve Boat fuel lines too small in diameter Fuel pump pressure and suction Carburetor cleanliness and operation See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual Primary and secondary ignition circuits Ignition switch Circuit breakers Wiring between engine and dash Main engine harness wiring See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual Vertical drive for internal damage Oil pressure gauge and crankcase oil level Temperature gauge and cooling system operation Internal engine components as required Loss Of Ignition - Check: Engine Stops Or Dies Out Due To Seizure - Check: Engine Wont Reach Operating RPM - Check: Fuel type or octane Propeller pitch or diameter, damaged blades, slipping hub Crankcase oil volume Marine growth on hull and drive Wrong vertical drive gear ratio Operating at high altitude Restricted carburetor air intake Restricted exhaust outlets in engine, transom bracket or drive Poor cylinder compression Carburetor size and type correct for engine Fuel pump pressure and vacuum Boat overloaded, or load improperly placed Engine overheating Engine timing and ignition system operation Remote control cables and linkage for proper attachment and travel 1-34 Defective Engine Lubricating System Engine Components - Check: Clogged or incorrect oil filter Worn oil pump gears, cover or shaft Worn or collapsed oil pump relief valve spring, or foreign material caught on valve seat Oil pump relief valve plunger loose in cover Damaged filter bypass grommet Clogged oil pickup screen, broken tube or housing Plugged crankshaft or blocked oil galleys Dirty or defective hydraulic lifters, clogged push rod passages Poor quality, incorrect viscosity or quantity of oil Incorrect hose routing on remote filter systems Water in crankcase oil from condensation, defective head gasket, oil cooler, or cracked manifold/block water passages Oil gauge/warning horn operation and wiring Engine temperature Oil pressure gauge and warning horn sender operation and wiring Oil Pressure Warning System - Check: Low Battery Voltage After Short Storage Engine/Boat Components - Check: All electrical accessories including ignition circuit off Disconnect main battery negative cable from battery Connect ammeter or voltmeter in series between negative battery cable and negative battery post 1. Meter reading of 0 indicates no draw, test battery and charging system 2. Meter movement no matter how slight indicates draw from battery Disconnect main engine harness 10-Pin Connector 1. Meter drops back to 0, problem caused by boat system, continue to isolate each boat electrical accessory until problem is found 2. Meter does not drop back to 0, problem caused by engine electrical system, continue to isolate each engine electrical accessory until problem is found Repair or replace components as necessary 1-35 Tune-up Specifications Engine Firing Order 3.0 GS ....................................................................................................... 1-3-4-2 4.3 GL and Gi..................................................................................... 1-6-5-4-3-2 5.0 GL and Gi...............................................................................1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 5.7 GS and GSi............................................................................1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 7.4 Gi and GSi .............................................................................1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 8.2 GSi .........................................................................................1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 Fuel Pump Pressure Carbureted Models Only ........................................................................5 - 7 PSI (34-48 kPa) at idle RPM Gi and GSi models: See GMEFI Diagnostic Service Manual Model Less Filter With Filter 4.5 qts. (4,3 3.0 GS 4.3 GL, Gi 5.0 GL, Gi 5.7 GS, GSi 7.4 Gi, GSi 8.2 GSi Crankcase Capacities 3.5 qts. (3,3 litres) litres) 4.0 qts. (3,8 litres) 6.0 qts. (5,7 5.0 qts. (4,7 litres) litres) 5.0 qts. (4,7 litres) 6.0 qts. (5,7 8.0 qts. (7,5 litres) litres) 8.0 qts. (7,5 litres) 9.0 qts. (8,5 lits) re 1-36 Tune-up Specifications Idle* and Operating RPM 3.0 GS Idle ......................................................................................... 650-750 RPM W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4200-4600 RPM 4.3 GL Idle ......................................................................................... 550-650 RPM W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4200-4600 RPM 4.3 Gi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4400-4800 RPM 5.0 GL Idle ......................................................................................... 550-650 RPM W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4400-4800 RPM 5.0 Gi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4600-5000 RPM 5.7 GS Idle ......................................................................................... 550-650 RPM W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4400-4800 RPM 5.7 GSi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4600-5000 RPM 7.4 Gi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4200-4600 RPM 7.4 GSi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4800-5200 RPM 8.2 GSi Idle ..................................................................... 600 RPM - Not Adjustable W.O.T.# ............................................................................. 4600-5000 RPM * In Forward Gear # Wide Open Throttle 1-37 Tune-up Specifications Oil Pressure - All Models 800 RPM ......................................................................15-30 PSI (103-207 kPa) 2000 RPM ....................................................................40-60 PSI (276-414 kPa) Timing and Fuel Requirements 3.0 GS ..................................................................-2 ATDC - w/86 AKI or higher Shunt (Volvo Penta 885163-6) required 4.3 GL......................................................................6 BTDC w/89 AKI or higher 1 BTDC - w/86-88 AKI Shunt (Volvo Penta 885163-6) required 4.3 Gi .......................................................................8 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* 5.0 GL................................................................. 10 BTDC - w/89 AKI or higher 5 BTDC - w/86-88 AKI 5.0 Gi .......................................................................8 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* 5.7 GS ................................................................ 12 BTDC - w/89 AKI or higher 7 BTDC - w/86-88 AKI 5.7 GSi ....................................................................8 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* 7.4 Gi .....................................................................10 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* 7.4 GSi ..................................................................10 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* 8.2 GSi ..................................................................10 BTDC w/86 AKI or higher set timing with diagnostic leads shorted* All Timing Set At Idle RPM * At the diagnostic connector, use the Code Tool. If a Code Tool is not available, use a short jumper lead to connect the white/black wire to the black wire inside the connector. Refer to appropriate section of the GMEFI Diagnostic Service Manual. 1-38 Tune-up Specifications Spark Plugs 3.0 GS Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 4.3 GL, Gi Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 5.0 GL Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap..............................................................................0.035 in. (0.89 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 5.0 Gi Spark Plug ..................................................................Champion RS12YC Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque ..............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27Nm) 5.7 GS Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap..............................................................................0.035 in. (0.89 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 5.7 GSi Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 7.4 Gi Spark Plug ......................................... AC-MR43LTS, Champion RS12YC Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 7.4 GSi Spark Plug ........................................... AC-MR43T, Champion RV15YC4 Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 8.2 GSi Spark Plug ........................................... AC-MR43T, Champion RV15YC4 Gap............................................................................0.045 in. (1.143 mm) Torque .............................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) 1-39 General Torque Specifications The following specifications are for nut and screw sizes not having specific torque recommendations. U.S. Screw Sizes Ft. Lbs. Nm Metric Thread Sizes Ft. Lbs. Nm No. 6. . . 1,1-1,6 No. 8 No. 10 No. 12 1/4-20 5/16-18 3/8-16. . . 2-3.5 3-4 5-7 12-14 20-25 2,2-2,8 2,7-4,7 4,1-5,4 6,8-9,5 16-19 27-34 M-6 M-8 M-10 M-12 M-14 6-9 14-21 28-40 50-71 80-114 8-12 19-28 38-54 68-96 108-155 7/16-14 32-40 43-54 Pound-inches x 0.11298 = newton-meters Nm Pound-feet x 1.3558 = newton-meters Nm Battery Cable Requirements The battery should be mounted as close to the engine as practical to cut down on battery cable lengths. Follow the recommendations below. 0-10 Feet 0 Gauge 10-15 Feet 2/0 Gauge 15-20 Feet 4/0 Gauge These specifications do not apply to aluminum battery cables. Volvo Pentadoes not recommend the use of aluminum battery cables. To prevent possible explosion or fire, do not substitute au tomotive parts for the following marine components: starter, alternator, distributor and related ignition parts, spark plug leads, solenoids, carburetor (and related parts), fuel pump or fuel filter canister. These components have been specifically designed not to emit fuel vapors or to cause ignition of fuel vapors in the bilge. METRIC CONVERSION CHART LINEAR ENERGY OR WORK inches X 25.4 = millimeters (mm) foot-pounds X 1.3558 = joules (j) feet X 0.3048 = meters (m) calories X 4.187 = joules (j) yards X 0.9144 = meters (m) Btu X 1055 = joules (j) miles X 1.6093 = kilometers (km) watt-hours X 3500 = joules (j) inches X 2.54 = centimeters (cm) kilowatt - hrs X 3.600 = megajoules (MJ) AREA FUEL ECONOMY AND FUEL CONSUMPTION inches2 X 645.16 = millimeters2 (mm2) miles/gal X 0.42514 = kilometers/liter (km/l) inches2 X 6.452 = centimeters2 (cm2) Note: feet2 X 0.0929 = meters2 (m2) 235.2/(mi/gal) = liters/100 km yards2 X 0.8361 = meters2 (m2) 235.2/(Iiters/100 km) = mi/gal acres X 0.4047 = hectares (104 m2) (ha) miles2 X 2.590 = kilometers2 (km2) LIGHT footcandles X 10.76 = lumens/meter2 (lm/m2) VOLUME PRESSURE OR STRESS inches3 X 16387 = millimeters3 (mm3) inches HG (60F) X 3.377 = kilopascals (kPa) inches3 X 16.387 = centimeters3 (cm3) pounds/sq in X 6.895 = kilopascals (kPa) inches3 X 0.01639 = liters (l) inches H2O (60F) X 0.2488 = kilopascals (kPa) quarts X 0.94635 = liters (l) bars X 100 = kilopascals (kPa) gallons X 3.7854 = liters (l) pounds/sq ft X 47.88 = pascals(Pa) feet3 X 28.317 = liters (l) feet3 X 0.02832 = meters3 (m3) horsepower X 0.746 = kilowatts (kW) POWER fluid oz X 29.57 = milliliters (ml) ft-lbf/min X 0.0226 = watts (W) yards3 X 0.7646 = meters3 (m3) MASS Celsius = 0.556 X (F -32) TEMPERATURE ounces (av) X 28.35 = grams (g) Fahrenheit = (1.8 X C) +32 pounds (av) X 0.4536 = kilograms (kg) tons (2000 lb) X 907.18 = kilograms (kg) pound-inches X 0.11299 = newton-meters (Nm) TORQUE tons (2000 lb) X 0.90718 = metric tons (t) FORCE pound-feet X 1.3558 = newton-meters (Nm) ounces - f (av) X 0.278 = newtons (N) miles/hour X 1.6093 = kilometers/hour (km/h)pounds - f (av) X 4.448 = newtons (N) feet/sec X 0.3048 = meters/sec (m/s)kilograms - f X 9.807 = newtons (N) VELOCITY ACCELERATION kilometers/hr X 0.27778 = meters/sec (m/s) miles/hour X 0.4470 = meters/sec (m/s) feet/sec2 X 0.3048 = meters/sec2 (m/S2) inches/sec2 X 0.0254 = meters/sec2 (m/S2) 1-41 Drill Size Conversion Chart SHOWING MILLIMETER SIZES, FRACTIONAL AND DECIMAL INCH SIZES AND NUMBER DRILL SIZES Milli- Meter Dec. Equiv. Fractional Number Milli- Meter Dec. Equiv. Fractional Number Milli- Meter Dec. Equiv. Fractional Number Milli- Meter Dec. Equiv. Fractional Number Milli- Meter Dec. Equiv. Fractional .1 .0039 1.75 .0689 . . . .1570 22 6.8 .2677 10.72 .4219 27/64 .15 .0059 . . . .0700 50 4.0 .1575 6.9 .2716 11.0 .4330 .2 .0079 1.8 .0709 . . . .1590 21 . . . .2720 I 11.11 .4375 7/16 .25 .0098 1.85 .0728 . . . .1610 20 7.0 .2756 11.5 .4528 .3 .0118 . . . .0730 49 4.1 .1614 . . . .2770 J 11.51 .4531 29/64 . . . .0135 80 1.9 .0748 4.2 .1654 7.1 .2795 11.91 .4687 15/32 .35 .0138 . . . .0760 48 . . . .1660 19 . . . .2811 K 12.0 .4724 . . . .0415 79 1.95 .0767 4.25 .1673 7.14 .2812 9/32 . . . 12.30 .4843 31/64 .39 .0156 1/64 . . . 1.98 .0781 5/64 . . . 4.3 .1693 7.2 .2835 12.5 .4921 .4 .0157 . . . .0785 47 . . . .1695 18 7.25 .2854 12.7 .5000 1/2 . . . .0160 78 2.0 .0787 4.37 .1719 11/64 . . . 7.3 .2874 13.0 .5118 .45 .0177 2.05 .0807 . . . .1730 17 . . . .2900 L 13.10 .5156 33/64 . . . .0180 77 . . . .0810 46 4.4 .1732 7.4 .2913 13.49 .5312 17/32 .5 .0197 . . . .0820 45 . . . .1770 16 . . . .2950 M 13.5 .5315 . . . .0200 76 2.1 .0827 4.5 .1771 7.5 .2953 13.89 .5469 35/64 . . . .0210 75 2.15 .0846 . . . .1800 15 7.54 .2968 19/64 . . . 14.0 .5512 .55 .0217 . . . .0860 44 4.6 .1811 7.6 .2992 14.29 .5624 9/16 . . . .0225 74 2.2 .0866 . . . .1820 14 . . . .3020 N 14.5 .5709 .6 .0236 2.25 .0855 4.7 .1850 13 7.7 .3031 14.68 .5781 37/64 . . . .0240 73 . . . .0890 43 4.75 .1870 7.75 .3051 15.0 .5906 . . . .0250 72 2.3 .0905 4.76 .1875 3/16 . . . 7.8 .3071 15.08 .5937 19/32 .65 .0256 2.35 .0925 4.8 .1890 12 7.9 .3110 15.48 .6094 39/64 . . . .0260 71 . . . .0935 42 . . . .1910 11 7.94 .3125 5/16 . . . 15.5 .6102 . . . .0280 70 2.38 .0937 3/32 . . . 4.9 .1929 8.0 .3150 15.88 .6250 5/8 .7 .0276 2.4 .0945 . . . .1935 10 . . . .3160 O 16.0 .6299 . . . .0292 69 . . . .0960 41 . . . .1960 9 8.1 .3189 16.27 .6406 41/64 .75 .0295 2.45 .0964 5.0 .1968 8.2 .3228 16.5 .6496 . . . .0310 68 . . . .0980 40 . . . .1990 8 . . . .3230 P 16.67 .6562 21/32 .79 .0312 1/32 . . . 2.5 .0984 5.1 .2008 8.25 .3248 17.0 .6693 .8 .0315 . . . .0995 39 . . . .2010 7 8.3 .3268 17.06 .6719 43/64 . . . .0320 67 . . . .1015 38 5.16 .2031 13/64 . . . 8.33 .3281 21/64 . . . 17.46 .6875 11/16 . . . .0330 66 2.6 .1024 . . . .2040 6 8.4 .3307 17.5 .6890 .85 .0335 . . . .1040 37 5.2 .2047 . . . .3320 Q 17.86 .7031 45/64 . . . .0350 65 2.7 .1063 . . . .2055 5 8.5 .3346 18.0 .7087 .9 .0354 . . . .1065 36 5.25 .2067 8.6 .3386 18.26 .7187 23/32 . . . .0360 64 2.75 .1082 5.3 .2086 . . . .3390 R 18.5 .7283 . . . .0370 63 2.78 .1094 7/64 . . . . . . .2090 4 8.7 .3425 18.65 .7344 47/64 .95 .0374 . . . .1100 35 5.4 .2126 8.73 .3437 11/32 . . . 19.0 .7480 . . . .0380 62 2.8 .1102 . . . .2130 3 8.75 .3445 19.05 .7500 3/4 . . . .0390 61 . . . .1110 34 5.5 .2165 8.8 .3465 19.45 .7656 49/64 1.0 .0394 . . . .1130 33 5.56 .2187 7/32 . . . . . . .3480 S 19.5 .7677 . . . .0400 60 2.9 .1141 5.6 .2205 8.9 .3504 19.84 .7812 25/32 . . . .0410 59 . . . .1160 32 . . . .2210 2 9.0 .3543 20.0 .7874 1.05 .0413 3.0 .1181 5.7 .2244 . . . .3580 T 20.24 .7969 51/64 . . . .0420 58 . . . .1200 31 5.75 .2263 9.1 .3583 20.5 .8071 . . . .0430 57 3.1 .1220 . . . .2280 1 9.13 .3594 23/64 . . . 20.64 .8125 13/16 1.1 .0433 3.18 .1250 1/8 . . . 5.8 .2283 9.2 .3622 21.0 .8268 1.15 .0452 3.2 .1260 5.9 .2323 9.25 .3641 21.04 .8218 53/64 . . . .0465 56 3.25 .1279 . . . .2340 A 9.3 .3661 21.43 .8437 27/32 1.19 .0469 3/64 . . . . . . .1285 30 5.95 .2344 15/64 . . . . . . .3680 U 21.5 .8465 1.2 .0472 3.3 .1299 6.0 .2362 9.4 .3701 21.83 .8594 55/64 1.25 .0492 3.4 .1338 . . . .2380 B 9.5 .3740 22.0 .8661 1.3 .0512 . . . .1360 29 6.1 .2401 9.53 .3750 3/8 . . . 22.23 .8750 7/8 . . . .0520 55 3.5 .1378 . . . .2420 C . . . .3770 V 22.5 .8858 1.35 .0513 . . . .1405 28 6.2 .2441 9.6 .3780 22.62 .8906 57/64 . . . .0550 54 3.57 .1406 9/64 . . . 6.25 .2460 D 9.7 .3819 23.0 .9055 1.4 .0551 3.6 .1417 6.3 .2480 9.75 .3838 23.02 .9062 29/32 1.45 .0570 . . . .1440 27 6.35 .2500 1/4 E 9.8 .3858 23.42 .9219 59/64 1.5 .0591 3.7 .1457 6.4 .2520 . . . .3860 W 23.5 .9252 . . . .0595 53 . . . .1470 26 6.5 .2559 9.9 .3839 23.81 .9375 15/16 1.55 .0610 3.75 .1476 . . . .2570 F 9.92 .3906 25/64 . . . 24.0 .9449 1.59 .0625 1/16 . . . . . . .1495 25 6.6 .2598 10.0 .3937 24.21 .9531 61/64 1.6 .0629 3.8 .1496 . . . .2610 G . . . .3970 X 24.5 .9646 . . . .0635 52 . . . .1520 24 6.7 .2638 . . . .4040 Y 24.61 .9687 31/32 1.65 .0649 3.9 .1535 6.75 .2657 17/64 . . . 10.32 .4062 13/32 . . . 25.0 .9843 1.7 .0669 . . . .1540 23 6.75 .2657 . . . .4130 Z 25.03 .9844 63/64 . . . .0670 51 3.97 .1562 5/32 . . . . . . .2660 H 10.5 .4134 25.4 1.0000 1 DR2949-ENG 1-42 SYMBOLS Certain symbols or combinations of symbols may appear on your stern drive or on their accessories. It is very important that you understand their meaning or purpose. If any symbol is not clearly understood, see your authorized dealer. Safety Warning Symbols Risk of serious injury Be Careful Poisonous Follow instructions Fire Hazard Contents Under Pressure Position Indicator Symbols Shift Positions NEUTRAL Raise Lower FORWARD REVERSE Condition Symbols Hour Meter Battery Water Temperature Oil Filter Emergency Stop Voltmeter Ammeter r/min Oil Pressure Fuel Filter Tachometer -+ Instructional Symbols Oil Fill Read Operators Manural before operating product Use unleaded gasoline Gasoline is presentPb DR3847 1-43 Periodic Maintenance Chart Items marked Safety Warning are safety related service points to prevent mechanical failures, fire and explosion. Make sure the safety related service is performed at these points and at the intervals specified. Engine Service Point Every 25 Hours or as Specified Every 50 Hours or as Specified Recommendations Alternator Belt, Power Steering Pump Belt Check belt for tension and deterioration. Adjust tension to specifications. Replace deteriorated belt. Keep spare on board. Flame Arrestor Check for damage to grill area. Must be firmly attached. Seasonally clean and inspect. Damaged unit may allow backfire flame to enter engine compartment. If damaged, replace with specified Volvo Pentaor OMC parts. If dirty, clean in solvent, and air dry before installation. Crankcase Check oil level daily Drain and refill every 100 hours or once a year, whichever comes first. See specifications. Engine Alignment Seasonally Check engine alignment. PCV Valve Check every 100 hours or once a year. Check for operation. Oil Filter Replace See parts catalog for part number. Steering Service Point Every 25 Hours or as Specified Every 50 Hours or as Specified Recommendations Power Steering Pump Check reservoir fluid level. Use DuraPlusTM Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluidor OMC Power Trim/Tilt and Power Steering Fluid. Steering Cable Ram Lubricate every 50 hours or every 60 days, whichever comes first. Use Volvo Penta Greaseor OMC Triple-Guardgrease. Cooling Service Point Every 25 Hours or as Specified Every 50 Hours or as Specified Recommendations Engine Check for leaks. Check belts for correct tension. Seasonally check for hose deterioration. Check supply pump operation. Repair as required. Drain after operation in freezing temperatures, or during season lay up. Tighten connections. Replace supply pump impeller every 2 years. Transom Bracket Seasonally check for hose deterioration. Drain after operation in freezing temperatures, or during seasonal lay up. Vertical Drive Check water pickup screens for obstructions. Drain after operation in freezing temperatures, or during seasonal lay up. Controls Periodic Maintenance Chart - Continued Service Point Every 25 Hours or as Specified Every 50 Hours or as Specified Recommendations Control Linkage Check operation. Check adjustment and lubricate. Adjust as required. Use Volvo Penta Greaseor OMC Triple-Guardgrease. Shift System Check for smooth shifting in and out of forward and reverse gears. Seasonally or every 100 hours, check cable and shift assist for proper operation. Replace shift cable if necessary. Boat Service Point Every 25 Hours or as Specified Every 50 Hours or as Specified Recommendations Bilge Area Check for fuel fumes and leaks. Repair or replace defective components. Hull Check for marine growth. Clean boat bottom. Preparation for Boating Season See Preparation for Boating. Safety Equipment Check remote control and emergency stop switch, if equipped, for proper operation. All boat safety equipment should be checked for condition and proper operation. Be sure you have U.S.C.G. required equipment aboard (check Coat Guard regulations). Storage See Off-Season Storage. Trailer Seasonally repack wheel bearings. Use OMC EP/Wheel Bearing grease or equivalent. Section 2 General Engine Mechanical V6 and V8 Models Table of Contents Assembling Piston and Connecting Rod ............ 2-10 Camshaft Bearings.............................................................. 2-13 Bearing Installation ............................................ 2-14 Bearing Removal ................................................ 2-13 Cleaning and Inspection .................................... 2-13 Measurements .................................................... 2-14 Cleanliness and Care .............................................. 2-2 Crankshaft and Connecting Rod Bearings Cleaning and Inspection .................................... 2-18 Measuring Bearing Clearance ........................... 2-19 Connecting Rod Side Clearance .......................... 2-21 Crankshaft End Play ............................................. 2-21 Crankshaft Runout ................................................ 2-21 Cylinder Bores Boring ................................................................... 2-6 Honing ................................................................... 2-7 Measuring Taper and Out-of-Round ................... 2-4 Reconditioning ..................................................... 2-5 Removing Ridge ................................................... 2-6 Cylinder Head Assembly ............................................................ 2-18 Cleaning and Inspection .................................... 2-15 Disassembly ....................................................... 2-15 Repair .................................................................. 2-17 Reaming Valve Guides ................................... 2-17 Valve Grinding ................................................. 2-17 Valve Seat Grinding ........................................ 2-17 Engine Gaskets, Replacing .................................... 2-4 General Description ................................................ 2-2 Piston and Connecting Rod ................................... 2-8 Measuring Piston to Pin Clearance ....................... 2-9 Installing Piston Rings .......................................... 2-11 Piston Selection .................................................... 2-10 RTV Sealer / Anaerobic Gasket Eliminator............ 2-2 Special Tools ......................................................... 2-23 Thread Repair ........................................................ 2-22 2 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Always use the correct fastener in the proper location. When you replace a fastener, use ONLY the exact part number for that application. The text will call out those fasteners that require replacement after removal. The text will also call out the fasteners that require thread lockers or thread sealant. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, do not use supplement coatings (paints, greases, or other corrosion inhibitors) on threaded fasteners or fastener joint interfaces. Generally, such coatings adversely affect the fastener torque and the joint clamping force, and may damage the fastener. When you install fasteners, use the correct tightening sequence and tightening specifications. Following these instructions can help you avoid damage to parts and systems. 2-1 General Description The engine repair information described in this section explains how to clean, inspect, and measure certain engine components. Use this section along with the proper engine repair section for the correct disassembly and assembly procedures. Engine specifications are found in the back of each engine repair section and will be referred to often in this section. Cleanliness and Care An engine is a combination of many machined, honed, polished, and lapped surfaces with very close tolerances. Whenever valve train, cylinder head, crankshaft, piston, and connecting rod components are removed for service, they should be installed in their original location. Anytime the flame arrestor is removed, the intake opening must be covered. This will protect against the entrance of foreign material which could follow the intake passage into the cylinder and cause extensive damage when the engine is started. When any internal engine parts are serviced, care and cleanliness are important. Apply a liberal coating of engine oil to friction areas during assembly to protect and lubricate the surfaces during initial operation. Throughout this section, it should be understood that proper cleaning and protection of machined surfaces and friction areas is part of the repair procedure. This is considered standard shop practice even if not specifically stated. Use of RTV Sealer and Anaerobic Gasket Eliminator Two types of sealants are commonly used in the engines covered by this manual. These are RTV sealer and anaerobic gasket eliminator sealer. It is important that these sealers be applied properly and in the proper place to prevent oil leaks. THE TWO TYPES OF SEALER ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE. Use the sealer recommended in the procedure. . RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing) sealer is used where a non-rigid part is assembled to a rigid part. Common examples are oil pans and valve rocker arm covers. 2-2 . Anaerobic gasket eliminator hardens in the absence of air. This sealer is used where two rigid parts (such as castings) are assembled together. When two rigid parts are disassembled and no sealer or gasket is readily noticeable, the parts were probably assembled using gasket eliminator. Using RTV Sealer 1. Do not use RTV in areas where extreme temperatures are expected, such as exhaust manifold or head gaskets, or where gasket eliminator is specified. 2. Use a rubber mallet to separate components sealed with RTV. Bump the part sideways to shear the RTV sealer. Bumping should be done at bends or reinforced areas to prevent distortion of parts. RTV is weaker in shear (lateral) strength than in tensile (vertical) strength. Attempting to pry or pull components apart may result in damage to the part. 3. Remove all gasket material from the part using a plastic or wood scraper. Use Loctite brand Chisel Gasket Remover, P/N 79040, or Permatex brand Gasket Remover, P/N 4MA, or equivalent. Follow all safety recommendations and directions that are on the can. Do not use any other method or technique to remove gasket material from a part. Do not use abrasive pads, sand paper or power tools to clean gasket surfaces. These methods of cleaning can damage the part. Abrasive pads also produce a fine grit that the oil filter cannot remove from the oil. This grit is abrasive and has been known to cause internal engine damage. 4. Apply RTV to one of the clean surfaces. Use a bead size as specified in the procedure. Run the bead to the inside of any bolt holes. Do not allow the sealer in any blind threaded holes, as it may prevent the bolt from seating properly or cause damage when the bolt is tightened. 5. Assemble components while RTV is still wet (within 3 minutes). Do not wait for RTV to skin over. 6. Torque bolts to specifications. Do not overtighten. Using Anaerobic Gasket Eliminator 1. Remove all gasket material from the part using a plastic or wood scraper. Use Loctite brand Chisel Gasket Remover, P/N 79040, or Permatex brand Gasket Remover, P/N 4MA, or equivalent. Follow all safety recommendations and directions that are on the can. Do not use any other method or technique to rermove gasket material from a part. 2-3 Do not use abrasive pads, sand paper or power tools to clean J 8087 DRC6507 1 gasket surfaces. These methods of cleaning can damage the part. Abrasive pads also produce a fine grit that the oil filter cannot remove from the oil. This grit is abrasive and has been known to cause internal engine damage. 2. Apply a continuous bead of gasket eliminator to one flange. Surfaces to be resealed must be clean and dry. 3. Spread the bead evenly with your finger to get a uniform coating on the complete flange. 4. Assemble parts in the normal manner and torque immediately to specifications. shimming of the joint. Replacing Engine Gaskets Composite-type head gaskets and intake manifold gaskets are used in the engine assembly. The head gaskets have a thin metal core. Some engine applications use a thin metal core for intake manifold gaskets. Use caution when removing or handling gaskets to help avoid personal injury. Cylinder Bores Measuring Cylinder Bore Taper and Out-of-Round Anaerobic sealed joints that are partially torqued and allowed to cure more than five minutes may result in incorrect Important Tool Required: J 8087 Cylinder Bore Gauge . If one or more cylinder bores are rough, scored or worn beyond limits, it will be necessary to smooth or true up such bores to fit new pistons. . No attempt should be made to cut down oversize pistons to fit cylinder bores as this will destroy the surface treatment and affect the weight. The smallest possible oversize service pistons should be used and the cylinder bores should be honed to size for proper clearances. 1. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for cylinder bore tolerances. 2. Depress plunger on tool 0.03 in. (0,76 mm) or until tool enters cylinder bore. 3. Center the gauge in the cylinder and turn the dial to 0. 1 4. Carefully work the gauge up and down the cylinder to determine taper and turn it to different points around the cylinder wall to determine the out-of-round condition. Measure the bore both parallel to and at right angles to the engine centerline. Measure at the top, middle, and bottom of the bore and note the readings. 5. Recondition the cylinder bore as necessary. Refer to Cylinder Bore Reconditioning in this section. ,,,,,,, ,, ,, ,, A B Cylinder Bore Reconditioning 2 DRC6508 Measure: 1. Cylinder bore for out-of-round and taper. 2 2. Wear at the top of the bore A and the bottom B . Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for cylinder bore tolerances. 3 Cylinder bores can be measured by setting the cylinder gauge dial at zero in the cylinder at the point of desired measurement. Lock the dial indicator at zero before removing it from the cylinder, and measure across the gauge contact points with an outside micrometer, with the gauge at the same zero setting when removed from the cylinder. DRC6509 If cylinder bore taper or wear exceed specification, the cylinders must be bored and honed to the smallest oversize. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper repair section. Fine vertical scratches made by ring ends will not, by themselves, cause excessive oil consumption; therefore, honing to remove them is unnecessary. If the bore is glazed but otherwise serviceable, break the glaze lightly with a hone and replace the piston rings. Refer to Honing in this section. If honing is not required, the cylinder bores should be cleaned with a hot water and detergent wash. Apply clean engine oil to the bore after cleaning. J 8087 3 Removing Cylinder Bore Ridge 1 Tool Required: J 24270 Ridge Reamer Important Do NOT remove excessive material from the cylinder bore. Excessive removal of material may require cylinder boring to the next oversize. 1. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at BDC. 2. Place a cloth on top of the piston. 1 3. Perform the cutting operation with a J 24270 ridge reamer. Refer to the manufacturers instructions before using J 24270. 4. Remove J 24270 and rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at TDC. 5. Remove the cloth and cuttings. 6. Repeat this procedure for each piston. Boring Important Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for additional information. 1. Before the honing or boring operation is started, measure all new pistons with the micrometer contacting at points exactly 90 degrees from the piston pin centerline. Some pistons must be measured at a specified distance from the piston crown. Refer to the proper section for additional instructions. Then select the smallest piston for the first fitting. The slight variation usually found between pistons in a set may provide for correction in case the first piston is fitted too loose. 2. Before using any type of boring bar, the top of the cylinder block should be filed to remove any dirt or burrs. This is very important. If not checked, the boring bar may be tilted which would result in the rebored cylinder wall not being at right angles to the crankshaft. 3. The instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the equipment being used should be carefully followed. 4. When boring cylinders, all crankshaft bearing caps must be in place and tightened to the proper torque to avoid distortion of bores in the final assembly. J 24270 1 DRC6510 2-6 5. When taking the final cut with a boring bar, leave 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) on the diameter for finish honing to give the required position to the cylinder clearance specifications. (The honing or boring operation must be done carefully so the specified clearance between pistons, rings, and cylinder bores is maintained). Honing 1. When honing the cylinders, follow the hone manufacturers recommendations for use, cleaning, and lubrication during honing. Use only clean, sharp stones of the proper grade for the amount of material to be removed. Dull, dirty stones cut unevenly and generate excessive heat. When using coarse or medium grade stones, use care to leave sufficient metal so that all stone marks may be removed with the fine stones used for finishing to provide proper clearance. 2. Occasionally, during the honing operation, the cylinder bore should be thoroughly cleaned, and the piston selected for the individual cylinder checked for correct fit. 3. When honing to eliminate taper in the cylinder, make full strokes of the hone in the cylinder. Also check measurement at the top, middle, and bottom of the bore repeatedly. Handle the pistons with care and do not attempt to force them through the cylinder until the cylinder has been honed to the correct size. The piston can be easily distorted through careless handling. 4. When finish honing a cylinder bore to fit a piston, move the hone up and down at a sufficient speed to obtain very fine uniform surface finish marks in a cross-hatch pattern at the specified angle (45 to 65 degrees). 5. The finish marks should be clean but not sharp, free from embedded particles and torn or folded metal. 6. By measuring the piston to be installed at the sizing point specified in the proper section, and adding the average of the clearance specification, the finish hone cylinder measurement can be determined. It is important that both the block and piston be measured at normal room temperature. 7. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 8. It is of the greatest importance that refinished cylinder bores are trued up to have less than the specified out-of-round or taper. Each bore must be final honed to remove all stone or cutter marks and provide a smooth surface. 2-7 9. After final honing and before the piston is checked for fit, clean the bores with hot water and detergent. Scrub with a stiff bristle brush and rinse thoroughly with hot water. It is essential that a good cleaning operation be performed. If any of the abrasive material is allowed to remain in the cylinder bores, it will wear the new rings, cylinder bores, and bearings lubricated by the contaminated oil. After washing, the dry bore should be brushed clean with a power-driven fiber brush. 10. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 11. Permanently mark the piston for the cylinder to which it has been fitted. 12. Apply clean engine oil to each bore to prevent rusting. Piston and Connecting Rod Tools Required: J 24086-C Piston Pin Removal and Installation Set Disassemble: 1 1. Piston rings. In most cases the rings should be discarded and replaced with new rings at assembly. 2. Connecting rod bearings. If the bearings are to be reused, place them in a rack so they may be reinstalled with the original connecting rod and cap. 2 3. Piston pin. a. Place the piston/connecting rod on support fixture J 24086C. Make sure the connecting rod is fully supported. b. Place remover J 24086-C on the support fixture. c. Press out the piston pin. DRC6511 DRC6515 2 J 3936-03 J 24086-C 1 2-8 Cleaning and Inspection Clean: Piston . Remove all varnish and carbon deposits. DO NOT USE A WIRE BRUSH. . Use an approved cleaning solution to remove carbon build-up. . Remove the carbon from the ring grooves. Use a ring groove cleaning tool. . Oil-control ring groove holes. Inspect: 1. Piston pin bore and connecting rod bore for scuffing and burrs. 2. Connecting rod for cracks, nicks, etc. If a suitable jig is available, check the connecting rod for a bent or twisted condition. 3. Connecting rod bearings for scratches or deep pitting. 4. Piston for: . Scratches, scuffing, and burrs . Ring land for cracking and wear . Ring grooves for burrs and nicks . Skirts and pin bosses for cracking . Skirts for scuffing Measuring Piston Pin to Piston Clearance Measure: 3 1. Piston pin diameter. Check against Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 2. Piston pin to piston clearance. 4 a. Measure the piston pin hole diameter. b. Subtract the piston pin diameter from the piston pin hole diameter to obtain the clearance. c. Replace the piston and piston pin if the clearance exceeds specifications. The piston and piston pin are a matched set and not available separately. DRC6512 3 4 DRC6513 2-9 Piston Selection Check the used piston to cylinder bore clearance. Measure: 1 1. Cylinder bore diameter. Use a telescoping bore gauge, located 2.56 in. (65 mm) below the top of the cylinder bore. 2 2. Piston diameter. Measure the piston skirt at a right angle to the piston pin, at the centerline of the piston pin. 3. Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore diameter to determine piston to bore clearance. 4. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section to determine if piston clearance is within the acceptable range. If the used piston is not acceptable, determine if a new piston will fit the cylinder bore. If a new piston does not bring the clearance within tolerances, the cylinder bore must be reconditioned. Mark the piston to identify the cylinder for which it was fitted. Assembling the Piston and Connecting Rod 3 Tool Required: J 24086-C Piston Pin Removal and Installation Set Assemble: 1. Piston and connecting rod. a. The alignment mark on the top of the piston must face the front of engine block. Connecting rod must be installed in the correct orientation. Refer to the proper engine repair section for piston and connecting rod installation. b. Lubricate the piston pin holes in the piston and connecting rod with engine oil. DRC6507 J 8087 1 DRC6514 DRC6515 3 J 24086-C 2 2-10 c. Install the pin guide. Hold the piston and connecting rod together. Be sure to use the proper pin guide. Refer to the instructions supplied with the tool. 2. Piston pin: a. Insert the piston pin into the piston pin hole. b. Place the assembly on the support fixture. c. Adjust the piston pin installer (J 24086-C) to the correct length, using the letter-number scale on the installer adjuster. This is necessary to ensure the piston pin is pressed into the piston to the correct depth. Refer to the instructions supplied with the tool for the proper setting. d. Lock the adjuster in place with the lock ring. After the installer hub bottoms on the support assembly, do not exceed 5000 PSI (35,000 kPa) pressure, as this could cause damage to the tool. e. Place the adjuster in the support fixture. Press the piston pin into place (until the adjustable installer bottoms in the support fixture). f. Remove the piston and connecting rod assembly from the tool and check the piston for freedom of movement on the piston pin. Installing the Piston Rings Measure: Ring end gap as follows: 1. Select rings comparable in size to the piston being used. 2. Slip compression ring into the cylinder bore. 3. Use piston to square ring in cylinder wall. Insert piston without rings upside down and guide the compression ring into the cylinder bore until ring is down about 1.499 in. (38,1 mm) below ring travel. 4. Space or gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. 4 DRC6516 4 4 2-11 5. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for correct gap. 6. If the gap between the ends of the ring is not as specified, remove the ring and try another for fit. Inspect: Ring fit as follows: 1. Fit each compression ring to the piston on which it is going to be used. 1 2. Slip the outer surface of the top and second compression ring into the respective piston ring groove, to make sure the ring is free. If binding occurs at any point, the cause should be determined. If binding is caused by the ring groove, correct it by dressing the groove with a fine cut file. If the binding is caused by a distorted ring, try a new ring. Assemble: Refer to Piston Assembly in the proper engine repair section. All compression rings are marked on the upper side of the ring. When installing the compression rings, make sure the MARKED SIDE IS TOWARD THE TOP OF THE PISTON. The oil control rings are 3-piece assemblies, consisting of two rails and an expander. . Expander . Lower rail . Upper rail . Lower compression ring . Upper compression ring Flex all rings to make sure they are free. If binding occurs at any point the cause should be determined. If binding is caused by the ring groove, correct it by dressing the groove with a fine cut file. If binding is caused by a distorted ring, try a new ring. . Ring gaps must be 180 degrees apart . Rail gaps must be 180 degrees apart 1 2-12 Measure: 2 1. Ring clearance. Use a feeler gauge. 2. Compare with Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. Camshaft Bearings Camshaft Bearing Removal Disassemble: 3 Tool Required: J 33049 Camshaft Bearing Removal and Installation Set 1. Rear camshaft plug. 3 2. All camshaft bearings. Use J 33049. a. Insert the tool with the correct collet into the camshaft bearing you want to replace. b. Turn the tool until the collet has tightened in the bearing. c. Push the center cone against the block and into the first bearing bore to center the tool. d. Drive the bearing from the block. e. Repeat this procedure to remove the remaining inner camshaft bearings. Note that the rear bearing must be removed from the front of the block and the front bearing should be removed from the rear. This allows the tool to remain centered. Cleaning and Inspection Clean: . Camshaft bearing bores in the block. Inspect: . Camshaft bearings for scratches, pits, or loose fit in their bores. Replace the camshaft bearings if necessary. . Camshaft lobes and journals for scratches, pitting, scoring, and wear. Minor irregularities may be cleaned up with emery cloth. DRC6517 DRC6518 2 3 2-13 Camshaft Measurements 1 Tool Required: J 7872 Dial Indicator or Equivalent Important Whenever the camshaft needs to be replaced, a new set of valve roller lifters must also be installed. Measure: 1 1. Camshaft journal diameters using a micrometer. Compare with Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 2 2. Camshaft runout. Mount the camshaft in V-blocks or between centers. Using J 7872, check the intermediate camshaft journal. Compare camshaft runout specifications in the proper engine repair section. If the camshaft is excessively bent, replace the camshaft and camshaft bearings. Camshaft Bearing Installation 3 Tool Required: J 33049 Camshaft Bearing Removal and Installation Set The outer camshaft bearings must be installed first. These bearings serve as guides for the tool, and help center the inner bearings during the installation process. Make sure to fit the correct cam bearing into the bore. The cam bearing bores may vary in size. Assemble: 3 1. Rear camshaft bearings. Drive the bearings into place using J 33049 from front of engine. Important Make sure the camshaft bearing lubrication hole (or holes) align with the oil gallery hole (or holes) in the block. On some engines, the oil holes may be difficult to see. Verify the holes are lined up. 3 2. Front camshaft bearing using tool J 33049. Important Make sure the camshaft bearing lubrication hole (or holes) align with the oil hole (or holes) in the block. 1 DRC6519 DRC6520 J 7872 2 3 DRC6518 2-14 3 3. Inner camshaft bearings using J 33049. Reverse of removal procedure. 4. Camshaft rear plug. a. Coat a new camshaft plug with GM Sealer, P/N 12345493, or equivalent. b. Install the plug. The plug must be installed deep enough in camshaft bore. Refer to the proper engine repair section for camshaft plug installation. Cylinder Head Disassemble: Valves and components. Refer to the proper engine repair section. Cleaning and Inspection 4 Tools Required: J 8089 Wire Brush Clean: 4 1. Carbon from the combustion chambers, using J 8089. 2. Valve stems and heads on a wire wheel. 3. Carbon and old gasket from the cylinder head gasket surface. 5 4. Valve guides using a valve guide cleaner. Inspect: 1. Cylinder head for cracks in the exhaust ports, combustion chambers, or external cracks to the coolant chamber. Gasket surfaces should be free of damage. 2. Valves for burning, pitting, or warpage. Grind or replace as needed. Refer to Valve Grinding in this section. Check the valve stems for scoring or excessive wear. Stems must not be bent. 3. Valve rocker arm studs for wear, damage, or improper fit. 4. Valve seats for pitting or other damage. Grind or reface as needed. 5. Rotators (if used). The rotators should rotate smoothly without binding. DR3123 DR3124 J 8089 4 5 2-15 1 6. Cylinder head for surface flatness. Measure: 24 Tools Required:J 8001 Dial Indicator or equivalent J 9666 Valve Spring Tester 1. Valve stem to guide bore clearance. Excessive valve stem to guide bore clearance will cause excessive oil consumption and may damage components. Insufficient clearance will result in noisy and sticky functioning of the valve and interfere with engine smoothness. 2 a. Clamp a dial indicator J 8001 or equivalent on one side of the cylinder head valve rocker arm cover gasket rail. 2 b. Observe dial indicator movement while moving valve from side to side (crosswise to the head). The dial indicator measurement must be taken just above the valve guide bore. c. Drop the valve head about 0.063 in. (1,6 mm) off the valve seat. d. Move the stem of the valve from side to side using light pressure to obtain a clearance reading. If clearance exceeds specifications, it will be necessary to ream the valve guide bores for oversize valves as outlined later. 2. Valve spring tension, using J 9666 or equivalent. 3 a. Compress the valve springs to the specified height. Check valve spring height in Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. Valve springs should be replaced if not within specification. 4 b. Valve spring length. Replace the valve spring if valve spring length exceeds specifications. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 1 DRC6521 J8001 2 DR2101 J 9666 3 DR3122 4 DRC6522 2-16 Repair Valve Grinding 5 Pitted valves must be refaced to the proper angle. Valve stems that show excessive wear, or valves that are warped excessively must be replaced. When an excessively warped valve head is refaced, a sharp or thin valve margin may result because of the amount of metal that must be removed. Undersize valve margins lead to breakage, burning, or preignition due to heat localizing on this edge. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. Several different types of equipment are available for refacing valves. The manufacturers instructions for how to use the equipment should be carefully followed to achieve proper results. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for valve face angle specifications. Valve Seat Grinding Reconditioning the valve seats is very important, because the seating of the valves must be perfect for the engine to deliver the power and performance it was designed to produce. Another important factor is the cooling of the valve head. Good contact between each valve and its seat ensures that heat will be carried away properly. Several different types of equipment are available for resurfacing valve seats. Carefully follow the recommendations of the manufacturer of the equipment being used to attain proper results. Regardless of what type of equipment is used, it is essential that valve guide bores be free from carbon or dirt to ensure proper centering of the pilot in the guide. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for valve seat angle specifications. Reaming Valve Guides The valve guides used in engines covered by this manual are simply holes bored into the cylinder head. The valve guides are not replaceable. If the valve stem-to-bore clearance as previously measured is excessive, the valve guides should be reamed and a valve with an oversize stem installed. Oversize valves are available. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 6 Select a reamer that will provide a straight, clean bore through the entire length of the valve guide. DRC6523 NEW VALVE 204 VALVE TIP 205 KEY GROOVE 206 STEM-LEAST WORN SECTION WORN VALVE 204 205 206 208 209 207 207 STEM-MOST WORN SECTION 208 FACE 209 MARGIN 5 6 DRC6524 2-17 Assembly Valves and components. Refer to the proper engine repair section. Measure: Valve spring installed height of each valve spring as follows: 1.Valve installed height using a narrow thin scale. A cutaway scale 1A2 cap. 2 may be helpful. 2. Spring seat in the cylinder head to the top of the valve spring 3. Certain engine applications use valve spring shims to adjust valve spring installed height. If measurement B exceeds the amount shown in Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section, install valve spring seat shims of sufficient thickness (between the spring and cylinder head) to obtain desired measurement. NEVER shim the spring so as to give an installed height under the specified amount. Crankshaft and Connecting Rod Bearings Cleaning and Inspection Clean: 1. Crankshaft with solvent. . Do not scratch the bearing journals . Remove all sludge from the oil passages with compressed air 2. Crankshaft bearings. . Wipe free of oil with a soft cloth. Inspect: Crankshaft for cracks. . Use the magnaflux method if available. . Crankshaft, crankshaft bearing journals, and thrust surfaces for scoring, nicks, or damage caused by lack of lubrication. DRC6667 1 2 1 2 54 DRC6668 2-18 . Crankshaft bearings for scoring or other damage. In general, the lower crankshaft bearings (except the #1 bearing) show the greatest wear and distress from fatigue. Upon inspection, if a lower crankshaft bearing is suitable for reuse, it can be assumed that the upper crankshaft bearing is also satisfactory. If a lower crankshaft bearing shows evidence of wear or damage, both the upper and lower crankshaft bearings must be replaced. Measuring Bearing Clearance Crankshaft bearings are of the precision insert type and do not use shims for adjustment. If clearances are excessive, new upper and lower bearings will be required. Service bearings are available in standard size and undersize. Refer to Crankshaft and Bearing Installation in the proper engine repair section. Selective fitting of crankshaft bearings are necessary in production to obtain close tolerances. For example, you may find one-half of a standard crankshaft bearing with one-half of an undersize crankshaft bearing. To determine the correct replacement bearing size, the bearing clearance must be measured accurately. Either of the following two methods may be used, however, the micrometer method gives more reliable results and is preferred. Micrometer Method 3 1. Measure the crankshaft journal diameter with a micrometer in several places, approximately 90 degrees apart, and average the measurements. 2. Compute taper and runout. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for allowable limits. 3. Install crankshaft bearings into the crankshaft cap and engine block. 4. Install crankshaft caps and bolts. Tighten bolts to the Torque Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 5. Bearing inside diameter (I.D.) using an inside micrometer. 6. Compare crankshaft bearing clearance specifications using Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section. 7. If bearing clearances exceeds specifications, install new crankshaft bearings. a. Measure inside diameter with an inside micrometer. Place the micrometer at 90 degrees to the split line of the crankshaft bearing. 3 DRC6525 2-19 b. Subtract journal diameter from bearing inside diameter to obtain bearing clearance. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for bearing inside clearance. Replace or repair the crankshaft if clearance exceeds specifications. Plastic Gauge Method 1 1. Install all crankshaft bearings and crankshaft into block. 1 Install the crankshaft bearing caps and torque them to specifications. Remove the bearing caps and check the amount the gauging plastic has been compressed. Gauging plastic may adhere to either the crankshaft bearing or crankshaft journal. 2 2. On the edge of the gauging plastic envelope there is a graduated scale. Without removing the gauging plastic, measure its compressed width (at the widest point). 3. If the flattened gauging plastic tapers toward the middle or ends, there is a difference in clearance indicating taper, low spot or other irregularity of the bearing or journal. 4. Normally crankshaft bearing journals wear evenly and are not outof- round. However, if a bearing is being fitted to an out-of-round 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) maximum journal, be sure to fit to the maximum diameter of the journal. If the bearing is fitted to the minimum diameter and the journal is excessively out-of-round, interference between the bearing and the journal will result in rapid bearing failure. 5. If the bearing clearance is within specifications, the bearing is satisfactory. If the clearance is not within specifications, replace the bearing. Always replace both upper and lower bearings as a unit. 6. A standard or underside bearing combination may result in the proper clearance. If the proper bearing clearance cannot be achieved using standard or underside bearings, it will be necessary to replace the crankshaft. DRC6525 DRC6527 2 1 Crankshaft bearings must not be shimmed, scraped or filed. Do not touch the bearing surface with bare fingers. Skin oil and acids will etch the bearing surface. 7. Remove the flattened gaging plastic. 8. Measure remaining journals. 2-20 Crankshaft Runout Tools Required: J 7872 Magnetic Base Dial Indicator Measure: Crankshaft 3 1. Mount the crankshaft in V-blocks at crankshaft journals 1 and 5. 3 2. Position a dial indicator pointer on the center main bearing and rotate crankshaft. 3. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for crankshaft runout specifications. Connecting Rod Side Clearance Measure: 4 Connecting rod side clearance. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for clearance. Crankshaft End Play Measure: Crankshaft end play, as follows: 1. Firmly thrust the end of the crankshaft first rearward then forward. This will line up the rear crankshaft bearing and crankshaft thrust surfaces. 5 2. With crankshaft wedged forward, measure at the front end of the crankshaft bearing (thrust side) with a feeler gauge. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for crankshaft end play clearance. 3. If correct end play cannot be obtained, be certain that the correct size crankshaft bearing has been installed. Some production engines may use crankshaft bearings that are wider across the thrust faces than standard size bearings. Refer to Engine Specifications in the proper engine repair section for available bearing sizes. J 7872 3 DRC6528 4 DRC6529 5 DRC6530 2-21 Inspect: Crankshaft for binding. Turn crankshaft to check for binding. If the crankshaft does not turn freely, loosen the crankshaft bearing bolts, one pair at a time, until the tight bearing is located. Burrs on the bearing cap, foreign matter between the bearing and the block or the bearing cap, or a faulty bearing could cause a lack of clearance at the bearing. Thread Repair Damaged threads may be reconditioned by drilling out, rethreading, and installing a suitable thread insert. Wear safety glasses to avoid eye damage. 1. Determine size, pitch, and depth of damaged thread. If necessary, adjust stop collars on cutting tool and tap to required depth. Important Refer to the kit manufacturers instructions regarding the size of drill and tap to be used. 1 2. Drill out damaged thread. Clean out chips. 2 3. Lubricate tap with light engine oil. Tap hole. Clean the thread. Important DRC6573 Avoid buildup of chips. Back out the tap every few turns and remove chips. 3 4. Thread the thread insert onto the mandrel of the installer. Engage the tang of the insert onto the end of the mandrel. 4 5. Lubricate the insert with light engine oil (except when installing in aluminum) and install. Important When correctly installed, the insert should be flush to one turn below the surface. 6. If the tang of the insert does not break off when backing out the installer, break the tang off with a drift. DRC6572 1 2 3 DRC6574 4 DRC6575 2-22 DRC6576 DRC6579 DRC6577 765 J 33049 Special Tools Cylinder Bore Gauge Piston Pin Replacer Set Camshaft Bearing Remover / Installer Wire Brush Dial Indicator 10 Valve Spring Tester 8 DRC6580 11 Ridge Reamer 9 DRC6578 10 DRC6581 11 8 9 DRC6582 2-23 Section 3 3.0 GS Engines Table of Contents Camshaft ................................................................. 3-15 Camshaft Bearings................................................. 3-17 Circulating Pump.................................................... 3-33 Connecting Rod Bearings ..................................... 3-20 Crankshaft .............................................................. 3-19 Crankshaft Bearings .............................................. 3-21 Cylinder Block ........................................................ 3-28 Cylinder Head ........................................................... 3-7 Distributor Lower Bearing ..................................... 3-32 Engine Coupler Replacement................................ 3-38 Engine Specifications ............................................ 3-40 Exhaust Hose Replacement .................................. 3-37 General Motors Tools............................................... 3-2 High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement ............... 3-36 Hydaulic Valve Lifter ................................................ 3-4 Intake/Exhaust Manifold .......................................... 3-3 Oil Filter Bypass Valve ........................................... 3-36 Oil Pan Replacement.............................................. 3-34 Oil Pump ................................................................. 3-34 Oil Seal Replacement, Rear Main Bearing ........... 3-24 Oil Seal Retainer Replacement ............................. 3-24 Piston Rings ........................................................... 3-26 Piston and Connecting Rod .................................. 3-24 Timing Gear Cover ................................................. 3-13 Torque Specifications ............................................ 3-43 Valve Lash Adjustment ............................................ 3-5 Valve Spring and Seal Repair .................................. 3-6 3 Before removing cooling system hoses, it may be necessary to remove boat from water to prevent flooding boat. Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Unless instructed otherwise, always disconnect the battery cables from the battery before working on electrical system to prevent possible sparks or arcing in the engine compartment. Before starting engine after repair or maintenance procedures, always make sure engine compartment is free of fuel vapors to prevent possible fire and explosion. When working on an engine that is running or being cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting hands, fingers or clothing caught in the alternator, power steering, supply pump and circulating pump belts, pulleys and other moving parts. 3-1 General Motors Tools Item Part # Air Line Adaptor ....................................................................... J-23590 Bolt Guide Set ............................................................................ J-5239 Cam Lobe Lift Indicator ............................................................. J-8520 Camshaft Bearing Remover and Installer .......................... J-6098-01 Carbon Remover Brush ............................................................. J-8089 Crankshaft Pulley Installer ........................................................ J-8792 Cylinder Bore Checker .............................................................. J-8087 Distributor Bearing Installer ....................................................... J-9535 Distributor Bearing Remover ..................................................... J-9534 Engine Front Cover Aligner and Oil Seal Tool ........................ J-35468 Piston Pin Tool ......................................................................... J-24086 Piston Ring Tool ......................................................................... J-8037 Rear Crankshaft Seal Installer ................................................ J-35621 Rocker Arm Stud Hole Reamer (0.003 Oversize) .................... J-5715 Rocker Arm Stud Hole Reamer (0.013 Oversize) .................... J-6036 Rocker Arm Stud Installer .......................................................... J-6880 Rocker Arm Stud Remover .................................................. J-5802-01 Valve Guide Reamer Set ..................................................... J-5830-02 Valve Seal Tester ..................................................................... J-23994 Valve Spring Compressor .......................................................... J-8062 Valve Spring Tester .................................................................... J-9666 Vibration Damper and Crankshaft Gear Remover ............... J-6978-E Order Directly from: Kent-Moore Tool Division 28635 Mound Road Warren, Ml 48092 (800) 345-2233 http://www.spxkentmoore.com Price and ordering information are available from Kent-Moore Tool Division. For additional service information not covered in this manual, obtain the appropriate Chevrolet Engine Service Manual from: Helm Inc. P. O. Box 07130 Detroit, Ml 48207 (800) 782-4356 http://www.helminc.com Material Required Molykote Lubricant Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound 3MAdhesive Permatex No. 2 GM Super Engine Oil Supplement Plastigage (Green) RTV Sealer DuraPlusTM SAE 30 Heavy Duty Synthetic Motor Oil 3-2 Intake/Exhaust Manifold Removal 1. Disconnect battery cables at battery. Remove throttle cable from anchor block and actuating bracket. 2. Drain water from block and exhaust manifold (see Cooling System Section in this manual). 3. Remove carburetor from intake manifold. Follow the instructions in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Systems Service Manual. 1 4. Disconnect water hose A running between manifold end cap and thermostat housing. 5. Release tension from belt tensioner B and remove the serpentine belt. Remove alternator and mounting bracket 6. Loosen upper hose clamps C . D securing exhaust hose to high rise elbow. Loosen and remove screws and lock washers E securing elbow to manifold and remove the throttle linkage plate and elbow. 7. Remove six bolts securing manifold to cylinder head, then pull manifold off of head. Discard gasket. 8. Clean all gasket surfaces of cylinder head and manifold and check for cracks on the manifold casting. Installation 1. Position a new gasket over the manifold studs on the head. Use a gasket sealer if leakage has occurred. Carefully install the manifold in position making sure that the gasket is correctly placed. 2. Install six bolts while holding the manifold in place. Tighten bolts finger tight, then alternately tighten to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 Nm) working from the center towards the ends. 3. Apply gasket sealer to a new elbow gasket and place it on the manifold. Push the elbow into the exhaust hose, then install the elbow, throttle linkage plate, lock washers, and screws. Tighten the screws to 12-14 ft. lb. (16-19 Nm). 4. Install carburetor using a new mounting gasket following the instructions in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Systems Service Manual. Install water hose from thermostat housing to manifold 2 3 22645A A . 3 1 5. Install alternator with mounting bracket A . Tighten screws to 26-30 ft. lb. (35-41 Nm). Reinstall belt following the procedures found in the General Information section of this manual. Tighten the alternator screws B C to 26-30 ft. lb. (35-41 Nm). 6. Reconnect throttle cable to anchor block and actuating bracket. Secure with cotter pin. 7. Connect battery cables. Start engine and check for fuel leaks. Hydraulic Valve Lifter Removal 1. With air hose and cloths, clean dirt from cylinder head and adjacent parts to avoid getting dirt into engine. It is extremely important that no dirt gets into the valve lifters. 2. Disconnect ventilation hose, fuel line, and fuel pump overflow hose. Remove circuit breaker bracket. Remove rocker arm cover. 3. Loosen rocker arm nuts and pivot the rocker arms free of the push rods. 4. Disconnect spark plug wires at plugs. Remove high tension lead from coil. Remove both connectors from coil. Remove coil and mounting bracket from cylinder head. 2 5. Remove both connectors at distributor. Take off cap, note distributor rotor position and remove distributor. (Mark distributor housing and block with chalk at point of rotor.) 6. From rear of block, take out screws that mount the shift bracket assembly and move bracket away from push rod cover. 7. Remove push rod cover and gasket. 8. Remove push rods and lift out valve lifters that require service. Place lifters in a wooden block having numbered holes, or use other suitable means of identifying them according to original position in the engine. 9. If less than a complete set of lifters is being removed, immediately disassemble and inspect one or two for presence of dirt or varnish. If lifters contain dirt or varnish, it is advisable to replace all lifters. Otherwise, it will be satisfactory to service only those lifters that are not operating properly. 3 10. Examine the cam contact surface at lower end of lifter body. If this surface is excessively worn, galled or otherwise damaged, discard the lifter assembly. In this case, also examine the mating camshaft lobe for excessive wear or damage. ROTATING - NORMAL, OK - NOT ROTATING GALLED - SHOULD BE REPLACED - SOFT, WORN 1 2 ROTATING - NORMAL, OK - NOT ROTATING GALLED - SHOULD BE REPLACED - SOFT, WORN 3 Installation Before installing any new lifters, coat the bottom of each lifter with Molykote Lubricantor its equivalent. 1. Install valve lifters in cylinder block. If any new lifters or a new camshaft has been installed, an additive containing EP lubricant such as GM Engine Super Oil Supplementmust be added to the crankcase oil for break-in. 2. Install push rods onto lifters and install push rod cover with a new gasket. 3. Install distributor (position rotor to mark on housing and block). Install coil and bracket. Connect both connectors to coil. Install distributor cap and attach spark plug and coil wires. Connect both connectors to distributor. 4. Install shift bracket assembly. 5. Pivot rocker arms in place and turn adjusting nuts the amount necessary to eliminate lash. Valve Lash Adjustment Adjust valve lash when lifter is on base circle of cam as follows: 1. Remove distributor cap and crank engine until distributor rotor points to number one cylinder terminal. In this position the piston in number one cylinder is at top center on compression stroke. Both lifters are on base circle of cam and both valves can be adjusted. 4 2. Turn adjusting nut until all lash is removed from valve train. This can be determined by checking push rod side play by hand while turning nut slowly. At this point, turn adjusting nut one more turn to place the lifter plunger in center of its travel. 3. Follow steps 1 and 2 for each cylinder following firing order sequence and adjust remaining valve one cylinder at a time. No further adjustment is necessary. Do not attempt to turn the adjusting nut one full turn while the engine is operating. Adjustment in this manner will not allow the lifters to bleed down. This would result in valve train damage, probably bent push rods. For those who prefer to adjust the valve lash while the engine is running, the preferred method would be to find the zero lash point as described above and then slowly turn the adjusting nut 1/4 turn. Wait for the lifter to bleed down (several engine revolutions) and again turn adjusting nut 1/4 turn. Continue this adjust-and-wait cycle until nut is one complete turn down from zero lash point. Repeat sequence on remaining valves. 4 3-5 4. Install rocker cover gasket and cover. Connect fuel line and fuel pump overflow hose to carburetor. 5. Install circuit breaker bracket. Connect crankcase ventilation hose. 6. Start engine and check for oil or fuel leaks and listen for lifter noise. Check engine timing. Valve Spring and Seal Repair Removal 1. Remove rocker arm cover. 2. Remove spark plug, rocker arm, and push rod on the cylinder(s) to be serviced. 3. Install Air Line Adapter tool J-23590 to spark plug port and apply compressed air to hold the valves in place. 4. Using tool J-8062 to compress the valve spring, remove the valve locks, valve cap and valve spring and damper. 5. Remove the valve stem oil seal. Installation 1. Install seal over valve stem and seat against head. 2. Set the valve spring and damper, valve shield and valve cap in place. Compress the spring with tool J-8062 and install oil seal in the lower groove of the stem, making sure the seal is flat and not twisted. A light coat of oil on the seal will help prevent twisting. 3. Install the valve locks and release the compressor tool making sure the locks seat properly in the upper groove of the valve stem. Grease may be used to hold the locks in place while releasing the compressor tool. 4. Using Vacuum Pump J-23738-A, apply vacuum to the valve cap to make sure no air leaks past the seal. 5. Install spark plug and tighten to 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm). 6. Install and adjust valve mechanism as previously outlined. Cylinder Head The condition of the cylinder head and valve mechanism significantly determines the power, performance and economy of the valve-in-head engine. Extreme care should be exercised when conditioning the cylinder head and valves. Maintain correct valve stem to guide clearance, correctly grind valves and valve seats, and properly adjust valves. Removal 1. Remove intake and exhaust manifold as described under heading Intake/Exhaust Manifold. 2. Disconnect coolant hoses at thermostat housing. Disconnect spark plug wires and remove spark plugs. 3. Disconnect fuel line retaining clips at thermostat housing and cylinder head. Disconnect wire harness from the temperature sending unit, leaving harness clear of clips on rocker arm cover. Remove thermostat housing assembly from front of cylinder head. Disconnect fuel line at the fuel pump and remove. 4. Remove the rocker arm cover. Next, back off the rocker arm nuts and pivot the rocker arms to clear the push rods. Remove the push rods. 5. Remove the ignition coil and bracket. 6. Remove the cylinder head bolts, cylinder head, and gasket. Place the cylinder head on two blocks of wood to prevent damage to the head. Disassembly 1 1. Remove rocker arms nuts, ball seats and rocker arms. Use tool J-8062, compress the valve springs and remove valve stem keys. Release the spring compressor tool and remove exhaust valve rotator or intake valve cap, shield, spring and seals. 2. Remove valves from bottom of cylinder head and place them in a rack in their proper sequence so they can be assembled in their original positions. 1 3-7 Cleaning 1. Clean all carbon from combustion chambers and valve ports using tool J-8089. Inspect the cylinder head for cracks in the exhaust ports, combustion chambers, or external cracks to the water chamber. Clean carbon deposits from head gasket mating surfaces. 2. Thoroughly clean the valve guides. Clean all carbon and sludge from push rods and rocker arms. 3. Clean valve stems and heads on a buffing wheel. Inspect the valve for burned head, worn seat, cracked faces, or damaged stems. 4. Wash all parts in cleaning solvent and dry them thoroughly. Check fit of valve stems in their respective bores. 5. Measure valve stem clearance as follows: Clamp a dial indicator on one side of the cylinder head rocker arm cover gasket rail, locating the indicator so that movement of the valve stem from side to side (crosswise to the head) will cause a direct movement of the indicator stem. The indicator stem must contact the side of the valve stem just above the valve guide. With the valve head dropped about 1/16 in. off the valve seat; move the stem of the valve from side to side using light pressure to obtain a clearance reading. If clearance exceeds specifications it will be necessary to ream valve guides for oversize valves as outlined. Excessive valve stem to bore clearance will cause lack of power, oil consumption, rough idling and noisy valves, and may cause valve breakage. Insufficient clearance will result in noisy and sticky functioning of the valves and disturb engine smoothness of operation. Intake valve stem to bore clearance should be 0.001-0.0027 in. (0,0250,007 mm). Exhaust valve stem to bore clearance should be 0.00070.0027 (0,01778-0,06858 mm). By using a micrometer and a suitable hole gauge, check the diameter of the valve stem in three places; top, center and bottom. Insert hole gauge in valve guide bore, measuring at the center. Subtract highest reading of valve stem diameter from valve guide bore center diameter to obtain valve to valve guide clearance. If clearance is not within limits use next oversize valve and ream bore to fit using suitable reamer. 6. Check valve spring tension with tool J-9666 spring tester. On all models, springs should be compressed to 1.61 in. (40,89 mm) at which height it should check 100-110 pounds (444-490 N). Weak springs affect power and economy and should be replaced. 860003 860004 J 8089 2 1 J 8520 J 9666 4 3 3 4 3-8 7. Check valve lifters for free fit in block. The end that contacts the camshaft should be smooth. If this surface is worn or rough, the lifter should be replaced. If lifter is damaged, check the corresponding camshaft lobe for damage. Repair 5 1. Valve Guide Bore: Valves with oversize stems are available for inlet and exhaust valves in the following sizes: 0.0003 in., 0.015 in., and 0.030 in. Use the 11/32 in. diameter reamer sizes from reamer tool set J-5830-02 which are: J4822 standard; J-5830-1, 0.003 in oversize, J-5830-2, 0.015 in. oversize and J-5830-3, 0.030 in. oversize to ream the bores for the new valves. 2. Rocker Arm Studs Rocker arm studs that have damaged threads may be replaced with standard studs. If the studs are loose in the head, oversize studs (available in .003 in. or .013 in. oversize) may be installed after reaming the holes as follows: Do not attempt to install oversize stud without reaming stud hole. 6 a. Remove old stud by placing tool J-5802-01 over the stud. Install nut and flat washer, and remove stud by turning nut. 7 b. Ream hole for oversize stud. Use tooI J-5715 for 0.003 in. oversize and tool J-6036 for 0.013 in. oversize. 8 c. Coat press-fit area of stud with a hypoid axle lubricant. Install new stud using tool J-6880. Tool should bottom on head. 3. Valve Seats: Reconditioning the valve seats is very important, because the seating of the valve must be perfect for the engine to deliver the power and performance built into it. Another important factor is the cooling of the valve heads. Good contact between each valve and its seat in the head is imperative to ensure that the heat in the valve head will be properly carried away. Several different types of equipment are available for reseating valve seats; the recommendations of the manufacturer of the equipment being used should be carefully followed to attain proper results. 860007 860008 860009 860010 J 4822 J 5802-01 J 5715 or J 6036 J 6880 8 7 6 5 3-9 Regardless of what type of equipment is used, however, it is essential that valve guides be free from carbon or dirt to ensure proper centering of pilot in the guide. a. Install expanding pilot in the valve guide bore and expand pilot by tightening nut on top of pilot. b. Place roughing stone or forming stone over pilot and just clean up the valve seat. Use a 46 stone for both the inlet and exhaust valve seats. c. Remove roughing stone or forming stone from pilot, install finishing stone on pilot and cut just enough metal from the seat to provide a smooth finish. d. Narrow down the valve seats to the proper width for the intake and exhaust. See Engine Specifications. This operation is done by grinding the port side with a 30 stone to lower seat and a 60 stone to raise seat. e. Remove expanding pilot and clean cylinder head carefully to remove all chips and grindings from above operations. 1 Valve seats should be concentric to within 0.002 in. total indicator reading. 4. Valves: Valves that are pitted can be refaced to the proper angle, ensuring correct relation between the head and stem on a valve refacing machine. Valve stems which show excessive wear, or valves that are warped excessively should be replaced. When a valve head which is warped excessively is refaced, a knife edge will be ground on part or all of the valve head due to the amount of metal that must be removed to completely reface. Knife edges lead to breakage, burning or preignition due to heat localizing on this knife edge. If the edge of the valve head is less than 1/32 in. thick after grinding, replace the valve. a. If necessary, dress the valve refacing machine grinding wheel to make sure it is smooth and true. Set chuck at 45 mark for grinding valves. b. Clamp the valve stem in the chuck of the machine. c. Start the grinder and move the valve head out in line with the grinder wheel by moving the lever to the left. d. Turn the feed screw until the valve head just contacts wheel. Move valve back and forth across the wheel and regulate the feed screw to provide light valve contact. J 8001 1 3-10 D e. Continue grinding until the valve face is true and smooth all around valve. If this makes the valve thin the valve must be replaced as the valve will overheat and burn. f. Remove valve from chuck and place stem in V block. Feed valve squarely against grinding wheel to grind any pit from rocker arm end of stem. Only the extreme end of the valve stem is hardened to resist wear. Do not grind end of stem excessively. g. After cleaning valve face and cylinder head valve seat of grind-2 ing particles, make pencil marks about 1/4 in. apart across the valve face, place the valve in cylinder head and give the valve one-half turn in each direction while exerting firm pressure on face of valve. h. Remove valve and check face carefully. If all pencil marks have not been removed at the point of contact with the valve seat, it will be necessary to repeat the refacing operation and again recheck for proper seating. i. Grind and check remaining valves in the same manner. 3 Assembly 2 1. Starting with number one cylinder, place the exhaust valve in the port, and place the valve spring A and cap B in position. Place spring and cap on exhaust valves. Then, using tool J-8062, compress the spring and install the oil seal C and valve keys D . See that the seal is flat and not twisted in the valve stem groove and that the keys seat properly in the valve stem groove. Place valve springs in position with the closed coil end toward the cylinder head. 2. Assemble the remaining valve, valve springs, spring caps, oil seals and valve keys in the cylinder head using tool J-8062. Check seals by placing a vacuum cup over valve stem and cap, squeeze vacuum cup to make sure no oil leaks past oil seal. 3. Check the installed height of the valve springs using a narrow, thin scale to measure from the top of the shim or spring seat in the head, to the top of the valve spring cap. If this is found in excess of 1.65 in. (41,91 mm), install a valve spring seat shim, approximately 1/16 in. (1,858 mm) thick. At no time should the spring be shimmed to give an installed height of less than 1.65 in. (41,91 mm). If springs are to be changed with cylinder head installed, refer to Valve Spring and Seal Repair, in this section. B B A A C C 12 34 1.65 in DRC7544 3-11 Installation 1. The gasket surfaces of both the head and the block must be clean and free of any foreign matter, and free of nicks or heavy scratches. 2. Cylinder head bolt threads in the block must be cleaned as well as the threads on the cylinder head bolts. Dirt will affect bolt torque. 1 3. Place a new cylinder head gasket in position over the dowel pins in the cylinder block. On engines with a steel gasket coat both sides of a new gasket with a thin, even coat of Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound. Too much sealer will hold the beads of the gasket away from the block or head. The 3.0 Liter engine has a special marine head gasket. Do not substitute an automotive head gasket. 2 4. Carefully guide cylinder head into place over dowel pins and gasket. Coat threads of cylinder head bolts with PermatexNo. 2. Install the bolts and run them down to the block. 3 5. Tighten the cylinder head bolts, with a torque wrench, in three progressive steps following the sequence shown. Step 1 - 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm) Step 2 - 65 ft. lb. (88 Nm) Step 3 - 90 ft. lb. (122 Nm) 6. Install valve push rods down through openings in the cylinder head and seat them in lifter sockets. 4 7. Install rocker arms, balls and nuts and tighten rocker arm nuts until all push rod play is taken up. 8. Install thermostat housing using a new gasket. Attach coolant hoses. 9. Clean all spark plugs with abrasive-type cleaner, inspect for damage (replace if necessary) and set the gap at 0.045 in. (1.14 mm) using a wire gauge. Install the spark plugs. Tighten spark plugs to 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm). 10. Install coil and connect both connectors to coil. Connect wire to temperature sending unit. 11. Clean manifold gasket surfaces and install new gasket over manifold studs. Position manifold and slide it into place over the studs, making sure it seats against the gasket. Install bolts and nuts and tighten as described under heading Intake/Exhaust Manifold. 1 860014 2 860015 3 860016 1 2 3 106237 514 9 8 4 3-12 12. Adjust valve lash as outlined under heading Valve Lash Adjustment. Install rocker arm cover and gasket. Tighten screws to 40 in. lb. (5 Nm). 13. Connect throttle linkage and adjust. 14. Connect fuel line and overflow hose to carburetor and install fuel line support clamps (two). Clean and install flame arrestor. 15. Start engine and check for fuel, coolant, and exhaust leaks. Timing Gear Cover Removal 1. Drain coolant from block and exhaust manifold. 2. Securely support engine and remove front engine mount. 3. Remove alternator and power steering belts. Next remove harmonic balancer and pulley assembly from pulley hub. 5 4. Install puller tool J-6978-E to pulley hub with three 3/8-24 x 2 in. bolts and remove hub. Remove puller tool. 5. Remove circulating pump pulley. 860019 6. Remove crankcase oil drain tube cap and withdraw oil with a suction pump. Disconnect oil drain tube and remove oil pan. 7. Remove timing gear cover attaching screws. Remove cover and gasket. Oil Seal Replacement 1. After removing timing gear cover, pry oil seal out of cover from front with a large screwdriver. 6 2. Install new lip seal with lip (open side of seal) facing inside of cover, and drive or press seal into place with tool J-35468. Oil Nozzle Replacement 7 Remove old nozzle with pliers. Drive new nozzle in place using a suitable light plastic or rubber hammer. J 24420-C5 6 7 Timing Gear Cover Installation 1. Clean gasket surface on block and cover. 2. Install centering tool J-35468 over end of crankshaft. 3. Coat both sides of a new gasket with a light grease, and stick gasket in position on block. 1 4. Place cover over centering tool and install cover screws. Tighten screws to 27-35 in. lb. (3-4 Nm) and remove centering tool. 5. Install oil pan using new gaskets. Tighten rear oil pan nuts to 165 in. lb. (18.6 Nm), crankcase screws to 80 in. lb. (9 Nm), and front cover screws to 45 in lb. (5 Nm). 6. Connect oil drain tube to oil pan. Harmonic Balancer Installation 23 1. Coat oil seal contact area on harmonic balancer with engine oil. Position hub over crankshaft and key, and start hub into position with a mallet. Using tool J-8792, drive hub onto crankshaft until it bottoms against crankshaft gear. 1 X8 7 9 2 2- DRIVER CLAMP PILOT Crankshaft extends slightly through hub and a hollow tool is necessary to drive hub completely into bottomed position. 2. There are two 3/8 in. (9.925 mm) holes and one 5/16 in. (7.938 mm) hole that must be matched on hub in order to properly position timing mark. 3. Install circulating pump pulley. 4. Install alternator and power steering belts and adjust to specifications. 5. Install front engine mount. 2 6. Fill engine crankcase with proper amount of oil. 7. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. 860024 J 8792 3 3-14 Camshaft Measuring Camshaft Lift Remove both connectors from ignition coil. If improper valve operation is indicated, measure the lift of each push rod in consecutive order and record the readings. 1. Remove valve cover and rocker arms. 4 2. Position indicator with ball socket adapter (Tool J-8520) on push rod. 3. Rotate crankshaft slowly in the direction of rotation until the lifter is on the heel of the cam lobe. At this point, the push rod will be in its lowest position. 4. Set dial indicator on zero. Rotate the crankshaft slowly, or attach an auxiliary starter switch and bump the engine over, until the push rod is in the fully raised position. 5. Compare the total lift recorded from the dial indicator with specifications. The correct lift is 0.25294 inch 0.001 inch (6,4247 0,0254 mm). 6. Continue to rotate the crankshaft until the indicator reads zero. This will be a check on the accuracy of the original indicator reading. 7. If camshaft readings for all lobes are within specifications, remove dial indicator assembly. Install and adjust valve mechanism. Removal 1. Withdraw oil from crankcase. Drain coolant from block and exhaust manifold. 2. Remove valve cover and gasket. Loosen valve rocker arm nuts and pivot rocker arms clear of push rods. 3. After noting position of rotor, remove distributor. 4. Remove coil, side cover, and gasket. Remove push rods and valve lifters. 5. Remove crankshaft pulley and hub. Disconnect oil drain tube. Remove oil pan and timing gear cover. 5 6. Remove two camshaft thrust plate screws by working through holes in camshaft gear. 860026 J 8520 0 30 50 10 20 4060 70 80 90 4 5 3-15 7. Remove the camshaft and gear assembly by pulling it out through the front of the block. Support shaft carefully when removing so as not to damage camshaft bearings. Inspection The camshaft has three bearings, all with the same journal diameter of 1.8677 in. to 1.8697 in. (47,440 to 47,490 mm). These dimensions should be checked with a micrometer for an out-of- round condition. If the journals exceed 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) out-of-round, the camshaft should be replaced. The camshaft should also be checked for alignment. The best method is by use of V blocks and a dial indicator. The dial indicator will indicate the exact amount that the camshaft is out of true. If it is out more than 0.002 in. (0,051 mm) dial indicator reading, the camshaft should be replaced. When checking, the high reading of the dial indicator indicates the high point of the shaft. Examine the camshaft bearings and if any bearing needs replacement, replace all bearings. Gear and Thrust Plate 1 If the inspection indicated that the camshaft, gear and thrust plate were in good condition, the camshaft end play should be checked. This clearance should be 0.003 in. to 0.008 in. (0,0762 to 0.2032 mm). Disassembly 2 If the inspection indicated that the shaft, gear or plate should be replaced, the gear must be removed from the shaft. Support the camshaft gear and press shaft out of gear. Thrust plate must be positioned so that woodruff key in shaft does not damage it when shaft is pressed out of gear. Also, support the hub of the gear or the gear will be seriously damaged. Assembly To assemble camshaft gear thrust plate and gear spacer ring to camshaft, proceed as follows: 1. Firmly support shaft at back of front journal in an arbor press. Place gear spacer ring and thrust plate over end of shaft, and install woodruff key in shaft keyway. 2. Install camshaft gear and press it onto the shaft until it bottoms against the gear spacer ring. The end clearance of the thrust plate should be 0.003-0.008 in. (0,0762-0,2032 mm) J 791 860028 860029 1 2 3-16 Camshaft Bearings Removal Camshaft bearings can be replaced while the engine is disassembled for overhaul, or without complete disassembly of the engine after camshaft and flywheel have been removed. Operation is easier if crankshaft is also removed. See Crankshaft in this section. 1. With camshaft and flywheel removed, drive out expansion plug for rear cam bearing by driving from inside. 2. Position bearing pilot in inner bearing. Install nut on puller screw far enough so puller screw can be threaded into pilot while nut extends out front of block. 3. Install remover section onto puller screw, and then install screw through cam bore and thread it into pilot. 3 4. Using two wrenches, hold screw shaft and turn puller nut to remove bearing. 4 5. Remove pilot from shaft and install on drive handle with shoulder to handle. Drive out front and rear bearings from outside to inside of block. Installation Inner bearing should be installed first to prevent damaging end bearing with screw shaft. Bearing O.D.s for number one and number two are 1.999-2.001 860030 J 6098-01 11 2 3 4 5 3 860031 J 6098-01 4 in. (5,077-5,083 cm) and number three is 2.009-2.011 in. (5,103-5,108 cm). 1. Remove handle from pilot. Install inner bearing on pilot. 2. Position inner bearing and pilot to rear of inner bearing bore. Install screw shaft (with remover adapter on it) through the block from front of engine into pilot. 3. Align oil hole on bearing with oil hole from oil gallery. Snug puller nut against adapter. 5 4. Using two wrenches, hold screw shaft and turn puller nut to pull bearing into place. Oil hole is on top side of bearing and cannot be seen during installation. First align bearing oil hole with oil hole in bore, and mark opposite side of bearing and block at bore to easily index oil hole during installation. J 6098-01 11 2 3 4 5 860032 5 3-17 5. Attach drive handle to pilot, then place new number one bearing on pilot. 1 6. Align oil hole on bearing with oil hole from oil gallery and drive bearing in from front of engine. 2 The front bearing must be driven approximately 1/8 in. behind front of cylinder block to uncover oil hole to timing gear oil nozzle. 7. Repeat step (5) and (6) above to drive rear bearing into position from rear of block. Rear bearing installed position is flush with inner edge of rear cam bearing bore. 8. Install a new expansion plug at rear bearing. Camshaft Installation 1. If crankshaft has been removed, install it at this time. Follow procedures under the title Crankshaft in this section. If a new camshaft is to be installed, coat cam lobes with GM Super Engine Oil Supplement (G.M.P/N 1051858) and add rest of can to crankcase oil. 2. Install the camshaft assembly in the engine block, being careful not to damage bearings or cam. 3 3. Turn crankshaft and camshaft so that the valve timing marks on the gear teeth will line up, then push camshaft into position. Install camshaft thrust plate to block screws and tighten them to 80 in. lb. (9 N.m). 4 4. Check camshaft and crankshaft gear runout with a dial indicator. The camshaft gear runout should not exceed 0.004 in. (0.102 mm) and the crankshaft gear runout should not exceed 0.003 in. (0.076 mm). 5. If gear runout is excessive, the gear will have to be removed, and any burrs cleaned from the shaft or the gear replaced. 5 6. Check the backlash between the timing gear teeth with a narrow feeler gauge or dial indicator. The backlash should not be less than 0.004 in. (0,102 mm) nor more than 0.006 in. (0.152 mm). 7. Install timing gear cover with new gaskets. Install oil pan with new gaskets and sealer. Connect oil drain tube. J 6098-01 1 2 860033 TIMING MARKS 3 SCREW ACCESS HOLES 860034 J 8001 8. Install harmonic balancer as described under title Timing Gear Cover in this section. 4 J 8001 5 3-18 9. Install valve lifters and push rods. Install side cover with a new gasket and sealer. Attach coil and wires. Install distributor, positioning rotor to reference mark. 10. Pivot rocker arms over push rods. Adjust valve lash as outlined under heading Valve Lash Adjustment. 11. Add oil to engine. Install the alternator and power steering belts, then adjust tension. Check and adjust timing. Crankshaft Removal and Installation 1. Remove main bearing caps and connecting rod caps and lift crankshaft out of cylinder block. Push pistons to top of bores. 2. Inspect the crankshaft: Main bearing journals are ground to 2.979-2.994 in. (58,3666-58,4047 mm). Crankpin journals are ground to 2.099-2.100 in. (53,315-53,340). These dimensions should be checked with a micrometer for out-of-round, taper or undersize. If the journals exceed 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) out-ofround or taper, the crankshaft should be replaced or reconditioned to an undersize figure that will enable the installation of undersize precision type bearings. The crankshaft should also be checked for runout. To perform this operation, support the crankshaft at the front and rear main bearing journals in V blocks, and indicate the runout of both the front center and rear center journals using a dial indicator. The runout limit of each of these journals is 0.002 in. (0,051 mm). If the runout exceeds 0.002 in. (0,051 mm), the crankshaft must be repaired or replaced. 3. Remove rear main bearing oil seal. 4. Remove old bearings from cylinder block and caps. Install new bearings in the cylinder block and caps. Main bearings with oil holes are the upper halves of the bearings and are inserted between the crankshaft and cylinder block. 5. Oil crankshaft journals and carefully place the crankshaft in the bearings. 3-19 6. Install all bearing caps and bolts. Tighten all main bearing cap bolts, except the rear main bearing, to 55-70 ft. lb. (75-95 Nm). When tightening rear main bearing cap, tighten bolts to 10-12 ft. lb. (14-16 Nm) first, then tap end of crankshaft rearward with a lead hammer (this will locate bearing cap and bearing). Then tap crankshaft forward (this will line up both upper and lower crankshaft bearing thrust surfaces). Proceed with final tightening of rear main bearing cap bolts to 55-70 ft. lb. (75-95 Nm). 7. Check main bearing clearance and crankshaft end play. Install new rear bearing oil seal. Install connecting rod bearings and caps. Connecting Rod Bearings Connecting rod bearings are available in standard sizes and undersizes of 0.001 in., 0.002 in., 0.010 in. and 0.020 in. (0.025, 0.051, 0.254, 0.508 mm). These bearings are not shimmed and when clearances become excessive the next undersize bearing should be used. Do not file rod or rod caps. Removal and Inspection 1. Withdraw oil, disconnect oil drain tube and remove oil pan. 2. Remove the connecting rod bearing cap. Wipe bearing and crank- pin clean of oil. 1 3. Place a piece of Plastigage gauging plastic the full width of the bearing on crankpin (parallel to the crankshaft). 4. Reinstall the bearing cap and evenly tighten the retaining nuts to 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm). 860037 1 1 Do not turn crankshaft with the gauging plastic installed. 2 5. Remove the bearing cap and, without removing the gauging plastic, check its width at the widest point with the Plastigage scale. If the crankpin is out-of-round be sure to fit the bearing to the maximum diameter of the crankpin. If the flattened plastic is not uniform from end to end in its width, the crankpin or bearing is tapered, has a low spot or some other irregularity. Check the crankpin with a micrometer for taper if the flattened gauging plastic indicates more than 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) difference. 2 3-20 6. If the reading is not over 0.0009 in. (0,0229 mm) or not less than 0.0014 in. (0,0356 mm) the fit is satisfactory. If however, the clearances are not within these limits, replace the bearing with the proper under- size bearing. The bearings are not adjustable and no attempt should be made to adjust by filing or shimming the bearing caps. Installation New bearing clearance should be 0.0017-0.0027 in. (0,04318-0.06858 mm). 1. Rotate the crankshaft after bearing adjustment to be sure the bearings are not too tight. 3 2. Check connecting rod end clearance between connecting rod cap and side of crankpin. See Engine Specifications for clearance. 3. Install oil pan with new gaskets and seals. Connect oil drain tube. Refill with engine oil. Crankshaft Bearings The main bearings are of the precision insert type and do not utilize shims for adjustment. If the clearances are found to be excessive, a new standard or oversize bearing, both upper and lower halves, will be required. 3 If, for any reason, main bearing caps are replaced, shimming may be necessary. Laminated shims for each cap are available for service. Shim requirements will be determined by bearing clearance. The clearance may be checked by using Plastigage gauging plastic. When one bearing is being checked, all the other main bearing caps must be in place and tightened to specifications. The main bearings used as service replacement are of high quality with close tolerances of fit and will not require line reaming on installations. The close dimensional tolerances ensure an equalized bearing surface at all points on the crankshaft when replaced in sets. Main bearings may be replaced without removing the crank shaft. 1. Withdraw oil from crankcase. Disconnect oil drain tube. Remove the oil pan. 3-21 2. Remove the spark plugs. 3. Remove cap on main bearing requiring replacement and remove bearing from cap. Install a main bearing removing and installing tool in the oil hole in the crankshaft. A cotter pin may be bent as required to do the job. 4. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise as viewed from the front of the engine. This will roll upper bearing out of engine. 5. Oil new upper bearing and insert plain (unnotched) end of the bearing between crankshaft and indented or notched side. Rotate the bearing into place. 6. Install new bearing in bearing cap. The rear main bearing journal has no oil hole drilling. To remove the upper bearing half proceed as follows after cap is removed: a. Use a small drift punch and hammer to start the bearing rotating out of block. b. Use a pair of pliers to hold the bearing thrust surface to the oil slinger, and rotate the crankshaft to pull bearing out. c. To install, start the bearing (side not notched) into notched side of block by hand, then use pliers as before to turn bearing half into place. d. The last 1/4 in. (6,35 mm) movement may be done by holding just the slinger with pliers (taped jaws) or tap in place with a drift punch. 7. Check bearing clearance per paragraph below. Main Bearing Clearance Plastigage gauging plastic is a wax-like plastic material which will compress evenly between the bearing and journal surfaces without damaging either surface. To obtain the most accurate results with gauging plastic, certain precautions should be observed. If the engine is upside down, the crankshaft will rest on the upper bearings and it can be assumed that the total clearance can be measured between the cap bearing and journal. 1 To ensure the proper seating of the crankshaft, the rear main bearing oil seal should be removed and all bearing cap bolts should be at their specified torque. In addition, preparatory to checking fit of bearings, the surface of the crankshaft journal and bearing should be wiped clean of oil. 1. Starting with the rear main bearing, remove bearing cap. Wipe oil from journal and bearing cap before applying gauging plastic. 3-22 2 2. Place a piece of plastigage the full width of the bearing (parallel to the crankshaft) on the journal. Do not rotate the crankshaft while the gauging plastic is between the bearing and journal. 3. Install the bearing cap and evenly tighten the retaining bolts to 55-70 ft. lb. (75-95 Nm). 4. Remove bearing cap. The flattened gauging plastic will be found adhering to either the bearing or journal. On the edge of gauging plastic packing envelope there is a graduated scale measuring in thousandths of an inch. 3 5. Without removing the gauging plastic, check its compressed width (at the widest point) with the graduations on the gauging plastic envelope. Normally, main bearing journals wear evenly and are not outof- round. However, if a bearing is being fitted to an out-of- round journal be sure to fit to the maximum diameter of the journal. If the bearing is fitted to the minimum diameter of the journal, and the journal is out-ofround 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) or more, interference between the bearing and journal will result in rapid bearing failure. If the flattened gauging plastic tapers toward the middle or ends, there is a difference in clearance indicating a taper, low spot, or other irregularity of the bearing or journal. Be sure to check the journal with a micrometer if the flattened gauging plastic indicates more than 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) difference. 6. If the bearing clearance is not over 0.0035 in. (0.0889 mm) (worn) or 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) (new), or less than 0.001 in. (0.025 mm), the bearing is satisfactory. If the clearance is not within these limits replace the bearing. If a new bearing cap is being installed and clearance is less than 0.001 in. (0.025 mm), check for burrs or nicks; if none are found then install shims as required. 7. A 0.002 in. (0.051 mm) undersize bearing may produce the proper clearance. If not, it will be necessary to regrind the crankshaft journal for use with the next undersize bearing. Bearings are available in standard sizes and various undersizes. See your parts catalog. 8. Oil new bearings with engine oil prior to installing end caps. Proceed to the next bearing. After all bearings have been checked, rotate the crankshaft to see that there is no excessive drag. 1 2 3 3-23 1 9. Check the end play by forcing the crankshaft to its extreme front position. Check at the front side of the rear main bearing with a feeler gauge. This clearance should be from 0.002-0.006 in. (0,0510,152 mm). 10. Install a new rear main bearing oil seal in the cylinder block and main bearing oil cap as described below. Rear Main Bearing Oil Seal Replacement Care should be taken when removing the rear crankshaft oil seal so as not to nick the crankshaft sealing surface. 1.Insert a screwdriver into the notches provided in the seal retainer and pry the seal out. Take care not to damage the crankshaft sealing surface. 2. Inspect chamfer on crankshaft for grit, loose rust, and burrs. Clean seal running surface on the crankshaft with a non-abrasive cleaner. 3. Lubricate the inner and outer diameter of new seal with engine oil. Install the seal on J-35621. Position J-35621 against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft. 4. Tighten screws securely. This will ensure the seal is installed squarely over the crankshaft. Turn handle until it bottoms then remove J-35621. Oil Seal Retainer Replacement 1. Remove Flywheel and oil pan. Remove screws, nuts and seal retainer. Remove gasket. 2. Remove rear crankcase oil seal as previously stated and clean gasket surfaces on block and seal retainer. 2 DR1878 Whenever seal retainer is removed, a new retainer gasket and rear crankshaft oil seal must be installed. 3. Attach gasket to block. No sealer is required. Install seal retainer, screws and nuts. Tighten to 135 in. lb. (15 Nm). 4. Install oil pan. Install rear crankshaft oil seal as outlined previously. Install flywheel. Piston and Connecting Rod Piston and Rod Removal 1. Withdraw crankcase oil. Disconnect oil drain tube. Remove oil pan. 2. Drain coolant from block and exhaust manifold, then remove cylinder head. J 35621 3 DR1879 3 3-24 3. Remove any ridge and/or deposits from the upper end of the cylinder bores with a ridge reamer. Move piston to the bottom of its travel and place a cloth on top of piston to collect the cuttings. After ridge and/or deposits are removed, turn crankshaft until piston is at the top of its stroke and carefully remove cloth with the cuttings. 4. Check connecting rods and pistons for cylinder number identification and if necessary, mark them. 5. Remove connecting rod cap nuts and caps. Push the rods away from the crankshaft and install caps and nuts loosely to their respective rods. 6. Push piston and rod assemblies away from crankshaft and out of the cylinders. It will be necessary to turn the crankshaft slightly to disconnect some of the rods and push them out of the cylinder. Piston and Rod Disassembly 1. Install pilot of piston pin removing and installing tool J-24086 on piston pin. 4 2. Install piston and connecting rod assembly on support and place assembly in an arbor press. Press pin out of connecting rod. 3. Remove assembly from press. Remove piston pin from support and remove tool from piston and rod. 4. Piston pins are a matched fit to the piston and not available separately. Piston pins will not become loose enough to cause a knock or tapping until after prolonged use. In such cases a new piston and pin assembly should be installed. Piston pins should be capable of supporting their own weight in either pin boss when coated with light engine oil at 60 F (16 C). Higher or lower temperatures will cause false indications. Pistons and pins are serviced as assemblies. Check fit of used piston pins. Use a dial bore gauge or telescoping snap gauge for the bore, and a micrometer for the pin. Wear limit on piston pin is production clearance plus 0.001 in. (0,025 mm). Replace piston and pin assembly if wear is excessive. Cleaning and Inspection Clean varnish from piston skirts and pins with a cleaning solvent. DO NOT WIRE BRUSH THE PISTON SKIRT. Clean the ring grooves with a groove cleaner, and make sure oil ring holes and slots are clean. J 24086-C 4 3-25 Inspect the piston for cracked ring lands, skirts or pin bosses, wavy worn ring lands, scuffed or damaged skirts, or eroded areas at top of the piston. Replace pistons that are damaged or otherwise show signs of excessive wear. Piston and Rod Assembly 1. Lubricate piston pin holes in piston and connecting rod to facilitate installation of pin. 2. Position connecting rod in its respective piston so that flange or heavy side of rod at the bearing end will be towards front of piston (cast depression in top of piston head). 1 3. Install piston pin, pilot spring and pilot in installer J24086C. 4. Place installer on arbor press, start pin into piston and press on installer until pin pilot bottoms. 5. Remove installer and support assembly from piston and connecting rod assembly. Check piston pin for freedom of movement in piston bore. Piston Rings Piston rings are furnished in standard sizes as well as several oversizes. See your parts catalog. Oil control rings used on all engines consist of two segments (rails) and a spacer. Compression rings in all engines are the deep section twist type, 0.0775-0.0780 in. (1,969-1,981 mm) wide. This type compression ring takes its name, twist type, from its installed position which is cocked or twisted. It assumes and maintains this position for life because the upper edge of its diameter is chamfered, making the ring unbalanced in cross section. 860047 1 J 24086-C All compression rings are marked on the upper side of the ring. When installing compression rings, make sure the marked side is toward the top of the piston. Removal 1. Remove piston rings by expanding them and sliding them off the ends of the piston. 3-26 2. Check piston ring grooves by carefully removing all particles of carbon. Also check for burrs or nicks that might cause rings to hang up. Installation 1. Select rings comparable in size to the piston being used. It is important that each ring be fitted to its individual cylinder for proper gap spacing and to its individual piston and groove for proper clearance. 2. Slip the ring in the cylinder bore; then, using the head of a piston, press the ring down into the cylinder bore about two inches. Using a piston in this way will place the ring square with the cylinder walls. 2 3. Check the space or gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. 4. If the gap between the ends of the ring is below specifications, remove the ring and try another for fit. 5. Fit each ring separately to the cylinder in which it is going to be used. 6. New pistons, rings and cylinder bores wear considerably during seating and gaps widen quickly; however, engine operation will not become seriously affected if ring gaps do not become greater that 1/32 in. (0,792 mm). 3 7. Slip the outer surface of the compression ring into the piston ring groove. Roll the ring entirely around the groove to make sure that the ring is free and does not bind in the groove at any point. If binding occurs, the cause should be determined and removed by carefully dressing with a fine cut file. However, if the binding is caused by a distorted ring, install a new ring. 8. Install the oil ring spacer in the oil ring groove and position gap in line with piston hole. Hold spacer ends butted and install steel rail on top side of spacer. Position gap at least one inch to left of spacer gap, then install second rail on lower side of spacer. Position gap at least one inch to right of spacer gap. 9. Flex the oil ring assembly in its groove to make sure ring is free and does not bind in the groove at any point. If binding occurs, the cause should be determined and removed by carefully dressing with a fine cut file. However, if the binding is caused by a distorted ring, install a new ring. 2 860049 3 3-27 1 10. Proper clearance of the piston ring in its piston ring groove is very important in maintaining engine performance and in preventing excessive oil consumption. Therefore, when fitting new rings, the clearances between the top and bottom surfaces of the ring grooves should be inspected. 1 11. The compression rings should be fitted so that the clearance is 0.0012-0.0029 in. (0,03048-0,07366 mm). 12. Assemble the rings to the pistons as they are fitted and make a final test of the ring fit in the grooves by repeating the fitting procedure given above. Expander ends must not align with the ring gap. Piston and Rod Installation 1. Lightly coat pistons, rings and cylinder walls with light engine oil. 2 2. With bearing caps removed, install tool J-5239 on bearing cap bolts. 23 3. Install each piston in its respective bore, using tool J8037 on each assembly. The side of the piston with the cast depression in the head should be to the front of the cylinder block and the oil hole on connecting rod toward the camshaft side of the engine. Guide the connecting rod bearing into place on the crankshaft journals with the long detail of tool J-5239. Use J-8037 to compress piston rings. 4. Oil bearings and install bearing caps. Install cap retaining screws and nuts. Tighten nuts to 45 ft. lb. (61 Nm). Check the bearing clearance as described previously. 5. Install oil pan gaskets, seals and oil pan. See Oil Pan. Connect oil drain tube. 6. Install cylinder head gasket and head. See Cylinder Head Installation. 7. Refill crankcase and check for leaks. Lake or tank test unit and check for coolant leaks. Cylinder Block Inspection 1. Check the cylinder block for cracks in the cylinder walls, water jacket and main bearing webs. 3-28 860050 860051 FACING FRONT OF ENGINE BLOCK J 5239 1 2 860052 J 8037 3 4 2. Check the cylinder walls for taper, out-of-round or excessive ridge at top of ring travel. This should be done with a dial indicator (use Tool J-8087). Set the gauge so that the thrust pin must be forced in about 1/4in. (6,35 mm) to enter gauge in cylinder bore. Center gauge in cylinder and turn dial to O. Carefully work gauge up and down cylinder to determine taper and turn it to different points around cylinder wall to determine the out-of-round condition. If cylinders were found to have more than 0.002 in. (0,051 mm) out-of-round, boring will be necessary. Repair The performance of the following operations is contingent upon engine condition at time of repair. If the cylinder block inspection indicated that the block was suitable for continued use except for out-of-round or tapered cylinders, they can be conditioned by honing, or boring and honing. If the cylinders were found to have less than 0.005 in. (0,127 mm) taper or wear, they can be conditioned with a hone and fitted with 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) oversize pistons. A cylinder bore of less than 0.005 in. (0,127 mm) wear or taper may not entirely clean up when fitted to a 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) oversize piston. If it is desired to entirely clean up the bore in these cases, it will be necessary to rebore for an oversize piston. If more than 0.005 in. taper or wear exists, they should be bored and honed to the smallest oversize that will permit complete resurfacing of all cylinders. Piston Selection Replacement pistons are available in two sizes, see the appropriate parts catalog for part numbers. The size identification of the piston is marked in ink on the piston top. To determine the correct size of piston needed, measure the cylinder bore with a telescope gauge and micrometer, and subtract the base cylinder bore diameter, 4.000 in. (10,160 cm) from the measured diameter. Next locate this dimension on the Piston Selection Chart. The number shown on the chart in the box above the dimension is the marking on the piston which should be used. 860053 J 8087 4 3-29 Example A: Cylinder Bore Measurement 4.002 in. (10,165 cm) (Worn Bore) Base Cylinder Bore Diameter 4.000 in. (10,160 cm) Difference 0.002 in. (0,051 mm) The number in the box above 0.002 (0,051 mm) in is S7. Therefore, in this case a 0.001 in. (0,025 mm) oversize piston marked S7 would be used. Example B: Cylinder Bore Measurement 4.032 in. (10,241 cm) (Bored Out Bore) Base Cylinder Bore Diameter 4.000 in. (10,160 cm) Difference 0.032 in. (0,813 mm) The number in the box above 0.032 in. (0,813 mm) is 4. In this example, a 0.030 in. (0,762 mm) oversize piston marked 4 would be used. DR4649 Boring 1. Before using any type boring bar, the top of the cylinder block should be dressed to remove any dirt or burrs. This is very important. Otherwise, the boring bar may be tilted which would result in the rebored cylinder wall not being at right angles to the crankshaft. 2. The piston to be fitted should be checked with a micrometer, measuring just below the lower ring groove and at right angles to the piston pin. The cylinder should be bored to the same diameter as the piston and honed to give a clearance of 0.0025-0.0035 in. (0,064-0,089 mm). 3. The instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the equipment being used should be carefully followed. 3-30 Honing and Piston Fit 1. When the cylinders are to be honed only for use of a standard piston or for final finishing after they have been rebored to within 0.002 in. (0,051 mm) of the desired size, they should be finished with a hone. Rough stones may be used at first and fine stones for the final operation. 1 2. Place the hone into a cylinder bore and expand the stones until the hone can just be turned by hand. Connect a 1/2 in. (0,217 mm) electric drill to the hone and drive hone at drill speed while moving hone up and down entire length of cylinder until hone begins to run free. During this operation a liberal amount of kerosene should be used as a cutting fluid to keep the stones of the hone clean. Move hone slowly up and down with rough stones, but move hone up and down rapidly enough with the fine stones to produce a final bore finish of very fine surface scratches in a cross-hatch pattern of approximately 45 to 60. The marks should be clean but not sharp, and free from embedded particles or torn or folded metal. 3. Expand the stones against the cylinder bore and repeat the honing operation until the desired bore diameter is obtained. 4. Occasionally during the honing operation, the cylinder bore should be thoroughly cleaned and the piston selected for the individual cylinder checked for correct fit. 5. Check fit of the aluminum pistons in the following manner: 1 Thoroughly clean cylinder bores with soap and hot water to remove all grit particles. a. Measure the cylinder bore diameter with a telescope gauge and micrometer 2-1/2 inches (6,35 cm) from top of cylinder bore at 90 from crankshaft axis. b. Next measure the diameter of the piston skirt just below the lower ring groove and at right angles to the piston pin. c. If the difference is greater than the maximum allowable (see Boring, step 2), try another piston or lightly hone the cylinder bore to obtain the proper fit. d. Should the difference be less than the minimum allowable (see Boring, step 2), try another piston. If proper fit cannot be obtained, it will be necessary to rebore the cylinder to the next oversize piston. e. Mark each piston after fitting to correspond with the cylinder to which it has been fitted. Proceed to hone cylinders and fit the remaining pistons. 3-31 Handle the pistons with care and do not attempt to force them through the cylinder until the cylinder has been bored to correct size. This type piston can be distorted through careless handling. 6. Thoroughly clean the cylinder bores with hot water and soap. Scrub well with a stiff bristle brush and rinse thoroughly with hot water. It is extremely essential that a good cleaning operation be performed. If any of the abrasive material is allowed to remain in the cylinder bores, it will rapidly wear the new rings and cylinder bores. In addition, the bearing will be lubricated by the contaminated oil. The bores should be swabbed several times with light engine oil and a clean cloth and then wiped with a clean dry cloth. Cylinder should not be cleaned with kerosene or gasoline. Clean the remainder of the cylinder block to remove the excess material spread during the honing operation. Distributor Lower Bearing The distributor lower bearing is a bronze bushing pressed into the lower side of the engine block. Its upper inside diameter pilots the distributor shaft, and the outside diameter extending below the block pilots the oil pump. Some engines have a thrust washer at the upper end of the bushing bore. The thrust washer, where used, may be replaced at the same time the bushing is replaced. The lower bushing will ordinarily require only a clearance or wear check during engine overhaul. When distributor shaft-to-bushing clearance exceeds 0.0035 in. (0,0889 mm) the bushing should be replaced as follows with oil pump and distributor removed: 1 1. Install tool J-9534 into bushing and using a slide hammer, remove the bushing. Protect your eyes from fragments. Wear safety glasses when striking these tools, handles, drivers, etc. Tool end may mushroom after being repeatedly struck. Always grind off any rolled edges before using tool. Use soft face hammers whenever possible. 2 2. Using a drift up through bushing bore, drive thrust washer (if installed) out of bore and remove from block. 3. Clean bushing bore in block and check for burrs or damage. 3 4. If thrust washer was removed, start new washer in position in bore and drive into place using tool J-9535. 3 5. Using tool J-9535 with driver-bolt in driver handle, install driver into new bushing from large inside diameter. Safety Related 3-32 Engine/eng 1 2 3 4 6. Place bushing and driver on block and drive the bushing in position. Depth is determined by tool bottoming against the block. 7. Remove tool from bushing. It is possible that the bushing with minimum I.D. will collapse enough, during installation, to slightly seize the installer arbor. If this happens, remove installer tool using slide hammer in driver bolt hole of driver handle. This will not damage the bushing and the tool is designed for this purpose, should it occur. Circulating Pump Removal 1. Remove drain plugs on port side and drain coolant from block and exhaust manifold. Disconnect water hose from circulating pump. 2. Loosen four screws holding circulating pump pulley to circulating pump. 3. Loosen alternator bracket bolts and remove alternator belt. Remove circulating pump pulley and bolts. Unscrew bolts and remove the circulating pump from the engine. 4 Pull the pump straight out of the block first, to avoid damage to impeller. Inspection If the seal is leaking replace the pump. If the bearing is rough or allows excessive sideways movement of the shaft, replace the pump. If the impeller has excessive erosion replace the pump. Installation This pump has a special shaft and bearing assembly and a special seal assembly intended for marine service. Do not substitute with an automotive pump. 1. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto a new pump to block gasket. Install pump assembly on cylinder block and tighten bolts securely. 2. Install circulating pump pulley. Attach alternator belt and adjust. Refer to General Information section for specifications. 3. Connect coolant hoses to circulating pump. Install the drain plugs in the engine block and exhaust manifold. Tighten the plugs securely. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. 3-33 Oil Pan Replacement Removal 1. Remove oil using a suction pump. 2. Remove oil withdrawal tube. Remove screws, oil pan and gasket. Installation 1. Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces. Apply RTV sealer to the front and rear of the block. 2. Install gasket on the block. Install oil pan. Tighten crankcase screws to 80 in. lb. (9 Nm), front cover screws to 45 in. lb. (5 Nm), and rear pan nuts to 165 in. lb. (18.6 Nm). Install oil drain tube and fill crankcase with engine oil. Oil Pump 1 The oil pump consists of two gears A and a pressure relief valve B enclosed in a two-piece housing C . The pump is driven from the distributor driveshaft which in turn is driven by a helix gear on the camshaft. The oil pump is flange mounted to the cylinder block with two bolts, and piloted on the outside of the lower distributor bronze bearing. Oil pressure passes through an opening in the mounting flange to the cylinder block, then into the full flow oil filter. The pump cover is equipped with the pressure regulator valve that regulates oil pressure at approximately 40-60 PSI (135.1-202.6 kPa) at 2000 RPM. The pump intake is of the fixed screen type. A mesh screen D filters out small particles of dirt and sludge which may be present. A baffle incorporated on the intake screen has been designed to eliminate pressure loss due to sudden surging stops, turns, and acceleration. In the event that a screen becomes plugged a steel grommet opens and bypasses oil to the pump. Removal and Disassembly 1. Withdraw oil. Disconnect oil withdrawal tube. Remove screws, oil pan and gasket. Remove oil withdrawal tube fitting from oil pan. 2. Remove oil pickup tube clamp bolt. Remove two flange mounting bolts. Remove pump and screen as an assembly. 3. Remove four cover attaching screws, cover, gasket, idler gear, and drive gear and shaft. 1 3-34 4. Remove pressure regulator valve and valve parts. If necessary, remove oil pump suction pipe and screen by pulling from pump housing. Do not disturb oil pickup pipe on screen. This pipe is located at assembly. 5. Wash all parts in cleaning solvent and dry using compressed air. Inspection Should any of the following conditions be found during inspection operations, the defective parts should be replaced. 1. Inspect pump body for cracks and excessive wear. Inspect oil pump gears for excessive wear or damage. 2. Check shaft for looseness in the housing. Check inside of cover for wear that would permit oil to leak past the ends of gears. 3. Check the oil pick-up screen for damage to screen or relief grommet. 4. Check pressure regulator valve plunger for fit in cover. Assembly and Installation 1. Place drive gear and shaft in pump body. Install idler gear so that smooth side of gear will be toward the cover. 2. Install a new pump to cover gasket to ensure correct end clearance of the gears. 3. Install suction pipe and screen assembly to pump body and install cover and attaching screws. Tighten screws to 72 in. lb. (8 Nm) and check to see that shaft turns freely. 4. Install regulator valve plunger, spring, retainer and pin. 5. Align oil pump driveshaft slot to match with distributor tang. Install oil pump to block, positioning flange over distributor lower bushing. Use no gasket. Oil pump should slide easily into place. If not, remove and relo cate slot or determine other problem. 6. Attach and tighten oil pickup tube clamp. 7. Install oil pan using new gaskets and seals. 2 8. Install withdrawal tube fitting to pan; leave screw loose. Orient fitting and attach withdrawal tube. Then tighten both fitting screw and flare nut to 15-18 ft. lb. (20-24 Nm). 9. Fill crankcase with oil. 2 3-35 Oil Filter Bypass Valve Inspection Remove the oil filter and check the spring and fiber valve for operation. Check for a cracked or broken valve. Replacement If replacement is necessary: 1. Remove the valve by prying it out with a screwdriver. 2. Install a new valve and seat it by tapping into place using a 9/16 in. thin wall deep socket and hammer. 3. Install oil filter according to manufacturers instructions. High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement Removal 1. Loosen all four hose clamps. Lubricate exhaust pipe with a soapy water solution, and slide hose down off exhaust elbow. 2. Loosen hose clamp and disconnect cooling hose from inside of exhaust elbow. Then remove hose fitting. 1A 3. Remove the two screws and swing anchor bracket out of the way. Then remove the two nuts and lock washers B . 34729 2 4. Loosen the elbow with a soft hammer, then lift it off the manifold. Remove and discard the elbow gaskets. Retain the restrictor plate. 1 2 22649A Safety Related 3-36 Installation 1. Thoroughly clean the manifold and elbow gasket surfaces. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides two new gaskets. Sandwich the restrictor plate between the two new gaskets. The slot in the restrictor plate should be positioned out away from the engine block. Place the gaskets and restrictor plate on the manifold. 3 2. Mount the elbow on the manifold. Install the throttle anchor bracket, and secure with the two screws A and the two nuts and lock washers B .Tighten all four to 12-14 ft. lb. (16-19 Nm). Slide the exhaust hose all the way onto the elbow. 3. Install hose fitting on the inside of elbow and connect cooling hose. 4 4. Position the upper clamps in the top two channels and tighten them securely. Position the two lower clamps in the channels and tighten them securely. 5. Reconnect throttle cable to carburetor and throttle linkage plate. Secure with cotter pin. Exhaust Hose Replacement Removal 1. Remove high rise exhaust elbow following procedure in High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement. 2. Remove clamps and slide hose off exhaust pipe. Installation 6 One end of exhaust hose has two ribs around the cir C cumference. Position this end up when installing hose to ensure secure attachment. 1. Place two No. 64 hose clamps over exhaust pipe if they were removed. 7 2. For ease of installation lubricate inside diameter of hose with a soapy water solution, and slide hose all the way onto exhaust pipe. Place two No. 64 clamps around top section of hose. 3 4 5 22647A 16350 22646A C 7 6 Engine Coupler Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine from boat following instructions in Engine Removal and Installation section. If coupler is being replaced due to coupler failure (rubber hub of splined hub), check engine alignment after installing new coupler. See Engine Alignment in Engine Removal and Installation section. 2. Cut tie strap holding flywheel housing drain hose (if equipped) to starter motor. 6 20034 6 7 3. Take out screws holding flywheel housing cover slide out cover. C , then 8 4. Remove nut, lock washer, and ground leads from ground stud. Remove inner nut, lock washer and washer. Remove similar ground stud hardware on opposite side of block. 5. Remove screws and washers holding 10 pin connector and relay, and move bracket aside. 6. Unscrew remaining flywheel housing bolts, lock washers and washers. Note position of clamps so they can be installed in original position. 9 7. Lift flywheel housing off engine block and set aside. 10 8. Unscrew six locknuts, then pull coupler off flywheel. 7 6676 8 9 10 3-38 Installation 1 1. Slide coupler onto crankshaft studs. Install locknuts. Use a crowfoot wrench and tighten nuts to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 2 2. Install flywheel housing. Place clamps in their original positions, and attach 10 pin connector and relay bracket. Tighten screws to 28-36 ft. lb. (38-49 Nm). 3. Place washer, lock washer and nut on ground stud. Tighten inner nut to 35-40 ft. lb. (47-54 Nm). Attach electrical leads to ground stud. Install lock washer and tighten outer nut securely. Install ground stud hardware on opposite side of block. 3 4. Slide flywheel cover up into place. Install screws and tighten them to 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm). 4 5. Attach flywheel housing drain hose A (if equipped) to starter motor with tie strap. 6. Install engine in boat following instructions in Engine Removal and Installation section. 1 6714 2 6711A 3 20034 B 4 14704 Engine Specifications 1. General Specifications Type - No. of Cylinder ........................................................... 4 -In-line Bore and Stroke .................................................................... 4.000 in. x 3.60 in. (101.6 mm x 91.44 mm) Piston Displacement ............................................................. 181 Cu. In. (3.0 Liter) Cylinder No. (front to rear) ................................................... 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 Firing Order ........................................................................... 1 - 3 - 4 - 2 Compression Ratio ............................................................... 9.3 to 1 Thermostat Opens at ............................................................ 160 F (71 C) Full Throttle Operating Range .............................................. 4200-4600 RPM 2. Engine Dimensions. Fits and Adjustments Pistons: Type ................................................................................. Cast Aluminum Clearance Limit at Top Land .......................................... 0.0255 - 0.0345 in. (0.6477 - 0.8763 mm) Clearance Limit at Skirt .................................................. 0.0025 - 0.0035 in. (0.0635 - 0.0889 mm) Compression Ring Groove Depth .................................. 0.209 - 0.211 in. (5.309 - 5.359 mm) Oil Ring Groove Depth ................................................... 0.190 - 0.199 in. (4.826 - 5.055 mm) Piston Rings: Compression Ring Material..................................................................... Cast Iron Type .......................................................................... Radius Face (Upper) Tape Face (Lower) Coating - Upper Ring ............................................... Molybdenum Coating - Lower Ring ............................................... Wear Resistant Width ........................................................................ 0.0775 - 0.0780 in. (1.9685 - 1.981 mm) Gap ........................................................................... 0.010 - 0.020 in. (0.254 - 0.508 mm) (Upper) 0.013 - 0.025 in. (0.330 - 0.635 mm) (Lower) Oil ring Material..................................................................... Flat Spring Steel Type .......................................................................... Multi-piece Rail Expander and Spacer Coating (rail) ............................................................ Chrome Width (Piston Groove) ............................................. 0.188 - 0.189 in. (4.775 - 4.801 mm) Gap (Ring)................................................................ 0.015 - 0.055 in. (0.381 - 1.397 mm) Width (Ring) ............................................................. 0.154 - 0.160 in. (3.912 - 4.064 mm) Expanders ................................................................ One-Piece Expander-Spacer Piston Pins: Length ............................................................................. 2.990 - 3.010 in. (75.946 - 76.454 mm) Diameter ......................................................................... 0.9270 - 0.9273 in. (23.5458 - 23.5534 mm) Clearance in Piston (new) ............................................. 0.0003 - 0.0004 in. (0.0076 - 0.0101 mm) Wear Limit in Piston ....................................................... 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) Clearance in Rod ........................................................... 0.0008 - 0.0021 in. (0.0203 - 0.0533 mm) 3-40 Engine Specifications Connecting Rods: Material ........................................................................... Drop Forged Steel Length CL to CL ............................................................. 5.700 in. (144.780 mm) Connecting Rod Bearing Material..................................................................... M400 Effective Length ....................................................... 0.792 - 0.822 in. (20.117 - 20.879 mm) Clearance ................................................................. 0.00085 - 0.00135 in. (0.02158 - 0.03429 mm) End Play ................................................................... 0.008 - 0.015 in. (0.203 - 0.381 mm) Crankshaft: Material ........................................................................... Nodular Cast Iron End Play ......................................................................... 0.002 - 0.006 in. (0.051 - 0.152 mm) End Thrust Taken By ...................................................... Rear Main Bearing Crankpin Journal Diameter ............................................ 2.0989 - 2.0995 in. (53.2892 - 53.3273 mm) Main Bearing Type .......................................................................... Precision Removable Journal Diameter ..................................................... 2.2979 - 2.2994 in. (58.3666 - 58.4047 mm) Length ...................................................................... 0.822 in. (20.879 mm) (rear) 0.830 in. (21.082 mm) (others) Clearance ................................................................. 0.0003 - 0.0029 in. (0.0076 - 0.0737 mm) Camshaft: Camshaft Bearing Material..................................................................... Steel Backed Babbitt Journal Diameter ..................................................... 1.8677 - 1.8697 in. (47.440 - 47.490 mm) Bearing Outer Diameter -Nos. 1 and 2................ 1.999 - 2.001 in. (50.775 - 50.825 mm) Bearing Outer Diameter - No. 3 .............................. 2.009 - 2.011 in. (51.029 - 51.079 mm) Type of Drive .................................................................. Gear Crankshaft Gear Material .............................................. Helical Cut Nodular Cast Iron Camshaft Gear Material................................................. Helical Cut Bakelite and Fabric Composition Lobe Lift .......................................................................... 0.253 in. 0.005 in. (6.426 mm 0.127 mm) Valve Systems: Lifter Type ....................................................................... Hydraulic Rocker Arm Ratio ........................................................... 1.75 to 1 Valve Lash Adjustment Intake and Exhaust (hot) ......................................... 3/4 to 1 Turn Down From Zero Lash Point Valve Face Angle ........................................................... 45 Valve Seat Angle ............................................................ 46 Stem to Guide Clearance Intake Valve.............................................................. 0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.0686 mm) Stem to Guide Clearance Exhaust Valve .......................................................... 0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.0686 mm) Recommended Valve Seat Width Intake ........................................................................ 0.050 - 0.070 in. (1.27 - 1.778 mm) Exhaust .................................................................... 0.060 - 0.080 in. (1.524 - 2.032 mm) 3-41 Engine Specifications Valve Systems (cont.): Outer Valve Spring Free Length .................................... 2.06 in. (52.324 mm) Outer Valve Spring Pressure Lb. (N) @ In. (mm) ........ 100 - 110 (444 - 490) @ 1.61 (40.89 mm) Engine Lubrication: Type Oil Pump ................................................................ Gear Normal Oil Pressure....................................................... 40-60 PSI (275.8 - 413.7 kPa) @ 2000 RPM Crankcase Capacity - Quarts ........................................ 3-1/2 (4 with new filter) Oil Grade Recommended: Service SG-Meeting GM Spec 6094 32F (0 C) and Above ................................................... SAE 30 0 F (-18 C) to 32 F (0 C) .......................................... SAE 20W-20 Below 0 F (-18 C) ........................................................ SAE 10W We recommend DuraPlusTM SAE 30 Heavy Duty Synthetic Motor Oil, which is specially formulated for heavy duty marine use. DuraPlusTM SAE 30 Heavy Duty Synthetic Motor Oil provides superior anti-wear qualities, especially important during prolonged high speed operation. It also neutralizes acids created in all internal combustion engines. This motor oil is formulated to offer superior protection against corrosion and to resist oxidation and high temperature sludge formation. The use of multi-viscosity oils is not recommended. Disregard any reference to multi-viscosity oil printed on engine. Such reference is intended for automotive use only, not marine use. Fuel Grade Recommendation .................................................................................. See General Information section 3-42 Torque Specifications Use a reliable torque wrench to tighten theparts listed to prevent straining or distorting the parts or possibly damaging the threads. These specifications are for clean threads only. Dirty threads produce friction which prevents accurate measurement of tightness. It is important that these torque specifications be strictly observed. Overtightening to any extent may damage threads, thus preventing proper torque from being obtained, requiring replacement or repair of the damaged part. ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Screw Adaptor - Oil Pressure Sender 10-14 -14-19 Alternator - Bracket to Engine 26-30 -35-41 Camshaft Thrust Plate -80 9 Circulating Pump 13-17 -18-23 Distributor Clamp 20 -27 Exhaust Elbow 12-14 -16-19 Flywheel Bellhousing 28-36 -38-49 Flywheel Cover -60-84 7-9 Front Mount - Port 48-56 -65-76 Front Mount - Starboard 32-40 -43-54 Oil Pan to Crankcase -80 9 Oil Pan to Front Cover -45 5 Oil Pump Cover -72 8 Oil Withdrawal Tube Fitting 15-18 -20-24 Power Steering Pump Bracket 26-30 -35-41 Starter Motor 30-36 -41-49 Starter Motor Bracket 16-19 -22-26 Supply Pump Bracket 13-17 -18-23 Thermostat Housing 12-16 -16-22 Timing Chain Cover -27-35 3-4 Valve Cover -40 5 3-43 Torque Specifications - (Cont.) ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Nut Connecting Rod Cap 45 -61 Crankshaft Oil Seal Retainer -150-180 17-20 Flame Arrestor Cover -30-40 3,4-4,5 Flare - Oil Withdrawal Tube 15-18 -20-24 Flywheel and Coupler 40-45 -54-61 Flywheel Bellhousing 35-40 -47-54 Intake/Exhaust Manifold 20-25 -27-34 Bolt Cylinder Head Step 1 35 -47 Step 2 65 -88 Step 3 90 -122 Intake/Exhaust Manifold 20-25 -27-34 Main Bearing Cap (exc. rear) 55-70 -75-95 Main Bearing Cap, Rear Step 1 10-12 -14-16 Step 2 55-70 -75-95 Oil Pump -120 14 Stud Flame Arrestor to Carburetor -65-80 7-9 Flywheel and Coupler 10-15 -14-20 Power Steering Pump Bracket 13-15 -18-20 Miscellaneous Oil Filter One turn after contact Retainer - Oil Pan Drain 15-18 -20-24 Sender, Oil Pressure 10-14 -14-19 Sender, Water Temperature 18-22 -24-30 Spark Plugs 20 -27 3-44 Section 4 4.3 GL and Gi Engine Table of Contents Accessories .............................................................. 4-4 Balance Shaft ......................................................... 4-23 Balancer, Crankshaft.............................................. 4-15 Camshaft ................................................................. 4-22 Cleaning .................................................................... 4-4 Circulating Pump.................................................... 4-34 Crankshaft and Bearings ....................................... 4-30 Cylinder Block ........................................................ 4-31 Bylinder head.......................................................... 4-12 Engine Coupler Replacement ......................................... 4-39 Draining ................................................................. 4-4 Front Cover .......................................................... 4-20 Front Mount ......................................................... 4-35 Lubrication ............................................................ 4-5 Exhaust Manifold ................................................................. 4-6 High-Rise Elbow Replacement........................... 4-37 Hose Replacement .............................................. 4-38 General Description ................................................. 4-2 Intake Manifold ......................................................... 4-7 Intermediate Pipe Replacement ............................ 4-38 Materials Required ................................................... 4-3 Oil Pan ..................................................................... 4-16 Oil Pump ................................................................. 4-17 Pistons and Connecting Rods .............................. 4-25 Rear Oil Seal, Crankshaft ...................................... 4-29 Rear Oil Seal Housing ............................................ 4-29 Rocker Arm Cover .................................................... 4-9 Rocker Arm Stud Replacement ............................. 4-13 Special Tools - GM.................................................4-46 Specifications Engine .................................................................. 4-43 Torque .................................................................. 4-41 Timing Chain and Sprockets ................................. 4-21 Tools and Shop Equipment ..................................... 4-3 Valve Train .............................................................. 4-10 4 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Always use the correct fastener in the proper location. When you replace a fastener, use ONLY the exact part number for that application. The text will call out those fasteners that require replacement after removal. The text will also call out the fasteners that require thread lockers or thread sealant. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, do not use supplement coatings (paints, greases, or other corrosion inhibitors) on threaded fasteners or fastener joint interfaces. Generally, such coatings adversely affect the fastener torque and the joint clamping force, and may damage the fastener. When you install fasteners, use the correct tightening sequence and tightening specifications. Following these instructions can help you avoid damage to parts and systems. 4-1 General Description Engine Construction The 4.3L engine is a liquid-cooled 90 degree V6 type with overhead valves, a balance shaft, and cast-iron block and cylinder heads. Cylinder Block The cylinder block has 6 cylinders arranged in a V shape with 3 cylinders in each bank. Starting at the front of the engine, cylinders in the right bank are numbered 1-3-5 and cylinders in the left bank are numbered 2-4-6 (when viewed from the front). The firing order of the cylinders is 1-6-5-4-3-2. The cylinders are encircled by coolant jackets. Cylinder Heads The cylinder heads have one intake and one exhaust valve for each cylinder. A spark plug is located between the valves in the side of the cylinder head. The valve guides are integral and the valve rocker arms are retained on individual threaded studs. Crankshaft The crankshaft is supported by four crankshaft bearings. The number four bearing at the rear of the engine is the end thrust bearing. The bearings are retained by bearing caps that are machined with the block for proper alignment and clearances. Camshaft The camshaft is supported by four full round, sleeve-type bearings. A sprocket on the crankshaft drives a camshaft timing chain which in turn drives the camshaft through a sprocket. Pistons and Connecting Rods The pistons are made of cast-aluminum alloy using two compression rings and one oil control ring assembly. Piston pins are offset 0.0354 in. (0,9 mm) toward the major thrust side (right side) to reduce piston slap as the connecting rod travels from one side of the piston to the other side after a stroke. The pins are a press fit in the connecting rod and a floating fit in the piston. Balance Shaft The cast-iron balance shaft is mounted in the crankcase above and inline with the camshaft. A camshaft gear drives the gear attached to the balance shaft. The front end of the balance shaft is supported by a ball-type bearing. The rear end of the balance shaft uses a sleeve- type bearing. 4-2 Valve Train The valve train is a ball-pivot type. Motion is transmitted from the camshaft through the valve lifter and valve push rod to the valve rocker arm. The valve rocker arm pivots on its ball and transmits the camshaft motion to the valve. The valve lifters with roller followers keep all parts of the valve train in constant contact. Each lifter acts as an automatic adjuster and maintains zero lash in the valve train. This eliminates the need for periodic valve adjustment. Intake Manifold The intake manifold assembly is a two-piece design. The upper portion is made from a composite material and lower portion is cast-aluminum. The throttle body attaches to the upper manifold. Tools and Shop Equipment A clean, well-lit, work area should be available. Other necessary equipment includes: a suitable parts cleaning tank, compressed air supply, trays to keep parts and fasteners organized, and an adequate set of hand tools. An approved engine repair stand will help aid with the work and help prevent personal injury or component damage. Special tools are listed and illustrated throughout this section with a complete listing at the end of the section. These tools (or their equivalents) are specially designed to quickly and safely accomplish the operations for which they are intended. The use of these special tools will also minimize possible damage to engine components. Some precision measuring tools are required for inspection of certain critical components. Torque wrenches are necessary for the correct assembly of various parts. Material Required DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent 3MScotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 GM Adhesive,P/N 12346141 GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367 GM Sealant, P/N 12346004 GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382 LoctitePrimer Black Neoprene Dip 4-3 Accessories The various procedures in this manual assume that the engine accessories have been removed. These accessories include all of the following: . Power Steering Pump . Alternator . Distributor . Water Supply Pump . Accessory Brackets and Electrical Wiring . Starter Motor Cleaning Remove the engine accessories before cleaning to provide better access to the engines exterior surfaces. After removing the distributor, accessory brackets, etc., cover the openings with tape to prevent the entry of contaminants. Methods used to clean the engine will depend on the means which are available. Steam cleaning, pressure washing, or solvent cleaning are some of the acceptable methods. Allow the engine to dry thoroughly before beginning any work. It is important that the engine be as clean as possible to prevent dirt, water, or any other contaminants from entering critical areas during disassembly. Draining The Engine Follow the procedures in Section 1, General Information of this manual to drain crankcase engine oil and the cooling system. 4-4 DRC6583 1 Engine Lubrication 1 Full pressure lubrication, through a full-flow oil filter is supplied by a gear-type oil pump. Oil is drawn up through the oil pump screen and passes through the pump to the oil filter. The oil filter is a full-flow paper element unit with an anti-drain back valve. An oil filter bypass valve is used to ensure adequate oil supply, in the event the filter becomes plugged or develops excessive pressure drop. Filtered oil flows into the main gallery and then to the camshaft, balance shaft, rear bearing, and crankshaft bearings. The valve lifter oil gallery supplies oil to the valve lifters. Oil flows from the valve lifters through the hollow valve push rods to the valve rocker arms. Oil drains back to the crankcase through oil drain holes in the cylinder head. The camshaft timing chain is drip fed from the front camshaft bearing. The pistons and piston pins are lubricated by oil splash. 4-5 Exhaust Manifold Removal 1. Drain water from exhaust manifolds. 2. Disconnect water hose from manifold. 3. Loosen upper exhaust hose clamps, then remove high rise elbow. 4. Remove manifold attaching screws, then remove the manifold. Inspection 1. Inspect for cracks. 1 2. To pressure check manifold, use a plate such as pictured, and a new elbow gasket B to seal water passage in manifold. Be sure to apply sealer to gasket. Install rubber drain caps to manifold and secure with clamps. Attach a Gearcase Pressure Tester C (such as Stevens Company S-34) to the water inlet hose. A bushing can be made to secure pressure tester to hose. With the pressure tester attached to the manifold, submerge manifold in water. Pressurize the manifold to 10-15 PSI (22-25 kPa) and check for leaks. Manifold should not leak around clamps and plate. If so, retighten clamps or reseal plate. No drop in pressure should be realized. A Installation 2 1. Clean mating surfaces on manifold and head. Install new exhaust gasket, then install manifold and secure with screws. Tighten screws D to 20-26 ft. lb. (27-35 Nm). 2. Install a new gasket and high rise elbow to manifold. Tighten bolts to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). 3. Install exhaust hose and secure with clamps. 4. Connect water hose and secure with clamp. DR2642 28287A A B C 1 2 5. Start engine and check for fuel leaks. Intake Manifold Removal 3 5 1. Drain coolant from manifolds and both sides of block. 6 2. Remove intake manifold drain plug E from front of intake manifold. 3. Disconnect: a. Battery cables from battery. b. Coolant hoses at thermostat housing. c. Throttle cable from carburetor and anchor block. d. Crankcase ventilation hose from rocker arm covers (both sides). e. Wire at temperature gauge sender unit and engine wiring harness from alternator. f. Distributor high tension and ignition primary leads from coil. 4. Remove: 7 a. Distributor cap and mark the position of the rotor on the housing. Scribe a line on distributor housing and intake manifold for reassembly in the same position. Remove the distributor. b. Alternator and alternator mounting bracket from engine. c. Carburetor fuel line from carburetor and fuel pump or fuel lines from throttle body and fuel pump/vapor separator. d. Oil pressure sending unit. e. Manifold attaching bolts and solenoid bracket. Lift manifold from engine. Discard front and rear seals and gaskets. 5 f. If manifold is to be replaced, transfer: carburetor or throttle body and ECM bracket, thermostat and housing (use new gasket), throttle cable anchor block assembly, distributor clamp and temperature sending unit. Transfer additional hardware as required. 6 3 34091A 4 34102A 7 Clean: . Old pieces of gasket or RTV from the gasket surfaces. . Excessive carbon build-up in the intake passages of the intake manifold. . Scale and deposits from the coolant passages of the intake manifold. Installation Important DRC6590 Do NOT reuse intake manifold gaskets. Install or Connect: 1 1. Sealant to the intake manifold gasket, cylinder head side. 2 1 Care must be used to apply the correct amount of sealant onto the gaskets. Applying excessive amounts of sealant may prohibit the intake gaskets from sealing properly. 23 2. Gaskets onto the cylinder head. a. Use gasket locator pins to properly seat gasket on cylinder head. DRC6591 b. Apply a 0.499 in. (13 mm) bead of GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141, or equivalent to the front and rear block sealant areas. c. Extend the sealer bead 0.157 in. (4 mm) onto each gasket. 3. GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382, or equivalent to the threads of the eight lower intake mounting bolts. 4. Lower intake manifold onto engine block. 5. Lower intake manifold bolts. DRC6592 Tighten: 4 Bolts in three steps, using the following sequence: a. Snug all bolts to 27 in. lb. (3 Nm) to minimize shifting of intake. b. Bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). c. Bo Its to 11 ft. Ib. (15 Nm). 3 4 DRC6593 4-8 d. Distributor with rotor and aligned exactly as marked during re moval. If engine was cranked while distributor was out, complete igni tion timing procedure must be followed. See the appropriate Ignition Circuit in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Systems Service Manual. e. Alternator with mounting bracket. f. Distributor cap and high tension leads. See the General Information section in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual for correct firing order and spark plug wire routing. g. Oil pressure sending unit. a. All electrical connections. Apply black neoprene dip, or 3. Connect: equivalent, on all exposed connections. b. Fuel lines to carburetor and fuel pump or throttle body and fuel pump/vapor separator. c. Throttle cable. d. All water hoses, and close all drain petcocks. e. Both crankcase ventilation hoses. f. Battery cables. g. Start engine. Check ignition timing, carburetor idle speed and mixture. Check for leaks. Rocker Arm Cover Removal 5 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. 2. Valve rocker arm cover. 3. Gasket. 5 DRC6584 Clean: Parts in solvent. Remove all sludge and varnish. Old gaskets from the gasket surfaces. Inspect: Gasket flanges for bending or damage. Rubber grommets and parts for deterioration. Installation 1 Install or Connect: 1. New gasket. 2. Valve rocker arm cover. 3. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. Tighten: Valve rocker arm cover bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). Valve Train Removal Important Store all reusable components in an exact order, so they can be reassembled in the same wear pattern location from which they were removed. Mark the front end of the retainer. Remove or Disconnect: 2 1. Valve rocker arm nuts, balls, and valve rocker arms. 3 2. Valve push rods. 3 3. Bolts and valve lifter retainer. 4 4. Valve lifters. Remove the lifters one at a time using J 9290-01/J 3049 or equivalent and place them in an organizer rack. Important Store all reusable components in an exact order, so they may be reassembled in the same wear pattern location from which they were removed. 1 DRC6584 2 DRC6585 3 DRC6588 4 DRC6586 4-10 Clean: . All parts in clean solvent and dry them with compressed air. . Make sure oil passages in valve push rods are clear. Inspect: . Valve rocker arms and balls at their mating surfaces. These surfaces should be free from wear or any damage. . Valve rocker arm areas that contact the valve stems and the socket areas that contact the ends of the valve push rods. These areas should be free of damage or wear. . Valve rocker arm nuts. . Valve push rod ends for scoring, roughness, or bends. Roll the valve push rod on a flat surface to determine its straightness. If the rod is bent, the rod will not roll freely. Replace if necessary. Valve Lifters This engine uses hydraulic valve lifters. Valve lifters are serviced only as an assembly. No internal parts are available. Service is limited to a disassembly and cleaning. Discard valve lifters that are excessively worn or damaged. Whenever the camshaft needs to be replaced, a new Installation Important Replace all valve roller lifters, change the engine oil and filter, and add GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent to the engine oil whenever a new camshaft is installed. set of valve lifters must also be installed. Important Lubricate the valve lifter bodies and roller with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Install or Connect: 3 1. Valve lifters to the block. 3 2. Valve lifter guide. . Note previously made mark on valve lifter guide. Reference mark should be pointing toward front of engine. 4-11 Tighten: Bolts to 12 ft. lb. (16 Nm). 1 3. Valve push rods. a. Seat the valve push rods into the socket of the valve lifters. b. Coat the mating surfaces of the valve rocker arms and balls with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052365, or equivalent. 2 4. Valve rocker arms with balls on to the proper stud. 2 5. Valve rocker arm nuts onto the studs. . Align the valve push rod into the valve rocker arm while tightening valve rocker arm nut.Important No lash adjustment is needed. These models use screw-in rocker arm studs with positive stop shoulders. Tighten: Valve rocker arm nuts to 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm). Cylinder Head Cylinder Head Removal Remove or Disconnect: 1. Spark plugs. 2. Cylinder head bolts. 3. Cylinder heads. 4. Head gaskets. Cylinder Head Disassembly Tool Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor 3 4 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Compress the springs with J 8062. 2. Keys 3. Tool J 8062. 4. Valve spring cap 2 . 5. Spring 4 . 6. Seal 3 . 7. Valves 1 . 5 and 6 . Place the valves in an organizer rack so they can be replaced in their original position at reassembly. 1 DRC6588 2 DRC6589 3 DRC6594 4 DRC6595 4-12 . Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Rocker Arm Stud Replacement Remove or Disconnect: Valve rocker arm stud by unscrewing. Install or Connect: Screw valve rocker arm stud into cylinder head. Tighten: Valve rocker arm stud to 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm). Cylinder Head Assembly Tools Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor Install or Connect: 4 1. Valves 5 and 6 . a. Lubricate the valve stems with clean engine oil. b. Insert the valves into the proper valve guides until the face of the valve contacts the valve seat. 4 2. Seal a. Install the seal over the valve stem. b. Hold the valve against the valve seat. c. Push the seal down the valve stem until it bottoms out against the head. 4 3. Springs 4 4 4. Valve spring cap 2 . 3 a. Compress the valve spring using J 8062, enough so the lower valve stem groove can be seen clearly. b. Apply a small amount of grease to the area of the upper valve stem groove. 4 c. Assemble the two valve keys 1 into the upper groove using the grease to hold them in place. 3 . 4-13 1 d. Release the compressor tool J 8062, making sure the valve keys 1 stay in place. e. Repeat the preceding steps on the remaining valves. Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for valve spring installed height. Clean: Gasket surfaces on the block and cylinder head. Cylinder Head Installation Tool Required: J 36660 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent Install or Connect: 1. Head gasket. . Do not use sealer on head gaskets. . Place the gasket over the block dowel pins with the head up. 2. Cylinder head. Carefully guide the cylinder head into place over the dowel pins and gasket. 3. Cylinder head bolts. Coat threads of the cylinder head bolts with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent and install fingertight. 2 Tighten: a. Bolts in sequence to 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm). b. Bolts in sequence using J 36660 or equivalent to: . Short length bolt (11, 7, 3, 2, 6, 10) 55 degrees. . Medium length bolt (12, 13) 65 degrees. . Long length bolt (1, 4, 8, 5, 9) 75 degrees. 4. Spark plugs. Tighten: a. Spark plug into new cylinder head to 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm). b. All other subsequent installations to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). 1 DRC6595 2 DRC6587 4-14 Crankshaft Balancer Removal Tool Required: J 39046 Crankshaft Balancer Remover The inertial weight section of the crankshaft balancer is as sembled to the hub with a rubber sleeve. The removal procedures must be followed (with the proper tools) or movement of the inertial weight section of the hub will destroy the tuning of the crankshaft balancer and the engine timing reference. 3 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Crankshaft balancer bolt and washer. 2. Crankshaft balancer using J 39046. 3. Crankshaft key, (if necessary). Inspect: Crankshaft balancer weight for signs of shifting on the hub. Replace as needed. The area of the crankshaft hub shaft that contacts the front crankshaft seal for roughness or nicks. Replace the balancer if this condition exists. If balancer is replaced, new balance weights of the same size must be installed on the new balancer in the same location as the old balancer. Installation Tool Required: J 39046 Crankshaft Balancer Installer 4 Install or Connect: 1. Apply GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141, or equivalent to crankshaft keyway. 2. Crankshaft key (if removed). 3 DRC6641 4 The inertial weight section of the crankshaft balancer is as DRC6644 sembled to the hub with rubber type material. The correct installation procedures (with the proper tool) must be followed or movement of the inertial weight section of the hub will destroy the tuning of the crankshaft balancer. 3. Stud (part of J 39046) to the crankshaft. Thread stud fully into the tapped hole in the crankshaft. 4. Crankshaft balancer over the end of the stud. Align the keyway in the crankshaft balancer shaft with the crankshaft key. 5. Bearing, washer, and nut. a. Turn the nut to pull the crankshaft balancer into place. b. Remove the tool. 4-15 6. Crankshaft balancer bolt and washer. Tighten: Bolt to 74 ft. lb. (100 Nm). Oil Pan Removal 1 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Oil pan nuts. 2. Oil pan bolts. 3. Oil pan. 4. Gasket. Clean: . Parts in solvent. Remove all sludge and varnish. . Old gaskets and sealant from the gasket surfaces. Inspect: . Gasket flanges for bending or damage. . Oil pan for damage or cracks. . Oil pan deflector for lack of fit. . Drain plug threads for stripping. Installation Tool Required: J 34673 Straight Edge or Equivalent Important The alignment between the rear of the oil pan and 2 rear of the block flange is critical. The two surfaces must be flush to provide a rigid engine-to-transom bracket alignment. Install or Connect: 23 Apply GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141, or equivalent to the engine front cover to block joint and to the rear crankshaft housing to block joint. Apply the sealant about 1.00 in. (25,4 mm) in both directions from each of the four corners. 1. Oil pan gasket onto pan. 3 1 DRC6642 DRC6639 DRC6640 4-16 4 2. Oil pan against cylinder block. 5 3. Slide oil pan back against straight edge using J 34673 or equivalent. 4. Oil pan bolts and nuts but do not tighten. Measure: 5 Use a feeler gauge to check the clearance between the three oil pan-to-transmission bell housing contact points as shown. If clearance exceeds 0.010 in. (0,254 mm) at any of the three points repeat steps 2 and 3 until the clearance is within specification. 4 DRC6642 If the clearance is more than 0.010 in. (0,254 mm), powertrain durability may be affected. 6 Tighten: . Bolts to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) in the sequence shown. . Nuts to 17 ft. lb. (23 Nm). Measure: . Clearance between the three oil pan-to-transom bracket contact points to verify proper alignment. 5. Lubricate new oil filter seal with clean engine oil. 6. New oil filter. Oil Pump Removal 7 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Bolt from oil pump to crankshaft bearing cap. 2. Oil pump assembly. 3. Driveshaft and retainer. 5 DRC6646 6 DRC6645 7 DRC6643 4-17 1 Disassemble: 1. Driveshaft 9 and retainer 8 . Do not remove the oil pump screen unless replacement is re quired. The oil pump screen has a press fit in to the pump cover. Do not remove the screen from the pipe 6 . The oil pump screen is serviced as a complete assembly only. 2. Oil pump screen pickup 3. Bolts 4. Pump cover 5 . 4 . 6 . Mark where the idler gear and drive gear and shaft mesh to 1 DRC6624 gether, so they can be reinstalled with the same gear teeth indexed. 5. Idler gear and drive gear and shaft 6. Retaining pin 7. Pressure regulator spring 8. Pressure regulator valve 7 . 1 . 2 . 3 . Clean: All parts in clean solvent and dry them with compressed air. 1 Inspect: assembly must be replaced. . Pump body 10 for cracks, wear, or other damage. . Inside of the cover 4 for cracks and wear that would permit oil to leak past the ends of the gears. . Idler and drive gear 7 for wear. . Drive gear and shaft for lack of fit in the pump body. . Oil pump screen for damage to the screen or loose fit of the pipe. . Pressure regulator valve 3 for fit. The regulator valve should slide freely in its bore without sticking or binding. The pump gears, cover, and body are not serviced separately. If any of the parts are damaged or worn, the entire oil pump Important 4-18 Assemble 1 Install or Connect: 1. Pressure regulator valve 3 into the pump cover 4 . Important Replace the pressure relief valve spring 2 when reusing the oil pump assembly. 2. Pressure regulator spring 2 into the pump cover 4 . 3. Retaining pin 1 into the pump cover 4 . 4. Drive gear and shaft 7 into the pump body 10 . 5. Idler gear 7 into the pump body 10 . Match together the index marks on the two gears made during 6. Pump cover 4 . 5 . disassembly. 7. Bolts Tighten: Bolts 5 to 106 i n. Ib. (12 Nm). With the driveshaft 9 installed on the pump, turn the driveshaft by hand to check for smooth operation. Be careful of twisting, shearing, or collapsing the pipe when installing it to the pump. A damaged pipe can cause lack of lubrication and engine failure. Oil Pump Screen Installation 2 Install or Connect: 1. Oil pump screen pickup a. The oil pump screen assembly 6 should be replaced with a new part. Loss of press fit condition could result in an air leak and loss of oil pressure. b. Mount the oil pump in a soft jawed vise. c. Apply sealer to the end of the pipe. d. Tap the pickup screen and pipe into place, using J 21882 and a hammer. e. The oil pump screen must be parallel with the bottom of the oil pan when installed. 1 2. Oil pump driveshaft 9 and retainer 8 . 6 . 2 DRC6625 4-19 Oil Pump Installation 1 Install or Connect: 1. Oil pump to the engine. a. Align the slot in the oil pump shaft with the tang on the distributor shaft. b. The oil pump should slide easily into place. c. No gasket is used. 2. Oil pump and bolt onto crankshaft bearing cap. Tighten: Bolt to 66 ft. lb. (90 Nm). Engine Front Cover Removal Important Once the composite engine front cover is removed DO NOT reinstall it. Always install a new engine front cover. Remove or Disconnect: 1. Engine front cover bolts. 2. Engine front cover. Installation Install or Connect: 1. Engine front cover to engine. 2. Engine front cover bolts. Tighten: Bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). 1 DRC6643 4-20 Timing Chain and Sprockets Tool Required: J 5825-A Crankshaft Sprocket Puller Measure: Check camshaft timing chain free play. If the camshaft timing chain can be moved back and forth in excess of 0.625 in. (16 mm), make a note that the camshaft timing chain should be replaced during assembly. Removal 2 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Camshaft sprocket bolts 2. Camshaft sprocket 2 and camshaft timing chain 1 . 3 together. The sprocket has a light interference fit on the camshaft. Tap the sprocket on its lower edge to loosen it. 3. Balance shaft drive gear. 23 4. Crankshaft sprocket 4 using J 5825-A. 5. Key 5 (if damaged). 2 DRC6633 3 DRC6615 4-21 Inspect: 1. Sprockets for chipped teeth and wear. Excessively worn sprockets will rapidly wear a new chain. 2. Camshaft timing chain for damage. An excessively worn chain will rapidly wear a new set of sprock 1 DRC6694 2 ets. Installation Tool Required: J 5590 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer Install or Connect: 1. Crankshaft key (if removed). 1 2. Crankshaft sprocket using J 5590. 3. Balance shaft drive gear. 4. Camshaft sprocket and camshaft timing chain. 2 Important Line up the sprocket alignment marks on the camshaft sprocket and crankshaft sprocket. The number 4 cylinder is at top dead center of the com pression stroke with the timing marks in this position. 3 5. Camshaft sprocket bolts 1 . Tighten: Bolts 21 ft. lb. (28 Nm). Camshaft Removal Remove or Disconnect: 1. Camshaft retainer bolts and camshaft retainer. 2. Camshaft. 4 a. Install three 5/16 - 18 (4.0 in.) long into the camshafts threaded holes. Use these bolts to handle the camshaft. 4 b. Pull the camshaft out from the block being careful to prevent damage to the camshaft bearings. DRC6634 3 DRC6633 4 DRC6635 4-22 Measure: Camshaft Journals. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Bearings Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for camshaft bearing disassembly, cleaning, inspection, and assembly. Installation Install or Connect: Coat the camshaft lobes and journals with a high quality GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Apply GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent to all the teeth on the distributor drive gear. 4 1. Two or three 5/16 - 18 (4.0 in.) long bolts into the camshaft threaded holes. Use these bolts to handle the camshaft. 4 2. Camshaft into the engine. Handle the camshaft carefully to prevent damage to the camshaft bearings. 3. Camshaft retainer and retainer bolts. . Coat camshaft retainer plate with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Tighten: Bolts to 124 in. lb. (14 Nm). Balance Shaft Removal Tools Required: J 38834 Balance Shaft Bearing Service Kit J 26941 Rear Balance Shaft Bearing Remover 5 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Bolt 2. Driven gear 1 . 2 . 3. Retainer bolts 4. Retainer 3 . 56 5. Balance shaft 5 . 4 using a soft faced hammer. 7 6. Balance shaft rear bearing using J 38834 and J 26941. 5 DRC6631 6 DRC6617 7 DRC6618 4-23 Inspect: . Balance shaft front roller bearing and rear sleeve bearing for damage or excessive wear. The bearings are serviced as an assembly. Use the proper tools for properly servicing the bearings. . Balance shaft drive and driven gears for nicks or burrs. Replace gears that are damaged. . Front and rear bearing journal diameters. Replace the balance shaft if the diameter exceeds the specifications. Refer to Specifications in this section. . Rear sleeve bearing journal clearance. Replace the balance shaft if the clearance exceeds the specification. Refer to Specifications in this section. Installation Tools Required: J 38834 Balance Shaft Bearing Service Kit J 36996 Balance Shaft Installer J 8092 Driver Handle J 36660 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent Install or Connect: 1. Dip bearing in clean engine oil before installation. 12 2. Balance shaft rear bearing using J 38834. 3 3. Balance shaft into block using J 36996 and J 8092. a. Dip the front balance shaft bearing into clean engine oil before assembly. b. Retaining ring on balance shaft front bearing must be seated on case. 4 4. Install balance shaft bearing retainer 3 and bolts 5 . Tighten: 4 Balance shaft retainer bolts to 124 in. lb. (14 Nm). 4 5. Balance shaft driven gear 52 and bolt 1 . Tighten: 4 Balance shaft driven gear bolt 1 to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) plus an additional turn of 35 degrees using J 36660 or equivalent. 4 Rotate balance shaft by hand to make sure there is 4 1 DRC6629 2 DRC6618 3 DRC6630 4 DRC6631 clearance between the balance shaft and retainer. If balance shaft does not rotate freely, check to be sure retaining ring on front bearing is seated in case. 4-24 Turn the camshaft with the balance shaft drive gear tem 5 porarily installed. The timing mark on the drive gear must be straight up. With the balance shaft drive gear removed, turn the bal 5 ance shaft so the timing mark on the driven gear points straight down. 6. Balance shaft drive gear onto camshaft. Important Make sure the timing marks on the balance shaft drive gear and driven gear line up. Pistons and Connecting Rods Removal Tool Required: J 5239 Guide Set Remove or Disconnect: 5 DRC6632 Before attempting to remove piston, refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cylinder bore ridge reamer procedures. 1. Mark the cylinder numbers on the tops of each piston. Mark them from the front to the rear, with the engine in an upright position and viewed from the front. . The right bank is numbered 1-3-5 . The left bank is numbered 2-4-6 2. Check the connecting rod and cap for identification marks. If reusing the connecting rods, mark the parts in the same way as the pistons. Important Store the connecting rod and cap together as mating parts, so they may be reassembled in the same wear pattern and balance in which they were removed. 3. Connecting rod nuts, cap and bearings. Important If reusing bearings, keep bearings with their original connecting rod and cap. 4-25 4. Connecting rod and piston. 1 a. Attach J 5239 to the connecting rod bolts. 1 b. Use the long guide rod J 5239 to push the connecting rod and piston out of the bore. Disassembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod disassembly. Assembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod assembly. Bearing Selection Important Connecting rod bearings are of the precision insert type and do not use shims for adjustment. DO NOT FILE RODS OR ROD CAPS. If clearances are excessive, install a new bearing. Service bearings are available in standard size 0.001 in. (0,0254 mm) and 0.002 in. (0,0508 mm) undersize for use with new and used standard size crankshafts. For reconditioned crankshafts 0.010 in. (0,254 mm) and 0.020 in. (0,508 mm) undersize bearings are available. Piston Selection Measuring the Piston Check the used piston to cylinder bore clearance, as follows: 2 1. Cylinder bore diameter. Use a telescoping bore gauge, located 2.5 in. (65 mm) below the top of the cylinder bore. 3 2. Piston diameter. Measure the skirt at a right angle to the piston pin hole, 1.0 in. (25 mm) below the oil ring groove. 1 DRC6619 DRC6507 J 8087 2 3 DRC6514 4-26 Measure piston diameter at 70 degrees F (20 degrees C). 3. Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore diameter to determine piston to bore clearance. 4. Locate the piston-to-bore clearance, refer to Engine Specifications. Determine if the piston-to-bore clearance is within the acceptable range. Piston Ring End Gap and Fit Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Important The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one block or cylinder to another, new connecting rod bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be renumbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. Installation Tools Required: J 5239 Connecting Rod Bolt Guide Set J 8037 Ring Compressor J 36660 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent Install or Connect: 1. Lubricate the cylinder walls lightly with engine oil. 2. Make sure the piston is installed in the matching cylinder. 3. Connecting rod bearings. a. Make sure the crankshaft bearings are the proper size. b. Install the crankshaft bearings in the connecting rod and connecting rod cap. c. Lubricate the bearings with engine oil. 4-27 4. Piston and connecting rod into the proper bore. 1 a. With the connecting rod cap removed, install J 5239 onto the connecting rod bolts. 2 b. Locate the piston ring end gaps. Lubricate the piston and rings with engine oil. 3 c. Without disturbing the ring end gap location, install J 8037 over the piston and compression rings. 2 d. The piston must be installed so that the notch in the piston faces the front of the engine. 1 e. Place the piston in its matching bore. The connecting rod bearing tang slots must be on the side opposite the camshaft. Using light blows with a hammer handle, tap the piston down into its bore. At the same time, from beneath the engine, guide the connecting rod on to the crankpin with J 5239. Hold the ring compressor against the block until all rings have entered the cylinder bore. 1 f. Remove J 5239 from the connecting rod bolts. Important Each connecting rod and bearing cap should be marked, beginning at the front of the engine. Cylinders 1, 3, and 5 are the right bank and 2, 4, and 6 are the left bank (when viewed from the front). The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one block or cylinder to another, new connecting rod bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. 5. Connecting rod cap with crankshaft bearing. 6. Connecting rod bolt nuts. Tighten: . Connecting rod bolt nuts to 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm). . Connecting rod bolt nuts an additional 70 degrees using J 36660 or equivalent. Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for connecting rod side clearance procedure. DRC6619 FORWARD B C D 1 DRC6627 B A A - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE SPACER OF THE OIL RING B - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE OIL RING C - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE LOWER COMPRESSION RING 2 D - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE UPPER COMPRESSION RING DRC6628 J 8037 3 4-28 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Removal Take care when removing the rear crankshaft oil seal so as not to damage the crankshaft sealing surface. Remove or Disconnect: 4 Insert a screwdriver into the notches provided in the seal retainer and pry the seal out. Installation Tool Required: J 35621 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer 5 Install or Connect: 1. Lubricate the inner and outer diameter of the oil seal with clean engine oil. 2. Install the oil seal on J 35621. 3. Position J 35621 against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft. 4. Tighten the screws securely with a screwdriver. This will ensure that the seal is installed squarely over the crankshaft. 5. Turn the handle until it bottoms. 6. Remove J 35621. Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Housing Removal 6 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Bolts and nuts. 2. Oil seal housing. 3. Gasket. Clean: Gasket surfaces on the block and seal retainer. 4 DRC6658 DRC6626 DRC6657 J 35621 5 6 4-29 Installation 1 Install or Connect: 1. New gasket to the block. It is not necessary to use sealant to hold the gasket in place. 1 DRC6657 2. Oil seal retainer. 3. Screws and nuts. Tighten: Screws and nuts to 11 ft. lb. (15 Nm). Crankshaft and Bearings Removal The crankshaft need not be removed for replacement of the rear oil seal or crankshaft bearings. Those procedures are covered in other parts of this section. Important Check the crankshaft bearing caps for location markings. Mark the caps if necessary. The caps must be returned to their original locations during assembly. Remove or Disconnect: 1. Crankshaft bearing cap bolts. 2. Crankshaft bearing caps and lower crankshaft bearings. 3. Crankshaft from the cylinder block with extreme care, taking care to avoid damage to crankshaft journals and thrust flange surfaces. 4. Upper crankshaft bearings. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cleaning, inspection, and measurements. Installation Install or Connect: 1. Upper crankshaft bearing to the block. Important If any undersized bearings are used, they must be fitted to the proper journals. 2. Crankshaft. 3. Lower crankshaft bearings to the crankshaft bearing caps. 4-30 Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for crankshaft bearing clearance procedures. 4. Apply engine oil to the crankshaft bearings. Install crankshaft bearing caps (except rear cap) and bolts to the block. Tighten: Crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 77 ft. lb. (105 Nm). 5. Rear crankshaft bearing cap. Apply engine oil to the crankshaft bearings. 6. Rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts. Tighten: Rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 124 in. lb. (14 Nm). Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for crankshaft end play procedure. Tighten: Finally tighten rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 77 ft. lb. (105 Nm). Cylinder Block Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: 1. Coolant drain fittings. 2. Camshaft and balance shaft cup plugs. 2 3. Front oil gallery cup plugs. 3 4. Port side oil gallery plugs. 4 5. Rear oil gallery plugs. Clean: 1. Sealing material from mating surfaces. 2. Boil cylinder block in caustic solution. . Flush with clean water or steam. 2 DRC6623 3 DRC6621 4 DRC6622 4-31 3. Cylinder bores. 4. Threaded holes. 5. Oil galleries and passages. 6. Scale deposits from coolant passages. 7. Spray or wipe cylinder bores and machined surfaces with engine oil. Inspect: 1. All block core plugs for lack of fit or leakage. 2. Camshaft lifter bores for deep scratches and deposits. 3. Cracks in the block . Cylinder walls. . Water jackets. . Engine mount bosses. . Crankshaft bearing webs. . Crankshaft bearing bores and caps. . All crankshaft bearing bores should be rounded and uniform in inside diameter (I.D.) at all of the bearing supports. . The area where the crankshaft bearings contact the crankshaft bearing bore should be smooth. . If a crankshaft bearing cap is found to be damaged, replace the cap and line bore the block. 1 4. Cylinder block head mounting surface for flatness, using a precision straight edge and feeler gauge. a. Set the straight edge on the sealing surface to be inspected. b. Take the feeler gauge and at various locations, check the gap between the straight edge and the sealing surface. c. If the gap is found to be greater than 0.004 in. (0,1016 mm) within 5.984 in. (152 mm) at any sealing location, the block must be replaced. 1 DRC6620 4-32 d. If the gap is found to be less than 0.004 in. (0,1016 mm) within 5.984 in. (152 mm) at any sealing location and a cause for leakage is suspected, then the minor irregularities may be carefully machined from the block. . Oil pan and intake manifold mounting surfaces for nicks. Minor irregularities may be cleaned up with a flat file. Cylinder Bore Inspect: Cylinder bores for scoring or other damage. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Measure: Cylinder bore taper and out-of-round. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Cylinder Bore Reconditioning Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Cylinder Block Assembly Install or Connect: 1. Front oil gallery plugs. Coat plug outside diameter with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. 34 2. Rear oil gallery plugs. Tighten: . Left rear plug to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). . Right rear plug to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). . Left side plug to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). 3. Camshaft and balance shaft cup plugs to proper depth. Coat bore inside diameter with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. Important Do not allow residue on camshaft bearing or seizure may result. 2 DRC6623 3 DRC6621 4 DRC6622 4-33 Circulating Pump Description The circulating pump is manufactured specially for marine use. It is serviced only as an assembly. Do not replace with an automotive circulating pump. Inspection 1. Remove alternator and power steering belts. 2. Grasp circulating pump pulley and check end and side play. Turn pulley to check for drag. 3. Look for water leaking from indicator hole beneath pump shaft behind pulley, Replace pump if play, drag, or leakage are evident. Removal and Installation 1. Drain water from block and disconnect water hose from circulating pump. 2. Remove pulley. Remove circulating pump bolts, pump and gaskets. 3. Use new pump to block gaskets and sealer. Install new pump assembly on cylinder block and tighten bolts as specified. 4. Install pulley. Install alternator and power steering belts, then adjust tension. 5. Install hose to circulating pump. 6. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. 4-34 Front Engine Mounts Removal 1 1. Remove two lag screws A and washers from mounts. 2. Lift engine with a hoist capable of lifting at least 1500 lb. (680 kg) to allow removal of front mount and bracket. 2 3. Remove three mount screws and lock washers B . Note screw lengths and location. 3 Prior to disassembly of front mount assembly, measure 1 distance and record measurement between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Disassembly 4 1. Remove three nuts C and engine mount bracket D from mount bolt while holding bolt secure with socket E . 5 2. Remove two flat washers, one large F and one smaller Remove lock washer H , and engine mount bolt G . I from mount. 2 3 11979 5 4 Reassembly 1 1. Place small washer A on mount bolt and insert bolt up through mount. Install large washer and secure with nut B . Tighten to 60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm). 2 2. Install upper inner nut and place engine mount bracket C on engine mount bolt. Measure distance between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Adjust distance to recorded measurement. 3. Install lock washer and top nut. Tighten nut to 100-120 ft. lb. (136163 Nm). Installation 3 1. Spray the engine mount screw threads with Loctite Primer N and allow to air dry. Apply Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent P/N 1161053 to the screws. Attach engine mount assembly to engine with three screws and washers D . Tighten to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). 4 2. Install washers and lag screws E and tighten securely. Height Adjustment 5 1. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts F as required. and G 2. Lift engine with a hoist capable of lifting at least 1500 lb. (680 kg). Position engine at desired height. 5 3. After setting mount position, turn nut G up against underside of engine bracket and hold nut with a wrench. Tighten nut F to 100120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm). Any large adjustments to engine height should be followed by 1 2 3 a check of engine alignment. Failure to check alignment could result in rapid engine coupler failure. See Drive Removal and Installation section of the Vertical Drive/Transom Bracket Service Manual for alignment procedures. 4 5 High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement Removal 6 1. Loosen two clamps securing upper hose to elbow. Lubricate inside of hose with a soapy water solution. 7 2. Starboard Elbow: Remove four screws, flat washers, and lock washers mounting high-rise elbow. Remove circuit breaker bracket H and set aside. 3. Port Elbow - EFI Models Only: Remove fuel reservoir water hose and set aside. Remove four screws, flat washers, and lock washers mounting high-rise elbow. 89 4. Use a soft hammer to free elbow from manifold. Use a twisting motion to pull elbow from hose. Remove and discard the elbow gasket. Installation 1. Thoroughly clean manifold gasket surface. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides of a new manifold gasket and place it on the exhaust manifold. 9 10 2. Lubricate the inside of the exhaust hose with a soapy water solution. Insert the high-rise elbow into the hose with a twisting motion, and push it into hose as far as it will go. 6 7 8 34716 10 9 4-37 1 3. Position elbow on manifold. Secure elbows and brackets with four screws, flat washers, and lock washers. Tighten screws to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). Starboard Elbow: Install circuit breaker bracket A . Port Elbow: Install fuel reservoir water hose. Tighten clamp securely. 2 4. Slide clamps B up onto hose and position them in the two surface channels. Tighten clamps securely. Exhaust Hose & Intermediate Pipe Replacement Removal 3 1. Loosen eight clamps that secure the upper C and lower exhaust hoses. 4 2. Lubricate inside of lower hose with a soapy water solution, and slide lower hose down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 5 3. Twist intermediate pipe out of upper hose. Lubricate inside of upper hose if necessary to ease removal. D 4. Slide upper hose off high-rise elbow. Slide lower hose off exhaust Y- pipe. 1 2 3 32375 4 5 Installation 6 1. Lubricate inside diameter of 3.5 in. (8.89 cm) I.D. lower hose with a soapy water solution. Slide it all the way onto the exhaust Y-pipe. The inside diameter of both the upper and lower hoses has a step E 1.5 in. (3.81 cm) from one end. The stepped end of the hose must face the intermediate pipe when installed. 2. Slide hose onto high-rise elbow until it seats. If hose is not properly positioned, it will not completely engage the high-rise elbow or allow secure attachment. 35 3. Place four No. 68 clamps on upper hose. With a twisting motion, insert intermediate pipe all the way into the upper hose. Place four No. 64 clamps on lower hose. Align lower end of pipe with exhaust Y-pipe, then slide lower hose up until its halfway onto the intermediate pipe. Position clamps in channels and tighten clamps securely. Engine Coupler Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine from boat. If coupler is being replaced due to coupler failure (rubber hub of splined hub), check engine alignment after installing new coupler. See Drive Removal and Installation section of the Vertical Drive/Transom Bracket Service Manual. 2. Disconnect all wires, lines and connectors from bellhousing. 89 3. Remove screws securing bellhousing cover, and slide cover out. 6 7 20034 19085 8 9 1 4. Pull drain hose out of bellhousing if equipped. 2 5. Unscrew bolts and nuts retaining bellhousing. Disconnect ground wires. Remove power steering cooler bracket. 6. Remove bellhousing from engine block. 3 7. Unscrew six nuts securing coupler and remove coupler from studs. 8. Remove old gasket from bellhousing cover. Clean gasket surface 1 19842 thoroughly. Installation 4 1. Install coupler and secure with six locknuts. Use a suitable adaptor and tighten to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 5 2. Install bellhousing and attach power steering cooler. Tighten nuts and bolts to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). Attach ground wires and tighten nuts to 15-20 ft. lb. (20-27 Nm). 3. Push drain hose into bellhousing if equipped. 2 6710 4. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound P/N 591247 to both sides of a new bellhousing gasket and position it on cover. 5 5. Clean seven self-tapping screws with a wire brush. Install bellhousing cover and screws. Tighten to 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm). 6. Connect all wires, lines and connectors to bellhousing. 7. Install engine in boat. 3 6712 4 5 4-40 Torque Specifications Balance Shaft Driven Gear Bolt ............................................................................ 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) (Plus 35 degrees) Balance Shaft Retainer Bolts ............................................................................................................ 124 in. lb. (14 Nm) Bell Housing Cover Screws .......................................................................................................... 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm) Bell Housing Nuts and Bolts....................................................................................................... 32-40 ft. lb. 43-54 Nm) Block Drain Plug .................................................................................................................................. 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Block Oil Gallery Plug, Left Rear .........................................................................................................15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Block Oil Gallery Plug, Right Rear......................................................................................................18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Block Oil Gallery Plug, Left Side Rear.................................................................................................15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Camshaft Retainer Bolt ..................................................................................................................... 124 in. lb. (14 Nm) Camshaft Sprocket Bolts ...................................................................................................................... 21 ft. lb. (28 Nm) Connecting Rod Nut............................................................................................... 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) (Plus 70 degrees) Crankshaft Balancer Bolt....................................................................................................................74 ft. lb. (100 Nm) Crankshaft Bearing Cap Bolt..............................................................................................................77 ft. lb. (105 Nm) Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Housing Nut and Bolt ................................................................................. 11 ft. lb. (15 Nm) Cylinder Head Bolt First Pass .......................................................................................................................................22 ft. lb. (30 Nm) Second Pass Torque Angle all Bolts in Sequence: Short Length Bolt .............................................................................................................................. 55 degrees Medium Length Bolt .......................................................................................................................... 65 degrees Long Length Bolt ............................................................................................................................... 75 degrees Engine Coupler Nuts .................................................................................................................. 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm) Engine Mount Screws................................................................................................................32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm) Exhaust Manifold Screws ..........................................................................................................20-26 ft. lb. (27-35 Nm) Front Cover Bolt ................................................................................................................................ 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Front Mount Nut Lower.................................................................................................................................60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm) Upper.......................................................................................................................... 100-120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm) 4-41 Torque Specifications High Rise Elbow Nuts ................................................................................................................ 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm) Intake Manifold Bolts First Pass ........................................................................................................................................ 27 in. lb. (3 Nm) Second Pass...............................................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Final Pass ...................................................................................................................................... 11 ft. lb. (15 Nm) Oil Pan Nuts ................................................................................................................................................ 17 ft. lb. (23 Nm) Bolts ............................................................................................................................................... 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Studs in Engine Block ....................................................................................................................18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Oil Pump Bolt ....................................................................................................................................... 66 ft. lb. (90 Nm) Oil Pump Cover Bolt ..........................................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Spark Plugs Cylinder Head (New) ...................................................................................................................... 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm) Cylinder Head (All Subsequent Installation) ................................................................................. 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Valve Lifter Guide Retainer Bolt...........................................................................................................12 ft. lb. (16 Nm) Valve Rocker Arm Cover Bolts ..........................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Valve Rocker Arm Nut...........................................................................................................................20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) Valve Rocker Arm Stud ......................................................................................................................... 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm) 4-42 Engine Specifications ENGINE Type ...................................................................................................................................................... 90 Degree V6 Displacement ...................................................................................................................................... 4.3L (262 CID) Bore .............................................................................................................................................4.00 in. (101.6 mm) Stroke ........................................................................................................................................3.480 in. (88.39 mm) Compression Ratio ............................................................................................................................................. 9.2:1 Firing Order .............................................................................................................................................. 1-6-5-4-3-2 LUBRICATION SYSTEM Oil Capacity Without Filter Change ..................................................................................................................... 4 Qt. (3.75 Liters) With Filter Change Add............................................................................................................0.42 Qt. (0.398 Liters) Oil Pressure (Minimum Hot) ....................................................................... 6.0 PSI (41.4 kPa) at 1,000 engine RPM 18.0 PSI (24.1 kPa) at 2,000 engine RPM 24.0 PSI (165.5 kPa) at 4,000 engine RPM Oil Filter System .............................................................................................................................................. Full Flow Oil Pump Type ............................................................................................................................................ Gear Driven CYLINDER BORE Diameter .............................................................................................. 4.0007 - 4.0017 in. (101.618 - 101.643 mm) Out-of-Round ................................................................................................................ 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) MAX. Taper .............................................................................................................................. 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. PISTON Piston Bore Clearance.............................................................................................. 0.0024 in. (0.06096 mm) MAX. PISTON RINGS Piston Compression Ring Groove Clearance ............................................................................................................... 0.0042 in. (0.10668 mm) Gap ................................................................................................................................. 0.035 in. (0.889 mm) MAX. Piston Oil Ring Groove Clearance ......................................................................................................... 0.008 in. (0.2032 mm) MAX. Gap ............................................................................................................................................0.065 in. (1.651 mm) OIL PAN Engine Block Clearance Tolerance ......................................................................................................................... 0.010 in. (0.254 mm) MAX. 4-43 Engine Specifications PISTON PIN Diameter ...................................................................................................... 0.927 - 0.926 in. (23,545 - 23,548 mm) Clearance in Piston ..................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0,0254 mm) MAX. Fit In Connecting Rod .................................................. 0.0008 - 0.0016 in. (0,02032 - 0,04064 mm) Interference INTAKE MANIFOLD Surface Flatness ............................................................................................................ 0.010 in. (0.254 mm) MAX. CYLINDER HEAD Surface Flatness .......................................................................................................... 0.004 in. (0.1016 mm) MAX. CRANKSHAFT Crankshaft Journal Diameter #1 ............................................................................................2.4488 - 2.4495 in. (62.199 - 62.217 mm) Diameter #2, #3 ......................................................................................2.4485 - 2.4494 in. (62.192 - 62.215 mm) Diameter #4 ........................................................................................... 2.4480 - 2.4489 in. (62.180 - 62.202 mm) Taper ............................................................................................................................ 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Out-of-Round ............................................................................................................. 0.0010 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Crankshaft Bearing Clearance Bearing #1...............................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0015 in. (0.0254 - 0.0381 mm) Bearings #2, #3 ......................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0025 in. (0.0254 - 0.0635 mm) Bearing #4...............................................................................................0.0025 - 0.0035 in. (0.0635 - 0.0889 mm) Crankshaft End Play ....................................................................................... 0.002 - 0.008 in. (0.0508 - 0.2032 mm) CONNECTING ROD Connecting Rod Journal Diameter .................................................................................................. 2.2487 - 2.2497 in. (57.117 - 57.142 mm) Taper ............................................................................................................................ 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Out-of-Round ............................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Rod Bearing Clearance ..........................................................................0.0010 - 0.0030 in. (0.0254 - 0.0762 mm) Rod Side Clearance .................................................................................. 0. 006 - 0.017 in. (0.1524 - 0.4318 mm) CAMSHAFT Journal Diameter ......................................................................................... 1.8677 - 1.8697 in. (47.440 - 47.490 mm) End Play ........................................................................................................... 0.001 - 0.009 in. (0.0254 - 0.2286 mm) Lobe Lift ................................................................................................................................ 0.002 in. ( 0.051 mm) Intake................................................................................................................................... 0.2763 in. (0.7180 mm) Exhaust ............................................................................................................................... 0.2855 in. (0.7252 mm) BALANCE SHAFT Front Bearing Journal Diameter ............................................................ 2.1648 - 2.1654 in. (55.985 - 55.001 mm) Rear Bearing Journal Diameter ............................................................... 1.4994 - 1.500 in. (38.084 - 38.100 mm) Rear Bearing Journal Clearance ...........................................................0.001 - 0.0036 in. (0.0254 - 0.09144 mm) 4-44 Engine Specifications VALVE SYSTEM Valve Lifter ....................................................................................................................................... Hydraulic Roller Valve Rocker Arm Ratio .................................................................................................................................. 1.50:1 Valve Lash Net Lash .......................................................................................................................... No Adjustment Face Angle ................................................................................................................................................ 45 degree Seat Angle ................................................................................................................................................. 46 degree Seat Runout ................................................................................................................. 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) MAX. Seat Width Intake............................................................................................................... 0.040 - 0.065 in. (1.016 - 1.651 mm) Exhaust ........................................................................................................... 0.065 - 0.098 in. (1.651 - 2.489 mm) Stem Clearance Intake.............................................................................................. High Limit Production + 0.001 in. (0.0257 mm) Exhaust .......................................................................................... High Limit Production + 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) Valve Spring Free Length..................................................................................................................................... 2.03 in. (52 mm) Installed Height ............................................................................................... 1.690 - 1.710 in. (42.92 - 43.43 mm) Spring Pressure Closed ............................................................................................... 76 - 84 lb. at 1.70 in. (338 - 374 N at 43 mm) Open .............................................................................................. 832 - 187 - 203 lb. at 1.27 in. (903 N at 32 mm) Valve Lift Intake........................................................................................................................................0.414 in. (10.51 mm) Exhaust ....................................................................................................................................0.428 in. (10.87 mm) Engine Lubrication: Oil Grade Recommended 32 F (0 C) and Above ............................................................................................................................ SAE 30 0 F to 32 F (-18 C to 0 C) ......................................................................................................... SAE 20W-20 Below 0 F (-18 C) .............................................................................................................................. SAE 10W We recommend DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil, which is specially formulated for heavy duty marine use, and ideal for stern drive engines. It provides better antiwear qualities, especially during long high speed operation. In addition, it neutralizes acids caused in all internal combustion engines, offers superior corrosion protection, and is formulated to offer better resistance to oxidation and high temperature sludge formation. Fuel Recommendation ................... See General Information Section 4-45 GM Special Tools 1 Pliers, Valve Lifter Remover 2 Connecting Rod Bolt Guide Set 3 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer 4 Crankshaft Sprocket Remover 5 Dial Indicator Set 6 Piston Ring Compressor 7 Valve Spring Compressor 8 Driver Handle DRC6596 DRC6597 DRC6598 DRC6602 DRC6599 DRC6600 DRC6601 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRC6603 4-46 GM Special Tools 1 Hydraulic Valve Lifter Remover 2 Oil Suction Pipe Installer 3 Straight Edge 4 Rear Main Seal Installer 5 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent 6 Balance Shaft Installer 7 Balance Shaft Bearing Service Kit 8 Harmonic Balancer Remover/Installer DRC6604 DRC6605 DRC6606 DRC6610 DRC6607 DRC6608 DRC6609 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRC6611 4-47 4-48 Section 5 5.0 GL and Gi Engines 5.7 GS and GSi Engines Table of Contents Accessories .............................................................. 5-6 Balancer, Crankshaft.............................................. 5-17 Camshaft ................................................................. 5-25 Circulating Pump.................................................... 5-38 Cleaning .................................................................... 5-4 Crankshaft and Bearings ....................................... 5-31 Cylinder Block ........................................................ 5-35 Cylinder Head ......................................................... 5-14 Engine Coupler Replacement ......................................... 5-42 Draining ................................................................. 5-6 Front Cover .......................................................... 5-23 Front Mounts ....................................................... 5-39 Lubrication ............................................................ 5-4 Exhaust High-Rise Elbow Replacement........................... 5-40 Hose Replacement .............................................. 5-41 Manifold ................................................................. 5-7 General Description ................................................. 5-2 GM Special Tools....................................................5-50 Intake Manifold ......................................................... 5-8 Intermediate Pipe Replacement ............................ 5-41 Material Required ..................................................... 5-3 Oil Filter ................................................................... 5-20 Oil Pan ..................................................................... 5-18 Oil Pump ................................................................. 5-20 Pistons and Connecting Rods .............................. 5-27 Rear Oil Seal, Crankshaft ...................................... 5-30 Rear Oil Seal Housing, Crankshaft ....................... 5-31 Rocker Arm Cover .................................................. 5-10 Rocker Arm Stud Replacement ............................. 5-15 Specifications Engine .................................................................. 5-46 Torque .................................................................. 5-44 Timing Chain and Sprockets ................................. 5-24 Tools and Shop Equipment ..................................... 5-6 Valve Train .............................................................. 5-11 5 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Always use the correct fastener in the proper location. When you replace a fastener, use ONLY the exact part number for that application. The text will call out those fasteners that require replacement after removal. The text will also call out the fasteners that require thread lockers or thread sealant. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, do not use supplement coatings (paints, greases, or other corrosion inhibitors) on threaded fasteners or fastener joint interfaces. Generally, such coatings adversely affect the fastener torque and the joint clamping force, and may damage the fastener. When you install fasteners, use the correct tightening sequence and tightening specifications. Following these instructions can help you avoid damage to parts and systems. 5-1 General Description Cylinder Block The engine block is made of cast iron and has eight cylinders arranged in a V shape with four cylinders in each bank. It is a one piece casting with the cylinders encircled by coolant jackets. Cylinder Head The cylinder heads are cast iron. The valve guides and valve seats are machined surfaces integral to the head. The spark plugs are located between the intake and exhaust ports. Camshaft A steel camshaft is supported by five bearings pressed into the engine block. The camshaft sprocket, mounted to the front of the camshaft is driven by the crankshaft sprocket through a camshaft timing chain. Motion from the camshaft is transmitted to the valves by hydraulic roller valve lifters, valve push rods, and ball-pivot type rocker arms. Crankshaft The crankshaft is made of cast nodular iron. It is supported by five crankshaft bearings that are retained by crankshaft bearing caps which are machined with the block for proper alignment and clearances. Light duty 5.0L and 5.7L engines have two bolts per cap. Heavy duty 5.7L engines have four bolts per cap on caps two, three, and four. The number five crankshaft bearing at the rear of the engine is the end thrust bearing. Four connecting rod journals (two rods per journal) are spaced 90 degrees apart. Pistons and Connecting Rods The pistons are cast aluminum that use two compression rings and one oil control ring assembly. The piston is a low-friction, lightweight design with a flat top and barrel-shaped skirt. The piston pins are chromium steel. They have a floating fit in the piston and are retained by a press fit in the connecting rod assembly. The connecting rods are made out of either forged powdered metal or forged steel. They are machined with the rod cap installed for proper clearances and alignment. Lubrication The gear-type oil pump is driven through an extension driveshaft. The extension driveshaft is driven by the distributor which is gear driven by the camshaft. The oil is drawn from the oil pan through a pickup screen and tube. Pressurized oil is delivered through internal passages to lubricate camshaft and crankshaft bearings and to provide valve lash control in the hydraulic valve lifters. Oil is metered from the valve lifters through the valve push rods to lubricate the valve rocker arms and ball pivots. Oil returning to the oil pan from the cylinder heads and the front camshaft bearing, lubricates the camshaft timing chain and crankshaft and camshaft sprockets. 5-2 Valve Train The valve train is a ball pivot type. Motion is transmitted from the camshaft through hydraulic roller valve lifters and tubular valve push rods to the valve rocker arms. The valve rocker arm pivots on a ball to open the valve. The hydraulic roller valve lifters keep all parts of the valve train in constant contact. The valve rocker arm ball is retained on the valve rocker arm stud with a locking nut. The valve rocker arm studs are pressed into the cylinder head. Intake Manifold The intake manifold is a single piece design. It supports either a throttle body or multiple injectors to meter and distribute fuel to each engine cylinder. Materials Required DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent 3M Scotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141 GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367 GM Sealant, P/N 12346004 GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382 Loctite Primer Black Neoprene Dip 5-3 Cleaning Before cleaning the engine, remove the engine accessories to provide better access to the engines exterior surfaces. After removing the throttle body, distributor, etc., cover the openings with tape to prevent the entry of coolant, solvent, or dirt. Methods used to clean the engine will depend on what equipment is available. Steam cleaning, pressure washing, or solvent cleaning are some acceptable methods. Allow the engine to dry before beginning the work. It is important that the engine be as clean as possible to prevent dirt from entering critical areas during disassembly. Engine Lubrication 1 3 Full pressure lubrication, through a full-flow oil filter is supplied by a gear-type oil pump. Oil is drawn up through the oil pump screen and passes through the pump to the oil filter. The oil filter is a full-flow paper element unit with an anti-drain back valve. An oil filter bypass valve is used to ensure adequate oil supply, in the event the filter becomes plugged or develops excessive pressure drop. Filtered oil flows into the main gallery and then to the camshaft, rear bearing, and crankshaft bearings. The valve lifter oil gallery supplies oil to the valve lifters. Oil flows from the valve lifters through the hollow valve push rods to the valve rocker arms. Oil drains back to the crankcase through oil drain holes in the cylinder head. The camshaft timing chain is drip fed from the front camshaft bearing. The pistons and piston pins are lubricated by oil splash. 5-4 12 DRC6612 DRC6614 Front View Rear View DRC6613 Stbd View 5-5 Tools and Shop Equipment A clean, well lit work area should be available. Other necessary equipment includes: a suitable parts cleaning tank, compressed air supply, trays to keep parts and fasteners organized, and an adequate set of hand tools. An approved engine repair stand will help prevent personal injury or damage to engine components. Special tools are illustrated throughout this section and listed at its end. These tools (or their equivalents) are specially designed to quickly and safely accomplish the operations for which they are intended. The use of these tools will also minimize possible damage to engine components. Some precision measuring tools are required for inspection of certain critical components. Torque wrenches will be necessary to correctly tighten various fasteners. Those fasteners will be called out within this section. Accessories This manual assumes that the engine accessories have been removed. These accessories may include one or more of the following: Power Steering Pump Alternator Distributor Water Supply Pump Accessory Brackets and Electrical Wiring Starter Motor It is beyond the scope of this section to detail the many different accessory installations. Refer to the proper Service Manual for this information. Diagrams of vacuum hose routing, wiring harness routing, ac cessory drive belt layout, etc., should be made before removing these components. Draining The Engine Follow the procedures in Section 1, General Information of this manual to drain crankcase engine oil and the cooling system. 5-6 Exhaust Manifold Removal 1. Drain water from exhaust manifolds. 2. Disconnect water hose from manifold. 3. Loosen upper exhaust hose clamps, then remove high rise elbow. 4. Remove manifold attaching screws. Remove manifold. Inspection 1. Inspect for cracks. 1 2. To pressure check manifold, use a plate such as pictured A and a new elbow gasket B to seal water passage in manifold. Be sure to apply sealer to gasket. Install rubber drain caps to manifold and secure with clamps. Attach a Gearcase Pressure Tester C (such as Stevens Company S-34) to the water inlet hose. A bushing can be made to secure pressure tester to hose. With the pressure tester attached to the manifold, submerge manifold in water. Pressurize the manifold to 10-15 PSI (22-25 kPa) and check for leaks. Manifold should not leak around clamps and plate. If so, retighten clamps or reseal plate. No drop in DR2642 pressure should be realized. Installation 2 1. Clean mating surfaces on manifold and head. Install new exhaust gasket, then install manifold and secure with screws. Tighten screws D to 20-26 ft. lb. (27-35 Nm). 2. Install a new gasket and high rise elbow to manifold. Tighten bolts to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). 3. Install exhaust hose and secure with clamps. 2 4. Connect water hose. 5. Start engine and check for fuel leaks. A B C 1 Intake Manifold Removal 12 1. Drain coolant from manifolds and both sides of block. 2. Disconnect: a. Battery cables from battery. b. Coolant hoses at thermostat housing. 1 c. Throttle cable from throttle body and anchor block. d. Crankcase ventilation hose and PCV Valve from rocker arm covers (both sides). e. Wire at temperature gauge sender unit and engine wiring harness from alternator. f. Distributor high tension and ignition primary leads from coil. 3. Remove: 3 a. Distributor cap and mark the position of the rotor on the housing. Scribe a line on distributor housing and intake manifold 2 for reassembly in the same position. Remove the distributor. b. Alternator and alternator mounting bracket from engine. c. Fuel lines from throttle body and fuel pump/vapor separator assembly. d. Oil pressure sending unit. e. Manifold attaching bolts. Lift manifold from engine. Discard front and rear seals and gaskets. f. If manifold is to be replaced, transfer: throttle body and ECM bracket, thermostat and housing (use new gasket), throttle 3 cable anchor block assembly, distributor clamp and temperature sending unit. Transfer additional hardware as required. Clean: Old pieces of gasket or RTV from the gasket surfaces. Excessive carbon build-up in the intake passages of the intake manifold. Scale and deposits from the coolant passages of the intake manifold. Installation Important Do NOT reuse intake manifold gaskets. Install or Connect: 1. Sealant to the intake manifold gasket, cylinder head side. Care must be used to apply the correct amount of sealant onto the gasket. Applying excessive amounts of sealant may prohibit the intake gasket from sealing properly. 34 2. Gaskets onto the cylinder head. a. Use gasket locator pins to properly seat gasket on the cylinder head. b. Apply a 0.499 in. (13 mm) bead of GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141, or equivalent to the front and rear block sealant areas. 5 c. Extend the sealer bead 0.157 in. (4 mm) onto each gasket. 3. GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382, or equivalent to the threads of the eight lower intake mounting bolts. 4. Lower intake manifold onto engine block. 5. Lower intake manifold bolts. Tighten: 6 Bolts in three steps, using the following sequence. a. The first pass to 27 in. lb. (3 Nm). Snug all bolts to minimize shifting of the intake. b. The second pass to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). c. Final pass to 11 ft. lb. (15 Nm). 3 DRC6591 4 DRC6592 5 DRC6590 6 DRC6593 5-9 d. Distributor with rotor and aligned exactly as marked during removal. If engine was cranked while distributor was out, complete igni tion timing procedure must be followed. See the appropriate Ignition Circuit in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Systems Service Manual. e. Alternator with mounting bracket. f. Distributor cap and high tension leads. See the General Information section in Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual for correct firing order and spark plug wire routing. g. Oil pressure sending unit. a. All electrical connections. Apply Black Neoprene Dip or 6. Connect: equivalent on all exposed connections. b. Fuel lines to throttle body and fuel pump/vapor separator. c. Throttle cable. d. All water hoses, and close all drain plugs. e. Crankcase ventilation hose and PCV Valve. f. Battery cables. g. Start engine. Check ignition timing. Check for leaks. Rocker Arm Cover Removal 1 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. 2. Valve rocker arm cover. 3. Gasket. 1 DRC6647 Clean: Parts in solvent. Remove all sludge and varnish. Old gaskets from the gasket surfaces. Inspect: Gasket flanges for bending or damage. Rubber grommets and parts for deterioration. Installation Install or Connect: 1. New gasket. 2. Valve rocker arm cover. 3. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. Tighten: Bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Valve Train Removal Important Store all reusable components in an exact order, so they can be reassembled in the same wear pattern location from which they were removed. Mark the front end of the retainer. Remove or Disconnect: Tools Required: J 3049-A Valve Lifter Removal (Plier Type) J 9290-01 Valve Lifter Removal (Slide Hammer Type) Every effort should be made to ensure that the mating parts are installed in their original locations during assembly. A simple valve train component organizer rack can be made from a piece of wood. 1. Valve rocker arm nuts, balls, and valve rocker arms. 2. Valve push rods. 2 DRC6648 3 DRC6650 5-11 1 3. Valve lifter guide retainer and bolts. 1 4. Valve lifter guides. 5. Valve lifters. Remove the valve lifters one at a time using a magnet. Place the valve lifters in the organizer rack, or tag them in a way to ensure they can be returned to the valve lifter bore from which they were removed. 23 Some valve lifters may be stuck in their bores due to gum or varnish deposits. These valve lifters can be removed using either J 3049-A or J 9290-01. Clean: Parts in solvent. Blow dry with compressed air. Make sure the oil passages in the valve push rods are clear. Inspect: Valve rocker arms and balls at their mating surfaces. These surfaces should be smooth and free from scoring or other damage. Valve rocker arms areas that contact the valve stems and the sockets that contact the valve push rods. These areas should be smooth and free of damage and wear. Valve rocker arm nuts or bolts. Important All engines use prevailing torque nuts. At least 55 in. lb. (6.2 Nm) of torque should be required to thread the nuts onto the valve rocker arm studs. If not, it is possible that the nut(s) could back off during engine operation causing a loss of lash and create valve train noise. 1 DRC6649 2 DRC6651 3 DRC6586 5-12 Installation Important Replace all valve roller lifters, change the engine oil and filter, and add GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent to the engine oil whenever a new camshaft is installed. Lubricate the valve lifter bodies and roller with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Install or Connect: 1. Valve lifters in same location from which they were removed. 1 2. Valve lifter guides, valve lifter guide retainer and valve lifter guide retainer bolts. Valve lifter guide retainer must contact all valve lifter guides. If valve lifter guide retainer is bent it must be replaced. Tighten: Bolts to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). 3. Coat valve rocker arm and rocker arm ball bearing surfaces with prelube, GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent, when installing. Keep these components and valve push rods in same sequence to ensure their return to the original position from which they were removed. 4 4. Valve push rods. Make sure valve push rods seat in valve lifter sockets. 5 5. Valve rocker arms, balls, and nuts. Valve Adjustment Adjust: 1. Valve rocker arm nuts until all lash is eliminated. 2. Turn crankshaft until cast arrow on crankshaft balancer hub is in 12 oclock position and number 1 cylinder is in firing position (top dead center). Watch number 1 cylinder valves as crankshaft balancer hub arrow approaches 12 oclock position. If a valve moves as arrow moves to position, engine assembly is in number 6 cylinder firing position. Crankshaft must then be turned one more time to reach number 1 cylinder firing position. 4 DRC6650 5 DRC6648 5-13 3. With engine assembly in number 1 cylinder firing position, following valves can be adjusted. Exhaust 1, 3, 4, 8 Intake 1, 2, 5, 7 1 4. Back off valve rocker arm nut until lash is felt in valve push rod. Then tighten valve rocker arm nut until all lash is removed. Zero lash can be felt by moving valve push rod up and down between thumb and forefinger until there is no more movement. 5. When all free play has been removed, tighten valve rocker arm nut one additional turn (360 degrees). 6. Turn crankshaft one revolution until hub arrow is again at 12 oclock position. This is number 6 cylinder firing position. Following valves can now be adjusted: Exhaust 2, 5, 6, 7 Intake 3, 4, 6, 8 Cylinder Head Cylinder Head Removal Remove or Disconnect: 1. Spark plugs. 2. Cylinder head bolts. 3. Cylinder heads. 4. Head gaskets. Important Use care when handling the cylinder heads, to prevent damage to the gasket sealing surfaces. Cylinder Head Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: Tool Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor 23 1. Valve keys. Compress the valve springs with J 8062. Remove the valve keys and tool J 8062. 1 DRC6673 2 DRC6595 3 DRC6663 5-14 2. Caps and springs. 3. Valve stem oil seals, valves, and components. Place them in a rack so they can be returned to their original position at assembly. Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Rocker Arm Stud Replacement Tools Required: J 5802-01 Valve Rocker Arm Stud Removal J 5715 Reamer 0.003 in. (0.0762 mm) oversize) J 6036 Reamer 0.013 in. (0.3302 mm) oversize) J 6880 Valve Rocker Arm Stud Installation Valve rocker arm studs that have damaged threads or are loose in cylinder heads should be replaced. New studs are available in 0.003 in. (0.0762 mm) and 0.013 in. (0.3302 mm) oversize. 1. Place J 5802-01 over the stud to be removed. Install a nut and flat washer. Remove the stud by turning the nut. 2. Ream the hole to the proper size for the replacement oversize stud. Use J 5715 for 0.003 in. (0.0762 mm) oversize studs, J 6036 for 0.013 in. (0.3302 mm) oversize studs. 3. Coat lower end (press-fit area) of stud with hypoid axle lubri cant. Drive the stud into place with a hammer and J 6880. Stud is installed to proper depth when the tool bottoms on the cylinder head. Cylinder Head Assembly Tools Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor Install or Connect: 1. Valves. Lubricate the valve stems with clean engine oil. Insert the valves into their proper location. 2. Oil seals. lnstall the oil sealsover the valve stems and seat them against the cylinder head. 3. Valve springs. DRC6664 DRC6665 DRC6666 J 5802-01 J 5715 or J 6036 J 6880 4 5 6 4 5 6 5-15 4. Valve Keys. 1 a. Compress the valve spring, using J 8062. Compress the spring enough so the lower valve stem grooves can be clearly seen. b. Apply a small amount of grease to the area of the upper valve stem groove. Assemble the two valve keys using the grease to hold the keys in place. Make sure the keys seat properly in the valve stem grooves. c. Release the compressor tool. Make sure the valve keys stay in place. d. Repeat the preceding steps on the remaining valves. Measure: 1. Valve spring installed height of each valve spring as follows: 2 3 2. Use a narrow, thin scale. A cut away scale A may be helpful. 3. Measure from the cylinder head spring seat to the top of the cap. Cylinder Head Installation Tool Required: J 36660 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent Clean: Gasket surfaces on block and cylinder head. Inspect: 1. Head gasket onto engine block. 2. Place the gasket in position over the cylinder head dowel pins aligning the gasket locating mark facing up. 3. Cylinder head onto block. Carefully guide the cylinder head into place over the dowel pins and head gasket. DRC6663 DRC6667 1 2 54 1 2 3 DRC6668 5-16 4. Coat threads of cylinder head bolts with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. 5. Cylinder head bolts. Tighten: 4 1. In sequence first pass to 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm). 4 2. In sequence final pass using J 36660 or equivalent to: Short bolts - (3,4,7,8,11,12,15,16) 55 degrees. Medium bolts - (14,17) 65 degrees. Long bolts - (1,2,5,6,9,10,13) 75 degrees. Crankshaft Balancer Removal Tool Required: J 39046 Crankshaft Balancer Remover The inertial weight section of the crankshaft balancer is as sembled to the hub with a rubber sleeve. The removal procedures must be followed (with the proper tools) or movement of the inertial weight section of the hub will destroy the tuning of the crankshaft balancer and the engine timing reference. Remove or Disconnect: 1. Crankshaft balancer bolt and washer. 5 2. Crankshaft balancer using J 39046. 3. Crankshaft key (if necessary). Inspect: Crankshaft balancer weight for signs of shifting on the hub. Replace as needed. The area of the crankshaft hub shaft that contacts the front crankshaft seal for roughness or nicks. Replace the balancer if this condition exists. If balancer is replaced, new balance weights of the same size must be installed on the new balancer in the same location as the old balancer. 4 DRC6672 5 DRC6671 5-17 Installation Tool Required: J 39046 Crankshaft Balancer Installer Install or Connect: The inertial weight section of the crankshaft balancer is as sembled to the hub with a rubber type material. The correct installation procedures (with the proper tool) must be followed or movement of the inertial weight section of the hub will destroy the tuning of the crankshaft balancer. 1. Use a small amount of RTV sealant to seal the balancer keyway to crankshaft joint. 1 2. Crankshaft balancer hub, until completely seated using J 39046. 3. Remove tool J 39046. 4. Bolt and washer into front of crankshaft. Tighten: Bolt to 74 ft. lb. (100 Nm). Oil Pan Removal 2 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Oil pan bolts, nuts, and studs. 2. Oil pan reinforcements. 3. Oil pan. 4. Oil pan gasket. Clean: Parts in solvent. Remove all sludge and varnish. Old gaskets and RTV sealant from the gasket surfaces. 1 DRC6671 2 DRC6637 5-18 Inspect: Gasket flanges for bending or damage. Oil pan for damage or cracks. Drain plug threads for stripping. Installation Install or Connect: 34 1. Apply a small amount of GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141, or 3 equivalent, to engine front cover and engine block junction, and to crankshaft rear oil seal housing and engine block junction. Apply sealer 1.0 in. (25 mm) in either direction of radius cavity of junctions. 2. Oil pan gasket, oil pan and reinforcements. 3. Oil pan nuts, bolts and studs. Tighten: 2 Corner bolts or stud, and nuts to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). Remainder of bolts and studs to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). 4. Oil pan drain plug and gasket. 4 Tighten: Oil pan drain plug to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). DRC6639 DRC6640 5-19 Oil Filter Removal 1 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Oil filter. 2. Oil filter adapter bolts and washers. 3. Oil filter adapter and oil filter adapter gasket. Inspect: Oil filter adapter bypass valve and spring for operation. For cracked or broken bypass valve. Installation Oil filter adapter and bypass valve must be replaced as a unit. 1 Install or Connect: 1. Oil filter adapter and oil filter adapter gasket. 2. Oil filter adapter bolts and washers. Tighten: Oil filter adapter bolts to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). 3. Oil filter. Tighten: Oil filter to 12 ft. lb. (16 Nm). Oil Pump Removal 2 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Crankshaft oil deflector nuts. 2. Crankshaft oil deflector. 1 DRC6638 2 DRC6654 5-20 3. Bolt attaching oil pump to rear crankshaft bearing cap. 4. Oil pump, retainer, and driveshaftfrom rear crankshaft bearing cap. 3 Disassemble: 1. Driveshaft 9 and retainer 8 . Do not remove the oil pump screen unless replacement is re quired. The oil pump screen has a press fit in to the pump cover. Do not remove the screen from the pipe 6 . The oil pump screen is serviced as a complete assembly only. 2. Oil pump screen pickup 3. Bolts 5 and pump cover 6 . 4 . Mark where the idler gear and drive gear and shaft 7 mesh together, so they can be reinstalled with the same gear teeth indexed. 4. Idler gear and drive gear and shaft 5. Retaining pin 6. Pressure regulator spring 1 . 2 and valve 7 . 3 . Clean: All parts in clean solvent and dry them with compressed air. 3 Inspect: Important The pump gears, cover, and body are not serviced separately. The pressure relief valve spring is the only serviceable component. If any of the parts are damaged or worn, the entire oil pump assembly must be replaced. Pump body 10 for cracks, wear, or other damage. Inside of the cover 4 for cracks and wear that would permit oil to leak past the ends of the gears. Idler and drive gear 7 for wear. Drive gear and shaft for lack of fit in the pump body. Oil pump screen for damage to the screen or loose fit of the pipe. Pressure regulator valve 3 for fit. The regulator valve should slide freely in its bore without sticking or binding. 3 DRC6624 5-21 Assemble: 1 Install or Connect: 1. Pressure regulator valve 3 into the pump cover 4 . Important Replace the pressure relief valve spring when reusing the oil pump assembly. 2. Pressure regulator spring 2 into the pump cover 4 . 3. Retaining pin into the pump cover 4 . 4. Drive gear and shaft 7 into the pump body 10 . 5. Idler gear 7 into the pump body 10 . Match together the index marks on the two gears made during disassembly. 6. Pump cover 4 . Tighten: Bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). 7. With the driveshaft 9 installed on the pump, turn the driveshaft by hand to check for smooth operation. 1 DRC6624 Be careful of twisting, shearing, or collapsing the pipe when installing it to the pump. A damaged pipe can cause lack of lubrication and engine failure. Oil Pump Screen Installation Install: 1. Oil pump screen pickup. a. The oil pump screen assembly should be replaced with a new part. Loss of press fit condition could result in an air leak and loss of oil pressure. b. Mount the oil pump in a soft jawed vise. c. Apply sealer to the end of the pipe. d. Tap the pickup screen and pipe into place, using J 21882 and a hammer. e. The oil pump screen must be parallel with the bottom of the oil pan when installed. 2 DRC6625 5-22 Oil Pump Installation Install: 3 DRC6654 1. Oil pump driveshaft 9 and retainer 8 . 2. Oil pump to the engine. a. Align the slot in the oil pump shaft with the tang on the distributor shaft. b. The oil pump should slide easily into place. c. No gasket is used. 3. Oil pump and bolt onto crankshaft bearing cap. Tighten: Bolt to 66 ft. lb. (90 Nm). 4. Crankshaft oil deflector. Tighten: Nuts to 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm). Engine Front Cover Removal The composite engine front cover and gasket are NOT REUSABLE. Remove or Disconnect: 1. Engine front cover bolts. 2. Engine front cover. Installation Lubricate the sealing surface of the crankshaft front oil seal with clean engine oil. Install or Connect: 4 DRC6655 A new composite engine front cover and gasket must be installed on 5.0L and 5.7L engines. DO NOT reuse the composite engine front cover. 1. Engine front cover and gasket. 4 4 5-23 2. Install bolts. Tighten: Bolts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). Timing Chain and Sprockets Tool Required: J 5825-A Crankshaft Sprocket Puller Removal To prevent damage to pistons or valves, do not turn the crank 1 DRC6656 shaft after the camshaft timing chain has been removed. 1 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Camshaft sprocket bolts. 2. Camshaft sprocket and camshaft timing chain together. The sprocket has a light interference fit on the camshaft. Tap the sprocket on its lower edge to loosen it. 2 3. Crankshaft sprocket using J 5825-A. 4. Key (if damaged). Inspect: 1. Sprockets for chipped teeth and wear. 2 DRC6615 Excessively worn sprockets will rapidly wear a new chain. 2. Camshaft timing chain for damage. An excessively worn chain will rapidly wear a new set of sprock ets. 3. Crankshaft sprocket for wear in the keyway area. 4. Crankshaft sprocket key for wear. 5-24 Installation Tool Required: J 5590 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer Inspect: 1. Crankshaft key (if removed). 3 2. Crankshaft sprocket using J 5590. Important Make sure the sprocket alignment mark faces away from the engine block. Make sure the sprocket is fully seated against DRC6669 the crank shoulder. 4 3. Camshaft timing chain to the camshaft sprocket. 4 4. Camshaft sprocket and camshaft timing chain to the front of camshaft. 3 Important 4 DRC6633 Make sure that camshaft and crankshaft timing marks align. The number 6 cylinder is at top dead center of the com pression stroke with the timing marks in this position. Make sure the camshaft dowel pin and camshaft sprocket hole are properly aligned Gears and chain mesh. 5. Camshaft sprocket bolts. Use the bolts to draw the camshaft sprocket onto the camshaft. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO HAMMER THE CAMSHAFT SPROCKET ONTO THE CAMSHAFT. TO DO SO MAY DISLODGE THE REAR CAMSHAFT PLUG AND/OR DAMAGE THE CAMSHAFT. Tighten: Bolts to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). Camshaft Removal Remove or Disconnect: 5 DRC6670 All camshaft journals are the same diameter so care must be used in removing the camshaft to avoid damage to the bearings. 5-25 1. Camshaft retainer bolts and camshaft retainer. 2. Camshaft. 1 a. Install three 5/16 - 18 x 4.0 in. long into the camshafts threaded holes. Use these bolts to handle the camshaft. 1 b. Pull the camshaft out from the block being careful to prevent damage to the camshaft bearings. Measure: Camshaft Journals. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Do not attempt to repair the camshaft. Replace the camshaft if damaged. Whenever the camshaft needs to be replaced, a new set of valve lifters must also be installed. Bearings Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for camshaft bearing disassembly, cleaning, inspection, and assembly. Installation Install or Connect: 1 DRC6636 Coat the camshaft lobes and journals with a high quality GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Apply GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent to all the teeth on the distributor drive gear. 1 1. Two or three 5/16 - 18 (4.0 in.) bolts long into the camshaft threaded holes. Use these bolts to handle the camshaft. 1 2. Camshaft into the engine. Handle the camshaft carefully to prevent damage to the camshaft bearings. 3. Camshaft retainer and retainer bolts. Coat camshaft retainer plate with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. Tighten: Bolts to 106 ft. lb. (12 Nm). 5-26 Pistons and Connecting Rods Removal Tool Required: J 5239 Guide Set Remove or Disconnect: 1. Before attempting to remove piston, remove cylinder bore ridge as necessary. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cylinder bore ridge reamer procedures. 2. Mark the cylinder numbers on the tops of each piston. Mark them from the front to the rear, with the engine in an upright position and viewed from the front. The right bank is numbered 1-3-5-7 The left bank is numbered 2-4-6-8 3. Check the connecting rod and cap for identification marks. If none, place match marks or numbers on connecting rods and caps. Mark the parts from the front to the rear, with the engine in an upright position and viewed from the front. Connecting rod caps must be assembled to their original connecting rods. Important Store the connecting rod and cap together as mating parts, so they may be reassembled in the same wear pattern and balance in which they were removed. 4. Connecting rod nuts, cap and bearings. Important If reusing bearings, keep bearings with their original connecting rod and cap. Wipe oil from bearings and crank pins. 5. Connecting rods and pistons. 2 a. Attach J 5239 to the connecting rod bolts. 2 b. Use the long guide rod J 5239 to push the connecting rods and pistons out of the top of the engine block. Disassembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod disassembly. Assembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod assembly. 2 DRC6619 5-27 Piston Selection Measuring the Piston Check the used piston to cylinder bore clearance, as follows: 1 1. Cylinder bore diameter. Use a telescoping bore gauge, located 2.5 in. (65 mm) below the top of the cylinder bore. 2 2. Piston diameter. Measure the skirt at a right angle to the piston pin hole, 1.0 in. (25 mm) below the oil ring groove. Measure piston diameter at 70 F (20 C). 3. Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore diameter to determine piston to bore clearance. 4. Locate the piston-to-bore clearance, refer to Engine Specifications. Determine if the piston-to-bore clearance is within the acceptable range. Piston Ring End Gap and Fit Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Important The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one block or cylinder to another, new connecting rod bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be renumbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. Installation Tools Required: J 5239 Connecting Rod Bolt Guide Set J 8037 Ring Compressor J 36660 Torque/Angle Meter or equivalent Install or Connect: 1. Lubricate the cylinder walls lightly with engine oil. 2. Make sure the piston is installed in the matching cylinder. 3. Connecting rod bearings. a. Make sure the crankshaft bearings are the proper size. b. Install crankshaft bearings in connecting rod and cap. c. Lubricate the bearings with engine oil. DRC6507 DRC6514 J 8087 1 2 5-28 4. Piston and connecting rod into the proper bore. 3 a. With the connecting rod cap removed, install J 5239 onto the connecting rod bolts. 4 b. Locate the piston ring end gaps. Lubricate the piston and rings with engine oil. 5 c. Without disturbing the ring end gap location, install J 8037 over the piston and compress the rings. d. Place the piston in its matching bore. The connecting rod bearing tang slots must be on the side opposite the camshaft. Using light blows with a hammer handle, tap the piston down into FORWARD its bore. At the same time, from beneath the engine, guide the DRC6619 3 connecting rod onto the crankpin with J 5239, Hold the ring compressor against the block until all rings have entered the cylinder bore. C e. Remove J 5239 from the connecting rod bolts. B B A D Important Each connecting rod and bearing cap should be marked, beginning at the front of the engine. Cylinders 1, 3, and 5 are the right bank and 2, 4, and 6 are the left bank (when viewed from the front). The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one block or cylinder to another, new connecting rod bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. 5. Connecting rod cap with crankshaft bearing. 6. Connecting rod bolt nuts. Tighten: Rod bolt nuts to 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) plus an additional 55 degrees using J 36660 or equivalent. Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for connecting rod side clearance procedure. A - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE SPACER OF THE OIL RING B - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE OIL RING C - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE LOWER COMPRESSION RING 4 D - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE UPPER COMPRESSION RING DRC6627 DRC6628 J 8037 5 5-29 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Removal Take care when removing the rear crankshaft oil seal so as not to damage the crankshaft sealing surface. Remove or Disconnect: 1 Insert a screwdriver into the notches provided in the oil seal housing and remove the oil seal. Installation Tool Required: J 35621 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer 2 Install or Connect: 1. Lubricate the inner and outer diameter of the oil seal with clean engine oil. 2. Install the oil seal on J 35621. 3. Position J 35621 against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft. 4. Tighten the screws securely with a screwdriver. This will ensure that the seal is installed squarely over the crankshaft. 5. Turn the handle until it bottoms. 6. Remove J 35621. 1 DRC6658 J 35621 2 DRC6626 5-30 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Housing Removal 3 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Bolts and nuts. 2. Oil seal housing. 3. Gasket. Clean: Gasket surfaces on the block and seal retainer. Installation 3 Install or Connect: Always use new crankshaft rear oil seal and new housing gasket during installation of rear oil seal housing. 1. New gasket to the block. 3 DRC6657 It is not necessary to use sealant to hold the gasket in place. 2. Oil seal retainer. 3. Screws and nuts. Tighten: Screws and nuts to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). Crankshaft And Bearings Removal The crankshaft need not be removed for replacement of the rear oil seal or crankshaft bearings. Those procedures are covered in other parts of this section. Important Check the crankshaft bearing caps for location markings. Mark the caps if necessary. The caps must be returned to their original locations during assembly. 5-31 Remove or Disconnect: 1 1. Crankshaft bearing cap bolts and studs. 2. Crankshaft bearing caps and lower crankshaft bearings. 3. Crankshaft from the cylinder block with extreme care, taking care to avoid damage to crankshaft journals and thrust flange surfaces. 4. Upper crankshaft bearings. Cleaning, Inspection, and Repair Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cleaning, inspection, and measurements. The following is the recommended gasket cleaning procedure for General Motors engine components: Carefully remove all gasket material from the part using a plastic or wood scraper. Use Loctite brand Chisel Gasket Remover (P/N 4MA) or equivalent. Do not use any other method or technique to remove gasket material from a part. Do not use abrasive pads, sand paper or power tools to clean gasket surfaces. These methods of cleaning can damage the part. Abrasive pads also produce a fine grit that the oil filter cannot remove from the oil. This grit is abrasive and has been known to cause internal engine damage. If the engine is damaged internally and needs to be rebuilt, make sure all foreign material is completely flushed out of the cooling and lubrication systems. Failure to rid the oil or cooling systems of debris can result in damage to the rebuilt engine. Measure: Crankshaft bearing vertical inside diameter (I.D.). Use an inside micrometer. This dimension should be the same as the other crankshaft bearing bore vertical diameters. Clean: 1 DRC6659 Use care not to scratch crankshaft journals. Crankshaft with solvent. Blow all debris from the oil passages with compressed air. Crankshaft bearings. Wipe free of oil with a soft cloth. Oil seal surfaces with a non-abrasive cleaner. 5-32 Installation Important Crankshaft bearings are the precision insert type and do not use shims for adjustment. If clearances are excessive, a new bearing will be required. Service bearings are available in standard size and 0.001 in. (0,0254 mm), 0.002 in. (0,0508 mm), 0.010 in. (0,2540 mm), and 0.020 in. (0,5080 mm) undersize. Also a 0.009 in. (0,2286 mm) is available for 5.7L engines only. Selective fitting of both connecting rod and crankshaft bearings is necessary to obtain close tolerances. For this reason you may use, for example, one half of a 0.001 in. (0,0254 mm) undersize bearing which will decrease the clearance 0.0005 in. (0,0127 mm) from using a full standard bearing. Undersize Crankshaft Journals When a production crankshaft cannot be precision fit by the method described previously, it is then ground 0.009 in. (0,2286 mm) under- size. GRIND ONLY THOSE CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS THAT CANNOT BE PROPERLY FITTED. ALL JOURNALS WILL NOT NECESSARILY BE GROUND. A 0.009 in. (0,2286 mm) undersize bearing or 0.010 in. (0,254 mm) undersize bearing will then be used for precision fitting in the same manner as previously described. Oversize Rear Crankshaft Bearing Thrust Faces Some production engines may have rear crankshaft bearings that are 0.008 in. (0,2032 mm) wider than standard across the thrust faces. The crankshaft on these engines can be identified by .008 stamped on the rear counterweight. If the rear crankshaft bearings are replaced, they must have the proper distance between thrust faces to obtain correct crankshaft end play. 1 Install or Connect: 1. Upper crankshaft bearing to the block. If any undersized bearings are used, they must be 2. Crankshaft. 3. Lower crankshaft bearings to the crankshaft bearing caps. Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for crankshaft bearing clearance procedures. Importantfitted to the proper journals. 5-33 4. Apply engine oil to the crankshaft bearings. Install crankshaft bearing caps and bolts to the block. DO NOT install the rear crankshaft bearing cap at this time. In order to prevent the possibility of cylinder block and/or crank shaft bearing cap damage, the crankshaft bearing caps are to be lightly tapped into their cylinder block cavity using a brass or leather mallet before attaching bolts are installed. DO NOT USE ATTACHING BOLTS TO PULL CAPS INTO THEIR SEAT. Important The arrows on the crankshaft bearing caps must be facing the front of the engine. Tighten: Crankshaft main bearing cap bolts to: All inboard bolts 77 ft. lb. (105 Nm). Outboard bolts (four bolt caps) 67 ft. lb. (90 Nm). 5. Rear crankshaft bearing cap and bolts to the block. Tighten: Bolts temporarily to 35 in. lb. (4 Nm). Measure: Crankshaft end play, as follows: 1 1. Firmly thrust the crankshaft first rearward then forward. This will line up the rear crankshaft bearing and crankshaft thrust surfaces. 2. Install rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts. Tighten: Rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 77 ft. lb. (105 Nm). 1 DRC6530 5-34 3. With the crankshaft wedged forward, measure at the front end of the rear crankshaft bearing with a feeler gauge. The proper clearance is 0.002 - 0.006 in. (0,0508 - 0,1524 mm). 4. If correct end play cannot be obtained, make sure the correct size rear crankshaft bearing has been installed. Production engines may have rear crankshaft bearings that are 0.008 in. (0,2032 mm) wider across the thrust faces than standard, as explained previously. Inspect: Crankshaft for binding. Try turning the crankshaft to check for binding. If the crankshaft does not turn freely, loosen the crankshaft bearing cap bolts on one cap at a time until the tight bearing is located. Burrs on the bearing cap, foreign matter between the bearing and the block or the bearing cap, or a faulty bearing could cause a lack of clearance at the bearing. A bent crankshaft could cause binding. Make sure the steps outlined in General Engine Mechanical section have been performed when checking for a bent crankshaft. Cylinder Block Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: 1. Coolant drain fittings. 2 4 2. Cooling jacket plugs. Obtain a suitable self-threading screw. Drill a hole into the plug and install the self-threading screw. Remove jacket plugs. 3. Oil gallery plugs. Clean: 1. Sealing material from mating surfaces. 2. Boil cylinder block in caustic solution. 3. Flush with clean water or steam. 4. Cylinder bores. 5. Threaded holes. 2 DRC6660 3 DRC6661 4 DRC6662 5-35 6. Oil galleries and passages. 7. Scale deposits from coolant passages. 8. Spray or wipe cylinder bores and machined surfaces with engine oil. Inspect: 1. All block core plugs for lack of fit or leakage. 2. Camshaft lifter bores for deep scratches and deposits. 3. Cracks in the block a. Cylinder walls. b. Water jackets. c. Engine mount bosses. d. Crankshaft bearing webs. e. Crankshaft bearing bores and caps. All crankshaft bearing bores should be rounded and uniform in inside diameter (I.D.) at all of the bearing supports. The area where the crankshaft bearings contact the crankshaft bearing bore should be smooth. If a crankshaft bearing cap is found to be damaged, replace the cap and line bore the block. 1 4. Cylinder block head mounting surface for flatness, using a precision straight edge and feeler gauge. a. Set the straight edge on the sealing surface to be inspected. b. Take the feeler gauge and at various locations, check the gap between the straight edge and the sealing surface. c. If the gap is found to be greater than 0.004 in. (0,1016 mm) within 5.984 in. (152 mm) at any sealing location, the block must be replaced. d. If the gap is found to be less than 0.004 in. (0,1016 mm) within 5.984 in. (152 mm) at any sealing location and a cause for leakage is suspected, then the minor irregularities may be carefully machined from the block. Oil pan and intake manifold mounting surfaces for nicks. Minor irregularities may be cleaned up with a flat file. 1 DRC6521 5-36 Cylinder Bore Inspect: Cylinder bores for scoring or other damage. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Measure: Cylinder bore taper and out-of-round. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Cylinder Bore Reconditioning Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Cylinder Block Assembly 4 Install or Connect: 1. Oil gallery plugs. Coat plug outside diameter with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. 2. Camshaft cup plugs to proper depth. Coat bore inside diameter with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. Important Do not allow residue on camshaft bearing or seizure may result. 3. Coolant drain fittings. 2 DRC6660 3 DRC6661 4 DRC6662 5-37 Circulating Pump Description The circulating pump is manufactured specially for marine use. It is serviced only as an assembly. Do not replace with an automotive circulating pump. Inspection 1. Remove alternator and power steering belts. 2. Grasp circulating pump pulley and check end and side play. Turn pulley to check for drag. 3. Look for water leaking from indicator hole beneath pump shaft behind pulley. Replace pump if play, drag, or leakage are evident. Removal and Installation 1. Drain water from block and disconnect water hose from circulating pump. 2. Remove pulley. Remove circulating pump bolts, pump and gaskets. 3. Use new pump to block gaskets and sealer. Install new pump assembly on cylinder block and tighten bolts as specified. 4. Install pulley. Install alternator and power steering belts, then adjust tension. 5. Install drain plugs in block and large hose to circulating pump. 6. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. 5-38 25929 25917 11980 1 2 3 Front Engine Mounts Removal 1 1. Remove two lag screws A and washers from mounts. 2. Lift engine with a hoist capable of lifting at least 1500 lb. (680 kg) to allow removal of front mount and bracket. 2 3. Remove three mount screws and lock washers B . Note screw lengths and location. 3 Prior to disassembly of front mount assembly, measure 4 distance and record measurement between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Disassembly 4 1. Remove three nuts C and engine mount bracket D from mount bolt while holding bolt secure with socket E . 5 2. Remove two flat washers, one large F and one smaller Remove lock washer H , and engine mount bolt G . I from mount. Reassembly 11978 6 1. Place small washer G on mount bolt and insert bolt up through mount. Install large washer and secure with nut C . Tighten to 60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm). 4 2. Install upper inner nut and place engine mount bracket D on engine mount bolt. 5 Measure distance between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Adjust distance to recorded measurement. 3. Install lock washer and top nut. Tighten nut to 100-120 ft. lb. (136163 Nm). 6 Installation 1 1. Spray the engine mount screw threads with LoctitePrimer and allow to air dry. Apply Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agentto the screws. Attach engine mount assembly to engine with three screws and washers A . Tighten to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). 2 2. Install washers and lag screws B and tighten securely. Height Adjustment 3 1. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts C and D as required. 2. Lift engine with a hoist capable of lifting at least 1500 lb. (680 kg). Position engine at desired height. 3 3. After setting mount position, turn nut D up against underside of engine bracket and hold nut with a wrench. Tighten nut C to 100120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm). Any large adjustments to engine height should be followed by 1 2 a check of engine alignment. Failure to check alignment could result in rapid engine coupler failure. See Drive Removal and Installation section of the Vertical Drive/Transom Bracket Service Manual for alignment procedures. High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement Removal 4 1. Loosen two clamps securing upper hose to elbow. Lubricate inside of hose with a soapy water solution. 5 2. Starboard Elbow: Remove circuit breaker bracket E and set aside. Remove four screws, flat washers, and lock washers mounting high-rise elbow. 3. Port Elbow - EFI Models Only: Remove fuel reservoir water hose and set aside. Remove four screws, flat washers, and lock washers mounting high-rise elbow. 3 4 5 49541 49542 49543 876 67 4. Use a soft hammer to free elbow from manifold. Use a twisting motion to pull elbow from hose. Remove and discard the elbow gasket. Installation 1. Thoroughly clean manifold gasket surface. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides of a new manifold gasket and place it on the exhaust manifold. 78 2. Lubricate the inside of the exhaust hose with a soapy water solution. Insert the high-rise elbow into the hose with a twisting motion, and push it into hose as far as it will go. 5 3. Position elbow on manifold. Secure elbows and brackets with four screws, flat washers, and lock washers. Tighten screws to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). Starboard Elbow: Install circuit breaker bracket Port Elbow: Install fuel reservoir water hose. Tighten clamp securely. E . 9 4. Slide clamps F up onto hose and position them in the two surface channels. Tighten clamps securely. Exhaust Hose & Intermediate Pipe Replacement Removal 10 1. Loosen eight clamps that secure the upper G and lower exhaust hoses. 11 2. Lubricate inside of lower hose with a soapy water solution, and H slide lower hose down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 12 3. Twist intermediate pipe out of upper hose. Lubricate inside of 9 10 upper hose if necessary to ease removal. 4. Slide upper hose off high-rise elbow. Slide lower hose off exhaust Y-49546 pipe. 49547 Safety Related 5-41 Engine/eng 11 12 32370 32366 49547 321 Installation 1 1. Lubricate inside diameter of 3.5 in. (8.89 cm) I.D. lower hose with a soapy water solution. Slide it all the way onto the exhaust Y- pipe. 2 The inside diameter of both the upper and lower hoses has a step A 1.5 in. (3.81 cm) from one end. The stepped end of the hose must face the intermediate pipe when installed. 2. Slide hose onto high-rise elbow until it seats. If hose is not properly positioned, it will not completely engage the high-rise elbow or allow secure attachment. 34 3. Place four No. 68 clamps on upper hose. With a twisting motion, insert intermediate pipe all the way into the upper hose. Place four No. 64 clamps on lower hose. Align lower end of pipe with exhaust Y-pipe, then slide lower hose up until its halfway onto the intermediate pipe. Position clamps in channels and tighten clamps securely. Engine Coupler Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine from boat. If coupler is being replaced due to coupler failure (rubber hub of splined hub), check engine alignment after installing new coupler. See Drive Removal and Installation section of the Vertical Drive/ Transom Bracket Service Manual. 2. Disconnect all wires, lines and connectors from bellhousing. 56 3. Remove screws securing bellhousing cover, and slide cover out. 4 20034 19085 6 5 1 4. Pull drain hose out of bellhousing, if equipped. 2 5. Unscrew bolts and nuts retaining bellhousing. Disconnect ground wires. Remove power steering cooler bracket. 6. Remove bellhousing from engine block. 3 7. Unscrew six nuts securing coupler and remove coupler from studs. 8. Remove old gasket from bellhousing cover. Clean gasket surface thoroughly. Installation 4 1. Install coupler and secure with six locknuts. Use a suitable adaptor and tighten to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 3 2. Install bellhousing and attach power steering cooler. Tighten nuts and bolts to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). Attach ground wires and tighten nuts to 15-20 ft. lb. (20-27 Nm). 3. Push drain hose into bellhousing, if equipped. 4. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound to both sides of a new belihousing gasket and position it on cover. 5 5. Clean seven self-tapping screws with a wire brush. Install bellhousing cover and screws. Tighten to 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm). 6. Connect all wires, lines and connectors to bellhousing. 7. Install engine in boat. 1 19842 2 6710 3 6712 4 6714 5 5-43 Torque Specifications - All Models Bell Housing Cover Screws ....................................................................................................... 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm) Bell Housing Nuts and Bolts .................................................................................................. 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm) Camshaft Retainer Bolt ................................................................................................................... 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Camshaft Sprocket Bolt ..................................................................................................................... 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Connecting Rod Nut ........................................................................ 20 ft. lb. (27 Nm) plus an additional 55 degrees Crankshaft Balancer Bolt................................................................................................................ 74 ft. Ib. (100 Nm) Crankshaft Bearing Cap Inboard Bolt...................................................................................................................................77 ft. lb. (105 Nm) Outboard Bolt (Four Bolt Caps) ...................................................................................................... 67 ft. lb. (90 Nm) Crankshaft Oil Deflector Nut ............................................................................................................. 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm) Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Housing Screws and Nuts ................................................................. 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Cylinder Head Bolt First Pass all Bolt in Sequence .......................................................................................................22 ft. lb. (30 Nm) Final Pass all Bolts in Sequence: Short Bolt .......................................................................................................................................... 55 degrees Medium Bolt...................................................................................................................................... 65 degrees Long Bolt .......................................................................................................................................... 75 degrees Distributor Clamp Bolt ....................................................................................................................... 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Engine Block Drain Plug........................................................................................................................................15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Oil Gallery Plug ............................................................................................................................... 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Engine Coupler Nuts ............................................................................................................... 40-45 ft. Ib. (54-61 Nm) Engine Mount Screws.............................................................................................................. 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm) Exhaust Manifold Screws ....................................................................................................... 20-26 ft. lb. (27-35 Nm) Front Cover Bolt ............................................................................................................................... 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Front Mount Lower Nut............................................................................................................................60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm) Upper Nut ..................................................................................................................... 100-120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm) 5-44 Torque Specifications - All Models Fuel Pump Opening Cover Upper Bolt......................................................................................................................................30 ft. lb. (40 Nm) Lower Bolt...................................................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Intake Manifold First Pass ........................................................................................................................................ 27 in. lb. (3 Nm) Second Pass...............................................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Final Pass ......................................................................................................................................11 ft. Ib. (15 Nm) Oil Filter Bypass Valve Bolt ............................................................................................................... 20 ft. lb. (26 Nm) Oil Level Indicator Tube Bolt .......................................................................................................... 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Oil Pan Corner Nut or Stud ......................................................................................................................... 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Side Reinforcement Bolt or Stud ................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Drain Plug ......................................................................................................................................18 ft. lb. (25 Nm) Oil Filter ............................................................................................................................................... 12 ft. lb. (16 Nm) Oil Pump Bolt-to-Rear Crankshaft Bearing Cap ...........................................................................................66 ft. lb. (90 Nm) Cover Bolt ...................................................................................................................................106 in. lb. (12 Nm) Spark Plugs Spark Plugs (cylinder head - new) ................................................................................................ 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm) Spark Plugs (cylinder head - all subsequent installations)..........................................................15 ft. lb. (20 Nm) Valve Lifter Guide Retainer Bolt ...................................................................................................... 18 ft. Ib. (25 Nm) Valve Rocker Arm Cover Bolt ......................................................................................................... 106 in. lb. (12 Nm) 5-45 Engine Specifications ENGINE Type ....................................................................................................................................................................... 90 V8 Displacement ............................................................................................................................................................ 5.0L (305 CID) ............................................................................................................................................................ 5.7L (350 CID) Bore 5.0L ..........................................................................................................................................3.736 in. (94.89 mm) 5.7L ............................................................................................................................................ 4.00 in. (101.6 mm) Stroke ...........................................................................................................................................3.480 in. (88.39 mm) Compression Ratio .................................................................................................................................................. 9.4:1 Firing Order ............................................................................................................................................. 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 Oil Pressure (Minimum) ................................................................................................. 6 PSI (41.4 kPa) at 1,000 RPM 18 PSI (124.1 kPa) at 2,000 RPM 24 PSI (165.5 kPa) at 4,000 RPM CYLINDER BORE Diameter 5.0L ................................................................................................................ 3.735 - 3.7384 (94.881 - 94.958 mm) 5.7 L ................................................................................................... 4.0007 - 4.0017 in. (101.618 - 101.643 mm) Out-of-Round Production ...................................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) MAX. Service Limit .....................................................................................................................0.002 in. (0.05 mm) MAX. Taper Production Thrust Side ............................................................................................................ 0.0005 in. (0.012 mm) MAX. Relief Side ............................................................................................................. 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Service Limit ................................................................................................................ 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. PISTON Piston Bore Clearance Production ................................................................................................... 0.0007 - 0.0021 in. (0.018 - 0.053 mm) Service Limit ............................................................................................... 0.0007 - 0.0026 in. (0.018 - 0.068 mm) PISTON RINGS Piston Compression Ring Groove Clearance Production Top ..................................................................................... 0.0012 - 0.0027 in. (0.030 - 0.070 mm) Production 2nd ....................................................................................... 0.0015 - 0.003 in. (0.040 - 0.080 mm) Service Limit ......................................................................................... 0.0012 - 0.0035 in. (0.030 - 0.090 mm) Gap Production Top ............................................................................................. 0.012 - 0.020 in. (0.30 - 0.51 mm) Production 2nd ............................................................................................. 0.020 - 0.026 in. (0.51 - 0.66 mm) Service Limit ................................................................................................. 0.012 - 0.025 in. (0.30 - 0.85 mm) 5-46 Engine Specifications PISTON RINGS (cont.) Piston Oil Ring Groove Clearance Production .................................................................................................. 0.002 - 0.006 in. (0.051 - 0.17 mm) Service Limit ........................................................................................... 0.002 - 0.0078 in. (0.051 - 0.195 mm) Gap Production .................................................................................................... 0.010 - 0.030 in. (0.25 - 0.76 mm) Service Limit ........................................................................................... 0.010 - 0.030 in. (0.0254 - 0.785 mm) PISTON PIN Diameter ........................................................................................................0.9270 - 0.9271 in. (23.545 - 23.548 mm) Clearance in Piston Production ................................................................................................... 0.0005 - 0.0009 in. (0.013 - 0.023 mm) Service Limit ...................................................................................0.0005 - 0.0010 in. (0.013 - 0.0254 mm) MAX. Fit In Connecting Rod ..................................................................0.0008 - 0.0016 in. (0.021 - 0.040 mm) Interference INTAKE MANIFOLD Surface Flatness .................................................................................................................. 0.010 in. (0.254 mm) MAX. CYLINDER HEAD Surface Flatness .....................................................................................................................0.005 in. (0.10 mm) MAX. CRANKSHAFT Crankshaft Journal Diameter #1 ........................................................................................... 2.4484 - 2.4493 in. (62.189 - 62.212 mm) Diameter #2, #3, #4................................................................................2.4481 - 2.4491 in. (62.181 - 62.207 mm) Diameter #5 ............................................................................................2.4479 - 2.4491 in. (62.177 - 62.207 mm) Taper Production ............................................................................................................. 0.0002 in. (0.005 mm) MAX. Service Limit .......................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Out-of-Round Production ............................................................................................................. 0.0002 in. (0.005 mm) MAX. Service Limit .......................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Crankshaft Bearing Clearance Production #1..............................................................................................0.0007 - 0.0021 in. (0.018 - 0.053 mm) Production #2, #3, #4 ................................................................................. 0.0009 - 0.0024 in. (0.022 - 0.061 mm) Production #5............................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.069 mm) Service Limit #1 ........................................................................................ 0.0010 - 0.0020 in. (0.0254 - 0.051 mm) Service Limit #2, #3, #4 ........................................................................... 0.0010 - 0.0025 in. (0.0254 - 0.064 mm) Service Limit #5 ........................................................................................... 0.001 5 - 0.003 in. (0.038 - 0.076 mm) Crankshaft End Play ......................................................................................... 0.002 - 0.008 in. (0.0508 - 0.2032 mm) Crankshaft Runout At Rear Flange ............................................................................................. 0.0015 in. (0.038 mm) 5-47 Engine Specifications CONNECTING ROD Connecting Rod Journal Diameter ............................................................................................. 2.0978 - 2.0998 in. (53.2840 - 53.3340 mm) Taper Production .................................................................................................................... 0.0003 in. (0.007 mm) MAX. Service Limit ................................................................................................................ 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Out-of-Round Production .................................................................................................................... 0.0003 in. (0.007 mm) MAX. Service Limit ................................................................................................................ 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) MAX. Rod Bearing Clearance Production ................................................................................................... 0.0013 - 0.0035 in. (0.033 - 0.088 mm) Service Limit ................................................................................................. 0.001 - 0.003 in. (0.0254 - 0.076 mm) Rod Side Clearance .................................................................................................. 0.006 - 0.024 in. (0.16 - 0.61 mm) CAMSHAFT Journal Diameter ............................................................................................... 1.8677 - 1.8697 in. (47.44 - 47.49 mm) End Play .................................................................................................................... 0.004 - 0.012 in. (0.11 - 0.30 mm) Lobe Lift ............................................................................................................................................ 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) Intake................................................................................................................... 0.274 - 0.278 in. (9.97 - 7.07 mm) Exhaust ................................................................................................................ 0.283 - 0.278 in. (7.20 - 7.30mm) VALVE SYSTEM Valve Lifter..............................................................................................................................................Hydraulic Roller Valve Rocker Arm Ratio ......................................................................................................................................... 1.50:1 Valve Lash ................................................................................................................... One Turn Down From Zero Lash Face Angle .................................................................................................................................................... 45 degrees Seat Angle ..................................................................................................................................................... 46 degrees Seat Runout ............................................................................................................................0.002 in. (0.05 mm) MAX. Seat Width Intake................................................................................................................... 0.045 - 0.065 in. (1.14 - 1.65 mm) Exhaust (Light Duty) ........................................................................................... 0.065 - 0.098 in. (1.65 - 2.49 mm) Exhaust (Heavy Duty) ........................................................................................ 0.059 - 0.101 in. (1.50 - 2.56 mm) Stem Clearance Production Intake .................................................................................................. 0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.069 mm) Exhaust ............................................................................................... 0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.069 mm) 5-48 Engine Specifications VALVE SYSTEM (cont.) Service Intake.........................................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0037 in. (0.0254 - 0.094 mm) Exhaust ........................................................................................................ 0.0010 - 0.037in. (0.0254 - 0.094 mm) Valve Spring Free Length.................................................................................................................................. 2.02 in. (51.3 mm) Pressure Closed ...................................................................................... 76 - 84 lb. at 1.70 in. (338 - 374 N at 43.2 mm) Open ....................................................................................187 - 203 lb. at 1.27 in. (832 - 903 N at 32.3 mm) Installed Height ......................................................................................................... 1.69 - 1.70 in. (42.92 - 43.43 mm) Engine Lubrication: Type Oil Pump ................................................................................................................................................... Gear Crankcase Capacity ........................................................... Approx. 5 qt. (4.73 liters); 6 qt. (5.68 liters) with Filter Oil Grade Recommended 32 F (0 C) and Above ............................................................................................................................ SAE 30 0 F to 32 F (-18 C to 0 C) ......................................................................................................... SAE 20W-20 Below 0 F (-18 C) .............................................................................................................................. SAE 10W We recommend DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil, which is specially formulated for heavy duty marine use, and ideal for stern drive engines. It provides better antiwear qualities, especially during long high speed operation. In addition, it neutralizes acids caused in all internal combustion engines, offers superior corrosion protection, and is formulated to offer better resistance to oxidation and high temperature sludge formation. Fuel Recommendation ................. See General Information Section 5-49 GM Special Tools Rocker Arm Stud Bore Reamer 0.003 in. (0,0762 mm) O.S. Rocker Arm Stud Bore Reamer 0.013 in. (0,3302 mm) O.S. Rocker Arm Stud Remover Rocker Arm Stud Installer Piston Pin Remover / Installer Cylinder Bore Ridge Reamer Front Cover Aligner / Oil Seal Installer DRC6674 DRC6675 DRC6676 DRC6611 DRC6677 DRC6579 DRC6582 DRC6678 DRC6607 DRC6608 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer Torque Angle Meter or equivalent 12345678910 Crankshaft Balancer Remover / Installer 5-50 GM Special Tools 1 Valve Lifter Remover (plier type) 2 Connecting Rod Guide Tool 3 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer 4 Crankshaft Sprocket Remover 5 Piston Ring Compressor 6 Valve Spring Compressor 7 Carbon Removal Brush 8 Valve Lifter Remover (slide hammer type) 9 Oil Pump Screen Installer 10 Vacuum Pump DRC6596 DRC6597 DRC6598 DRC6681 DRC6599 DRC6601 DRC6602 DRC6680 DRC6604 DRC6605 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5-51 5-52 Section 6 7.4 Gi Engines Table of Contents Camshaft Installation ........................................................... 6-24 Removal ............................................................... 6-10 Circulating Pump .................................................... 6-31 Crankshaft Bearing Cap and Bearing Removal .................... 6-12 Bearing Installation ............................................. 6-21 Balancer Installation ........................................... 6-30 Balancer Removal ................................................. 6-7 Rear Oil Seal Installation .................................... 6-23 Cylinder Block Assembly ............................................................. 6-14 Clean and Inspect................................................ 6-13 Disassembly ........................................................ 6-12 Cylinder Head Installation ........................................................... 6-27 Removal ................................................................. 6-9 Service ................................................................. 6-20 Engine Coupler Replacement ................................ 6-34 Engine Front Cover Clean and Inspect................................................ 6-15 Installation ........................................................... 6-26 Removal ................................................................. 6-9 Engine Specification .............................................. 6-36 Exhaust Hose Replacement................................... 6-34 Exhaust Manifold Replacement............................... 6-6 Front Engine Mount Replacement ........................ 6-31 General Description ................................................. 6-2 GM Special Tools .................................................... 6-41 High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement ............... 6-32 Intake Manifold Installation ........................................................... 6-29 Removal ................................................................. 6-7 Service ................................................................. 6-16 Intermediate Pipe Replacement ............................ 6-34 Material Required ..................................................... 6-3 Oil Pan Installation ........................................................... 6-26 Removal ................................................................. 6-9 Oil Pump Installation ........................................................... 6-26 Removal ................................................................. 6-9 Service ................................................................. 6-18 Piston, Connecting Rod, and Bearing Installation ........................................................... 6-23 Removal ............................................................... 6-11 Piston Selection ..................................................... 6-14 Timing Chain and Sprockets Installation ........................................................... 6-25 Removal ............................................................... 6-10 Torque Specifications ............................................ 6-39 Valve Rocker ARm Cover Installation ........................................................... 6-29 Removal ................................................................. 6-7 Valve Rocker Arm and Push Rod Installation ........................................................... 6-28 Removal ................................................................. 6-8 Valve Train Components ........................................ 6-19 6 6-1 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the section called Safety at the end of this manual. Always use the correct fastener in the proper location. When you replace a fastener, use ONLY the exact part number for that application. The text will call out those fasteners that require replacement after removal. The text will also call out the fasteners that require thread lockers or thread sealant. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, do not use supplement coatings (paints, greases, or other corrosion inhibitors) on threaded fasteners or fastener joint interfaces. Generally, such coatings adversely affect the fastener torque and the joint clamping force, and may damage the fastener, When you install fasteners, use the correct tightening sequence and tightening specifications. Following these instructions can help you avoid damage to parts and systems. General Description Cylinder Block The engine block is made of cast iron and has eight cylinders arranged in a V shape with four cylinders in each bank. It is a one piece casting with the cylinders encircled by coolant jackets. Cylinder Head The cylinder heads are cast iron and have parent metal inlet valve guides and inlet valve seats. Cast iron exhaust valve guides and powered metal valve seats are pressed into the exhaust ports. Camshaft A steel camshaft is supported by five bearings pressed into the engine block. The camshaft sprocket, mounted to the front of the camshaft, is driven by the crankshaft sprocket through a camshaft timing chain. Motion from the camshaft is transmitted to the valves by hydraulic roller valve lifters, valve push rods, and ball-pivot type rocker arms. Crankshaft The crankshaft is made of cast nodular iron. The crankshaft is supported by five crankshaft bearings. The crankshaft bearings are retained by the crankshaft bearing caps which are machined with the block for proper alignment and clearances. The engine crankshaft bearing caps are retained by four bolts each. The number five crankshaft bearing at the rear of the engine is the end thrust bearing. Four connecting rod journals (two rods per journal) are spaced 90 degrees apart. 6-2 Pistons and Connecting Rods The pistons are cast aluminum that use two compression rings and one oil control ring assembly. The piston pins are a floating fit in the pistons and are retained by a press fit in the connecting rod assembly. Connecting rods are forged steel, with precision type insert crankpin bearings. Lubrication The gear-type oil pump is driven through an extension driveshaft. The extension driveshaft is driven by the distributor which is gear driven by the camshaft. The oil is drawn from the oil pan through a pickup screen and tube. Pressurized oil is delivered through internal passages to lubricate camshaft and crankshaft bearings and to provide valve lash control in the hydraulic valve lifters. Oil is metered from the valve lifters through the valve push rods to lubricate the valve rocker arms and ball pivots. Oil returning to the oil pan from the cylinder heads and the front camshaft bearing, lubricates the camshaft timing chain and crankshaft and camshaft sprockets. Valve Train The valve train is a ball pivot type. Motion is transmitted from the camshaft through hydraulic roller valve lifters and tubular valve push rods to the valve rocker arms. The valve rocker arm pivots on a ball to open the valve. The hydraulic roller valve lifters keep all parts of the valve train in constant contact. The valve rocker arm and balls are retained by bolts. Material Required Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent 3MScotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 GM Adhesive,P/N 12345739 GM Adhesive,P/N 12346141 GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367 GM Sealant, P/N 12346004 GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382 GM Threadlock, P/N 12345493 LoctitePrimer 6-3 DRC6932 1 Engine Lubrication 1 Full pressure lubrication, through a full-flow oil filter is supplied by a gear-type oil pump. Oil is drawn up through the oil pump screen and passes through the pump to the oil filter. The oil filter is a full-flow paper element unit with an anti-drain back valve. An oil filter bypass valve is used to ensure adequate oil supply, in the event the filter becomes plugged or develops excessive pressure drop. Filtered oil flows into the main gallery and then to the camshaft, rear bearing, and crankshaft bearings. The valve lifter oil gallery supplies oil to the valve lifters. Oil flows from the valve lifters through the hollow valve push rods to the valve rocker arms. Oil drains back to the crankcase through oil drain holes in the cylinder head. The camshaft timing chain is drip fed from the front camshaft bearing. The pistons and piston pins are lubricated by oil splash. Cleaning Before cleaning the engine, remove the engine accessories to provide better access to the en- gines exterior surfaces. After removing the throttle body, distributor, etc., cover the openings with tape to prevent the entry of coolant, solvent, or dirt. Methods used to clean the engine will depend on what equipment is available. Steam cleaning, pressure washing, or solvent cleaning are some acceptable methods. Allow the engine to dry before beginning the work. It is important that the engine be as clean as possible to prevent dirt from entering critical areas during disassembly. 6-4 Tools and Shop Equipment A clean, well lit work area should be available. Other necessary equipment includes: a suitable parts cleaning tank, compressed air supply, trays to keep parts and fasteners organized, and an adequate set of hand tools. An approved engine repair stand will help prevent personal injury or damage to engine components. Special tools are illustrated throughout this section and listed at its end. These tools (or their equivalents) are specially designed to quickly and safely accomplish the operations for which they are intended. The use of these tools will also minimize possible damage to engine components. Some precision measuring tools are required for inspection of certain critical components. Torque wrenches will be necessary to correctly tighten various fasteners. Those fasteners will be called out within this section. Accessories This manual assumes that the engine accessories have been removed. These accessories may include one or more of the following: Power Steering Pump Alternator Distributor Water Supply Pump Accessory Brackets and Electrical Wiring Starter Motor It is beyond the scope of this section to detail the many different accessory installations. Refer to the proper Service Manual for this information. Diagrams of vacuum hose routing, wiring harness routing, acces sory drive belt layout, etc., should be made before removing these components. Draining The Engine Follow the procedures in Section 1, General Information of this manual to drain crankcase engine oil and the cooling system. 6-5 Exhaust Manifold Replacement Removal Drain water from respective exhaust manifold before begin ning procedure. 1. Remove high-rise exhaust elbow following procedure under High- Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement. 2. Carefully pull wires off spark plugs. 3. Loosen hose clamp at front of manifold, and pull off water hose. 4. Remove manifold attaching screws, nuts and washers. Discard nuts. Remove manifold and discard manifold gasket. Cleaning Clean mating surfaces on manifold and cylinder head. Clean the threads on the exhaust manifold bolts. Inspection 1 Inspect for cracks. To pressure check manifold, use a plate such as shown, and a new elbow gasket A B to seal water passage in manifold. Be sure to apply sealer to gasket. Install rubber drain cap to manifold and secure with clamp. Attach a gearcase pressure tester C (such as Stevens Company S-34) to the water inlet hose. A bushing can be made to secure pressure tester to hose. With the pressure tester attached to the manifold, submerge manifold in water. Pressurize the manifold to 10-15 PSI (22-25 kPa) and check for leaks. Installation 1. Install a new exhaust manifold gasket. 23 2. Install manifold and secure with bolts and washers. Tighten 18946 bolts to 24-28 ft. lb. (33-38 Nm). 3. Attach water hose to nipple at front of manifold and tighten clamp. 4. Attach spark plug wires to plugs. Make sure firing order is correct. 5. Install high-rise exhaust elbow following procedure under High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement. 6. Start engine and check for water and exhaust leaks. DR2875 C A B 1 2 3 Crankshaft Balancer Removal Tools Required: J 23523-F Crankshaft Balancer Remover/Installer Remove or Disconnect: 1. Crankshaft balancer retaining bolt and washer. 4 2. Crankshaft balancer using Special Tool P/N J 23523-F Crankshaft Balancer Remover/Installer. Intake Manifold Removal DRC6913 Remove or Disconnect: 5 1. Upper intake manifold bolts. 2. Upper intake manifold and gaskets. Discard the gaskets. 6 3. Lower intake manifold bolts. Important Do not attempt to loosen the manifold by prying under the gasket surface with any tool. The lower intake manifold gaskets are reusable. 4. Lower intake manifold by pulling up on the manifold. DRC6891 5. Lower intake manifold gaskets and seals. Valve Rocker Arm Cover Removal Remove or Disconnect: 7 1. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. 2. Valve rocker arm cover and gasket. Discard the gasket. 4 5 6 DRC6893 7 DRC6895 6-7 Valve Rocker Arm and Push Rod Removal Tools Required:J 3049-A Valve Lifter Removal (Plier Type) J 9290-01 Valve Lifter Removal (Slide Hammer Type) Important Every effort shou Id be made to ensure that the mating parts are installed in their original locations during assembly. Remove or Disconnect: 1 1. Valve rocker arm bolts, balls, rocker arms and push rod guides. 2 2. Valve push rods. Note: The exhaust valve push rods are longer than the intake valve push rods. 3 3. Splash shield. 4 4. Valve lifter guide retainer bolts and retainer. 5 5. Lifter guides. 6. Valve lifters a. Use a magnet in order to remove the valve lifters one at a time. 2 b. Tag the valve lifters in a way to ensure they can be returned to the valve lifter bore from which they were removed. c. Some valve lifters may be stuck in their bore due to gum or varnish deposits. These valve lifters can be removed by using either J 3049-A Valve Lifter Removal (Plier Type), or J 9290-01 Valve Lifter Removal (Slide Hammer Type). 3 1 DRC6896 DRC6897 DRC6914 4 DRC6915 5 DRC6916 6-8 Cylinder Head Removal Remove or Disconnect: 6 1. Cylinder head bolts. 2. Cylinder Head. Note: Handle the cylinder heads carefully to prevent damage to the gasket sealing surfaces. 3. Cylinder head gasket. Discard the gasket. Oil Pan Removal Remove or Disconnect: 7 1. Oil pan bolts. 2. Oil pan. 3. Oil pan gasket. Discard the gasket. Oil Pump Removal Remove or Disconnect: 8 1. Bolts that attach the oil pump to the rear crankshaft bearing cap. 2. Oil pump, the retainer, and the driveshaft from the rear crankshaft bearing cap. Engine Front Cover Removal Remove or Disconnect: 9 1. Engine front cover bolts. 2. Engine front cover and gasket. Note: The engine front cover gasket is reusable. 6 DRC6907 7 DRC6909 8 9 DRC6910 DRC6901 6-9 Timing Chain and Sprockets Removal Tools Required: J 28509-A Crankshaft Sprocket Remover Measure:The camshaft timing chain free play. If the chain can be moved back and forth in excess of 0.625 in. (16 mm), make a note that the camshaft timing chain and sprockets must be replaced during assembly. Remove or Disconnect: 1 1. Camshaft sprocket bolts. 2. Camshaft sprocket and camshaft timing chain. 2 3. Crankshaft sprocket using J 28509-A Crankshaft Sprocket Remover. 4. Crankshaft key, if necessary. Camshaft Removal 3 Remove or Disconnect: 1. Camshaft retainer bolts and camshaft retainer. 2. Install three 5/16 - 18 x 4 in. bolts in the camshaft front bolt holes. 3. Carefully rotate and pull the camshaft out of the engine block. 1 DRC6903 2 DRC6904 3 DRC6906 6-10 Piston, Connecting Rod, and Bearing Removal Tools Required: J 24270 Ridge Reamer J 5239 Connecting Rod Guide Tool Do not remove excessive material from the cylinder bore. Excessive removal of material may require cylinder boring to the Important next oversize. Remove or Disconnect: 4 1. Cylinder bore ridge as necessary. a. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at BDC. b. Place a cloth on top of the piston. c. Perform the cutting operation using J 24270 Ridge Reamer. Refer to the manufacturers instructions before using the tool. d. Remove the special tool. e. Rotate the piston to TDC and remove the cloth and cuttings f. Repeat the procedure for the remaining pistons. Important Place the match marks or numbers on the connecting rods and the connecting rod caps. The rod caps must be assembled to their original connecting rods. 2. Connecting rod nuts. Important If reusing keep the bearings with their original connecting rods and rod caps. Wipe the oil from the bearings and crank pins. 3. Connecting rod caps and bearings. 5 4. Connecting rod and piston out of the top of the engine block using J 5239 Connecting Rod Guide Tool. 5. Remaining piston and connecting rod assemblies from the engine block. J 24270 4 DRC6510 5 DRC6619 6-11 Crankshaft Bearing Cap and Bearing Removal Important Check the crankshaft bearing caps for location markings. Mark the caps if necessary. The caps must be returned to the original locations with the arrow pointing forward during assembly. Remove or Disconnect: 1 1. Crankshaft bearing cap bolts. 2. Crankshaft bearing caps. 3. Crankshaft. 4. Crankshaft upper bearings from the engine block. 5. Crankshaft lower bearings from the crankshaft bearing caps. 6. Rear crankshaft oil seal from the crankshaft. Discard the seal. Cylinder Block Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: 2 1. Cooling jacket plugs by using the following procedure: a. Obtain a suitable self-threading screw. b. Drill a hole into the plug. c. Install the self-threading screw. d. Remove the jacket plug 2. Oil gallery plugs. 3. Oil pump switch. 4. Knock Sensors. 5. Oil bypass valves. Discard the valves. 1 DRC6917 2 DRC6918 6-12 Cylinder Block Clean and Inspect Clean: 1. Sealing material from the mating surfaces. 2. Boil the cylinder block in a caustic solution. 3. Flush the cylinder block with clean water or steam. 4. Cylinder bores. 5. Oil galleries and the passages. 6. Scale deposits from the cooling system passages. 7. After cleaning the engine block, spray or wipe the cylinder bores and machined surfaces with clean engine oil. Inspect: 1. Valve lifter bores for deep scratches and varnish deposits. 2. Check the bores for cracks. 3. Cylinder walls for scoring. 4. Cooling jackets. 5. Crankshaft bearing webs. 6. Engine mounting bosses. 7. Crankshaft bearing bores and the crankshaft bearing caps for the following: 8. All crankshaft bearing bores must be round and uniform in inside diameter (ID) at all the bearing supports. a. The area where the crankshaft bearings contact the crankshaft bearing bore must be smooth. b. Note if a crankshaft bearing cap is damaged and requires replacement. Refer to Crankshaft and Bearings Clean and Inspect. 3 9. Check cylinder head gasket surfaces for flatness using a straight edge and a feeler gauge. The surface must be flat within 0.004 in. (0,10 mm). 3 DRC6620 6-13 Cylinder Block Assembly Tools Required: J 35748 Fuel Pump/Oil Pressure Switch Installation Socket Install or Connect: 1. New oil bypass valves. 2. Knock Sensors into cylinder block after applying GM Sealant, P/N 12346004 to the sensor threads. Tighten: Knock Sensors to 14 ft. lb. (19 Nm). 3. Apply GM Sealant, P/N 12346004to oil pressure switch threads. Oil pressure switch using J 35748 Fuel Pump/Oil Pressure Switch Installation Socket. 1 4. Oil gallery plugs after applying GM Sealant, P/N 12346004. Tighten: Oil gallery plugs to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). 5. Cooling jacket plugs. 6. Cylinder block cooling drain plugs after applying GM Sealant, P/N 12346004. Tighten: Cylinder block drain plugs to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). Piston Selection Measure: Check the used piston-to cylinder bore clearance in the following manner: 2 1. Using a telescoping bore gauge located 2.5 in. (65 mm) below the top of the cylinder bore, measure the cylinder bore diameter. 3 2. Piston diameter at 70 F (20 C). 3. Skirt at a right angle to the piston pin hole, 1 in. (25 mm) below the oil ring groove. 1 DRC6918 J 8087 2 DRC6507 3 DRC6514 6-14 4. Subtract the pistondiameter from thecylinder borediameter in order to determine the piston-to-bore clearance. 5. Determine if the piston-to-bore clearance is within the acceptable range. Refer to Specifications found elsewhere in this section. 6. If the used piston is not acceptable, determine if a new piston will fit the cylinder bore. 7. If the new piston will not bring the clearance within tolerances, the cylinder must be reconditioned. Refer to Cylinder Boring and Honing found in the General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. 8. Mark the piston to identify the cylinder for which it was fitted. Engine Front Cover - Clean and Inspect Disassemble: 4 Remove the crankshaft front oil seal. Drive the seal out with multiple hits on the inside of the seal from the inside of the cover. Clean: Sealer from the front cover and engine case. Inspect: 1. Timing tab marker. 2. Front cover. Assembly: Tools Required: J 22102 Crankshaft Seal Installer 5 1. Coat the seal lips with grease. 2. Place the open end of the seal toward the inside of the front cover. Use J 22102 Crankshaft Seal Installer to install the seal. 4 DRC6921 5 DRC6900 6-15 Intake Manifold Service Upper Intake Manifold Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: 1 1. Throttle body nuts. 2 2. Throttle body. 3 3. Throttle body gasket and studs. Lower Intake Manifold Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: 4 1. MAP Sensor nut, retainer and the MAP Sensor. 2. Fuel rail bolts and stud. 5 3. Fuel rail. 4. Coolant housing bolts, coolant housing, and thermostat from lower intake manifold. 5. Coolant Temperature Sensor from the lower intake manifold. Clean and Inspect: 1. Gasket surfaces. 2. Intake passages of the intake manifold. 3. Coolant passages of the intake manifold. Lower Intake Manifold Assembly Important Do not install the thermostat without the rubber O- ring seal. Omitting the rubber O-ring seal may result in poor engine warm-up. Install or Connect: 1. Thermostat, coolant housing and bolts to lower intake manifold. Tighten: Bolts to 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm). 1 DRC6922 2 DRC6923 3 DRC6924 4 DRC6925 5 DRC6926 6-16 2. Coolant Temperature sensor to lower intake manifold after applying GM Sealant, P/N 12346004. oil and install on the spray tip end of each injector. Important Tighten: Sensor to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). Lubricate the injector O-ring seals with clean engine 5 3. Fuel rail assembly in the intake manifold. Tilt the rail assembly to install the injectors. 4 4. Fuel rail attaching bolts and stud. Tighten: Bolts to 89 in. lb. (10 Nm) Stud to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). 5. MAP Sensor, retainer, and nut to the lower intake manifold. Tighten: Nut to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). Upper Intake Manifold Assembly Install or Connect: 3 1. Throttle body studs. Tighten: Studs to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). 2. Throttle body gasket. 2 3. Throttle body. 1 4. Throttle body nuts. Tighten: Nuts to 89 in. lb. (10 Nm). 6-17 Oil Pump Service Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: Important Do not remove the pick up screen and pipe. They are only serviced as part of the oil pump. 1 1. Oil pump shaft and retainer. 2. Oil pump body screws. 3. Oil pump body cover. Mark the gear teeth so the pump can be installed 4. Drive gear and shaft. 5. Idler gear. 6. Pressure relief valve spring retaining pin. 7. Pressure relief valve spring. 8. Pressure relief valve. Clean and Inspect: spring is the only serviceable component. Replace the pump if any wear to the pump gears or housing exists. 1. Oil pump housing and cover for cracks, scoring, casting imperfections and damaged threads. 2. Drive gear shaft. If the shaft is loose in the pump housing, replace the oil pump. 3. Pressure relief valve for scoring and sticking Burrs may be removed with a fine stone. 4. Oil pump screen for broken wire mesh or looseness. 5. Gears for chipping, galling and wear. 1 DRC6927 with the same gear teeth indexed. Important The oil pump is serviced as an assembly. Do not attempt to service the individual components. The pressure relief valve Important 6-18 Assembly Install or Connect: 1. Pressure relief valve. 2. Pressure relief valve spring. 3. Pressure relief valve spring retaining pin. 4. Drive gear and shaft. 5. Idler gear. 6. Oil pump body cover. 7. Oil pump body screws. Tighten: Oil pump body screws to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). 8. Oil pump driveshaft and retainer. Turn the driveshaft by hand to check for smooth operation. Valve Train Components Clean: 1. All parts in solvent. 2. Blow dry the parts with compressed air. Inspect: 1. Valve rocker arms and balls atthe mating surfaces. These parts should be smooth and free from scoring or other damage. 2. Valve rocker arm areas that Contact the valve stems and the sockets that contact the push rods. These areas should be smooth and free of damage and wear. 3. Valve rocker are bolts for signs of cracking at the bolt shoulder. Replace as necessary. 4. Valve push rods for bending. Roll the push rod on a flat surface in order to determine if it is bent. Replace as necessary. 5. Ends of the valve push rods for scoring or roughness. 6. Valve push rod oil passage for restrictions. 6-19 . Cylinder Head Service Disassembly Remove or Disconnect: Tool Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor 1. Spark plugs. 2. Valve keys 1 as follows: a. Compress the valve springs using J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor b. Remove the valve keys, c. Remove the valve spring compressor. 2 3. Caps 2 , springs 4 and rotators. 4. Valve stem oil seals 3 . 5. Valves 56 . Place valves in a rack to ensure that they will be returned to their original locations at assembly. 6. Remaining valves and components. Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Assembly Tool Required: J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor 1 2 Install or Connect: 1. Lubricate the valve stem with clean engine oil. 2. Valves 3. Oil seals 5 6 into their proper location. 3 over the valve stems. 4. Rotators. 5. Valve springs 4 1 DRC6663 2 DRC6595 6-20 6. Valve keys as follows: a. Compress the valve spring using J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor. Compress the spring enough to clearly see the valve stem groove. b. Apply a small amount of grease to the valve keys to hold them in place. Make sure the keys are properly seated in the valve stem grooves. c. Remove the compressor tool. Make sure the valve keys stay in place. d. Repeat the procedure on the remaining valves. 7. Measure the installed height of each valve spring using the following procedure: 34 a. Use a narrow, thin scale. A cut away scale may be helpful. b. Measure from the cylinder head spring seat to the top of the cap. If this measurement exceeds the amount given under Specifications found in this manual, install the valve spring shims of sufficient thickness between the rotator and the cylinder head in order to give the desired measurement. Important Never shim the spring so as to give an installed height under the specified amount. Crankshaft Bearing Installation Important If undersized bearings are used, ensurethatthe bearings are fitted to the proper journals. Install or Connect: 5 1. Upper crankshaft bearings to the block. 2. Lower crankshaft bearings to the crankshaft bearing caps. 3. Lubricate the crankshaft bearings with clean engine oil. 4. Crankshaft. In order to prevent the possibility of cylinder block or crankshaft bearing cap damage, the crankshaft bearing caps are tapped into the cylinder block cavity using a brass, lead, or a leather mallet before the attaching bolts are installed. Do not use the attaching bolts to pull the crankshaft bearing caps into the seats. Failure to observe this information may damage a cylinder block or a bearing cap. 1 2 54 DRC6668 DRC6667 3 4 5 DRC6917 6-21 1 5. Crankshaft bearing caps and the bolts. Ensure that the arrows on the crankshaft bearing caps are facing the front of the engine. Do not install the rear crankshaft bearing cap at this time. Important Tighten the inside bearing cap bolts first and the outside bearing cap bolts last. Tighten: Crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 100 ft. lb. (135 Nm). 2 6. Apply GM Adhesive, P/N 12346141 to the rear bearing cap sealing face or to the rear bearing cap channel of the engine block, from the corner of the rear thrust bearing pocket to the edge of the channel. 7. Rear crankshaft bearing cap and bolts to the rear of the engine block. Temporarily tighten the bolts to 35 in. lb. 94 Nm). 3 8. Measure the crankshaft end play as follows: a. Firmly thrust the crankshaft first rearward then forward. This will line up the rear crankshaft thrust surfaces. Important Tighten the inside bearing cap bolts first and the outside bearing cap bolts last. Tighten: Rear crankshaft bearing cap bolts to 100 ft. lb. (135 Nm). b. With the crankshaft wedged forward, measure at the front end to the rear crankshaft bearing with a feeler gauge. the proper clearance is 0.002-0.010 in. (0,0508-0,2540 mm). 9. Inspect the crankshaft for binding as follows: a. Try turning the crankshaft to check for binding. b. If the crankshaft does not turn freely, loosen the crank- shaft bearing cap bolts on one cap at a time until the tight bearing is located. c. A bent crankshaft or a lack of bearing clearance could cause binding. 10. A lack of bearing clearance may be caused by the following conditions: Burrs on the bearing cap. Foreign matter between the bearing and the block. Foreign matter between the bearing and the bearing cap. 1 DRC6917 2 DRC6929 3 DRC6530 6-22 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installation Tool Required: J 38841 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer 1. Make sure the crankshaft rear chamfer is free of grit, loose rust, and burrs. Correct as needed. 2. Lubricate the inner and outer diameter of the seal with engine oil. 4 3. Install the seal on J 38841 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer. 4. Position J 38841 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft. 5. Tighten the screws securely with a screwdriver in order to ensure that the seal is installed squarely over the crankshaft. 6. Turn the handle until it bottoms. 7. Remove J 38841 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer. Piston, Connecting Rod, and Bearing Installation Tools Required:J 5239 Connecting Rod Guide Tool J 8037 Piston Ring Compressor In order to determine the correct replacement bearing size, the bearing clearance must be measured accurately. Either the micrometer or plastic gauge method may be used, however the micrometer method gives more reliable results and is preferred. Refer to Crankshaft and Connecting Rod Bearings, Cleaning and Inspection found in this manual for either procedure. Do not shim, scrape, or file bearing inserts. Do not touch the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil and acids will J 35621 4 5 DRC6939 DRC6619 etch the bearing surface. Install or Connect: 1. Connecting rod bearings to the connecting rods and connecting rod caps. C 2. Lubricate the cylinder walls lightly with engine oil. 5 3. J 5239 Connecting Rod Guide Tool onto the connecting rod bolts. A - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE SPACER OF THE OIL RING B - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE OIL RING 6 6 C - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE LOWER COMPRESSION RING D - POSITION OF THE GAP FOR THE 6 4. Align the piston ring end gaps. UPPER COMPRESSION RING DRC6627 FORWARD B B A D 6-23 5. Lubricate the piston and the rings with engine oil. 1 6. J 8037 Piston Ring Compressor over the piston and rings assembly without disturbing the eng gap locations. 7. Compress the piston rings. 2 8. Ensure that the dimple faces the front of the block. Each connecting rod and bearing cap should be marked for proper location and orientation. Cylinder 1, 3, 5, and 7 are the right bank and 2, 4, 6, and 8 are the left bank (when viewed from the front of the engine). The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one block or cylinder to another, new connecting rod bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to corre- spond with the new cylinder number. 1 9. Piston and connecting rod into proper cylinder bore. 10. Use a hammer to lightly tap the piston down into the cylinder bore. 11. Guide the connecting rod into position on the crankpin, while tap- ping the piston into the bore. 12. Coat the connecting rod bearings with clean engine oil. 13. Coat the crankpin with clean engine oil. 14. Connecting rod cap with the bearing and connecting rod nuts. Tighten: Connecting rod nuts to 45 ft. lb. (61 Nm). Camshaft Installation Install or Connect 1. Camshaft as follows: 3 a. Install three 5/16 - 19 X 4 in. bolts into the camshaft front bolt holes in order to handle the camshaft. b. Use care to avoid damaging the camshaft bearings. c. Remove the three bolts after the camshaft is installed. Important J 8037 1 DRC6628 2 DRC6919 3 DRC6906 6-24 2. Camshaft retainer and bolts. Tighten: Camshaft retainer bolts to 10 ft. lb. (14 Nm). Timing Chain and Sprockets Installation Tools Required: J 22102 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer Install or Connect 1. Crankshaft key, as necessary. Important Ensure that the sprocket alignment mark faces away from the engine block. Ensure that the sprocket is fully seated against the crank shoulder. 4 2. Crankshaft sprocket using J 22102 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer. Important Ensure the following conditions exist: a. The camshaft and crankshaft timing marks are aligned. b. The camshaft dowel pin and camshaft sprocket hole are properly aligned. c. The gears and timing chain mesh. 3. Camshaft timing chain to the camshaft sprocket. 5 4. Camshaft sprocket and the camshaft timing chain to the front of the camshaft. Do not hammer the camshaft sprocket onto the camshaft. To do so may dislodge the rear camshaft plug and damage the camshaft. 5. Camshaft sprocket bolts. Use the bolts to draw the camshaft sprocket onto the camshaft. Tighten: Camshaft sprocket bolts to 25 ft. lb. (34 Nm). 4 DRC6905 5 DRC6902 6-25 Engine Front Cover Installation Install or Connect: 1 1. Lubricate the sealing surface of the crankcase front oil seal with clean engine oil. 2. Apply GM Adhesive, P/N 12345739, or the equivalent in two places where the front cover meets the oil pan rail. 2 3. Engine front cover. 4. Engine front cover screws. Tighten: Engine front cover screws to 106 in. lb. (12 Nm). Oil Pump Installation Install or Connect: 3 1. Oil pump driveshaft and retainer. 2. Oil pump. 3. Oil pump bolt. Tighten: Oil pump bolt to 65 ft. lb. (90 Nm). Oil Pan Installation Important Install the oil pan within 10 minutes of the adhesive application. Install or Connect: 4 1. Apply GM Adhesive, P/N 12345739, or the equivalent in four places where the front and rear crankshaft bearing caps meet the engine block. 2. Oil pan gasket to the engine block. 1 DRC6921 2 DRC6901 3 DRC6910 4 DRC6909 6-26 3. Oil pan. Ensure that the oil pan gasket stays in place. 4. Oil pan bolts. Tighten: Oil pan bolts to 18 ft. lb. (25 Nm). 5. Oil pan drain plug. Tighten: Oil pan drain plug to 20 ft. lb. (28 Nm). Cylinder Head Installation Install or Connect 5 1. Cylinder head gasket onto the engine block. Important Do not use sealer on any engines that use a composition gasket. 2. Align the gasket locating mark to face up. 3. Cylinder head onto the block. Guide the cylinder head carefully into place over the dowel pins and head gasket. 4. Coat the threads of the cylinder head bolts with GM Sealant, P/N 12346004, or equivalent. 6 5. Cylinder head bolts and tighten in the following three F6 sequential steps: Tighten: a. First pass to 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm). b. Second pass to 60 ft.lb.(80 Nm). c. Third pass to 85 ft. lb. (115 Nm). 6. Spark plugs. Tighten: New cylinder heads to 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm). Subsequent installations to 15 ft. lb. (20 Nm). 5 DRC6907 6 DRC6908 6-27 Valve Rocker Arm and Push Rod Installation Important If a new camshaft is installed, replace all the valve lifters. Install or Connect: 1. Coat the valve lifter rollers and inside of the valve lifter guides with GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367, or equivalent. 1 2. Valve lifters in the same location from which they were removed. 1 3. Valve lifter guides. Important The valve lifter guide retainer must contact all of the valve lifter guides. If the valve lifter guide retainer is bent, the valve lifter guide must be replaced. 2 4. Valve lifter guide retainer. 5. Valve lifter guide retainer bolts. Tighten: Bolts to 20 ft. lb. (26 Nm). The 7.4 L engine uses different length intake and exhaust valve push rods. The exhaust valve push rods are longer than the intake valve push rods. 3 6. Valve push rods. Bring the #1 piston to TDC compression stroke and the timing indicator on 0. Torque the intake rocker arm bolts 1, 2, 5, and 7; and exhaust rocker arm bolts 1, 3, 4, and 8 to 40 ft. lb. (54 Nm) while holding the rocker arm centered over the valve stem. Rotate the crankshaft 360, then torque intake rocker arm bolts 3, 4, 6, and 8; and exhaust rocker arm bolts 2, 5, 6, and 7 to 40 ft. lb. (54 Nm) while holding the rocker arm centered over the valve stem. Be sure that the valve push rods seat in the valve lifter sockets. 7. Valve rocker arms, balls and the bolts. Tighten: Bolts to 40 ft. lb.. (54 Nm). 4 8. Splash shield. 4 DRC6916 2 DRC6915 3 DRC6897 DRC6914 6-28 Valve Rocker Arm Cover Installation Install or Connect: 5 5. Valve rocker arm cover and gasket. 2. Valve rocker arm cover bolts. Tighten: Valve rocker arm cover bolts to 72 in. lb. (8 Nm). Intake Manifold Installation Install or Connect 6 1. Seals on the cylinder block. 2. Gasket onto the cylinder head. 3. Lower intake manifold onto the engine block. 4. Coat the lower intake manifold bolts with GM Threadlock, P/N 12345382, or equivalent. 7 5. Lower intake manifold bolts. Tighten: Bolts in sequence to 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm). 8 6. Upper inake manifold gaskets. 7. Upper intake manifold. 8. Cover a minimum of eight threads of the upper intake manifold bolts with GM Threadlock, P/N 12345493, or equivalent. 5 DRC6895 6 DRC6893 7 DRC6894 8 DRC6891 6-29 1 9. Upper intake manifold bolts and tighten in the following two sequential steps: Tighten: a. First pass to 72 in. lb. (8 Nm). b. Second pass to 10 ft. lb. (14 Nm). Crankshaft Balancer Installation Tools Required: J 23523-F Crankshaft Balancer Installer Inspect: 1. Crankshaft balancer weight for signs of shifting on the hub. Replace the crankshaft balancer if the weight has shifted. 2. Crankshaft balancer hub sealing surfaces for grooves, nicks, or damage. Replace the crankshaft balancer if any of the above conditions exist. Important The inertial weight section of the crankshaft balancer is assembled to the hub with a rubber material. You must follow the installation procedures carefully, using the proper tool, or movement of the inertial weight section of the hub will destroy the tuning of the crankshaft balancer. Install or Connect: 3. Use a small amount of GM Adhesive, P/N 12345739, to seal the balancer key to the crankshaft keyway groove. 4. Key into the crankshaft keyway, if the key has been removed. 2 5. Crankshaft balancer hub, until the hub is completely seated against the crankshaft ridge using J 23523-F Crankshaft Balancer Installer. 6. Remove the J 23523-F Crankshaft Balancer Installer. 7. Bolt and washer into the front of the crankshaft. Tighten: Bolt to 110 ft. lb. (149 Nm). 1 DRC6892 2 DRC6982 6-30 Circulating Pump The circulating pump is manufactured specially for marine use. It is serviced only as an assembly. Do not replace with an automotive circulating pump. Inspection Remove alternator and power steering belts. Grasp circulating pump pulley and checkend and side play. Turn pulleyto checkfor drag. Look for water leaking from indicator hole beneath pump shaft behind pulley. Replace pump if play, drag, or leakage are evident. Removal and Installation 1. Drain water from block and disconnect water hose from circulating pump. Remove pulley. Remove circulating pump bolts, pump and gaskets. 2. Use new pump to block gaskets and sealer. Install new pump assembly on cylinder block and tighten bolts as specified. Install pulley. Install alternator and power steering belts, then adjust tension. Connect hose to circulating pump. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. Front Engine Mount Replacement Removal 3 1. Remove two lag screws A and washers from mounts. 4 2. Lift engine with 1500 lb. (680 kg) minimum capacity hoist to allow removal of front mount and bracket. Remove three mount screws and lock washers B . 3 4 5 5 Prior to disassembly of front mount assembly, measure distance between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Disassembly 6 1. Remove three nuts C , one lock washer, and engine mount bracket D from mount bolt E while holding bolt secure with socket. 6 1 2. Remove one large washer A , one small washer B and engine mount bolt C from mount. Reassembly 2 1. Place small washer B on mount bolt and insert bolt up through mount. Install large washer A and secure with nut D . Tighten to 60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm). 1 2. Install upper inner nut and place engine mount bracket G on engine mount bolt. NOTE: Measure distance between large washer 11978 and flat on upper mount bracket. Distance must be the same as that prior to disassembly. 3. Install lock washer and lower nut. Tighten nut to 50-70 ft. lb. (68-95 Nm). Installation 1. Spray the engine mount screws threads with LoctitePrimer and allow to air dry. Apply Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agentto the screws. Attach engine mount assembly to engine with three screws and washers. Tighten to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). 2. Install lag screws and tighten securely. Height Adjustment 3 1. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts F and G as required. 2. Lift engine with 1500 lb. (680 kg) minimum capacity hoist. Position engine at desired height. 3 3. After setting mount position, turn nut G up against underside of engine bracket and hold nut with a wrench. Tighten upper nut F to 100-120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm). High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement Removal 1 2 3 Drain water from respective exhaust manifold. 1. Loosen two clamps securing upper hose to elbow. 2. Port Elbow - Remove four thru-bolts, lock washers, and washers. Move remote oil filter aside. Move crankcase oil filler bracket aside. 4 3. Starboard Elbow - Remove two thru-bolts H , lock washers, and washers attaching circuit breaker bracket. Set bracket assembly aside. 5 4. Lubricate inside of exhaust hose with a soapy water solution, then remove remaining elbow bolt. Tap elbow with a soft hammer to free it, then twist it out of the hose. Remove and discard the manifold gasket. Installation 6 2. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides of a new gasket I , and place it on the manifold. Lubricate inside of exhaust hose with a soapy water solution to ease elbow installation. 3. Twist elbow into hose and position it on the gasket. Install the outer rearthru-bolt, washer, and lock washer, and turn it in finger tight. 4. Port Elbow - Position remote oil filter at front of elbow. Mount oil filter bracket on elbow. Install four thru-bolts, washers, and lock washers finger tight. Tighten 5 small screw securely. 4 5. Starboard Elbow - Position circuit breaker assembly at front of elbow. Install two thru-bolts H , washers, and lock washers finger tight. 6. Tighten all elbow thru-bolts to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). 7. Properly position the two exhaust hose clamps and tighten them securely. 6 4 DR6451 Exhaust Hose and Intermediate Pipe Replacement Removal 1. Loosen eight clamps that attach the upper and lower exhaust hoses, and slide clamps down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 1 2. Lubricate inside of lower hose with a soapy water solution, and push lower hose down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 2 3. Twist intermediate pipe out of upper hose. Lubricate inside of upper hose with a soapy water solution for ease of removal. 4. Slide upper hose off high-rise elbow. Slide lower hose off exhaust Y- pipe. Installation 1. Lubricate inside diameter of 3.5 in. (8,89 cm) I.D. lower hose with a soapy water solution. Slide it all the way onto the exhaust Y-pipe. 3 2. On the inside of the 4 in. (10,16 cm) I.D. upper hose, there is a circular rib 1.5 in. (3,81 cm) from one end. The ribbed end of the hose must face the intermediate pipe (rearward) when its installed. Slide hose onto high-rise elbow until it seats. NOTE: If hose is not properly positioned, it will not completely engage the high-rise elbow or allow secure attachment. 2 3. With a twisting motion, insert intermediate pipe all the way into the upper hose. Slide the lower hose up until its halfway onto the intermediate pipe. 4. Slide four No. 68 clamps up onto the upper hose. Slide four No. 64 clamps up onto lower hose. Position clamps in their proper channels and tighten them securely. Engine Coupler Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine from boat. 2. Disconnect all wires, lines and connectors from bellhousing. 45 3. Remove seven screws securing bellhousing cover and slide cover off. 20034 19996 4 5 19377A 28264 16041 3 2 1 6 4. Pull drain hose out of bellhousing if equipped. 5. Remove bolts and nuts retaining bellhousing. Disconnect ground wires and oil cooler bracket. Note oil cooler orientation. 6. Remove bell housing. 7 7. Use an offset box end wrench to remove the six nuts securing the coupler, and slide coupler off studs. 8. Remove old gasket from bellhousing cover. Clean gasket surface thoroughly. 6 19842 Installation 8 1. Install coupler and attach six locknuts. Use a suitable adaptor and tighten nuts to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 2. Install bell housing. Attach oil cooler with same orientation as noted in a previous step. Tighten nuts and bolts to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). Attach ground wires and tighten nuts to 15-20 ft. lb. (20-27 Nm). 3. Push drain hose into bellhousing, if equipped. 4. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound to both sides of a 7 new bellhousing gasket and position it on cover. 6712 9 5. Clean seven self-tapping screws with a wire brush. Install bellhousing cover and screws and tighten to 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm). 6. Connect all wires, lines and connectors to bellhousing. Install engine in boat. 9 6-35 8 6714 Engine Specifications General Information: Type - No. of Cylinder..................................................................................................................................90 - V-8 Valve Arrangement ........................................................................................................................................ In head Bore and Stroke ........................................................................................... 4.250 x 4.000 in. (107,95 x 101,6 mm) Piston Displacement ........................................................................................................ 7.4 Litre/454 Cubic Inches Cylinder Numbers - Front to Rear Starboard Bank........................................................................................................................................ 2-4-6-8 Port Bank ................................................................................................................................................. 1-3-5-7 Firing Order ....................................................................................................................................... 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 Compression Ratio ............................................................................................................................................... 8:1 Water Temperature Control ..................................................................................................................... Thermostat Thermostat Opens at .......................................................................................................................... 140 F. (60 C) Alternator Belt Adjustment .................................................................................... 1/4-1/2 in. give w/finger pressure Full Throttle Operation Range ....................................................................................................... 4200 - 4600 RPM Pistons: Production Clearance ............................................................................. 0.0018 - 0.0030 in. (0,0457 - 0,0762 mm) Service Limit .................................................................................... 0.0018 - 0.0048 in. (0,0457 - 0,219 mm) Max. Piston Rings, Compression: Production Groove Clearance Top .........................................................................................................0.0012 - 0.0029 in. (0,031 - 0,074 mm) 2nd .........................................................................................................0.0012 - 0.0029 in. (0,031 - 0,074 mm) Service Groove Clearance (both) ............................................................ 0.0012 - 0.0039 in. (0,031 - 0,0991 mm) Gap Top .............................................................................................................0.010 - 0.018 in. (0,254 - 0,475 mm) 2nd .............................................................................................................0.016 - 0.024 in. (0,406 - 0,609 mm) Service (both) ..................................................................................................0.016 - 0.034 in. (0,406 - 0,863 mm) Piston Rings, Oil: Groove Clearance Production................................................................................................0.005 - 0.0065 in. (0,127 - 0,165 mm) Service ...................................................................................................0.0050 - 0.0075 in. (0,127 - 0,191 mm) Gap Production..................................................................................................0.010 - 0.030 in. (0,254 - 0,762 mm) Service ......................................................................................................0.01 0 - 0.040 in. (0,254 - 1,016 mm) 6-36 Engine Specifications Piston Pins: Diameter .................................................................................................. 0.9895 - 0.9897 in. (25,132 - 25,137 mm) Clearance in Piston Production..............................................................................................0.0002 - 0.0007 in. (0,005 - 0,017 mm) Service Limit ..........................................................................................0.0002 - 0.0001 in. (0,005 - 0,025 mm) Rod Fit ..................................................................................... 0.0031 - 0.0021 in. (0,078 - 0,053 mm) lnterference Connecting Rods: Bearing Clearance Production............................................................................................ 0.001 1 - 0.0029 in. (0,028 - 0,074 mm) Service Limit ........................................................................................ 0.001 1 - 0.0039 in. (0,028 - 0,099 mm) Side Clearance ............................................................................................0.0013 - 0.0230 in. (0,033 - 0,584 mm) Crankshaft: End Play ............................................................................................................ 0.005 - o.ol I in. (0,127 - 0,279 mm) Main Journal Diameter No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ................................................................................. 2.7482 - 2.7489 in. (69,804 - 69,822 mm) Taper Production................................................................................................................0.0004 in. (0,010 mm) Max. Service Limit ............................................................................................................ 0.0010 in. (0,025 mm) Max. Out -of-Round Production................................................................................................................0.0004 in. (0,010 mm) Max. Service Limit ............................................................................................................ 0.0010 in. (0,025 mm) Max. Mai n Bearing Clearance, Production No. 1 ......................................................................................................0.0017 - 0.0030 in. (0,043 - 0,076 mm) No. 2 ,3 , 4 ........................................................................................... 0.001 1 - 0.0024 in. (0,028 - 0,061 mm) No. 5 ......................................................................................................0.0025 - 0.0038 in. (0,063 - 0,096 mm) Main Bearing Clearance, Service No. 1, 2, 3, 4 ..........................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0030 in. (0,025 - 0,076 mm) No. 5 ......................................................................................................0.0025 - 0.0040 in. (0,063 - 0,101 mm) Crankpin Diameter .................................................................................. 2.1990 - 2.1996 in. (55,854 - 55,869 mm) Taper Production ....................................................................................................... 0.0005 in. (0,0127 mm) Max. Service Limit......................................................................................................0.0010 in. (0,025 mm) Max. Out-of-Round Production ......................................................................................................... 0.0005 in. (0,013 mm) Max. Service Limit......................................................................................................0.0010 in. (0,025 mm) Max. Camshaft: Camshaft Bearing Journal Diameter ...................................................... 1.9477 - 1.9497 in. (49,471 - 49,522 mm) Lobe Lift + 0.002 in. (0,05 mm) Intake ............................................................................................................................... 0.2821 in. (7,165 mm) Exhaust ............................................................................................................................. 0.2843 in. (7,221 mm) 6-37 Engine Specifications Valve Systems: Lifter Type ....................................................................................................................... Hydraulic, Roller Followers Rocker Arm Ratio......................................................................................................................................... 1.70 to 1 Valve Lash - Intake and Exhaust ..................................................................................................................Net lash Valve Face Angle (I & E) ...................................................................................................................................... 45 Valve Seat Angle (I & E) ....................................................................................................................................... 46 Valve Seat Runout (I & E) ............................................................................................... 0.002 in. (0,051 mm) Max. Stem to Guide Clearance Intake, Production .............................................................................. 0.0010 - 0.0029 in. (0,025 - 0,0737 mm) Exhaust, Production ..............................................................................0.0012 - 0.0031 in. (0,030 - 0,077 mm) Intake, Service.......................................................................................0.0010 - 0.0037 in. (0,025 - 0,094 mm) Exhaust, Service ...................................................................................0.0012 - 0.0049 in. (0,030 - 0,124 mm) Recommended Valve Seat Width Intake ........................................................................................................... 1/32 to 1/16 in. (0,794 - 1,587 mm) Exhaust ........................................................................................................ 1/16 to 3/32 in. (1,587 - 2,381 mm) Valve Spring Installed Height 0.0312 in. ( 0,794 mm) ..................................................... 1.838 in. (46,685 mm) Valve Spring Pressure Lb. @ In. (N @ mm) Closed ................................................................. 71 - 79 @ 1.838 (316 - 351 @ 46,685) Lb. @ In. (N @ mm) Open ............................................................ 238 - 262 @ 1.347 (1059 - 1165 @ 34,213) Installed Height 1/32 in. (0,794 mm) Engine Lubrication: Type Oil Pump ................................................................................................................................................... Gear Normal Pressure, Warm Engine ........................................................................... 10 PSI (86,65 kPa) @ 600 RPM 25 PSI (172,37 kPa) @ 2000 RPM Crankcase Capacity ..................................................................... Approx. 8 qts. (7,57 1); 9 qts. (8,51 I) with Filter Oil Grade Recommended 32 F (0 C) and Above ............................................................................................................................ SAE 30 0 F to 32 F (-18 C to 0 C) .......................................................................................................... SAE 20W-20 Below 0 F (-18 C) .............................................................................................................................. SAE 10W We recommend DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil, which is specially formulated for heavy duty marine use, and ideal for stern drive engines. It provides better antiwear qualities, especially during long high speed operation. In addition, it neutralizes acids caused in all internal combustion engines, offers superior corrosion protection, and is formulated to offer better resistance to oxidation and high temperature sludge formation. Fuel Recommendation ................... See General Information Section 6-38 Torque Specifications Use a reliable torque wrench to tighten theparts listed to prevent straining or distorting the parts or possibly damaging the threads. These specifications are for clean threads only. Dirty threads produce friction which prevents accurate measurement of tightness. It is important that these torque specifications be strictly observed. Overtightening to any extent may damage threads, thus preventing proper torque from being obtained, requiring replacement or repair of the damaged part. ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Bolts Camshaft Sprocket 25 -34 Circulating Pump 30 -40 Cylinder Head Step 1 30 -40 Step 2 60 -80 Step 3 85 -115 Dipstick Tube Fitting 15-18 -20-24 Distributor Clamp 25 -34 Exhaust Manifold 24-28 -33-38 Flywheel Bellhousing 32-40 -43-54 Flywheel Cover -60-84 7-9 Flywheel to Crankshaft 70 -95 Front Mount 65-75 -81-102 Front Mount Bracket to Block 32-40 -43-54 Fuel Rail -89 10 Harmonic Balancer 110 -149 High-Rise Elbow 12-18 -16-24 Intake Manifold Lower 30 -40 Upper 10 -14 Main Bearing Cap (All) 100 -135 Oil Pan to Block 18 -25 Oil Pump 65 -90 Oil Pump Cover -106 12 Power Steering Pump Bracket 26-30 -35-41 Remote Oil Filter Adaptor (to block) 20-25 -27-34 Rocker Arm 40 -54 Starter Motor 30-36 -41-49 Timing Chain Cover -106 12 Thermostat Housing 30 -40 Water Pump 30 -40 Vibration Damper 110 -149 6-39 Torque Specifications (cont.) ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Nut Connecting Rod Cap 45 -61 Flame Arrestor -22-35 2,8-4,0 Flare-Dipstick Tube 15-18 -2,8-4,0 Flywheel Bellhousing 32-40 -43-54 Flywheel and Coupler 40-45 -54-61 Front Mount (upper) 100-120 0 136-163 MAP Sensor 18 -25 Throttle Body -89 10 Stud Fuel Rail 18 -25 Power Steering Pump 13-15 -18-20 Throttle Body -106 12 Miscellaneous Oil Filter one turn after contact Spark Plugs 22 -30 New Cylinder Head 22 -30 Subsequent Installations 15 -20 6-40 GM Special Tools 1 2 3 DRC6596 DRC6597 DRC6601 4 5 6 DRC6602 DRC6680 DRC6604 1 Valve Lifter Remover (Plier Type) 2 Connecting Rod Guide Tool 3 Piston Ring Compressor 4 Valve Spring Compressors 5 Carbon Remover Brush 6 Valve Lifter Remover (Slide Hammer Type) 7 Crankshaft Oil Seal and Sprocket Installer 8 Cylinder Ridge Remover 9 Crankshaft Sprocket Remover DRC6938DRC6936 DRC6582 7 8 9 J 35621 10 DRC6939 10 Crankshaft Rear Main Seal Installer 6-41 6-42 Section 7 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi Engines Table of Contents Camshaft ........................................................................................... 7-15 Camshaft Lobe Lift, Measuring ....................................................... 7-19 Circulating Pump..............................................................................7-24 Connecting Rod Bearing Replacement .......................................... 7-21 Crankshaft ........................................................................................ 7-20 Cylinder Block .................................................................................. 7-23 Cylinder Head ..................................................................................... 7-9 Engine Coupler Replacement..........................................................7-27 Engine Specifications ...................................................................... 7-29 Exhaust Hose and Intermediate Pipe Replacement ...................... 7-27 Exhaust Manifold Replacement ........................................................7-5 Front Engine Mount Replacement .................................................. 7-24 GM Special Tools................................................................................7-2 High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement ......................................... 7-25 Intake Manifold ...................................................................................7-3 Lubrication System .......................................................................... 7-16 Material Required ............................................................................... 7-2 Oil Pan ............................................................................................... 7-17 Oil Pump ........................................................................................... 7-17 Oil Seal Replacement, Rear Main Bearing ..................................... 7-19 Piston, Ring and Connecting Rod .................................................. 7-22 Remote Engine Oil Filter..................................................................7-16 Timing Chain, Cover and Seal.........................................................7-12 Torque Specifications ...................................................................... 7-32 Valve Lifter, Hydraulic ........................................................................ 7-6 Valve Spring and Seal Repair ............................................................7-8 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Unless instructed otherwise, always disconnect the battery cables from the battery before working on electrical system (to prevent possible sparks or arcing in the engine compartment). Before starting engine after repair or maintenance procedures, always make sure engine compartment is free of fuel vapors to prevent possible fire and explosion. When working on an engine that is running or being cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting hands, fingers or clothing caught in the alternator, power steering and circulating pump belts, pulleys and other moving parts. 7 7-1 GM Special Tools Part Item Number Air Line Adaptor ....................................................................... J-23590 Camshaft Lobe Lift Indicator ..................................................... J-8520 Dial Indicator Set........................................................................ J-5239 Crankshaft Seal/Sprocket Installer ......................................... J-22102 Crankshaft Sprocket Puller........................................................J-1619 Hydraulic Lifter Remover ..................................................... J-9290-01 Hydraulic Lifter Remover ....................................................... J-3049-A Main Bearing Replacer .............................................................. J-8080 Ring Compressor ....................................................................... J-8037 Seal Installer ............................................................................ J-35468 Seal Installer ............................................................................ J-38841 Spring Compressor ................................................................ J-5892-C Torsional Damper Puller ...................................................... J-23523-E Valve Spring Compressor .......................................................... J-8062 Order Directly from: Kent-Moore Tool Division 28635 Mound Road Warren, MI 48092 (800) 345-2233 http://www.spxkentmoore.com Price and ordering information is available from Kent-Moore Tool Division. Material Required DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent 3M Scotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 GM Engine Oil Supplement, P/N 1052367 GM Sealer, P/N 1052289 GM Silicone Rubber Sealer, P/N 1052366 Loctite Primer Molykote Lubricant Plastigage (Green) For additional service information not covered in this manual, obtain the appropriate Chevrolet Engine Service Manual from: Helm Inc. P.O. Box 07130 Detroit, MI 48207 (800) 782-4356 http://www.helminc.com 7-2 Intake Manifold Removal See On-Board Service section of GMEFI Diagnistics Manual for removal of components from intake manifold. 12 1. Disconnect battery cables at battery, and drain coolant from both sides of block and manifolds. 2. Remove alternator. If electrical leads are not disconnected, tie alter 1 nator to oil hoses to prevent alternator weight damaging leads. 3. Remove thermostat housing. 4. Remove main electrical harness from clamps on port side of manifold and at front of manifold. Disconnect other wire connections as necessary. 3 5. Remove distributor cap A and mark the position of the rotor on the housing. Scribe a line on the distributor housing and intake manifold for reassembly in the same position. Remove the distributor. 6. Unscrew attaching bolts, and remove intake manifold. NOTE: If nec 2 essary to pry manifold away from cylinder heads, do not damage gasket sealing surfaces. 7. Remove and discard intake manifold gaskets and seals. Cleaning Remove all gasket material and clean the sealing surfaces of the manifold, block and thermostat housing. Remove excessive car- bon deposits from exhaust passages, scale and deposits from cooling passages. Clean the manifold in a suitable solvent and dry it with compressed air. Inspection 3 Inspect the manifold for cracks, damaged gasket surfaces, or other defects that would make it unfit for further service. Replace all studs that are stripped or otherwise damaged. Remove all filings and foreign matter that may have entered the manifold as a result of repairs. 46200A 46199A Installation 1. Install new manifold seals on block, and new gaskets on cylinder heads. Use only side gaskets having metal inserts covering the center exhaust passage. Use sealer at water passages and where seals butt to gaskets. 1 2. Install intake manifold. Tighten bolts in the sequence shown, 7.4 GSi: 30 ft. lb. (40 Nm), 8.2 GSi: 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm). Check torque of the intake manifold screws annually. The cen ter screws can become loose under normal usage. 3. Install distributor with rotor and align exactly as marked during removal. Install clamp and tighten screw to 25 ft. lb. (34 Nm). NOTE: If engine was cranked while distributor was out, complete ignition timing procedure must be followed. 4. Install distributor cap and high tension leads. 5. Place main wire harness under clamps on port side of manifold and at front of manifold. Make other wire connections as necessary. 6. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides of a new thermostat housing gasket and place it on manifold. Place lifting eye on long bolt, then install and tighten both screws to 12-16 ft. lb. (16-22 Nm). 7. Install alternator and properly tension belt. Tighten mounting screws securely. 8. Attach battery cables at battery. Start engine and check for fuel and water leaks. 1 DRC6869 Exhaust Manifold Replacement Removal Drain water from respective exhaust manifold before beginning procedure. 1. Remove high-rise exhaust elbow following procedure under High- Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement. 2. Carefully pull wires off spark plugs. 3. Loosen hose clamp at front of manifold, and pull off water hose. 4. Remove manifold attaching screws, nuts and washers. Discard nuts. Remove manifold and discard manifold gasket. Cleaning Clean mating surfaces on manifold and cylinder head. Clean the threads on the exhaust manifold bolts. Inspection 2 Inspect for cracks. To pressure check manifold, use a plate such as shown and a new elbow gasket A B to seal water passage in manifold. Be sure to apply sealer to gasket. Install rubber drain cap to manifold and secure with clamp. Attach a gearcase pressure tester (such as Stevens Company S-34) to the water inlet hose. A bushing can be made to secure pressure tester to hose. With the pressure tester attached to the manifold, submerge manifold in water. Pressurize the manifold to 10-15 PSI (22-25 kPa) and check for leaks. C Installation 1. Install a new exhaust manifold gasket. 34 2. Install manifold and secure with bolts, washers and new locknuts. Tighten nuts to 20-26 ft. lb. (27-35 Nm). Tighten bolts to 2428 ft. lb. (33-38 Nm). 3. Attach water hose to nipple at front of manifold and tighten clamp. 4. Attach spark plug wires to plugs. Make sure firing order is correct. 5. Install high-rise exhaust elbow following procedure under High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement. 6. Start engine and check for water and exhaust leaks. DR2875 C A B 2 3 4 Hydraulic Valve Lifter Checking Hydraulic Valve Lifter When checking hydraulic valve lifters, rememberthat grit, sludge, varnish, or other foreign matter will seriously affect their operation. If any foreign substance is found in the lifters or engine where it may be circulated by the lubrication system, a thorough cleaning job must be done to avoid a repetition of lifter trouble. To help prevent lifter trouble, the engine oil and oil filter must be changed as recommended in General Information Section. The engine oil must be heavy-duty type (for Service SG) and must also conform to General MotorsStandard 6094-M to avoid detrimental formation of sludge and varnish. We recommend DuraPlusTMSynthetic Motor Oil. The boat owner should be specifically advised of these requirements when the unit is delivered. Faulty valve lifter operation usually appears under one of the following conditions: 1. Rapping Noise Only When Engine is Started: When the engine is stopped, any lifter on a camshaft lobe is under pressure of the valve spring; therefore, leak down or escape of oil from the lower chamber can occur. When the engine is started, a few seconds may be required to fill the lifter, particularly in colder weather. If noise occurs only occasionally, it may be considered normal, requiring no correction. If noise occurs frequently, however, check for either oil too heavy for prevailing temperatures, or excessive varnish in lifters. 2. Intermittent Rapping Noise: An intermittent rapping noise that appears and disappears every few seconds indicates leakage at check ball seat due to foreign particles, varnish, or defective surface of check ball or seat. 3. Noise at Idle and Low Speed: If one or more valve lifters are noisy at idle speed and up to approximately 1200 RPM, but quiet at higher speeds, it indicates excessive leakdown rate orfaultycheckball seatorplunger.With engine idling, lifters with excessive leak down rate may be spotted by pressing down on each rocker arm above the push rod with equal pressure. Recondition or replace noisy lifters. 7-6 4. Generally Noisy at All Speeds: Check for low or high oil level in crankcase. High oil levels will cause oil foaming from the crankshaft and will force air bubbles into the lifters. Low oil levels allow pump to pump air at high speed. With engine idling, strike each rocker arm above the push rod several sharp blows with a mallet; if noise disappears, it indicates that foreign material was keeping check ball from seating. Stop engine and place lifters on camshaft base circle. If there is lash clearance in any valve linkage, it indicates a stuck lifter plunger, worn lifter roller, or worn camshaft lobe. 5. Loud Noise at Normal Operating Temperature Only: If a lifter develops a loud noise when the engine is at normal operating temperature, but is quiet when engine is below normal temperature, it indicates an excessively fast leak down rate of scored lifter plunger. Recondition or replace lifter. Removal 1. With air hose and cloths, clean dirt from cylinder heads and adjacent parts to avoid getting dirt into engine. It is extremely important that no dirt gets into the valve lifters. 2. Remove intake manifold. Remove exhaust manifolds. 3. Remove rocker arm covers. Do not pry. If covers stick use rubber mallet and strike cover end to jar loose. Loosen rocker arm nuts and pivot the rocker arm free of the push rods. 12 4. Remove push rods. Remove the hydraulic lifter guides and lifters that require service one at a time and place them in an organizer rack. The lifters must be installed in the same bore from which they were removed. 34 A stuck hydraulic lifter can be removed using Tool J-3049-A (plier type) or Tool J-9290-01 (slide hammer type). 5. If less than a complete set of lifters is being removed, immediately is assemble one or two for presence of dirt or varnish. If lifters contain dirt or varnish, it is advisable to remove all lifters for replacement. Otherwise, it will be satisfactory to service only those lifters that are not operating properly. 5 6. Examine the cam roller (4) of the lifter. If this surface is excessively worn, galled or otherwise damaged, discard the lifter assembly. In this case, also examine the mating camshaft lobe for excessive wear or damage. Installation 1 2 3 4 J 9290-1 GR970297 Before installing any new lifters, coat the bottom of the lifter with Molykote or its equivalent. 7-7 5 1. Install valve lifters in cylinder block. If any new lifters or a new camshaft has been installed, an additive containing EP lubricant such as GM Engine Oil Supplement must be added to the crankcase oil for break-in. 2. Install push rods onto lifters. Install intake manifold. 3. Pivot rocker arms in place and install rocker arm bolts. Tighten bolts to 40 ft. lb. (54 Nm). 4. Install rocker arm covers, using GM SealerNo. 1052289, and tighten nuts to 115 in. lb. (13 Nm). 5. Install exhaust manifold. Start engine and check for oil leaks at rocker arm covers. Valve Spring and Seal Repair Removal 1 1. Remove rocker arm cover. 2. Remove spark plug, rocker arm, and push rod on the cylinder(s) to be serviced. 2 3. Install Air Line Adaptertool J-23590 to spark plug port and apply compressed air to hold the valves in place. 2 4. LJsing tool J-5892-C, compress the valve spring and remove the valve locks. Release and remove tool. Remove valve cap and shield, and valve spring and damper. 5. Remove the valve stem oil seal. Installation 1. Install seal over valve stem and seat against head. 2. Set the valve spring and damper, valve shield and valve cap in place. Compress the spring with tool J-5892-C and install oil seal in the lower groove of the stem, making sure the seal is flat and not twisted. NOTE: A light coat of oil on the seal will help prevent twisting. 3. Install the valve locks and release the compressor tool making sure the locks seat properly in the upper groove of the valve stem. NOTE: Grease may be used to hold the locks in place while releasing the compressor tool. 4. Install spark plug and tighten to 22 ft. lb. (30 Nm). 5. Install rocker arm cover. Tighten nuts to 115 in. lb. (13 Nm). 1 DR3796 2 DR3794 7-8 Cylinder Head Removal 1. Drain water from block and exhaust manifolds. Remove intake and exhaust manifolds. 2. Remove valve covers and spark plugs. 3. Loosen rocker arm bolts and turn rocker arms aside. Remove push rods. If lifters are to be serviced, remove them at this point. Otherwise protect the lifters and the camshaft from the entrance of dirt by covering the area with clean cloths. 4. Remove cylinder head bolts, cylinder heads and gasket. Place cylinder heads on bench, supporting them at each end on blocks of wood to prevent damage to gasket faces of heads. Disassembly 1. Remove rocker arm bolts, ball seats and rocker arms. 3 2. Using tool J-8062, compress the valve springs and remove the valve keys. Release the compressor tool, and remove rotators, springs and spring dampers, then remove oil seals. 3. Remove valve from bottom of cylinder heads and place them and their respective valve springs in a rack in their proper sequence so they can be assembled in their original positions. Cleaning and Inspection Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cylinder head cleaning and inspection. Repair 1. Valve Seats: Reconditioning the valve seats is very important, because the seating of the valve must be perfect for the engine to deliver the power and performance built into it. Another important factor is the cooling of the valve heads. Good contact between each valve and its seat in the head is imperative to ensure that the heat in the valve head will be properly carried away. 3 DR3125 7-9 Several different types of equipment are available for resealing valve seats; the recommendations of the manufacturer of the equipment being used should be carefully followed to attain proper results. Regardless of what type of equipment is used, however, it is essential that valve guides be free from carbon or dirt to ensure proper centering of pilot in the guide. a. Install expanding pilot in the valve guide bore and expand pilot by tightening nut on top of pilot. b. Place roughing stone orforming stone over pilot and just clean up the valve seat. Use a 46 stone for both the inlet and exhaust valve seats. c. Remove roughing stone or forming stone from pilot, install finishing stone on pilot and cut just enough metal from the seat to provide a smooth finish. d. Narrow down the valve seats to the proper width for the intake and exhaust. See Specifications at the end of this section. This operation is done by grinding the port side with a 30 stone to lower seat and a 60 stone to raise seat. e. Remove expanding pilot and clean cylinder head carefully to remove all chips and grindings from above operations. 1 Valve seats should be concentric to within 0.002 in. (0,0508 mm) total indicator reading. 2. Valves: Valves that are pitted can be refaced to the proper angle, ensuring correct relation between the head and stern on a valve refacing machine. Valve stems which show excessive wear, or valves that are warped excessively should be replaced. When a valve head which is warped excessively is refaced, a knife edge will be ground on part or all of the valve head due to the amount of metal that must be removed to completely reface. Knife edges lead to breakage, burning or preignition due to heat localizing on this knife edge. If the edge of the valve head is less than 1/32 in. (0.792 mm) thick after grinding, replace the valve. 10425 J 8001 1 a. If necessary, dress the valve refacing machine grinding wheel to make sure it is smooth and true. Set chuck at 45 mark for grinding valves. b. Clamp the valve stem in the chuck of the machine. c. Start the grinder and move the valve head out in line with the grinder wheel by moving the lever to the left. d. Turn the feed screw until the valve head just contacts wheel. Move valve back and forth across the wheel and regulate the feed screw to provide light valve contact. e. Continue grinding until the valve face is true and smooth all around valve. If this makes the valve thin, the valve must be replaced as the valve will overheat and burn. f. Remove valve from chuck and place stem in V block. Feed valve squarely against grinding wheel to grind any pit from rocker arm end of stem. NOTE: Only the extreme end of the valve stem is hardened to resist wear. Do not grind end of stern excessively. g. After cleaning valve face and cylinder head valve seat of grinding particles, make pencil marks about 1/4 in. (6,35 mm) apart across the valve face, place the valve in cylinder head and give the valve one-half turn in each direction while exerting firm pressure on face of valve. h. Remove valve and check face carefully. If all pencil marks have not been removed at the point of contact with the valve seat, it will be necessary to repeat the refacing operation and recheck for proper seating. i. Grind and check remaining valves in the same manner. Assembly When replacing valve springs, refer to the latest parts catalog for ordering information. 2 Starting with number 1 cylinder, place the valves in the designated ports and assemble all but the seal and locks. Then, using tool J-5892C, compress the spring A and install the seal B and locks C . See that the seal is flat and not twisted in the valve stem groove, and that the locks seat properly in the valve stern groove. 2 DR3795 7-11 Place valve spring in position with the closed coil end toward the cylinder head. Installation 1. Wipe off engine block gasket surface and be certain no foreign material has fallen into the cylinder bores, bolt holes, or the valve lifter area. It is good practice to clean out bolt holes with an air hose. This engine has special marine head gaskets. Do not substi tute automotive head gaskets. 2. Install new head gasket on cylinder block. Dowels in the block will holdthe gasket in position. Always handle gaskets carefully to avoid kinking or damage to the surface treatment of the gaskets. DO NOT use any type of sealing material on head gaskets. The gaskets are coated with a special lacquer to provide a good seal, once the parts have warmed up. 3. Carefully set in place on the engine block dowel pins. 4. Clean and lubricate the head bolts with Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound. Install bolts. 1 5. Tighten the head bolts with a torque wrench, in three progressive steps, following the sequence shown. Step 1 - 35 ft. lb. (47 Nm) Step 2 - 65 ft. lb. (88 Nm) Step 3 - 85 ft. lb. (115 Nm) Damage to the cylinder block threads can result if bolts are not lubricated with Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound prior to installation or if the bolts are tightened excessively. Use an accurate torque wrench when installing head bolts and do not overtightens Uneven tightening of the cylinder head bolts can distort the cylinder bores, causing compression loss and excessive oil consumption. Timing Chain, Cover and Seal Harmonic Balancer Removal 1. Remove alternator and power steering belts, and crankshaft pulley. 2 2. Attach tool J-23523-E to balancer, and turn puller screw to remove balancer from crankshaft. The timing chain cover is made of composit material with an integral seal. The seal and gasket is not serviceable. Onece the cover is removed it must be replaced by a new timing chain cover. 1 DR2905 2 DR3573 7-12 Timing Chain Cover Removal 1. Remove circulating pump pulley, alternator brace, and power steering pump. 2. Drain cooling system and remove hose at circulating pump. Disconnect temperature sender wire, then remove circulating pump and discard gaskets. 3. Remove oil pan. See Oil Pan in this section. 4. Remove the front cover-to-block attaching screws. Remove front cover and gasket. Timing Chain and Sprocket Replacement 3 1. Crank engine until 0 marks on camshaft and crankshaft sprockets are in alignment. In this position, engine is timed to fire No. 6 cylinder. 2. Remove camshaft sprocket bolts. Remove sprocket and timing chain together. Sprocket is a slight press-fit for approximately 1/8 inch. If sprocket does not come off easily, a light blow with a plastic-faced hammer on the lower edge of the camshaft sprocket should dislodge it. 4 3. If crank sprocket requires replacement, use a two or three jaw puller such as J-1619 that pilots on end of crankshaft to pull off sprocket. 5 4. Install crank sprocket using tool J-22102 to drive it into place over keyway. 3 5. Install timing chain on camshaft sprocket. Hold the sprocket vertical with the chain hanging below. Align the cam and crank sprocket timing marks, and attach the chain to the crank sprocket. 3 DR3579 4 DR3574 5 DR3577 7-13 6. Align dowel in camshaft with dowel hole in sprocket and install sprocket on camshaft. Do not hammer sprocket onto camshaft. This may loosen rear camshaft welsh plug. 7. Draw sprocket onto camshaft using the mounting bolts. Lubricate the timing chain with engine oil. Timing Chain Cover Installation 1. Clean gasket surface on block and crankcase front cover. 2. Install new oil pan gasket and oil pan. See Oil Pan in this section. 3. Coat the gasket with sealer and place in position on cover. Apply a 1/8 in. (3.175 mm) bead of GM Silicone Rubber Sealer, P/N 1052366 (or equivalent), to the joint formed at the oil pan and cylinder block. 4. Position crankcase front cover over crankshaft. Press cover downward against oil pan until cover is aligned and installed over dowel pins on block. 5. Install the front cover-to-block attaching screws. 6. Tighten front cover to block bolts. See Torque Specifications at the end of this section for the torque figure. Harmonic Balancer Installation 1. Coat machined outer surface of balancer hub with engine oil. Align keyway and start balancer onto crankshaft. 1 2. Using appropriate end of tool J-23523-E threaded into crankshaft, or a large washer and a 7/16-20 x 4 in. bolt and nut threaded into center hole in crankshaft, tighten nut to seat harmonic balancer on crankshaft. 2 3. Remove installing tool. Install crankshaft pulley and tighten screws securely. Thread 7/16-20 x 2 in. bolt and thick washer into crankshaft and tighten. See Torque Specifications at the end of this section for the torque figure. 4. Install circulating pump and pulley, and tighten screws securely. Attach water hose to pump. 5. Install alternator and power steering pump brackets. Install alternator and power steering belts and adjust tension to specifications. 1 DR3576 2 7-14 Camshaft Removal 3 1. Remove distributor A . Remove intake manifold and circulating pump. 2. Remove rocker arm covers, loosen rocker arms, then remove push rods and valve lifters. 3. Remove crankshaft pulley, harmonic balancer, timing chain cover, timing chain, and camshaft sprocket. 4 4. Install two or three 5/16-18 x 4 in. bolts in camshaft sprocket bolt holes and carefully pull out camshaft. Use care not to damage camshaft bearings. Measure: Camshaft Journals. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Do not attempt to repair the camshaft. Replace the camshaft if damaged. Whenever the camshaft needs to be replaced, a new set of valve lifters must also be installed. Bearings Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for camshaft bearing disassembly, cleaning, inspection, and assembly. Installation 1. Lubricate camshaft journals with engine oil. 3 4 DR3790 Whenever a new camshaft is installed, lubricate the cam- shaft lobes with Molykote Lubricant or its equivalent. Also add one can of GM Engine Oil Supplementto crankcase oil. 2. Install three 5/16-18 x 4 in. bolts in camshaft bolt holes. Install camshaft, being careful not to damage bearings. 3. Install cam sprocket (making sure timing marks face outward), timing chain, and timing chain cover. 4. Install harmonic balancer and crankshaft pulley. Install circulating pump and connect coolant hose. 5. Install valve lifters, push rods, rocker arms, and intake manifold. Install rocker arm covers. 6. Install distributor and set initial timing. 7-15 Lubrication System Description and Operation The oil pump consists of two gears and a pressure relief valve enclosed in a two-piece housing, and is driven by the distributor driveshaft which in turn is driven by a helix gear on the camshaft. The pump is flange mounted to the cylinder block with two bolts. The pump cover is equipped with a pressure regulator valve that regulates oil pressure at approximately 40-60 PSI (275.8-413.7 kPa) at 2000 RPM. The pump intake is of the fixed screen type. A mesh screen filters out small particles of dirt and sludge which may be present. A baffle incorporated in the intake screen has been designed to eliminate pressure loss due to sudden surging stops. In the event that a screen becomes plugged, a steel grommet opens and bypasses oil to the pump. Oil passes through an opening in the mounting flange to the cylinder block, then into an oil filter adapter. The main oil galleries run the full length of the crankcase and cut into the valve lifter guide holes to supply oil at full pressure to the lifters. The rocker arms and valves are lubricated by an oil channel in each push rod. Excess oil drains off and returns to the oil pan through passages in the cylinder head and block. Connecting passages drilled in the crankcase permit delivery of oil at full pressure to all crankshaft and camshaft bearings, distributor drive gear, and shaft, and the timing chain. Holes drilled in the crankshaft carry oil from the crankshaft bearings to the connecting rod bearings. Pistons and cylinder walls are lubricated by oil forced through a small notch in the bearing parting surface on the connecting rod, which registers with the hole in the crankpin once every revolution. Piston pins are lubricated by splash. 28256 Remote Engine Oil Filter 12 A full flow oil filter A is mounted to a bracket attached to the port exhaust elbow. Two hoses connect it to an oil cooler and an engine block adaptor B . 12 Oil exits the block through the outboard opening C of the adaptor, and travels through a hose to the rear oil cooler fitting. It leaves the front cooler fitting, and travels through a hose that connects to the filter bracket inner (starboard) opening D . Return oil leaves the filter bracket at the outer (port) opening E travels through a hose and reenters the engine at the forward opening F of the adaptor. 1 2 19046A If hoses are improperly attached at adaptor or filter bracket, oil flow will be reversed. Oil pressure will drop and engine damage may result. 7-16 3 Normally, all engine oil passes from the block through an OEM filter adapter G . If the remote oil filter or lines become restricted, a spring loaded bypass valve H opens in the adaptor and circulates oil back into the block. 3 Inspect bypass valve spring and valve disc H for proper operation or damage. If replacement of bypass valve is necessary, remove bolts and adaptor. Clean valve chamber in block and replace adaptor. Oil Pan Removal 1. Remove timing chain cover. See Timing Chain, Cover and Seal in this section. 2. Remove oil dipstick and withdraw oil using a suction pump. 3. Remove oil dipstick tube. Remove screws, oil pan and gasket. 4. Remove oil dipstick tube fitting from oil pan. Installation 1. Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces. 4 2. Apply GM Silicone Rubber Sealer, P/N 1052366 to the front and rear corners of the block. 4 3. Attach gasket to block. Install rear portion of oil pan seal in groove in rear main bearing cap. 4 4. Install front portion of oil pan seal by pressing the corners into sealer applied to block. 5. Install oil pan and tighten screws. See Torque Specifications at the end of this section for the torque figure. 5 6. Install dipstick tube fitting to pan; leave screw loose. Orient fitting and attach dipstick tube. Then tighten fitting screw and flare nut. See Torque Specifications at the end of this section for the torque figure. 7. Fill crankcase with specified engine oil. See Crankcase Oil in the General Information Section. Oil Pump Removal and Disassembly 1. Remove oil pan. 6 2. Remove pump to rear main bearing cap bolt, and remove pump, extension shaft, and collar. NOTE: Baffle nuts have to be loosened. 3 DR2906 4 DR3788 5 6 DR3580 7-17 3. Disconnect pump shaft from extension. Remove four cover attaching screws, cover, gasket, idler gear and drive gear, and shaft. 4. Remove pressure regulator valve and valve parts. 5. If the pickup screen or pipe need replacing, replace the entire pump and pickup screen assembly. 6. Wash all parts in cleaning solvent and dry using compressed air. Inspection Should any of the following conditions be found during inspection operations, the pump and pickup screen assembly should be replaced. 1. Inspect pump body for cracks or excessive wear. Inspect oil pump gears for excessive wear or damage. 2. Check shaft for looseness in the housing. Check inside of cover for wear that would permit oil to leak past the ends of gears. 3. Check the oil pickup screen for damage to screen or relief grommet. Check for oil in the air chamber. 4. Check pressure regulator valve plunger for fit in cover. Assembly and Installation 1. Place drive gear and shaft in pump body. Install idler gear so that smooth side of gear will be toward the cover. 2. Install a new pump to cover gasket to ensure correct end clearance of the gears. 3. Install cover and attaching screws. Tighten screws to 80 in. lb. (9 Nm), and check to see that shaft turns freely. 4. Install regulator valve plunger, spring, retainer, and pin. 5. Assemble collar end of extension shaft assembly over pump driveshaft, aligning tang of extension shaft with slot in end of pump driveshaft. 6. Assemble pump and extension shaft to rear main bearing cap, aligning slot on top end of extension shaft with drive tang on lower end of distributor shaft. NOTE: Oil pump should slide easily into place. If not, remove and relocate slot or locate other problem. Install mounting screws and tighten. See Torque Specifications at the end of this section for the torque figure. 7. Tighten baffle nuts. 8. Install oil pan using new gasket. Connect oil drain tube. 7-18 Measuring Camshaft Lobe Lift 1 1. Remove rocker arm covers. Loosen rocker arms and pivot away from push rods. Position indicator with ball socket adapter (Tool J-8520) on push rod. Make sure push rod is in the lifter socket. 2. Rotate the crankshaft slowly in the direction of rotation until the lifter is on the heel of the cam lobe. At this point, the push rod will be in its lowest position. 3. Set dial indicator on zero, then rotate the crankshaft slowly, or attach an auxiliary starter switch and bump the engine over, until the push rod is fully raised position. Whenever the engine is cranked: 2 Remove gray and black connectors from ignition coil to prevent accidental starting of engine. 4. Compare the total lift recorded from the dial indicator with specifications. If camshaft readings for all lobes are within specifications, remove dial indicator assembly. 5. Install valve mechanism as outlined. Install rocker arm covers. Rear Main Bearing Oil Seal Replacement Removal Pry out rear crankcase oil seal. NOTE: Care should be taken when removing the rear crankcase oil seal so as not to nick the crankcase seal surface. Cleaning and Inspection Clean sealing surface on crankshaft with a non-abrasive cleaner. Inspect chamfer on crankshaft for grit, loose rust, and burrs. Correct as necessary. Installation 1. Lubricate the inner and outer diameter of the seal with engine oil. 3 2. Position the seal onto tool J-38841 A so seal lip will face the block. 4 3. Position tool J-38841 against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft and tighten securely. This will ensure that the seal B is installed squarely overthe crankshaft. Turn the handle until it bottomsthen remove the tool. DR3791 1 2 DR5655 3 DR1979 4 DR3789 Crankshaft Description Main bearings are of the precision insert type and do not utilize shims for adjustment. If clearances are found to be excessive, a new bearing, both upper and lower halves, will be required. Bearings are available in standard size and 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm), 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm), 0.010 in. (0.245 mm) and 0.020 in. (0.508 mm) undersize. Selective fitting of both rod and main bearing inserts is necessary in production in order to obtain close tolerances. For this reason you may find one-half of a standard insert with one-half of a 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) undersize insert which will decrease the clearance 0.0005 in. (0.0127 mm) from using a full standard bearing. When a production crankshaft cannot be precision fitted by this method, it is then ground 0.009 in. (0.2286 mm) undersize on only those main journals that cannot be properly fitted. All journals will not necessarily be ground undersize. A 0.009 in. (0.2286 mm) undersize bearing and 0.010 in. (0.245 mm) undersize bearing may be used for precision fitting in the same manner as previously described. If, for any reason, main bearing caps are replaced, shimming may be necessary. Laminated shims for each cap are available for service. Shim requirement will be determined by bearing clearance. Cleaning, Inspection and Repair Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cleaning, inspection, and measurements. In general, (except No. 1 bearing) the lower half of the bearing shows a greater wear and the most distress from fatigue. If upon inspection the lower half is suitable for use, it can be assumed that the upper half is also satisfactory. If the lower half shows evidence of wear or damage, both upper and lower halves should be replaced. Never replace one half without replacing the other half. These dimensions should be checked with a micrometer for out-ofround, taper or undersize. If the journals exceed 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) out-of-round, or taper, the crankshaft should be replaced or reconditioned to an undersize figure that will enable the installation of under- size precision type bearings. The crankshaft should also be checked for runout. To perform this operation, support the crankshaft at the front and rear main bearing journals in V blocks, and indicate the runout of both the rear intermediate and front intermediate journals, using a dial indicator. The runout limit of each of these journals is 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm). If the runout exceeds 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm), the crankshaft must be repaired or replaced. 7-20 Main Bearing Replacement 1 1. Install a main bearing removing and installing tool J-8080 A in oil hole in crankshaft journal. NOTE: If such a tool is not available, a cotter pin may be bent as required to do the job. 2. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise as viewed from the front of engine. This will roll upper bearing out of block. 3. Oil new selected size upper bearing and insert plain (unnotched) end between crankshaft and indented or notched side of block. Rotate the bearing into place, and remove tool from oil hole in crankshaft journal. 4. Oil new lower bearing and install in bearing cap. Install main bearing cap with arrows pointing toward front of engine. Torque main bearing cap bolts to specifications. Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for crankshaft bearing clearance procedures. Connecting Rod Bearing Replacement Connecting rod bearings are of the precision insert type and do not utilize shims for adjustment. DO NOT FILE RODS OR ROD CAPS. If clearances are found to be excessive a new bearing will be required. Bearings are available in standard size and 0.001 in. undersize for use with standard size crankshafts. 1. With oil pan and oil pump removed, remove the connecting rod cap and bearing. 2. Wipe the bearings and crankpin clean of oil. Inspect the bearing for evidence of wear or damage. 3. Measure the crankpin for out-of-round or taper with a micrometer. If not within specifications, replace or recondition the crankshaft. If within specifications and a new bearing is to be installed, measure the maximum diameter of the crankpin to determine new bearing size required. 4. If within specifications, measure new or used bearing clearances with Plastigageor its equivalent. 1 DR2916 If a bearing is being fitted to an out-of-round crankpin, be sure to fit to the maximum diameter of the crankpin. If the bearing is fitted to the minimum diameter and the crankpin is out-of-round 0.001 in., interference between the bearing and crankpin will result in rapid bearing failure. a. Place a piece of gauging plastic the full width of the crankpin parallel to the crankshaft. (Note: Surfaces must be free from oil.) 7-21 b. Install the bearing in the connecting rod and cap. c. Install the bearing cap and evenly tighten nuts to specifications. Do not turn the crankshaft with the gauging plastic in stalled. d. Remove the bearing cap and using the scale on the gauging plastic envelope, measure the gauging plastic width at the widest point. 5. If the clearance exceeds specifications select a new, correct size bearing and remeasure the clearance. 6. Coat the bearing surface with oil, install the rod cap and tighten nuts to specifications. 7. When all connecting rod bearings have been installed tap each rod lightly (parallel to the crankpin) to make sure they have clearance. 1 8. Measure all connecting rod side clearances (see Specifications at end of this section), between connecting rod caps. Piston, Ring and Connecting Rod Piston and Rod Removal 1. Remove oil pan, oil pump, and cylinder head. Turn crankshaft until piston is at bottom of stroke. Place a cloth on top of piston to collect cuttings. 2. Before attempting to remove piston, remove cylinder bore ridge as necessary. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for cylinder bore ridge reamer procedures. 3. Inspect connecting rods and connecting rod caps for cylinder identification. If necessary mark them. 2 4. Remove connecting rod cap and install tool J-5239 on studs. Push connecting rod and piston assembly out of top of cylinder block. 1 2 DR3792 It will be necessary to turn the crankshaft slightly to discon nect some of the connecting rod and piston assemblies and push them out of the cylinder. Disassembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod disassembly. 7-22 Assembly Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for piston and connecting rod assembly. Piston and Rod Installation 1. Lightly coat pistons, rings and cylinder walls with light engine oil. 2. With bearing caps removed, install tool J-5239 on bearing cap bolts. Check position of ring end gaps. They must be aligned with each other as described previously. See General Engine Mechanical. 3. Install each piston in its respective bore, using tool J-5239 on each assembly. For valve clearance, the teardrop in the piston faces up and the oil hole on the connecting rod should be to the center of the cylinder block. Guide the connecting rod into place on the crankshaft journals with the long detail of tool J-5239. 3 4. Use tool J-8037 A to compress the piston rings. 5. Install bearing caps and check the bearing clearance. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual for connecting rod side clearance procedure. Cylinder Block Cylinder Bore Inspect: Cylinder bores for scoring or other damage. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Measure: Cylinder bore taper and out-of-round. Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Cylinder Bore Reconditioning Measure: Refer to General Engine Mechanical section in this manual. Piston Selection 1. Check USED piston to cylinder bore clearance as follows: a. Measure the Cylinder Bore Diameter with a telescope gauge 2 1/2 in. (64 mm) from top of cylinder bore. b. Measure the Piston Diameter (at skirt across centerline of piston pin). 3 7-23 c. Subtract piston diameter from cylinder bore diameter to determine Piston to Bore Clearance. d. Calculate piston to bore clearance and determine if piston to bore clearance is in the acceptable range. 2. If used piston is not acceptable, check if a new piston can be selected to fit cylinder bore within the acceptable range. 3. If cylinder bore must be reconditioned, measure new piston diameter (across centerline of piston pin), then hone cylinder bore to correct clearance (preferable range). Mark the piston to identify the cylinder for which it was fitted. Handle the pistons with care, and do not attempt to force them through the cylinder until the cylinder has been bored to correct size as this type piston can be distorted through careless handling. Circulating Pump The circulating pump is manufactured specially for marine use. It is serviced only as an assembly. Do not replace with an automotive circulating pump. Inspection Remove alternator and power steering belts. Grasp circulating pump pulley and check end and side play. Turn pulley to check for drag. Look for water leaking from indicator hole beneath pump shaft behind pulley. Replace pump if play, drag, or leakage are evident. Removal and Installation 1. Drain water from block and disconnect water hose from circulating pump. Remove pulley. Remove circulating pump bolts, pump and gaskets. 2. Use new pump to block gaskets and sealer. Install new pump as sembly on cylinder block and tighten bolts as specified. Install pulley. Install alternator and power steering belts, then adjust tension. Connect hose to circulating pump. Lake or tank test unit and check for leaks. Front Engine Mount Replacement Removal 1 1. Remove two lag screws A and washers from mounts. 2 2. Lift engine with 1500 lb. (680 kg) minimum capacity hoist to allow removal of front mount and bracket. Remove three mount screws and lock washers B . Safety Related 7-24 Engine/eng 1 2 Prior to disassembly of front mount assembly, measure distance between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Disassembly 4 1. Remove three nuts C , one lock washer, and engine mount bracket D from mount bolt E while holding bolt secure with socket. 5 2. Remove one large washer F , one small washer G and engine mount bolt E from mount. Reassembly 6 1. Place small washer FG on mount bolt and insert bolt up through mount. Install large washer and secure with nut C . Tighten to 60-75 ft. lb. (81-102 Nm). 4 2. Install upper inner nut and place engine mount bracket D on engine mount bolt. NOTE: Measure distance between large washer and flat on upper mount bracket. Distance must be the same as that prior to disassembly. 3. Install lock washer and lower nut. Tighten nut to 50-70 ft. lb. (68-95 Nm). 11979 Installation 1. Spray the engine mount screws threads with Loctite Primer and allow to air dry. Apply Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent to the screws. Attach engine mount assembly to engine with three screws and washers. Tighten to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). 2. Install lag screws and tighten securely. Height Adjustment 7 1. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts H and I as required. 11978 2. Lift engine with 1500 lb.(680 kg) minimum capacity hoist. Position engine at desired height. 7 3. After setting mount position, turn nut I up against underside of engine bracket and hold nut with a wrench. Tighten upper nut H to 100120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm). High-Rise Exhaust Elbow Replacement Removal Drain water from respective exhaust manifold. 1. Loosen two clamps securing upper hose to elbow. Safety Related 7-25 Engine/eng 3 4 5 6 7 2. Port Elbow - Remove four thru-bolts, lock washers, and washers. Move remote oil filter aside. Move crankcase oil filter bracket aside. 1 3. Starboard Elbow - Remove two thru-bolts A , lock washers, and washers attaching circuit breaker bracket. Set bracket assembly aside. 2 4. Lubricate inside of exhaust hose with a soapy water solution, then remove remaining elbow bolt. Tap elbow with a soft hammer to free it, then twist it out of the hose. Remove and discard the manifold DR6451 gasket. Installation 3 2. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundto both sides of a new gasket B , and place it on the manifold. Lubricate inside of exhaust hose with a soapy water solution to ease elbow installation. 3. Twist elbow into hose and position it on the gasket. Install the outer rear thru-bolt, washer, and lock washer, and turn it in finger tight. 4. Port Elbow - Position remote oil filter at front of elbow. 1 2 28265 Mount oil filter bracket on elbow. Install four thru-bolts, washers, and lock washers finger tight. Tighten small screw securely. 1 5. Starboard Elbow - Position circuit breaker assembly at front of elbow. Install two thru-bolts A , washers, and lock washers finger tight. 6. Tighten all elbow thru-bolts to 12-18 ft. lb. (16-24 Nm). 7. Properly position the two exhaust hose clamps and tighten them securely. 3 Exhaust Hose and Intermediate Pipe Replacement Removal 1. Loosen eight clamps that attach the upper and lower exhaust hoses, and slide clamps down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 4 2. Lubricate inside of lower hose with a soapy water solution, and push lower hose down onto exhaust Y-pipe. 5 3. Twist intermediate pipe out of upper hose. Lubricate inside of upper hose with a soapy water solution for ease of removal. 4. Slide upper hose off high-rise elbow. Slide lower hose off exhaust Y- pipe. Installation 1. Lubricate inside diameter of 3.5 in. (8,89 cm) I.D. lower hose with a soapy water solution. Slide it all the way onto the exhaust Y-pipe. 6 2. On the inside of the 4 in. (10,16 cm) I.D. upper hose, there is a circular rib 1.5 in. (3,81 cm) from one end. The ribbed end of the hose must face the intermediate pipe (rearward) when its installed. Slide hose onto high-rise elbow until it seats. NOTE: If hose is not properly positioned, it will not completely engage the high-rise elbow or allow secure attachment. 5 3. With a twisting motion, insert intermediate pipe all the way into the upper hose. Slide the lower hose up until its halfway onto the intermediate pipe. 4. Slide four No. 68 clamps up onto the upper hose. Slide four No. 64 clamps up onto lower hose. Position clamps in their proper channels and tighten them securely. 16041 Engine Coupler Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine from boat. 2. Disconnect all wires, lines and connectors from bellhousing. 78 3. Remove seven screws securing bellhousing cover and slide cover off. 4 19377A 5 6 20034 19996 7 8 1 4. Pull drain hose out of bellhotising if equipped. 5. Remove bolts and nuts retaining bellhousing. Disconnect ground wires and oil cooler bracket. Note oil cooler orientation. 6. Remove bell housing. 2 7. Use an offset box end wrench to remove the six nuts securing the coupler, and slide coupler off studs. 8. Remove old gasket from bellhousing cover. Clean gasket surface thoroughly. 1 19842 Installation 3 1. Install coupler and attach six locknuts. Use a suitable adaptor and tighten nuts to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 2. Install bellhousing. Attach oil cooler with same orientation as noted in a previous step. Tighten nuts and bolts to 32-40 ft. lb. (43-54 Nm). Attach ground wires and tighten nuts to 15-20 ft. lb. (20-27 Nm). 3. Push drain hose into bellhousing if equipped. 4. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound to both sides of a 2 new bellhousing gasket and position it on cover. 6712 4 5. Clean seven self-tapping screws with a wire brush. Install bellhousing cover and screws and tighten to 60-84 in. lb. (7-9 Nm). 6. Connect all wires, lines and connectors to bellhousing. Install engine in boat. 4 7-28 3 6714 Engine Specifications 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi Models General Information: Type - No. of Cylinder .................................................................................................................................90 - V-8 Valve Arrangement ........................................................................................................................................ In head Bore and Stroke 7.4 GSi ................................................................................................... 4.250 x 4.000 in. (107.95 x 101.6 mm) 8.2 GSi ..................................................................................................4.468 x 4.000 in. (1 13.48 x 101.6 mm) Piston Displacement 7.4 GSi ........................................................................................................................ 7.4 liter/454 Cubic Inches 8.2 GSi .....................................................................................................................8.2 Liters/502 Cubic Inches Cylinder Numbers - Front to Rear Starboard Bank ....................................................................................................................................... 2-4-6-8 Port Bank ................................................................................................................................................. 1-3-5-7 Firing Order .......................................................................................................................................1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 Compression Ratio 7.4 GSi ......................................................................................................................................................... 8.6:1 8.2 GSi ......................................................................................................................................................... 8.8:1 Water Temperature Control .................................................................................................................... Thermostat Thermostat Opens at .......................................................................................................................... 140 F (60 C) Alternator Belt Adjustment ...................................................................................1/4-1/2 in. give w/finger pressure Full Throttle Operation Range 7.4 GSi .................................................................................................................................... 4800 - 5200 RPM 8.2 GSi .................................................................................................................................... 4600 - 5000 RPM Pistons: Production Clearance 7.4 GSi .................................................................................................. 0.003 - 0.004 in. (0.0762 - 0.1016 mm) 8.2 GSi .................................................................................................. 0.004 - 0.005 in. (0.1016 - 0.1270 mm) Service Limit ................................................................................................................... 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) Max. Piston Rings. Compression: Production Groove Clearance Top ....................................................................................................0.0012 - 0.0029 in. (0.0304 - 0.0736 mm) 2nd ....................................................................................................0.0012 - 0.0029 in. (0.0304 - 0.0736 mm) Service Groove Clearance (both) ................................................................................... + 0.001 in. (+0.0254 mm) Gap Top ........................................................................................................... 0.010 - 0.018 in. (0.254 - 0.475 mm) 2nd ............................................................................................................ 0.016 - 0.024 in. (0.406 - 0.609 mm) Service (both) ..................................................................................................................... + 0.010 in. (+0.254 mm) Piston Rings. Oil: Groove Clearance Production ............................................................................................ 0.005 - 0.0065 in. (0.127 - 0.1651 mm) Service ........................................................................................................................ + 0.001 in. (+0.0254 mm) Gap Production ................................................................................................ 0.010 - 0.030 in. (0.254 - 0.762 mm) Service .......................................................................................................................... + 0.010 in. (+0.254 mm) 7-29 Engine Specifications Piston Pins: Diameter..................................................................................................0.9895 - 0.9897 in. (25.133 - 25.138 mm) Clearance in Piston Production ........................................................................................ 0.0002 - 0.0007 in. (0.0050 - 0.0177 mm) Service Limit .................................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Rod Fit................................................................................0.0031 - 0.0021 in. (0.0787 - 0.0533 mm) lnterference Connecting Rods: Bearing Clearance Production ...................................................................................... 0.0011 - 0.0029 in. (0.0279 - 0.07366 mm) Service Limit .................................................................................................................... 0.003 in. (0.0762 mm) Side Clearance ......................................................................................... 0.0013 - 0.023 in. (0.0330 - 0.5842 mm) Crankshaft: End Play ........................................................................................................ 0.006 - 0.010 in. (0.1524 - 0.254 mm) Main Journal Diameter No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5............................................................................ 2.7482 - 2.7489 in. (69.8042 - 69.8220 mm) Taper Production ............................................................................................................ 0.0002 in. (0.0051 mm) Max. Service Limit .......................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Max. Out-of-Round Production ........................................................................................................... 0.0002 in. (0.0051 mm) Max. Service Limit .......................................................................................................... 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Max. Main Bearing Clearance. Production No. 1, 2, 3, 4 .................................................................................... 0.0017 - 0.0030 in. (0.0432 - 0.0762 rnm) No. 5 ................................................................................................. 0.0025 - 0.0040 in. (0.0635 - 0.0965 mm) Main Bearing Clearance. Service No. 1, 2, 3, 4 ..................................................................................... 0.0010 - 0.0030 in. (0.0254 - 0.0762 mm) No. 5 ................................................................................................. 0.0025 - 0.0040 in. (0.0635 - 0.0965 mm) Crankpin Diameter 7.4 GSi .............................................................................................. 2.199 - 2.1996 in. (55.854 - 55.8698 mm) 8.2 GSi ................................................................................................................................. 2.20 in. (55.88 mm) Taper Production................................................................................................ 0.0005 in. (0.0127 mm) Max. Service Limit .............................................................................................. 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Max. Out-of-Round Production................................................................................................ 0.0005 in. (0.0127 mm) Max. Service Limit .............................................................................................. 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Max. Camshaft: Camshaft Bearing Journal Diameter .....................................................1.9482 - 1.9492 in. (49.484 - 49.509 mm) Lobe Lift - 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) 7.4 GSi Intake ....................................................................................................................... 0.2343 in. (5.9512 mm) Exhaust ................................................................................................................... 0.2530 in. (6.4262 mm) 8.2 GSi Intake ......................................................................................................................... 0.510 in. (12.954 mm) Exhaust ..................................................................................................................... 0.510 in. (12.954 mm) 7-30 Engine Specifications Valve Systems: Lifter Type ...................................................................................................................................................Hydraulic Rocker Arm Ratio 7.4 GSi.....................................................................................................................................................1.7 to 1 8.2 GSi.....................................................................................................................................................1.7 to 1 Valve Lash - Intake and Exhaust ............................................................................................. zero lash + one turn Valve Face Angle (I & E) ......................................................................................................................................45 Valve Seat Angle (I & E) .................................................................................................................................... 46 Valve Seat Runout (I & E) ............................................................................................ 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) Max. Stem to Guide Clearance Intake, Production ............................................................................0.0010 - 0.0027 in. (0.0254 - 0.0270 mm) Exhaust, Production.........................................................................0.0012 - 0.0029 in. (0.0304 - 0.0736 mm) Intake, Service .............................................................................Hi Limit Production + 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Exhaust, Service ..........................................................................Hi Limit Production + 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) Recommended Valve Seat Width Intake .......................................................................................................... 1/32 to 1/16 in. (0.794 - 1.587 mm) Exhaust ....................................................................................................... 1/16 to 3/32 in. (1.587 - 2.381 mm) Valve Spring Free Length ..........................................................................................................2.15 in. (54.41 mm) Valve Spring Installed Height ............................................................................................. 1 51/64 in. (45.641 mm) Valve Spring Pressure Lb. @ In. (kg @ mm) Closed .................................................................. 74-86 @ 1.80 in. (33.5 - 39 @ 45.72) Lb. @ In. (kg @ mm) Open ............................................................ 195-215 @ 1.40 in. (88.4 - 97.5 @ 35.56) Installed Height 1/32 in. (0.794 mm) Valve Spring Fit In Damper ................................................................................ 0.042 - 0.094 in. (1.06 - 2.38 mm) Engine Lubrication: Type Oil Pump ................................................................................................................................................... Gear Normal Pressure. Warm Engine ............................................................................. 10 PSI (70.3 kPa) @ 500 RPM 40-60 PSI (281 - 422 kPa) @ 2000 RPM Crankcase Capacity 7.4 GSi .......................................................................... Approx. 8 qt. (7.57 liters); 9 qt. (8.51 liters) with Filter 8.2 GSi .......................................................................... Approx. 8 qt. (7.57 liters); 9 qt. (8.51 liters) with Filter Oil Grade Recommended 32 F (0 C) and Above ............................................................................................................................ SAE 30 0 F to 32 F (-18 C to 0 C) ......................................................................................................... SAE 20W-20 Below 0 F (-18 C) .............................................................................................................................. SAE 10W We recommend DuraPlusTM Synthetic Motor Oil, which is specially formulated for heavy duty marine use, and ideal for stern drive engines. It provides better antiwear qualities, especially during long high speed operation. In addition, it neutralizes acids caused in all internal combustion engines, offers superior corrosion protection, and is formulated to offer better resistance to oxidation and high temperature sludge formation. Fuel Recommendation ................. See General Information Section 7-31 Torque Specifications Use a reliable torque wrench to tighten the parts listed to prevent straining or distorting the parts or possibly damaging the threads. These specifications are for clean threads only. Dirty threads produce friction which prevents accurate measurement of tightness. It is important that these torque specifications be strictly observed. Overtightening to any extent may damage threads, thus preventing proper torque from being obtained, requiring replacement or repair of the damaged part. ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Screw Camshaft Sprocket 7.4 GSi 20 27 8.2 GSi 25 34 Circulating Pump 30 -40 Distributor Clamp 25 -34 Dipstick Tube Fitting 15-18 -20-24 Flywheel Bellhousing 32-40 -43-54 Flywheel Cover -60-84 7-9 Front Mount Bracket to Block 32-40 -43-54 Oil Pan to Block -200 22 Oil Pan to Front Cover 70 7,9 Oil Pump Cover -80 9 Power Steering Pump Bracket 26-30 -35-41 Starter Motor 30-36 -41-49 Thermostat Housing 12-16 -16-22 Timing Chain Cover 7.4 GSi -106 12 8.2 GSi -120 13,6 Water Pump 7.4 GSi 30 -40 8.2 GSi 35 -47 7-32 Torque Specifications (cont.) ITEM FT. LB. IN. LB. Nm Nut Connecting Rod Cap 7.4 GSi 48 -65 8.2 GSi 73 -99 Exhaust Manifold 20-26 -27-35 Flame Arrestor -25-35 2,8-4,0 Flare-Dipstick Tube 15-18 -20-24 Flywheel Bellhousing 32-40 -43-54 Flywheel and Coupler 40-45 -54-61 Front Mount (upper) 100-120 -136-163 Rocker Arm Cover -115 13 Bolt Cylinder Head Step 1 35 -47 Step 2 65 -88 Step 3 85 -115 Exhaust Manifold 24-28 -33-38 Flywheel to Crankshaft 70 -95 Front Mount 65-75 -81-102 Harmonic Balancer 7.4 GSi 85 115 8.2 GSi 90 -122 High-Rise Elbow 12-18 -16-24 Intake Manifold 7.4 GSi 30 40 8.2 GSi 35 47 Main Bearing Cap (All) 7.4 GSi 100 135 8.2 GSi 110 -149 Oil Pump 7.4 GSi 65 -90 8.2 GSi 70 -95 Remote Oil Filter Adaptor (to block) 20-25 -27-34 Rocker Arm 40 -54 Vibration Damper 24 -33 Stud Power Steering Pump 13-15 -18-20 Rocker Arm Cover -60-90 7-10 Miscellaneous Oil Filter one turn after contact Spark Plugs (cylinder head - new) 22 -30 (cylinder head - all subsequent installations) 15 -20 7-33 7-34 Section 8 Steering System Table of Contents Mechanical (Nonpower) Steering System ........................................ 8-3 Cable Installation.............................................................................8-3 Cable Removal ................................................................................ 8-3 Description ...................................................................................... 8-3 Lubrication....................................................................................... 8-4 Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives ............................................. 8-2 Special Tools ................................................................................... 8-2 Steering Tube Replacement ........................................................... 8-4 Trim Tab Adjustment ..................................................................... 8-17 Power Steering System......................................................................8-5 Cable Installation...........................................................................8-15 Cable Installation Problems ......................................................... 8-23 Checking Fluid Level .................................................................... 8-10 Cylinder Installation ...................................................................... 8-14 Cylinder Removal .......................................................................... 8-13 Cylinder Servicing ......................................................................... 8-14 Description ...................................................................................... 8-5 Diagnosis Chart ............................................................................. 8-19 External Leakage ........................................................................... 8-21 Feedback To Helm ......................................................................... 8-24 Hoses ............................................................................................. 8-16 Hydraulic Fluid .............................................................................. 8-10 Lubrication..................................................................................... 8-16 Pump Belt Adjustment .................................................................. 8-12 Pump Installation ............................................................................ 8-9 Pump Leakage ............................................................................... 8-22 Pump Operation .............................................................................. 8-6 Pump Pressure Test ...................................................................... 8-22 Pump Removal ................................................................................ 8-9 Purging Air From Steering System .............................................. 8-11 Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives ............................................. 8-2 Special Tools ................................................................................... 8-2 Specifications - Torque ................................................................. 8-25 Steering Cylinder...........................................................................8-13 Steering Without Power Assist ...................................................... 8-8 System Diagnosis ......................................................................... 8-16 System Operation ........................................................................... 8-7 Tie Bar Adjustment - Twin Engine Installations .......................... 8-18 Trim Tab Adjustment ..................................................................... 8-17 8 8-1 Special Tools Rod Holder 3854367-4 Pump Pulley Installer 9995444-8 Pump Pulley Remover 9995443-0 Kent-Moore Special Tools Pressure Gauge J-5176-E Thermometer J-5421 Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives Cleaning Solvent Volvo Penta Grease Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid GM Power Steering Fluid Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent Dexron,or Dexron II LoctitePrimer Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the steering system, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. When replacement parts are required, use genuine Volvo Pentaor parts with equivalent characteristics including type, strength and material. Failure to do so may result in product malfunction and possible injury to the operator and/or passengers. When working on an engine that is running or being cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting hands, fingers or clothing caught in the alternator, power steering supply pump and circulating pump belts, pulleys and other moving parts. 8-2 CO2740 18638 18640 4 5 5 1 2 3 Mechanical (Nonpower) Steering System Description 1 The mechanical steering system consists of a helm assembly A , the steering cable B , and attaching hardware C that connect the steering system to the inner transom bracket and steering arm. Steering Cable Removal The steering cable is serviced as an assembly. 23 1. To remove the steering cable, remove the cotter pin D and steering arm pin E securing the cable ram to the steering arm F . Remove both steering arm bushings G . 2. Turn the helm to the port full lock position. 4 3. Loosen the cable anchor nut H , and remove the cable. Steering Cable Installation 4 31837 2921 D B 6 5 Steering tube position in the anchor block is preset at the factory for proper centering of the steering system. Do not loosen the jam nut or change the position of the steering tube. 5 1. Turn the steering wheel to fully extend the steering cable ram to its maximum extension. Lubricate the full length of the steering cable ram with Volvo Penta Grease. 2. Install the steering cable ram through the steering tube. 3. While holding the steering cable in the steering tube, thread the steering cable anchor nut onto the steering tube until the steering cable anchor nut bottoms on the end of the steering tube. 6 4. Attach a crowfoot wrench I at a 90 angle to the torque wrench. Tighten the steering cable anchor nut to 120 in. lb. (14 Nm). 5. Insert bushings into steering arm. Install the steering arm pin through the top hole in the steering arm and through the hole of the steering cable ram. 6. Install the cotter pin through the steering arm pin and secure by spreading the ends of the cotter pin. 7. Turn the steering wheel to fully extend and retract the steering cable ram. The steering arm should move from stop to stop as the steering ram moves from fully retracted to fully extended. Steering arm must not contact inside of transom cutout in either direction. Check for equal clearance of steering arm. Center the steering wheel and check cen-3253 tering of steering arm. Readjust as necessary. Steering System Lubrication 1 Lubricate the steering ram with Volvo Penta Greaseevery 50 hours or 60 days, which ever comes first. 1 2 DR1726 Due to local conditions, it may be necessary to lubricate your steering ram at more frequent intervals. Steering Tube Replacement 1. Loosen the jam nut and screw the steering tube out of the anchor block. Remove the jam nut from the steering tube. 2 2. Screw the jam nut A all the way onto a new steering tube. 2 3. Measure 3-1/4 in. (8,26 cm) B in from the end of the steering tube. Clean the following 1-1/4 in. (3,18 cm) of thread C with Loctite Primer and allow to air dry. Apply Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agentto the 1-1/4 in. (3,18 cm) thread area C . 3 4. Screw the anchor block onto the steering tube until the block is 3-5/32 in. (8,02 cm) D from the end. This dimension positions the steering tube for accurate centering of the steering system. DR1727 5. Screw the jam nut up against the anchor block and tighten to 35-40 ft. lb. (47-54 Nm). Do not disturb the anchor block position while tightening the nut. 45 6. If the anchor block was removed from the transom plate, apply a small mount of Volvo Penta Grease to both bushings. Install the block with the original screws. Tighten both to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). Secure screws with two cotter pins. 3 4 Filling the bushing pockets with grease can cause the screws to hydraulically lock and break the transom plate when tightened. 5 DR2959 6 Power Steering System Description The power steering system consists of a mechanical cable from the helm to the inner transom plate, an engine mounted pump, and a power cylinder to move the vertical drive steering arm. 6 The hydraulic pump E is mounted on the front of the engine and is belt driven by the crankshaft pulley. The reservoir fill cap has a dipstick attached. F The control valve and cylinder is a single unit mounted to the inner transom bracket. The oil cooler G is a heat exchanger that uses engine cooling water to keep the hydraulic fluid cool. A high pressure hydraulic hose H carries fluid from the pump to the control valve, and low pressure hoses I and J carry the fluid from the valve to the oil cooler, and back to the reservoir. The steering cable casing K attaches to the steering cylinder valve. The cable ram passes through the valve and attaches to the clevis L . The drive steering arm M is also attached to the clevis. DR3007 DR3008 1 2 Pump Operation 1 During normal operation, fluid is drawn into dual pump intake ports A from the reservoir B . The reservoir is supplied by a low pressure return line C from the power steering oil cooler. The pump output is through ports D . The vanes E are held out against the pump bore by pressure behind the vanes. The pump has sufficient output F to allow quick boat maneuvers even at engine idle RPM. The pump output at high RPM is limited to about 2.3 gallons per minute by a flow restriction orifice G . The pump output pressure is determined by the resistance to flow of the system. When no steering changes are being made, the pressure will be about 50-100 PSI. When there is steering input, the pressure will be higher and will depend on the steering forces required due to the boat attitude, drive trim position, throttle position and quickness of the maneuver. 2 The pump is protected from the very high pressures by a pressure relief valve H that is located in the pump body. If the steering load becomes extremely high, the relief valve will open and limit the output pressure I to about 1,000-1,100 PSI. Internal damage to the pump will occur if the system is oper ated at relief valve pressure for more than a few seconds. 3 The pump has a metric output fitting. Use only a hose with a metric fitting. 3 8-6 4 System Operation No Steering Input - Steering Wheel Not Turning 4 When there is no steering input from the helm, the spring J in the control valve keeps the spool K centered. Fluid from the pump enters the control valve through the pressure port L , flows past both cylinder ports M and N with little restriction, then through the return port O and back to the reservoir. There is a small equal force at both ends P and Q of the cylinder and the cylinder does not move. With no steering input, the sterndrive is held in one position and the boat moves in a constant turn or in a straight line. STARBOARD STARBOARD PORT PORT 5 DR3508 DR3506 Steering To Port - Steering Wheel Turning To Left 5 When the helm is turned to port (either turning boat to left or straightening from a right turn) the steering arm is pulled to starboard. The steering cable casing pushes the valve spool K to port. Fluid from the pump enters the valve at L , is routed to the rod-end outlet N and to the low volume side end of the cylinder Q . The pump pressure moves the piston and steering arm to starboard. Fluid in the high volume side of the cylinder P is forced out through the valve from M to return port O and back to the reservoir. As long as the helm is turning to port this motion continues, swinging the sterndrive to port. When the helm input stops (steering wheel not turning), the steering cable stops pulling the steering arm to starboard, and the steering casing stops pushing the valve spool to port. When the spring J moves the valve spool to a centered position, hydraulic fluid is again routed past both cylinder outlets. The steering cylinder has an equal force at both ends and stops moving. The steering system is then back to the No Steering Input condition described previously. 8-7 1 Steering To Starboard - Steering Wheel Turning To Right 1 When the helm is turned to starboard (either turning boat to right or straightening from a left turn), the steering arm is pushed to port. The steering cable casing pulls the valve spool A to starboard. Fluid from the pump enters the valve at B and is routed to the piston- end outlet C and to the high volume side of the cylinder D . The pump pressure moves the piston and steering arm to port. Fluid at the low volume side of the cylinder E is forced out and through the valve from F to return port G and back to the reservoir. As long as the helm is turning to starboard this motion continues, swinging the sterndrive to starboard. When the helm input stops (steering wheel not turning), the steering cable stops pushing the steering arm to port, and the steering casing stops pulling the valve spool to starboard. When the spring 0 moves the valve spool to a centered position, hydraulic fluid is again routed past both cylinder outlets. The steering cylinder has an equal force at both ends and stops moving. The steering system is then back at the No Steering Input condition described previously. 2 DR3007 DR3008 Steering Without Power Assist 2 If the steering system is not providing power assist, the operator may still steer the boat. Turning the steering wheel to port causes the steering cable to pull the steering arm to starboard. This causes the cable casing to push the valve spool A to port against the stop about 0.125 in. (3,18 mm). The steering cable then transmits the full manual effort to pull the steering arm. The fluid D ahead of the piston is forced out of the cylinder through outlet C into the valve, and through return port G back to the reservoir. Additional fluid is drawn out of the reservoir through the pressure inlet Bto the opposite side of the piston E . and F More steering effort is required since all of the power required to steer the boat must be supplied by the operator, and additional force is required to move the fluid through the system when the pump is not operating. 8-8 20497 23916A 20496A 543 Pump Removal 3 1. Place an oil drain pan under pump. Disconnect high pressure hose I and return hose J at pump. Do not lose O-ring on pressure hose fitting. Secure hose ends in a raised position to prevent fluid draining from hoses. Cap or tape ends of hoses to keep out dirt. Drain pump completely before removing. Serpentine Belt Models Only 4 On models with serpentine belt, release tension on the belt tensioner and remove the belt. 3.0GS, 4.3, 5.0Gi, 5.7GSi, 7.4Gi, GSi and 8.2GSi Models 4 V-Belt Models Only 5 drive belt. 6 2. Loosen pump bracket mounting screws and remove 4.3 GL, GS, 5.0GL, and 5.7GS Models 5 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi Models 6 6 7 All Models 3. Take out mounting screws and remove pump from engine. 7 4. Remove pump pulley using Pulley Remover, Volvo Penta P/N 9995443-0, then remove mounting bracket. Pump Installation 8 1. Attach mounting bracket to pump. Attach pulley using Pulley Installer, Volvo PentaP/N 9995444-8. 2. Mount pump bracket loosely on the engine. 3 3. Make sure O-ring is in place and in good condition, then connect high pressure hose fitting I . Tighten fitting to 15-26 ft. lb. (20-35 Nm). 3 4. Connect return hose J to reservoir. Tighten hose clamp to 1217 in. lb. (1,4-2,0 Nm). 8 8-9 5. Fill pump reservoir with Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid. Bleed pump, hoses, and valve by turning pulley clockwise (as viewed from front of engine) until reservoir no longer shows air bubbles. Keep reservoir filled while purging air from system. Release belt tensioner and install belt. 6. Install drive belt and adjust belt tension as described under Belt Adjustment in this section. Do not pry against pump reservoir while Serpentine Belt Models Only V-Belt Models Only 1 tightening belt. 7. Bleed entire system as outlined under Purging Air From Steering System. Hydraulic Fluid Use an approved power steering fluid such as Volvo Penta Power Trim/ Tilt & Steering Fluid or GM Power Steering Fluid. If these fluids are not available, any automatic transmission fluid labeled Dexronor Dexron II may be used. 2 Checking Fluid Level 1 1. Run engine and rotate steering wheel lock-to-lock for a reasonably long period of time to warm up steering fluid, then shut engine off. Remove reservoir filler cap and check if fluid level is at HOT mark on dipstick. 2 2. If fluid level is low, add recommended hydraulic fluid to bring fluid up to HOT mark on dipstick. Replace filler cap. Do not overfill a cold reservoir. Fluid could overflow when sys tem reaches operating temperature. Safety Related 8-10 Engine/eng Purging Air From Steering System When system components have been serviced, pump must be refilled with fluid before engine is started. Perform the following steps to purge air from the steering system. Do not run pump even momentarily without fluid. Pump will be ruined or severely damaged. 1. With engine OFF, turn helm all the way to port. Add power steering fluid to bring fluid level to COLD mark on dipstick. 2. Start engine, run momentarily and shut off engine. Recheck fluid level and fill to COLD mark. Repeat this step as necessary until system no longer requires additional fluid. 3. Complete purging of air from system by starting engine and turning wheel slowly lock-to-lock. Maintain fluid level above pump body in reservoir. 4. Returning fluid with air in it will often be in the form of foam and will have a light tan or red appearance. Maintain fluid level high enough so foam is not drawn into pump inlet. All air must be eliminated from fluid before normal steering action can be obtained. If excessive foam accumulates in reservoir it must be removed, or let unit stand for an hour and repeat steps above. 5. After all air has been purged, return wheel to centered position. Continue to run engine for several minutes and then shut engine off. 6. With engine OFF and with fluid at normal operating temperature, recheck to make sure fluid level is at HOT mark on dipstick. 7. Water test the boat to make sure the steering functions normally and is free from noise. 8-11 Alt. P/S or Idler Circ. Pump C/S 2 3 Alt. P/S Circ. Pump Crank shaft DR4933 DR4933A 23916A Power Steering Pump Belt Adjustment 3.0GS, 4.3Gi, 5.0Gi, 5.7GSi 7.4Gi, GSi and 8.2GSi Models 2 These models have serpentine belts. The belt tension is maintained by a belt tensioner. No adjustment is necessary. 1 4.3 GL, GS, Gi, 5.0 GL, Gi, and 5.7 GS Models 4 6 7 To increase belt tension: Loosen pump mounting bracket screws, insert a 1/2 in. breaker bar into the square hole in the pump mounting bracket, and pivot pump away from engine as shown. While maintaining pressure on pump, retighten all mounting screws. Recheck belt tension. 4 7 With engine stopped, the belt should be tight enough so that it will deflect 1/4 to 1/2 in. (6-13 mm) when pressed with the finger at the point indicated 3 . If the belt is too tight, excessive belt and bearing wear can occur. If it is too loose, slippage can occur, resulting in belt wear and poor power steering operation. Belt tension should be checked after 10 hours of service and every 50 hours thereafter. 1 2 3 Power Steering Pump Pulley Circulating Pump Pulley Belt Tension Check Point Check power steering pump belt tension 3 midway between the circulating pump pulley 2 and the power steering pump pulley 1 . Retighten new belt, or check old belt, after 10 hours service and every 50 hours thereafter. 4 5 DRC7451 6 When adjusting a power steering pump belt, never pry against the pump reservoir or pull against the filler neck. 8-12 987 47507 16067 DR2959 Steering Cylinder 9 The steering cylinder assembly is a combination power cylinder and control valve. A piston rod clevis A provides the attachment to the steering arm and steering cable ram. The steering cable casing attaches to the threaded valve B . Cylinder Removal 10 1. Turn helm to port full lock position. Remove the cotter pin C and the steering cable pin D . 11 2. Hold steering tube with wrench. Loosen steering cable anchor 20572 5 I F 3 10 nut E and pull steering cable out of valve. 12 3. Remove cotter pin, then pull pin F out of clevis and steering arm. 13 4. Remove both hose fittings G from the valve. Raise hoses and cover the ends to keep out dirt. Do not move cylinder rod in or out until cylinder has been drained completely. A dangerous spray of fluid can discharge from the cylinder ports if the rod is moved in or out. 20606 A B 3 4 C 12 11 13 321 20503 20580 20579 1 5. Remove cotter pins A and loosen both anchor screws B until steering cylinder assembly can be removed. Cylinder Servicing 2 1. Pry out steering pivot bushings C if they are to be replaced. If necessary they may be carefully drilled in two places with a 1/16 in. (1,5 mm) drill bit and then removed. 2. New bushings should be lubricated and pushed into place. 20576 3 3. The cylinder rod should be wrapped with heavy paper or pasteboard and held in a vise with Rod Holder, Volvo PentaP/N 3854367-4, D . To remove the clevis E , unscrew the 19 mm locknut F . 3 4. To reinstall clevis, tighten piston rod locknut F to 2328 ft. lb. (31-38 Nm). Cylinder Installation 4 1. Install anchor screws B flush with inside of inner transom bracket. 5 2. Apply Volvo Penta Greaseto both bushings. 4 5 Filling the bushing pockets with grease can cause the screws to hydraulically lock and break the transom plate when tightened. 6 3. Position steering cylinder assembly on inner transom bracket. Align bushings of steering cylinder with screws. Hand start both anchor screws to ensure alignment and engagement into bushings. Tighten anchor screws to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 Nm). 1 4. Install cotter pins A through holes in transom bracket from transom side. Spread ends of cotter pins to secure. Do not move cylinder rod if cylinder contains any fluid. A dangerous spray of fluid may discharge from the ports. 6 7 20504 31837 20570 B 3 4 C D F 1098 7 5. Connect hoses to cylinder. Start each fitting by hand. Tighten pressure fitting G to 10-12 ft. lb. (14-16 Nm). Tighten return fitting H to 15-17 ft. lb. (20-23 Nm). 8 6. Pull steering arm I into hydraulic cylinder clevis J . Align holes and install large pin K from top of arm. Secure large pin by installing and spreading ends of cotter pin. Cable Installation 9 1. Turn the steering wheel to fully extend the steering cable ram to its maximum extension. Lubricate the full length of the steering cable ram with Volvo Penta Grease 10 2. Retract steering cable ram L and insert ram through valve M . 11 3. Hold steering cable anchor nut back on cable casing to make certain the steering cable is completely seated in end of valve. 12 4. While holding steering cable tight against valve, thread steering cable anchor nut N onto valve until snug. 10 13 5. Hold cable tube with a 22 mm wrench on the flat Attach a crowfoot wrench at 90 to a torque wrench P and tighten the steering cable anchor nut to 120 in. lb. (14 Nm). O . 14 6. Align cable ram Q with steering cylinder clevis R and install small pin from top of clevis. Secure small pin by installing and spreading ends of cotter pin. 7. Fill system with fluid and remove all air. See Purging Air From Steering System. 20506 20606 20605 G A H 13 12 11 14 Lubrication Lubricate the steering ram with Volvo Penta Greaseevery 50 hours or once a season, which ever comes first. Due to local conditions, it may be necessary to lubricate your D1 steering ram at more frequent intervals. Hoses Do not start engine with any power steering hose disconnected. The pump output fitting has metric threads. Do not attach a hose with SAE threads to the pump fitting. After connecting power steering hoses, make sure that theres ample clearance between the hoses and drive belts and other components. Hoses installed out of position may rub during operation and be damaged. If fluid return hose is removed at pump, be sure to use a worm drive clamp when reinstalling it. System Diagnosis Complaints of faulty steering are frequently the result of problems other than the steering cylinder assembly or pump. Conditions such as hard or loose steering, or vibrations, are often related to such factors as the drive belt; pump and cylinder mounting; fluid level; or incorrect installation of the steering cable. These factors should be checked and corrected before disassembling or replacing parts of the steering system. System Checks Many factors affect power operation of the steering system. Some of the most common problem areas are: Fluid level. Loose or worn drive belt, or oily belt. Steering cable jammed against something in boat at stern. Steering cable too short or steering cable too long. Loosely mounted components. Loose pump pulley. 8-16 After the problem has been found, determine the cause. For example, if the fluid level in the reservoir is found to be low, refill and bleed the system and check the entire hydraulic system for leaks. Just refilling the reservoir will make the unit operate, but will not correct the condition that caused the problem. Trim Tab Adjustment Models With Power Steering Trim tab adjustment is not required on power steering installations. Models Without Power Steering Safety Warning: Improper trim tab adjustment can cause difficult steering. An adjustable trim tab is provided to compensate for propeller torque and allows you to balance steering effort in either direction. Test your boat to see if further adjustment is needed. With a firm grip on the steering wheel and the weight in the boat evenly distributed, run the boat at full throttle in a straight line. Do this in an area where current and wind will not be a factor. Turn the steering wheel to port and starboard. Determine which direction requires the least amount of steering effort. Safety Warning: When adjusting the trim tab, stop the engine and raise the vertical drive out of the water. If less steering effort was required in a port turn, loosen the trim tab screw and move the rear edge of the trim tab slightly to the port. Tighten screw. If less steering effort was required in a starboard turn, loosen trim tab screw and move the rear edge of the trim tab slightly to the starboard. Tighten screw. Repeat the above procedure until steering effort is equal 2 in both directions. After adjustment is complete, tighten the trim tab screw A to a torque of 14-16 ft. lb. (19-22 Nm). Set both trim tabs to the same position for twin engine installa tions where trim tabs are used. 34130B D C 2 Tie Bar Adjustment - Twin Engine Installation 12 On deep Vee shaped boat hulls, a toe-in condition should be created for improved performance and efficiency. A commonly used toe-in condition is one in which dimension A will be 1/4 to 3/8 in. (6,35 to 9,53 mm) less than dimension B . Remove the steering tie bar from the port tiller arm. Loosen port jam nut C of the tie bar. Turn jam nut out 1/16 to 3/32 in. (1,59 to 2,38 mm) D as required, and screw in port steering tie bar end E . Retighten the jam nut C . Threads of the port tie bar must be visible through the inspection hole F to insure adequate thread engagement between the rod and tube. Failure to ensure proper threads engagement could result in component failure resulting in possible loss of steering control. 1 For DP-S sterndrive twin installation the vertical drive must be adjusted so operation is free from ventilation. To adjust, measure the distance A between the center line of the two transom brackets. Adjust tie bar so the distance B between the center of the anti-ventilation plate is equal to distance A . Hold the vertical drive when measuring. DR3026 D E 1 21085A H I F G 2 8-18 Power Steering System Diagnosis Chart Condition Possible Cause Correction SYSTEM NOISE: Pump noise "chirp." Loose belt.* Adjust belt tension to specification.* Belt squeal. Loose belt.* Adjust belt tension to specification.* "Hissing" sound. Some noise exists in all power steering systems. "Hiss" may be expected when turning the steering wheel, particularly at low speed. None; a slight "hiss" is normal and in no way affects steering. Rattle Pressure hose touching other parts of powerhead. Adjust hose position. Rattle or chuckle. Steering system looseness. Check cable nut and cylinder pivot points for wear or looseness. Replace bushings if necessary. Groan Low fluid level. Find and repair leak. Fill reservoir and bleed system. Air in fluid. Fill reservoir, find and repair leak. Check connections, bleed system. Growl Excessive back pressure caused by hose restriction. Locate restriction and correct. Replace part if necessary. Pump growl. Incorrect steering cable adjustment. Cable to boat interference. Adjust cable per procedure. Eliminate interference. Whine in pump. Pump shaft bearing scored. Flush system, replace pump. SYSTEM OPERATION: Excessive wheel kickback or loose steering (not boat wander). Steering cable attachment loose. Air in system. Replace pin. Tighten steering cable anchor nut. Add fluid to pump reservoir and bleed system. Check all connections. Steering wheel surges or jerks when turning with engine running, especially during slow speed operation. Loose pump belt. Air in fluid. Insufficient pump pressure. Adjust tension to specification. Fill reservoir, find and repair leak. Bleed system. Replace pump if defective. Momentary increase in effort when turning wheel fast to right or left. * Does not apply to serpentine belts. Pump belt slipping. Low fluid level. High internal leakage. Tighten or replace belt. If oily, fix leak. Fill reservoir and bleed system. Replace pump if defective. 8-19 Condition Possible Cause Correction Hard steering or lack of assist. High internal leakage. (Power cylinder or pump.) Cable jacket movement restricted (bulkhead, fuel tank, jammed against inside of hull). Loose pump belt.* Low fluid level in reservoir. Lack of lubricant in lube points. Excessive friction in steering linkage. Cable has too tight a radius at output end. Cable movement restricted by tie straps, anchors, attached wires, etc. Insufficient fluid pressure. Replace pump is defective. Replace cylinder if defective. Do not clamp cable tight near output end. Eliminate interference. Adjust belt tension to specification.* Fill to proper level. If excessively low, check all lines and joints for evidence of external leakage, torque to specs. Lubricate, relubricate at proper intervals. Find reason for excessive friction; relubricate or repair. Eliminate small radius. Remove all cable anchors, tie straps, etc. on cable between last bend and valve attachment point. Replace pump if defective. Hard steering to starboard. Cable too long or movement restricted by bulkhead, etc. Replace cable, or eliminate restriction. Hard steering to port. Cable too short or movement restricted by bulkhead, etc. Replace cable, or eliminate restriction. Low fluid pressure due to Check for kinks in hoses. Remove kink. restriction in hoses. Foreight object stuck in hose. Remove restricting object or replace hose. Low fluid pressure due to steering pump. Loose belt. Low fluid level. Air in fluid. Defective hoses. Pump worn or damaged. Adjust tension to specification. Find and repair leak. Fill reservoir and bleed system. Fill reservoir, tighten fittins and hose clamps. Bleed system. Correct as necessary. Flush system, replace pump. Foaming milky power steering fluid, low level and possible low pressure. Air in fluid and loss of fluid due to internal pump leakage causing foaming and overflow. Check for leak and correct. Bleed system. Keep fluid level up when very cold. If fluid level is correct and pump still foams, replace pump. * Does not apply to serpentine belt models. 8-20 External Leakage General Procedure 1. Wipe suspected area dry. 2. Check for overfilled reservoir. 3. Check for fluid aeration and overflow. 4. Check hose connections - tighten if necessary. 5. Determine exact point of leakage. 6. When service is required, replace component. Leakage Checks Although some leaks are easily found, seepage type leaks may be difficult to pinpoint. Locate seepage leaks as follows: 1. With the engine off, wipe the complete power steering system dry (pump, hoses, and connections). 2. Check the fluid level in the pump reservoir and adjust as directed. 3. Start the engine and turn the steering wheel from stop-to-stop several times. 4. Find the exact area of leakage. Easily Fixed Leaks 1. Loose clamp on pump return hose. 2. Loose pump or cylinder hose fitting. If fittings are not cross-threaded, tighten to correct torque. See Torque Specifications. 3. Damaged O-ring on pump pressure fitting. Replace O-ring. 4. External leakage of power cylinder. Replace power cylinder. 5. Leakage of fluid in cooling water. Replace oil cooler. 6. Damage or cracked hose. Replace hose. If the return hose is removed, the clamp must be replaced with a worm drive clamp. Replace leaky hoses. 8-21 DR3009 1 2 Pump Leakage 1 1. An overfilled pump reservoir can cause a leak. The fluid in the steering system expands as it heats up during normal usage and fluid level rises in reservoir. Excess fluid is forced through the breather cap hole where it may be sprayed over the engine by the drive belt. 1 2. Install new O-ring. Tighten hose fitting A to 1526 ft. lb. (20-35 Nm). If leakage persists, replace pump or hose as required. 1 3. Check torque on fitting B . Tighten to 37-75 ft. lb. (50-102 Nm). If fitting is not loose, replace pump. 1 4. Check fluid level C . If leakage persists with fluid at correct level and cap tight, replace cap or pump. 1 5. Some non-repairable pump leakage areas are marked with the oil-drop symbol. If leakage occurs in these areas, replace pump. Pump Pressure Test 2 1. With engine off, disconnect high pressure (output) hose at pump. Use a spare pressure hose D to install Kent-Moore Tool, J-5176-E E between pump and steering cylinder pressure hose F . Gauge must be positioned between shutoff valve and pump. Connect steering cylinder pressure hose to shutoff valve. Open shutoff valve. DR1443 2. Remove filler cap from pump reservoir and check fluid level. Fill pump reservoir to full mark on dipstick. Start engine, momentarily hold steering wheel against stop, and check connections at tool for leakage. 3. Bleed system as outlined under Purging Air From Steering System. 4. Insert Kent-MooreThermometer Tool, J-5421 into reservoir filler opening. Start the engine and move steering wheel from stop-to-stop several times until thermometer indicates that hydraulic fluid has reached its normal operating temperature of approximately 150 to 190 F (65 to 88 C). 5. Check fluid level; add fluid if required. When engine is at normal operating temperature, the pressure reading on the gauge (valve open) should be in the 50-100 PSI (345-690 kPa) range. If pressure exceeds specifications, check the hoses for restrictions. 6. Pump relief valve pressure can be checked by momentarily closing the shutoff valve. Do not leave valve closed longer than it takes to read gauge; high hydraulic pressures are developed. Relief valve pressure is approximately 1000-1100 PSI (6895-7584 kPa). Replace pump if fluid pressures or temperature do not meet specifications. Cable Installation Problems The hydraulic valve reacts to steering cable casing movement. Total valve movement is about 1/4 inch. This small motion is sufficient to operate the valve and direct hydraulic pressure to the appropriate side of the steering cylinder. Any restriction of movement of the steering cable casing at the stern of the boat will limit or restrict the movement of the valve and will result in hard steering in one or both directions. When replacing the steering cable, the following points must be followed for proper power steering system operation: 3 1. Do not install a cable that is too short. Inadequate length will put tension on the cable casing, and cause binding of the steering cable. This will restrict valve movement, cause hard steering to port and a tendency to self steer to starboard. 4 2. Do not install a cable that is too long. Excessive length will push on the cable casing, and cause binding of the steering cable. This will restrict valve movement, cause hard steering to starboard and a tendency to self steer to port. 3. Do not position steering cable in a sharp bend of less than 6 in. radius. Tight bends will cause binding and limit control valve movement. This will contribute to hard or uneven steering, or rough steering wheel movement. 5 4. Do not jam anything against cable at the engine end. Do not bind cable against inside of boat or against fuel tanks, battery boxes or flotation blocks. Jamming the steering cable will restrict steering cable movement and cause hard steering. 6 5. Do not interfere with or restrict steering cable movement through the last 90 of bend to the engine. Cable retainers, clips, clamps or tie straps should not be used in a manner that will restrict the cable movement near the engine. Do not attach wiring harness or control cables to this end of the steering cable. Do not restrict steering cable casing movement. Any restriction of the cable also restricts the valve movement. This will limit or stop hydraulic assist, or may hold the valve in one steering mode. 3 DR1450 4 DR1451 5 DR1452 6 DR1453 Feedback To The Helm The steering system requires at least a little friction in the helm (and cable) to prevent hydrodynamic forces on the gear case from feeding back and turning the steering wheel without the operator activating the power assist system. This may happen on single engine installations (or on twin engines having both drives rotating in the same direction). Run the boat in a straight line in opposite directions at normal cruising speed with the drive trimmed in both a bow up position and in a bow down position. In each trim position, momentarily release the steering wheel to see if the wheel is turned by the gear case, and in which direction. If the steering wheel turns to both starboard and port, then helm friction must be increased slightly. This will allow the power steering system to hold the desired steering position. 12 If the helm always turns in one direction (when it turns), it may be caused by a steering cable that is too short, too long, or has restricted movement. See Cable Installation Problems. Twin engine problems may be corrected by adjusting the tie bar for toe-in A or for toe-out B of the vertical drives. Refer to Tie Bar Adjustment found in this section. 1 DR5643 2 DR5644 Safety Related 8-24 Engine/eng Specification Power Steering Pump Relief Valve Pressure.........................................................1000-1100 psi (6895-7584 kPa) Torque Specifications Component Torque Anchor Screw - Cylinder assy. to Transom Plate 40-45 ft. lbs. (54-61 Nm) Bolts - Power Steering Pump Mounting Bracket 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm) Bolts - Power Steering Pump Mounting 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm) Fitting - Power Steering Pump 37-75 ft. lbs. (50-102 Nm) Fitting - Power Steering Pump Hose 15-26 ft. lbs. (20-35 Nm) Fitting - Inlet Control Valve Hose 10-12 ft. lbs. (14-16 Nm) Fitting - Outlet Control Valve Hose 15-17 ft. lbs. (20-23 Nm) Hose Clamps - Oil Cooler and Power Steering Pump 12-17 in. lbs. (1,4-2,0 Nm) Jam Nut - Anchor Block 35-40 ft. lbs. (47-54 Nm) Locknut - Piston Rod To Clevis 23-28 ft. lbs. (31-38 Nm) Nut - Steering Cable Anchor 120 in. lbs. (14 Nm) Screw - Trim Tab 14-16 ft. lbs. (19-22 Nm) Safety Related 8-25 8-26 Section 9 Throttle and Shift Control Systems Table of Contents Check Remote Control Shift Cable Stroke ....................................... 9-4 Installation of SAE Cables to Engine/Drive ...................................... 9-5 Shift Cable to Vertical Drive ........................................................... 9-5 Throttle Cable to Engine ................................................................. 9-6 Installation of Shift and Throttle Cables...........................................9-3 Neutral Start Switch Tests .................................................................9-8 Removal of SAE Cables From Engine/Drive ....................................9-9 Shift Cable from Vertical Drive ....................................................... 9-9 Throttle Cable from Engine ............................................................ 9-9 Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives ................................................ 9-2 9 9-1 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the steering system, read the Safety section at the end of this manual. Replace any locking type fastener (example: locknut or patch screw) whose locking feature becomes weak. Definite resistance to turning must be felt or locking fastener is not suitable for continued use. Replace only with authorized replacement part or equivalent. Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives Volvo Penta Grease 9-2 Installation of Shift and Throttle Cables Shift cable should PULL for forward gear on right-hand rotation SX and DP-S propeller applications. Shift cable should PUSH for forward gear on left-hand rotation SX propeller applications. Throttle cable should Push to close for Volvo Pentaremote controls. Failure to do so could result in loss of control of the boat and possible injury to the boat occupants. 1. If the remote control shift and throttle cables are installed in the remote controls, proceed to Check Remote Control Shift Cable Stroke. 2. If the remote control shift and throttle cables have not been installed, the following procedure will permit you to order the correct length remote control shift and throttle cables. 1 3. Measure the proposed route of the remote control shift and throttle cables. All bends must have a radius greater than 6 inches (15,2 cm). Remote control shift cable: Add A + B plus 20 in. (50.8 cm), round up to next cable length. Remote control throttle cable: Add A + B + C plus 4 in. (10.1 cm), ( C is to center of throttle arm pin). Round up to next cable length. When removing shift and throttle cables from the packing box, A B C 1 DR4939 DO NOT bend the cables tighter than a 6 inch radius. Check Remote Control Shift Cable Stroke 1 1. Move the remote control handle to the wide-open-throttle position in the direction needed to retract the shift cable. Pull out cable core wire to remove end play. Mark cable core wire at end of casing. 2 2. Return remote control shift handle to the neutral detent position. Measure and record the distance between mark A and end of casing. 3 3. Mark cable core wire at end of casing with control in the neu-1 tral detent position. 36560 4 4. Move the remote control handle to the wide-open-throttle position in the direction needed to extend the shift cable. Push in on cable core wire to remove end play. Measure and record the distance between mark B and end of casing. The distance between forward and neutral must be no less than 1 in. (31.8 mm) and no greater than 13/8 in. (35.0 mm). The distance between neutral and reverse must be no 2 less than 1 in. (31.8 mm) and no greater than 13/8 INCHES 1 2 3 D in. (35.0 mm). Check your remote control installation instructions, if your mea surements are not within these specifications. Make sure the cables are attached correctly inside the control box and move in the proper direction for your application before continuing. Refer to the remote control installation instructions for this information. All control boxes must meet these minimum and maximum specifications in order for the shift system to function properly. 3 INCHES 1 2 3 E 4 9-4 Installation of SAE Cables to Engine/Drive If the throttle cable is attached to the throttle arm and anchor block, remove it from both. The throttle cable must be disconnected from the throttle arm prior to shift cable installation and adjustment to prevent loading the control box and adversely affecting shift adjustments. Before beginning, shift remote control handle into NEUTRAL detent position; the propellers should rotate freely. Remote control shift and throttle cables must be SAE type cables. Shift Cable to Vertical Drive 5 1. Note position of small seal C and large seal D on the shift cable, Remove and retain jam nut E , small seal, and large seal from the shift cable. 6 2. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease to the end of the remote control shift cable casing. Slide shift cable through shift cable tube until it appears on the outside of the transom. 7 3. For ease of installation of shift cable, turn vertical drive to port. Reinstall the retained large seal D and small seal C onto the shift cable in the same position as noted in step 1. 8 4. Loosen cable clamp screw F and pull clamp out. 9 5. Slide shift cable through pivot housing and vertical drive. Slide clamp in fully, engaging the shift cable anchor groove. Tighten clamp screw F securely. 34045 34044 47553 F G F G A 5 6 7 8 9 D B C 1 2 47131 12 7. Rotate shift lever A to extend bell crank B . Remove cotter pin, flat washer, and anchor pin C . 3 8. Thread anchor pin halfway onto remote control cable end. 4 9. Rotate shift lever back to neutral detent position, then move remote control handle to its neutral detent position. Turn anchor pin IN or OUT until it aligns with center of bell crank slot D . 5 10. Install anchor pin, flat washer, and cotter pin E . Spread prongs of cotter to secure anchor pin. Install jam nut F and tighten securely against anchor pin. 6 11. Reinstall rear cover and secure with three original screws G . Tighten screws to 108-132 in. lb. (12-15 Nm). Throttle Cable to Engine Determine whether you have a push-to-close or pull-toclose remote control system. Cable attachment point at throttle arm is determined by direction of control cable movement. Incorrect attachment may cause hazardous boat operation. The remote control shift cable must be installed prior to throttle cable installation. This will ensure proper throttle and shift system operation when using single lever controls. 1. Position control handle in NEUTRAL and propeller should rotate freely. Turn propeller shaft and shift into the FORWARD gear detent position, then pull handle HALFWAY BACK towards NEUTRAL. This positions the control for proper throttle adjustment. Failure to follow this procedure can result in hard shifting out of NEUTRAL. 2. Make sure throttle lever is against idle stop screw. 7 3. Align internal bosses H of trunnion with throttle cable groove I . Press trunnion on throttle cable until seated. 3 47132 47130A E 4 47133 G F 5 47134A C C 6 47557 E F E 7 8 V6 and Small Block V8 Models Only: The engine throttle cable anchor block bracket has several sets of anchor block holes. The sets of holes marked with a V J are used for Volvo Penta engines. The set of holes K marked GSi are for 5.0 and 5.7 Liter EFI models. The set of holes L marked 43 are for 4.3 Liter 2V (2 barrel) and 4V (4 barrel) carburetor models. Holes M are for all 5.0 and 5.7 Liter, 2V (2 barrel) and 4V (4 barrel) carburetor models. The anchor block will be set at the correct position from the factory for your particular engine. 9 3. Install open end N of trunnion in anchor block. Install screw 8 in anchor block and position throttle cable assembly in selected set of holes. Locknut O must be against the anchor bracket, tighten it securely. 10 4. Throttle arm connector P must have a minimum of 9 full turns or 1/4 in. (6,4 mm) of throttle cable thread engagement. Install throttle arm connector onto the throttle cable. Pull connector forward to remove all end play from throttle cable, then turn the connector in until hole aligns with the push-to-close Q or pull-to-close throttle arm stud. R If throttle arm connector hole cannot be adjusted to align with 9 the throttle arm, check for proper cable installation in the remote control box. 11 12 5. Install connector onto appropriate throttle arm stud. Install washer and cotter pin S , and secure by spreading end of cotter pin. Tighten locknut T against connector. All Models Except 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi 11 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi Models Only 12 5.0Gi 4.3GL 5.7GSi 5.7GS 5.0GL 4.3GS DRC7279 4V DC B A DR4977 DR5095 E F 10 H G 11 DR5094 12 DR5707 Neutral Start Switch Tests Electrical 1. All switches must be in the OFF position, then disconnect battery cables at the battery before servicing electrical systems. Failure to do so could result in injury from: shorted battery positive (B+), causing a burn or an electrical fire. contact with moving parts, if the engine is accidentally cranked or started. 2. Move the control handle to the NEUTRAL position. Disconnect the yellow/red lead from the key switch and the yellow/red lead from the instrument wiring harness. 3. To test the continuity, calibrate an ohmmeter on high ohms scale. Connect the ohmmeter to the two leads. The meter should read zero (0). 4. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear position. The meter should read infinity (.). Move the remote control handle to the REVERSE gear position. The meter should read infinity (.). 5. If the meter does not show (.), check the ohmmeter connections and test again. Replace the neutral start switch if the meter still fails to show (.) when the remote control handle is in the FORWARD and REVERSE gear position. Refer to the procedures in Disassembly of Remote Control to replace the neutral safety switch. Mechanical 1. With the boat in water and the remote control in NEUTRAL, turn the ignition key to the start position. The engine should start. 2. Disengage the remote control handle and move it into the FORWARD warm-up position. The engine should start. 3. Disengage the remote control handle and move it into the REVERSE warm-up position. Again the engine should start. Move the remote control handle back into NEUTRAL. 4. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear position. The engine should NOT start. Move the handle to the REVERSE gear position. Again the engine should NOT start. 5. If the engine starts when the remote control handle is in either the FORWARD or REVERSE gear position, replace the neutral start switch. Refer to the procedures in Disassembly of Remote Control to replace the neutral safety switch. 9-8 Removal of SAE Remote Control Cables Should it become necessary to remove or replace the remote control cables, the attachment at the engine and vertical drive is very important. Follow these steps for removal of remote control cables. Before beginning, shift remote control handle into NEUTRAL detent position; the propeller should rotate freely. Throttle Cable From Engine 12 1. Remove cotter pin and flat washer A from throttle arm. All Models Except 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi 1 7.4 GSi and 8.2 GSi Models Only 2 12 2. Loosen anchor retainer nut B and rotate retainer C away from cable trunnion. Remove throttle cable from throttle arm and anchor bracket. Shift Cable From Vertical Drive 3 1. Remove drives rear cover. Remove flat washer and cotter pin D from anchor pin. Remove jam nut E from shift cable core wire. 4 2. Remove anchor pin F from bell crank slot. Unscrew anchor pin from shift cable core wire. 5 3. Loosen screw and slide retainer out of shift cable anchor groove. Pull the shift cable from drive and transom bracket cable tu be. DR5094 H G 1 2 DR5707 D C E 3 E 4 5 9-9 Section 10 Cooling System Table of Contents Components Circulating Pump - Engine ........................................................... 10-7 Hoses, Clamps and Drain Plugs .................................................. 10-6 Manifolds and Elbows...................................................................10-7 Supply Pump 3.0 GS Models Only....................................................................10-8 V6 and V8 Models Only..............................................................10-9 Thermostat..................................................................................... 10-6 Description........................................................................................ 10-2 Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold ............................................ 10-11 Pivot Housing .............................................................................. 10-14 Power Steering Coolers .............................................................. 10-13 Supply Pump 3.0 GS Models Only..................................................................10-13 V6 and V8 Models Only............................................................10-14 Thermostat Replacement ............................................................... 10-14 Troubleshooting Isolating Problem .......................................................................... 10-4 Possibilities to Consider .............................................................. 10-4 Quiz the Customer ........................................................................ 10-3 Water Flow Problem Checkpoints ................................................. 10-17 Water Flow Diagrams Vertical Drive and Transom Bracket .......................................... 10-19 3.0 GS Models..............................................................................10-20 4.3 GL Models .............................................................................. 10-21 4.3 Gi Models ............................................................................... 10-22 5.0 GL Models .............................................................................. 10-23 5.0 Gi Models ............................................................................... 10-24 5.7 GS Models..............................................................................10-23 5.7 GSi Models ............................................................................. 10-24 7.4 Gi and GSi Models.................................................................10-25 8.2 GSi Models ............................................................................. 10-25 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the cooling system, read the section called Safety at the end of this manual. 10 10-1 Description 1 Water is supplied to the engine by means of an impeller type pump (supply pump). The water supply pump is mounted on the engine. Water supplied to the engine is circulated in the engine by means of a centrifugal type pump (circulating pump). All models use a crankshaft mounted pump. During low speed operation the impeller functions as a positive displacement pump. At higher speeds it functions as a combination centrifugal and positive displace 1 ment pump. The shape of the housing and/or liner cause an eccentric action of the impeller blades during engine operation. During periods of high speed operation, the resistance of the water on its way through the pump is sufficient to prevent the ends of the impeller blades from making contact and following the inside perimeter of the pump housing. The blades merely flex in toward the center of the impeller to perform as a combination centrifugal and positive displacement pump. 23 The circulating pump is mounted on the front of the cylinder block. It has a pulley bolted to the pump shaft hub at its forward end. 2 This in turn is driven by means of a belt from the crankshaft pulley. The pump shaft and bearing assembly is pressed in the water pump housing. The bearing is permanently lubricated during manufacture and sealed to prevent loss of lubricant and entry of dirt. The pump is sealed against coolant leakage by a non-adjustable seal assembly pressed into the pump cover. Cooling water for the engine is picked up at the water intakes on both sides of the lower gearcase. Water is pulled upward thru the lower gearcase until it enters a water tube that transfers it to the upper gear housing. Water is pulled through the upper gear housing water passage where it meets a nipple and hose attached to the pivot housing. Water is routed through the transom mount assembly to a tube thats mounted on the inside of the gimbal housing. From this tube the water is drawn through a supply hose thats connected to the inside nipple of the supply pump. Water exits the outside nipple of the supply pump under pressure and carried through a hose to the inlet nipple of the thermostat housing. DRC7621 DRC6871 3 DRC6872 10-2 All Models: The water is now carried downward through the thermostat housing where it enters the flexible hose which attaches to the inlet pipe of the circulating pump. This inlet pipe is a part of the pump cover and feeds the coolant into a low pressure area located at the axis of the impeller. Vanes on the rotating impeller cause the coolant to be thrown outward and into the cylinder block. The cooling water flows rearward through the water jacket which surrounds each cylinder and extends below the lower limit of piston ring travel. After flowing the full length of the cylinder block, the water is forced upward through two passages and into the cylinder head(s). The water now flows forward in the cylinder head(s) to cool the combustion chamber areas. At the forward end of the cylinder head(s), the water enters the thermostat housing. If the water within the block is sufficiently warmed up, the thermostat will be open and a portion of the water will be pumped upward past the thermostat. The remainder will be returned via the flexible hose to the water pump for recirculation within the powerhead. The water which was pumped upward past the thermostat will enter the hose(s) connected to the thermostat housing outlet(s) and travel to the manifolds. At this point the water flows rearward through the manifold passages and into the high-rise elbow. All of the water that enters the high-rise elbow is mixed with the exhaust gases prior to entering the exhaust pipe(s) and hose(s). This mixture of exhaust gases and water then enters the exhaust passages of the gimbal housing, pivot housing and vertical drive where it is discharged under water. In the event the engine cooling water is cold, as in first starting up, the thermostat will be closed and will not allow any of the water to pass through for eventual discharge overboard. Instead, the water will be carried via the flexible hose back to the circulating pump for recirculation within the block. While the water within the block is recirculating, the supply pump is pumping water to the block. Since this water is not able to enter the cylinder block, it is necessary to provide a method of discharge. This is provided by the bypass passage within the thermostat housing. If this were not provided, the resulting water pressure would be enough to force the thermostat off its seat, resulting in a greatly increased warm-up period. Cooling System Troubleshooting 1. Quiz Customer for the Following Information: a. How old is unit, how many hours of operation? (Wear and corrosion.) b. How long has problem existed? (Gradual or sudden.) c. What were the operating conditions prior to problem? (Fresh or salt water, silty or sandy water.) d. What previous repairs and service have been made on unit? (Tune-ups, impeller replacement, etc.) e. At what RPM does problem occur? (Low, high.) 10-3 2. Possibilities To Consider: a. Temperature Gauge Malfunction. Improper or defective sender unit Malfunctioning gauge - Check ground wire - substitute good gauge. b. Engine Water Circulation Pump Malfunction. Loose alternator belt Impeller vanes worn - replace pump. Impeller shaft seal failure - replace pump. c. Water Intake Screens Blocked. d. Ventilation - Marine growth on keel, hull deformities, etc. e. Ignition Timing Running with retarded timing - Check timing. 3. Isolating Cooling Problem: Air or exhaust gas entering cooling water: a. Procedure - Replace water hose between thermostat housing and the supply pump with clear plastic hose. Operate unit in test tank or boat in water at RPM at which overheat occurs. If operating unit in test tank, run motor in neutral. Some test tanks may not have sufficient water volume to allow running engine in gear without creating turbulence. This can be picked up by the water intake and misconstrued as evidence of a cooling problem. b. Results and Conclusions - No bubbles in hose, air/ exhaust is not entering cooling water. Bubbles in hose, air/exhaust is entering cooling water. c. Check for - Defective lower gearcase water tube guide and seals; damaged water tube grommet; leaking water passage cover gasket or adaptor-to-gear housing gasket. 10-4 a. Procedure - Disconnect water supply hose from transom bracket at thermostat housing. Operate engine at specified idle RPM. Hold end of hose level with the top of the flame arrestor. b. Results and Conclusions - A 1 inch (2,5 cm) head of water discharge, water supply is good. If less than 1/2 inch (1.2 cm), look for source of water loss. c. Check for - Blocked intake screens; damaged impeller housing O-ring or impeller plate gasket; broken or worn impeller; defective pivot housing water passage O-ring or water drain screw seal; loose pivot housing-to-gimbal housing water hose clamps. Insufficient water supply: Thermostat malfunction - overheating or slow warm-up: a. Procedure - Operate engine until indicated temperature exceeds 160F (71 C). Touch hoses between thermostat and exhaust manifolds. b. Results and Conclusions - Hoses cold, thermostat is stuck closed. Hoses warm or hot, thermostat is good. c. Check for - Thermostat stuck open or closed, defective thermostat O-ring, correct thermostat style for engine type, clear thermostat housing bypass passage. Engine head gasket leakage - overheating or hard starting (water in cylinders): a. Procedure - Allow engine to cool. Replace water hose(s) between thermostat housing and exhaust manifolds) with clear plastic hose. Operate unit at RPM at which overheat occurs. b. Results and Conclusions - No bubbles evident, head gaskets not leaking. Bubbles evident, head gaskets leaking. c. Check for - Cylinder compression using appropriate tester, water in engine oil, water in cylinders, spark plugs wet with water. 10-5 Cooling System Components Hoses, Clamps, and Drain Plugs For all models. No special tools required. Inspection Procedure: Examine all external cooling system components for leaks, wear, deterioration, and damage. Check all connections for tightness. Inspect hoses for cracks, checking or deterioration. Repair Procedure: Repair or replace as required. Water supply hoses used for replacement must conform to S.A.E. 20R3, class D-2. Thermostat All Models Except 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi: A 160 F (71 C) thermostat is standard. 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi Models: A 140 F (64 C) ther mostat is standard. Inspection Procedure: Check for proper rating and style, corrosion, restricted movement, or broken spring. 1 2 Test Procedure - All Models Except 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi: Immerse the thermostat and a thermometer in a container of water. Heat water. Thermostat should start to open between 157-163 F (70-73 C), and should open to 5/32 in. (3,96 mm) minimum A at 182 F (83 C). 2 Test Procedure: 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi Models: Immerse the thermostat and a thermometer in a container of water. Heat water. Thermostat should start to open between 138-142 F (59-61 C), and should open to 5/32 in. (3,96 mm) minimum A at 162 F (72 C). 3.0 GS Models 1 DR3051 All V-6 and V-8 Models 2 Repair Procedure: None, replace unit. 1 DR3232 2 10-6 For all models. No special tools required. Manifolds and Elbows Inspection Procedure: Pressure check components for leaks. Disassemble and inspect for corrosion or accumulation of foreign material. Repair Procedure: Rod out any accumulation of foreign matter built up in water passages. If evidence of porosity between water passages and exhaust chambers or exterior is found, replace component. Install new gaskets on reassembly. Circulating Pump - Engine For all models. No special tools required. Inspection Procedure: Make sure belt tension is correct. With the engine running, observe the rotation of the circulating pump pulley. If the pulley does not run true it can cause excessive drive belt wear and damage to the circulating pump itself. If the leakage of water occurs at the circulating pump while the engine is in operation, the pump may be loosely mounted to the engine, the shaft seal in front of the pump may be bad, the backing plate gasket may be defective, or the circulating pump mounting gaskets are leaking. If the above inspections do not detect any defect, the pump must be removed and inspected for internal corrosion, blockage, or damage. Inspect impeller for erosion. Repair Procedure: None, replace the pump. Volvo Penta marine engines have a special circulating water pump with stainless steel components and a special marine shaft seal assembly. Do not replace with an automotive water pump. 10-7 Supply Pump Removal 1. Drain engine, refer to Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold. 1 2. Loosen hose clamps and remove hoses from supply pump. Note: The hose E is the inlet hose. 2 3. Loosen bracket mounting screws F and remove bracket. Impeller Removal 3 1. Remove the four screws G securing the housing. 45 2. Remove pump housing. Remove and discard O-ring A . 1 2 49467 5 4 49466 3 10-8 3. Grasp impeller securely and pull from housing. Cleaning and Inspection 1. Clean all parts with solvent and blow dry thoroughly. 2. Clean sealing surfaces. 3. Inspect impeller housing wear, and housing for cracks and distortion caused by freezing. Replace if necessary. 4. Inspect impeller; if blades are set in a bent position, cracked or broken, or show flat instead of rounded edges on the housing contact surfaces, replace the impeller. 5. Check bearings for smooth operation. Impeller Installation 1. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease grease to impeller surfaces. Install impeller until seated in the housing. 2. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease grease to a new O- ring A . Install the O-ring onto the pulley and shaft assembly B . 6 7 8 10-9 7 8 49472 49473 49448 321 Installation 1 1. Install pump and secure with four screws C . Tighten screws to 19-24 in. lbs. (2,2-2,8 Nm). 2 2. Orient pump assembly. Install bracket D and secure with screws E . Tighten screws to 20-25 ft. lbs. (27-34 Nm). 3 3. Attach the inlet hose F to large nipple and the outlet hose G to the small nipple. Tighten hose clamps securely. Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold 4 Some service work performed on the engine block and exhaust mani- fold may require the complete drainage of those components. 3.0 GS Models 4 1. Disconnect and drain large hose I at water pump. 5 2. Remove the drain plugs from the cylinder block port side J and exhaust manifold K . Clear holes with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 5 10-10 4.3 Gi Models Only 6 1. Disconnect the small water by-pass hose A at the top of thermostat housing. 7 2. Disconnect the water discharge hose B at the port side exhaust elbow nipple. Lower to the front of the block. Blow out the water trapped in the MOAS and lines by applying air to the by-pass hose. All 4.3 Models 8 1. Remove the long water supply hose at the thermostat housing 49457 C . Lower it alongside block and drain it completely. 8 2. Disconnect and drain the large hose at the water pump D . 8 3. Remove intake manifold drain plug E and drain manifold. The bow of the boat may have to be lowered to ensure complete drainage. Reinstall the plug when draining is complete. 9 10 4. Remove drain plugs from the rear of the port and starboard exhaust manifolds. Remove drain plugs on the port and starboard side of the cylinder block. Clean holes with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. 5.0 Gi and 5.7 GSi Models Only 6 1. Disconnect the small water by-pass hose A at the top of thermostat housing. 7 2. Disconnect the water discharge hose B at the port side exhaust elbow nipple. Lower to the rear of the block. Blow out the water trapped in the vapor separator and lines by applying air to the by-pass hose. All 5.0 and 5.7 Models 8 1. Remove the long water supply hose at the thermostat housing 49458 C . Lower it alongside block and drain it completely. 8 2. Disconnect and drain the large hose at the water pump D . 9 6 7 8 10 34102A 49461 49460 42863 1 2 3 All 5.0 and 5.7 Models (continued) 12 3. Remove drain plugs F at the rear of each port and starboard exhaust manifold, and remove drain plugs G on both sides of the cylinder block. Clear holes with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. All 7.4 and 8.2 Models 3 1. Remove the long water supply hose at the thermostat housing C . Lower it alongside the engine and drain it completely. 3 2. Disconnect and drain the large hose at the water pump D . 3 3. Drain the small water by-pass hose H between MOAS the top of thermostat housing. Disconnect the hose at the thermostat housing and lower it alongside the engine and drain it completely. 45 4. Remove the rubber cap at the rear of each port and starboard exhaust manifold. On 7.4Gi, remove drain plug on starboard side and remove knock sensor on port side. On 7.4 and 8.2GSi Models remove drain plugs on both sides of the cylinder block. Clear holes with a small wire to ensure complete drainage. Draining Supply Pump 6 1. Loosen and slide hose clamps back. Remove hoses A from the pump and drain. 2. Crank the engine no more than 2 seconds (DO NOT START) to expel any water trapped in water pump. Reattach hoses. 4 5 6 10-12 Thermostat Replacement 3.0 GS Models 7 1. Remove all hoses B from the thermostat housing. 8 2. Remove the engine coolant temperature sender nut, lead and washers C from the sender. 9 3. Remove two screws E securing thermostat housing to the cylinder head. Remove the housing from the head. Clean all gasket surfaces. 45332 10 4. Remove thermostat O-ring F and thermostat G from the housing. 10 11 5. Install thermostat G into the thermostat housing with the pointed end H facing into the housing. Place the O-ring F into position in the O-ring groove to retain the thermostat. 7 8 9 45354 10 11 1 6. Place a new gasket I into position at the front of the head. No sealer is required with this gasket. 1 2 7. Install the thermostat housing into position and secure with two screws E . Tighten the screws to 12-16 ft. lbs. (16-22 Nm). 3 8. Attach the engine coolant temperature sender washers, lead and nut C to the sender. Tighten the nut securely. Install Temperature switch lead onto switch terminal D . 4 9. Install all hoses B and secure with clamps. Tighten the clamps securely. 2 45345 4 3 10-14 All V-6 and V-8 Models 56 1. Remove all water hoses from the thermostat housing. Carburetor Models: four hoses A 5 EFI Models: five hoses B 6 7 2. Note position of lifting eye C . Remove two screws D then remove lifting eye and thermostat housing. 8 3. The thermostat E is held in place by an O-ring. Pry the O-ring out of its groove, then lift the thermostat out of the housing. 4. Discard the housing gasket and O-ring. Thoroughly clean the housing and manifold gasket surfaces. 8 5. Place the thermostat in the housing. The temperature sensing element E must face you when installed. Install a new O-ring to seal thermostat in housing. Make sure O-ring is completely seated in its groove. 7 6. Coat both sides of a new gasket with Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compoundand place it on the manifold. Position thermostat housing and lifting eye on engine adapter as noted in Step 2. Install two lock washers and screws D . Tighten the screws to 20-25 ft. lbs. (27-34 Nm). 9 7. Connect the water supply hose to nipple F and tighten hose clamp securely. Connect the three remaining water hoses and tighten hose clamps securely. Make sure lifting eye C is positioned as shown. If the water supply hose is attached to the wrong nipple, the engine will overheat. 5 6 7 8 9 Water Flow Problem Checkpoints: Numbers refer to Cooling System Flow Diagrams. Intake Screen - Blocked with debris. Water Tube Guide and Seal - Improperly sealed. Water Tube - Plugged with debris. Grommet - Deteriorated, improperly seated. Upper Gear Housing - Debris blocking passage, freeze damaged. Pivot Housing Seal - Damaged, out of position, improperly sealed. Nipple O-ring - Out of position, improperly sealed, damaged. Nipple - Blocked by debris, freeze cracked. Water Hose and Clamps - Clamps loose, hose collapsed or leaking. Transom Mount Water Tube - Blocked by debris. Supply Pump (Engine Mounted) - Failed seal, corroded or bad bear ings, eroded impeller, leak ing mounting gaskets or backing plate. Thermostat Housing - Corroded, restricted, or leaking gasket. Thermostat - Defective thermostat, or wrong type for en- gine; improperly seated or damaged O-ring. Belts - Loose, or worn and slipping. Circulating Pump (Engine) - Failed seal, corroded or bad bearings, eroded impeller, leaking mounting gaskets or backing plate. Cylinder Block Water Passages - Corrosion, slag, blocked passages, or leaking core plugs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Cylinder Head - Corrosion, slag, blocked passages or leaking gaskets. Exhaust Manifold, Elbows, Gaskets, and Hoses -Gaskets improperly installed; corrosion, sand, or slag in manifold and elbows; hoses collapsed, burned through, or leaking. 19 20 21 22 23 24 Exhaust Pipe and Seal - Improperly sealed or installed, leaking. Bellows, Clamp, and Retainer - Loose clamp, detached or torn bellows. Power Steering Cooler - Restricted, or cracked and leaking. Intake Manifold - Cracked casting, or leaking gasket(s). Engine Oil Cooler - Restricted, or cracked and leaking. 7.4 and 8.2 Models: Check Valve - Water By-pass Hose - Plugged with debris. In addition, check: Ignition Timing Boat Hull - Condition of hull, marine growth, or under- hull equipment. Fittings protruding through hull may cause air bubble streams which can be picked up by the lower gearcase and mixed with incoming cooling water to cause an overheat condition. 10-16 ABCD Water In To Thermostat Housing Return From Exhaust Pipe Exhaust and Water Out Vertical Drive and Transom Bracket All Models DRC6252 Warm water C Bypass 21 Cold Water Exhaust Water 9 A 11 139 18 12 9 19 9 18 22 17 Cold Engine C12 16 15 B Warm Engine 14 3.0 GS Models D DRC6715 10-18 Engine/eng 4.3 GL Models DRC7625 10-19 4.3 Gi Models DRC7626 10-20 5.0 GL and 5.7 GS Models DRC7627 5.0 Gi and 5.7 GSi Models DRC7628 10-22 Engine/eng 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi Models DRC7629 10-24 Section 11 Engine Removal and Installation Table of Contents Engine Alignment ...................................................................................... 11-7 Installation ..................................................................................... 11-6 Removal ......................................................................................... 11-2 Determining Minimum Engine Height ........................................... 11-12 Engine Mounts, Rear...................................................................... 11-11 Exhaust Pipe Replacement ............................................................. 11-6 Safety Warnings Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety section at end of this manual. Proper installation is important for the safe, reliable operation of all mechanical products. The procedures we recommend and describe in these instructions are effective methods to be followed when removing or installing the engine. Some of these methods require the use of tools specially designed for the purpose. The special tools should be used when and as recommended. Special Tools Alignment Tool 3851083-0 Universal Handle 3850609-3 Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound Volvo Penta Grease 3M Adhesive 11 11-1 Engine Removal Before removing engine, check engine height. See Determining Minimum Engine Height. Check engine clearance between front of engine and engine compartment bulkhead prior to starting work. If clearance is less than 6 in. (15,2 cm), the vertical drive must be removed to disengage U-joint shaft from engine coupler. See Vertical Drive and Transom Bracket Service Manual. When engine clearance is more than 6 in. (15.2 cm), the engine can be pulled forward to disengage the U-joint shaft from the flywheel coupler, and be removed from the engine compartment. The vertical drive can remain installed only if engine removal does not require re-alignment of the engine. If the engine mounts, boat stringers, or engine coupler are being repaired or replaced, remove the vertical drive for engine alignment. To prevent possible fire and explosion caused by ignition of fuel vapors which may be present in the engine compartment, remove the positive and negative cables from the battery. Disconnect Battery All switches must be in the OFF position prior to disconnecting the red (positive) and black (negative) cables from the battery. This will safeguard against permanent damage to electrical components. Disconnect Power Steering Lines 1. Disconnect both power steering lines at the steering cylinder. 2. If the original fitting, P/N 3853315 A , is available, use it to link both steering lines together. If the fitting is not used, cover both steering cylinder openings and line fittings to prevent fluid loss and entry of contaminants. Tie lines onto engine higher than power steering pump to prevent damage and loss of oil during engine removal. Disconnect Fuel Supply Disconnect boat fuel line at the fuel filter inlet. Seal end of fuel line and inlet opening. Disconnect Electrical Cables 1. Disconnect the plastic two-wire trim/tilt motor connector B . 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Remove wire retainer CD and unplug rubber two-wire trim/tilt sender connector. Cut tie strap securing sender cable, if required. 7 3. Unscrew worm clamp and disconnect large rubber instrument cable connector. Disconnect Throttle Cable Prior to disconnecting the remote control throttle cable, note whether you have a push-to-close or pull-to-close throttle arm attachment. 24208 89 1. Remove cotter pin and flat washer G from throttle arm. 89 2. Loosen anchor retainer nut H and rotate retainer I away from cable trunnion. Remove throttle cable from throttle arm and anchor bracket. All Models (except 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi) 8 7.4 Gi, GSi and 8.2 GSi Models Only 9 6 33729 H G 8 7 DR5094 9 DR5707 11-3 Disconnect Exhaust Hose - 3.0 Models 1 1. Loosen four hose clamps. 2 2. For ease of moving hose, lubricate exhaust pipe. 3 3. To free exhaust hose from elbow, pry or twist hose. Slide hose down onto exhaust pipe. Disconnect Exhaust Hose - All V-6 and V-8 Models 4 1. Loosen four clamps A on lower exhaust hose. For ease of moving lower hose, lubricate exhaust pipe. 6361 5 2. To free lower hose from intermediate pipe, pry or twist hose. Slide hose down onto exhaust pipe B . 1 2 3 49449 5 4 11-4 Disconnect Water Hose 6 Loosen clamp and pull water supply hose off transom bracket water tube. Separate Engine Mounts 1. Attach a hoist to lifting brackets of engine. Hoist must have a lifting capacity of at least 1500 lb. (680 kg). 8 2. Remove and retain both lock nuts C and both flat washers from rear engine mounts. 9 3. Remove and retain lag screws from front engine mounts. D If vertical drive was removed, lift engine out of engine compart- ment. If vertical drive was not removed, lift engine slightly and pull it forward to disengage U-joint shaft and flywheel coupler. With U-joint shaft clear of flywheel coupler, lift engine out of compartment. 6 12211 A 9 8 7 31444 2933 Exhaust Pipe Replacement Removal 1. Remove engine following previous procedure. 1 2. Remove and retain four exhaust pipe screws. Remove exhaust pipe and discard seal A . Clean all material from transom bracket and exhaust pipe seal surfaces. Exhaust pipe mounting holes have locking Heli-Coil. inserts. Do not clean screw holes with a thread tapping tool, otherwise locking feature will be destroyed and Heli-Coilwill have to be replaced. Installation 2 1. Coat a new seal with 3M Scotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 and place in transom bracket groove 2 2. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound to the four exhaust pipe mounting screws 3 3. Secure exhaust pipe B . C . D to transom bracket with four screws EC . Tighten to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 Nm). Slide exhaust hoses and clamps onto exhaust pipes if they were removed. 4. Install engine. Engine Installation Attach Engine Mount 1. Lower engine into engine compartment: 4 If vertical drive was not removed, and engine crankshaft was not rotated, engage U-joint shaft with engine coupler and slide engine back onto rear mounts. If coupler and U-joint shaft will not align, either the engine or U- oint shaft will have to be rotated to allow engagement. If engine mount height was disturbed, engine must be realigned as described later. 4 If vertical drive has been removed, lower engine onto rear mounts. 5 2. Install flat washers F into recesses of engine bracket and secure engine to mount with lock nuts G . Tighten lock nuts to 28-30 ft. lb. (38-40 Nm). Do not use an impact wrenc or power driving tool to install the lock nuts onto the studs. 1 2 3 4 5 11-6 6 3. Install forward engine mount lag screws and tighten them securely. If vertical drive was not removed, go on to Exhaust Hose Attachment. If vertical drive was removed, continue with Engine Alignment section. Engine Alignment Correct engine alignment is essential to long engine drive-train life. The front engine mounts may need adjustment UP or DOWN to 2933 produce correct engine alignment. Use Alignment Tool, Volvo Penta P/ N 3851083-0, with Universal Handle, Volvo Penta P/N 3850609-31, to check engine alignment. 7 1. Slide alignment tool H through driveshaft gimbal bearing I . The alignment tool must slide through the gimbal bearing and into engine coupler with ease. If the alignment tool binds going into engine coupler, make sure the gimbal bearing is properly aligned. If gimbal bearing alignment is correct, the front engine mounts must be adjusted either UP or DOWN, as required, until alignment tool slides easily in and out of engine coupler. 8 2. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts J as required. See respective engine section, Front Mount Height Adjustment. and K 3. After correct alignment has been made, the front mount(s) must be tightened to maintain alignment. While holding one nut with an open-end wrench, tighten the second adjusting nut to 100-120 ft. lb. (136-163 Nm). 6 47547 G H 7 8 11-7 Connect Exhaust Hose 1 3.0 Models - Slide exhaust hose A up onto high-rise exhaust elbow B . 2 V-6 and V-8 Models - Push lower hoses C up onto intermediate exhaust pipes D . 3 Position and tighten all hose clamps securely between ribs of exhaust hose(s) as shown. 3 DO NOT install hose clamps in expanded area of hose(s). Cooling will be restricted and engine damage will occur. E Connect Throttle Cable Determine whether you have a push-to-close or pull- to- close remote control throttle cable. Position remote control handle in NEUTRAL, propeller should rotate freely. Turn propeller shaft and shift into the forward gear detent position, then pull handle HALFWAY BACK towards NEUTRAL. This positions the control for proper throttle adjustment. Failure to follow this procedure can result in hard shifting out of neutral. 4 1. Align internal bosses F of trunnion with throttle cable groove G . Press trunnion on throttle cable until seated. 5 V6 and Small Block V8 Models Only: The engine throttle cable anchor block bracket has several sets of anchor block holes. The sets of holes marked with a V are used for Volvo Penta engines. The set of holes marked GSI are for 5.0 and 5.7 Liter EFI models. The set of holes marked 43 are for 4.3 Liter 2V (2 barrel) and 4V (4 barrel) carburetor models. Holes are for all 5.0 and 5.7 Liter, 2V (2 barrel) and 4V (4 barrel) carburetor models. The anchor block will be set at the correct position from the factory for your particular engine. 6 2. Install open end of trunnion L in anchor block. Install screw in anchor block and position throttle cable assembly in selected set of holes. Nut M must be against the anchor bracket, tighten it securely. 7 3. Throttle arm connector N must have a minimum of 9 full turns or 1/4 in. of throttle cable thread engagement. Install throttle arm connector onto the throttle cable. Pull connector N forward to remove all end play from throttle cable, then turn the connector in until hole aligns with the push-to-close O or pull-to-close P throttle arm stud. If throttle arm connector hole cannot be adjusted to align with the throttle arm, check for proper cable installation in the remote control box. 1 2 3 E E F 4 5.0Gi 5.7GSi 4.3GL 5.7GS 5.0GL 4.3GS 5 DRC7279 DR4977 DR5095 DR5094 4V DC B A E F H G 6 7 8 89 4. Install connector onto throttle arm. Install wash er and cotter pin Q , and spread cotter pin prongs. Tighten jam nut R against connector. For throttle and shift cable adjustment procedures, see Throttle and Shift Control Systems section. Connect Water Hose 10 1. Slide hose clamp S onto water inlet hose. Lightly lubricate inside of water inlet hose and push hose onto water inlet tube T . 9 DR5707 11 2. If inlet hose is not installed properly, underside of hose may collapse. Check underside of hose for proper installation and adjust hose as required. Tighten hose clamp securely. Failure to install water inlet hose correctly can result in 10 powerhead damage from blockage of water circulation. Connect Power Steering Lines 1. Remove tape or protective cover from small hydraulic hose fitting (or unscrew steering line connector) and small steering cylinder opening. 12 2. Install small hose fitting into steering cylinder and tighten to 1012 ft. lb. (14-16 Nm). 3. Remove tape or protective cover from large hydraulic hose fitting and large steering cylinder opening. 11 12 1 4. Install large hose fitting into steering cylinder and tighten to 1517 ft.lb. (20-23 Nm). Connect Electrical Cables 2 1. Connect plastic two-wire plug of engine harness to two-wire receptacle of trim/tilt motor. Connectors should lock together. 3 2. Connect rubber two-wire trim/tilt sender plug to two-wire receptacle C of instrument harness. Secure connectors with wire retainer and cable with a tie strap D . 1 22701 3. Route the instrument cable plug to join engine cable receptacle on engine. Ensure cable is routed to prevent cutting or chafing on any sharp or hot object. This could result in an electrical short, and contribute to fire and explosion in the engine compartment. 4. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease grease around large engine plug. 5. Route trim/tilt cable behind shift bracket. Align the marks of the trim/ tilt plug and receptacle and press together. 2 31461 4 6. Slide hose clamp over large engine receptacle. Align the two large terminals on plug and receptacle and press together. Slide hose clamp over receptacle and tighten securely. 7. All switches must be in the OFF position prior to connecting battery cables to the battery. Be sure polarity is observed; positive (+) cable to the positive terminal, and negative (-) cable to the negative terminal. 3 24208 4 Connect Fuel Supply Attach boats fuel supply hose to fuel filter canister. On EFI models connect to the MOAS. Tighten connection securely. Check for fuel leaks when testing engine, and repair any leaks that might occur. Rear Engine Mounts Removal 1. Remove engine as previously described in this section. 4 2. Unscrew two screws and washers, then lift mount assembly off transom plate. Disassembly 5 Hold square nut and remove screw. Mount assembly will break down into components shown. Pay particular attention to the two mount washers; their thickness, shape (concave or flat), and position in the assembly (above or below the rubber mount). Assembly 5 1. Slide lower washer F onto mount bolt; make sure you choose the correct washer (as determined during the mount disassembly) forthis position. Insert bolt into bottom (flat) side of rubber mount assembly, and install remaining washer and square nut. Do not tighten nut at this time. If top and bottom washers are not installed in their original po 4 5 sitions, mount may transmit excessive engine vibrations into boat and cause undesirable operating conditions. 6 2. Turn mount assembly upside down and clamp square nut in vise. Rotate rubber mount until mounting holes are positioned at 90 to any side of square nut. Hold mount in this position and tighten center 6680 bolt to 44-52 ft. lb. (60-71 Nm). 6 If 90 relationship between nut and mounting holes is not main tained, slot of engine mount pad cannot engage rear mount during installation. Installation 7 1. Place mount assembly on transom plate. Install two screws and washers, and tighten them to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 Nm). 8 2. Install engine as previously described in this section. Make sure mount pad slot engages square nut. Install both flat washers and locknuts, then tighten locknuts to 28-30 ft. lb. (38-41 Nm). 7 8 B A C 1 DR4960 Determining Minimum Engine Height 1 1. To determine minimum engine height, use a level A placed on top of the transom,measure from bottom of level to top of elbow B and record distance. 1 2. Measure from bottom of level to static water line C and record distance. 1 3. Subtract dimension B from dimension C and record result. See engine height requirements below: 3.0 Models - Measurement C minus B should not be less than 9 in. (22.8 cm). V-6 Models - Measurement C minus B should not be less than 13 in. (33 cm). V-8 Models - Measurement C minus B should not be less than 14 in. (35.6 cm). 4. When engine installations do not meet these specifications, an exhaust elbow high-rise kit must be installed. An installation that permits water to enter the engine through the exhaust manifolds(s) will not be covered by warranty, unless damage is due to defective part(s). 11-12 Safety Section Part A Part B Marine Products and Safety of People Who Use Them . . . . . . . . . S-2 Sterndrive Shift System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-3 Sterndrive Throttle Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-4 Sterndrive Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-5 Sterndrive Fuel, Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-7 Marine Products and Safety of People Who Fix Them . . . . . . . . S-11 Handling Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-11 Handling Lead Acid Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-12 Gasoline! Handle with Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-13 Hazardous Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S-14 Part A - Marine Products and safety of People Who Use Them Enjoyable boating is the goal of people who design and build marine products. To reach this goal, manufacturers are careful to make sure... Product User is informed. . . Products are safe and reliable. . . It's up to you, the People who. . . Install accessories. . . Service and Maintain the boat. . . Service and maintain the sterndrive. . . . . . to keep the products safe and reliable. This section talks about safe boating and how you can help keep it safe. Some things you may know . . . but others you may not. First! A word about fasteners . . . plain . . . special . . . all screws, nuts, washers and bolts. Do Not Substitute Fasteners They look the same, but . . . are they? The Same Size? The Same Strength? The Same Material? The Same Type? Standard or Metric Thread? Don't substitute unless you know they are the same in all characteristics. Second! Special locking screws and nuts are often used to attach steering, and remote control components to the sterndrive. When you remove any part from the sterndrive, keep track of special screws and nuts. Don't mix with other parts When reassembling the sterndrive, use only the special screws and nuts intended to hold steering, and control cables, plus related parts. Service with parts of known quality that meet Marine Industry (BIA/ABYC) Standard. S-2 Sterndrive Shift System The Shift System starts here at the remote control lever. . . . . . and ends here at the propeller. What's Most Important? When the control lever is in Forward, Neutral or Reverse position . . . . . Shift mechanism must match control lever position. What Could Happen? If . . . Neutral If . . . Forward Forward or Reverse Reverse . . . Propeller is still powered (turning) . . . boat will move opposite unknown to operator, or engine will to direction intended by operator. start in gear, boat will move unexpectedly. How Can Loss of Shift Control be Minimized? In pre-delivery inspection and when servicing . . . Read, understand and follow manufacturers instructions. Closely follow the warnings marked with . . . Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . . Test your work. Don't guess. Make sure propeller does what the operator wants and nothing else. S-3 Safety Sterndrive Throttle Control System The throttle Control System starts here and the remote control lever . . . . . . and ends here on the engine. What's Most Important? When the control lever is moved from Forward (or Reverse) to Neutral . . . . . . engine speed must slow to idle RPM and allow operator to shift into Neutral. Operator must be able to stop propeller. What Could Happen? If operator cannot slow the engine to idle RPM and shift into neutral, (stop propeller), operator could panic and lose control of boat. How Can Loss of Throttle Control be Minimized? In pre-delivery inspection and when servicing . . . Read, understand, and follow manufacturers instructions. Closely follow the warnings marked with . . . Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . . Test your work. Don't guess. Make sure engine throttle response is smooth. Make sure full throttle operating RPM can be reached so operator won't overload engine S-4 Sterndrive Steering System The Steering System starts here at the helm . . . What's Most Important? The Steering System . . . . . . and ends here at the propeller on the sterndrive must be installed properly must be adjusted properly must be lubricated What Could Happen? . . . if steering system comes apart, boat would turn suddenly and circle . . . passengers and/or operator may be thrown into water and could be hit. . . . if steering jams, operator may not be able to avoid obstacles. Operator could panic. . . . if steering is loose, operator may not be able to maintain a true course, and could result in loss of boat control. How Can Loss of Steering Control be Minimized? use steering components which meet marine industry (BIA/ABYC) standards . . . In pre- Read, understand, and follow manufacturer's instructions. delivery inspection Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . . Closely follow the warnings marked with . . . and when servicing Keep parts moving freely . . . lubricate parts as soon as shown in manuals Use bolts, nuts, and washers supplied with steering attachment kits When power assisted or mechanical steering systems are used, check to uncover possible trouble! Cable housing in this area Steering components must notmust not be restricted bind Why? Unit may go to full turn without Why? Possible jamming of steering turning steering wheel (Power system. assist models) Engine stringer must not interfere with power steering pump and pulley Power steering parts and push/pull cable must be free to move in order to actuate power steering valve when operator turns steering wheel Maintain proper belt tension. Check for damaged parts . . . impacts to the sterndrive like this or this . . . or ? ? ? can put stress on steering components. Look for . . . Cracked parts Bent parts Loose fasteners Replace damaged parts. If weakened, parts could fail later . . . on the water . . . when least expected. S-6 Sterndrive Fuel and Electrical Systems The electrical System begins here at the battery . . . . . . and ends here The fuel system starts here at the fuel tank . . . What's Important? Electric sparks must not happen. at the carburetor or fuel injectors . . . and ends here on the en- gine. Fuel leakage must be prevented. What Could Happen? Gasoline can explode and/ or burn easily: When boating, fuel leaking in the engine compartment could be ignited by a spark from a loose wire connection, or a damaged or deteriorated electrical component. How Can Fire and Explosion Be Minimized? Read, understand and follow manufacturers instructions. Closely follow the warnings marked with . . . Do not substitute fuel or electrical parts with other parts which may look the same. These parts are designed and manufactured to meet special U. S. Coast Guard safety regulations to prevent fire and explosion. If you work on marine engines, you must understand these U.S. Coast Guard requirements. If you don't have them, write to . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - National Technical Information Service Springfield, Virginia 22161 . . . and ask for copies of: (1) Electrical System Compliance Guideline (AD/A-049-638) (2) Fuel System Compliance Guideline (AD/A-047-767) These are concise guidelines - easy to read and understand. They explain what must be done to prevent fire and explosions. S-7 Always use replacement parts specified by the manufacturer. They meet the U.S. Coast Guard requirements. Most automotive parts do not, especially electrical components that must meet ignition protection requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations. When nonmetallic parts look to be in poor shape . . . replace them! Wires Cracked! Torn Boots! Cracked Fuel Lines! Using parts which meet U.S. Coast guard requirements is only half the job. The other half is your job . . . It's time for replacement BEFORE sparks and/or fuel leaks occur. Replace parts carefully. Make sure nuts and bolts are tight especially when they anchor electrical wires (to prevent sparking). If lock washers are specified - use them. No short cuts or missing parts with either of these CRITICAL safety related systems. When refueling, always ground fuel nozzle to the inlet fitting on the boat to prevent the buildup of electrostatic sparks. If you use a funnel, make sure it's metal and ground the fuel nozzle to the funnel. STOP If you smell gasoline in the engine compartment . . . find its source and stop the leakage. S-8 Follow "Starting Procedure" outlined in the operator's manual. Always make sure there are no gasoline fumes in the engine compartment before starting the engine. Open the compartment and use your nose. Don't gamble. Backfire flame arrestor must be in place and securely attached to the air intake. Do not alter the backfire flame arrestor. If loose, damaged, or altered, an engine "backfire" may pass through the flame arrestor assembly into the engine compartment. If fumes are present in compartment, fire and explosion could result. Summing Up Now you know some things that can take the joy out of enjoyable boating. No doubt about it . . . it takes time! Reading and understanding instructions. Reading and understanding warnings marked with . . . Putting parts together correctly . . . Making correct adjustments . . . Testing you work. and making sure Worn or damaged parts are replaced, Replaced parts are like originals . . . in every way. Customer is told of things which need attention . . . But do you really want the alternative? S-10 Part B -Marine Products and Safety of People* Who Fix Them Part A talked about safe boating and how you, the mechanic, can help keep it safe for the boater. But what about you? Mechanics can be hurt while . . . Servicing boats Servicing sterndrives Troubleshooting problems Testing their work Some items you'll know . . . others you may not. When Lifting Engines If hoist is poor shape . . . or too small for the job Engine may drop suddenly DR3469 DR3471 Make sure shop aids have extra capacity and keep them in good repair! When Running Engine with Engine Compartment Cover Removed The engine compartment cover is a guard. When you remove the cover / guard to work on the engine, remember: Loose clothing (open shirt sleeves, neckties), long hair, jewelry (rings, watches, bracelets), hands, arms, belts can be caught by moving belts or spinning pulleys Handle high voltage ignition components carefully. They can shock you and may cause you to recoil into moving parts. Two people working together on a running engine must look out for each other. Never, ever, hit the key to start the engine before signalling to your partner. (He may be leaning over the engine with his hands on a belt, or a "hot" electrical part, near the propeller, etc.) *Mechanics, technicians, backyard do-it-yourselfers. Exhaust gasses of running engines contain carbon monoxide. . . you can't see it. . . you can't smell it. . . you can't taste it. . . but it's there whenever an engine runs. . . and it's deadly! When you smell the other gasses in the exhaust, you are inhaling carbon monoxide. Run engines only in well ventilated areas. Eyes Need help Grinding Sprayed Cleaners, Paints End of Cables Acid Chiseling (steel on steel) (Tip: Use plastic or brass type hammers. They don't chip off as easily as steel hammers.) Handling Lead Acid Batteries If spilled or splashed on any part of body.. Wash with lots of water. . . Charging Lead Acid Batteries Attach and remove these cables with charger unplugged from 110 volt wall socket. (Prevents shocks if the charger is defective.) Observe correct polarity when connecting these charger leads. Always charge in a well ventilated area. Charging causes acid solution to give off hydrogen gas through the vents in the caps. . . Make sure vents are open. If clogged, pressure inside may build. . . battery may explode. If solution gets into eyes. . . Wash. . . and see a Doctor, fast! S-12 Battery gas is explosive! While charging or discharging, battery posts. . . it's a sure way to make lots of sparks. . .surrounded by battery gas No Smoking No Flames No Sparks Don't check battery condition by placing metal objects You're sure to make sparks After Charging. . . Shut off charger Remove charger plug from wall socket Then. . . Take charger cable off battery posts Gasoline explodes easily and violently when mixed with air 5 Parts Gasoline 100 Parts Air If the air around you is quiet . . . the pilot light in the heater may ignite the heavy fumes before your nose ever smells the fumes . . Gasoline! Handle With Care When you smell any odor of gasoline, explosion is possible Gasoline fumes are heavier than air and will sink to the lowest point in the boat or room, and will stay there. . . waiting What Can you Do? Store properly . . . Fill portable tanks outside boat to prevent spillage in boat Use fuel for fuel . . . not for a solvent If fumes are smelled (in shop, basement, garage), immediately: Put out open flames, cigarettes, sparking devices Wipe up spill or leak; get towels, rags outside fast Check lowest area for fumes; open doors or win- dows Never yank cables off remember. . . across posts. and serious burns are possible. Store in sturdy, sealed gas can . . .and . . . keep outside Know items in and around repair area which can ignite gasoline fumes . . . Control them if fumes are smelled. Matches, cigarettes, torches, welders Electric motors (with unsealed cases) Electric generators (with unsealed cases) Light switches Appliance pilot lights (furnace, dryer, water heater) ????????? How many of these are in your area? Hazardous Products Read the container label. It tells you . . . "How, and where, to use," "How to give First Aid," and have "recommended" first aid materials on hand- should an emergency arise "How to dispose of can," Remember: Little children are very curious and will try to taste everything, so . . . Keep containers away. . . yummmmmmmmmmm S-14 from children Part No. 7797353 Volvo Penta of the Americas, Printed in U.S.A. Volvo Penta of the Americas, Inc. 1300 Volvo Penta Drive Chesapeake, Virginia 23320 U.S.A.